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Introductory

Virginia Woolf’s early novels were written in conventional chapters and the others either
continuously- or without any break or in sections marked by a gap or a number as, within the parts,
To The Lighthouse is. And To The Lighthouse happens to be the only novel of Mrs. Woolf which has a
three-fold division. It is divided into three separate parts, each of which has been given a title: The
Window, Time Passes and The Lighthouse.

In the first part, The Window, we find Mrs. Ramsay planning a trip to the Lighthouse situated near-
by their small island the next day for James, her youngest child who is so much eager for this
expedition. But Mr. Ramsay ‘with some secret conceit of his own accuracy of judgement’ and Mr.
Tansley with his odious habit of saying disagreeable things dash the young child’s hope to the
ground. They tell bluntly that the weather is not likely to be good enough for the trip. And the
journey is not made. In this section we also get, more or less, a full and varied view of the
personality and character of Mr. and Mrs. Ramsay through the eyes of Lily Briscoe, William Bankes,
young James and the guests assembled in that summer-house in the Island of Skye in the Hebrides.

“Time Passes”

The second movement, Time Passes, is rather a short interlude that makes up part two. In this
section we find memory beginning its task and this is very powerfully operative in the mind of old
Mrs. McNab the charwoman. A period of ten years elapses. During this period the empty summer-
house becomes a prey to ruin and decay. The actors of the piece grow in age and some of them,
including Mrs. Ramsay, pass away from the stage of this world.

The Lighthouse

In the final movement we find people back to the old summer-house once again. Late Mrs. Ramsay
is seen very powerfully and mysteriously through the eyes of Lily Briscoe. She is very much alive in
the stream of consciousness of Lily and seems to influence the lives of other members more
powerfully even after her death. And in the end we find Mr. Rarnsay landing at the lighthouse rock
with Cam and James and Lily having her vision to complete the picture.

Plan of Triple Arrangement

Mrs. Woolf’s diary reveals that the triple arrangement was in her mind almost from the first idea she
had of the book. She has mentioned it there as father and mother and child in the garden, the death,
the sailing to the Lighthouse. And she has further mentioned: “I conceive the book in three parts: I.
At the drawing room window; 2. Seven years passed 3. The voyage.”

Autobiographical Basis

In fact this tripartite arrangement had is origin in one of Mrs. Woolf’s characteristic trains of
thought. The Pattern can be seen as a reflection of her own life. She had to experience periods of
intense and exciting creative activity, followed by agonising depression after finishing a novel, and
from this depression she could gradually recover with the help of rest and the attentions of her
husband. So, in To The Lighthouse this pattern seemed particularly meaningful to Virginia Woolf,
because of the personal nature of the sources of her novel. It seems she turns into fiction her own
attempts to come to terms with her obsession with the past and her father and mother, making an
attempt both to see everything in perspective and also to represent it in art. Thus we find her doing
this in the figure of Lily, who to some extent must reflect her own character, and whose vision at the
end of the book embraces both Mr. and Mrs. Ramsay: Mrs. Ramsay is manifested in the shadow at
the window which brings the picture into harmony, and Mr. Ramsay’s arrival at the Lighthouse
completes an adventure with which Lily has entered into imaginative sympathy.

Relation of the Three Parts

But we hardly require such autobiographical knowledge to understand the relationship of the parts
of this novel. Lily’s final vision has its full meaning in terms of the life of the Ramsays which has been
presented to us in the book. In fact the symbolic movement has weight because of the cumulative
effect of the three sections. So in ‘The Window’ we see people going about their daily life,
responding directly to the people and scenes around them, and also reflecting upon their quality. In
‘Time Passes’ we find the novelist stepping back from the circle of activity until it seems a mere
speck in the perspective of eternity. Ultimately in The Lighthouse we are brought back to mixture of
action and reflection.

Sense of Completeness

At the end of the final movement of To The Lighthouse we find Lily and Carmichael, the painter and
the poet, sitting on the lawn of the same old summer-house and absorbed in silent communication
between the house and the sea. Lily turns from one to the other sending her thoughts back to Mrs.
Ramsay as she looks at the house and outwards to Mr. Ramsay as she follows the course of the boat.
Commenting on this Davenport has aptly remarked “She thus forms a tenuous thread between past
and present, between husband and wife, by recreation of past experience and of the spirit of Mrs.
Ramsay, and the imaginative involvement with Mr Ramsay’s symbolic voyage, she unites the two in
her mind, and so achieves her sense of completeness, of having seen it clearly, if only for a moment.
The two actions, the arrival at the Lighthouse and the last stroke of the brush, are also united; both
are acts of completion and it is obvious that they are meant to happen together.”

Conclusion: The Musical Analogy

It may be noted that the ternary form, where the third section returns to the first is a basic form in
music and as such may have had a rhythmic appropriateness of Virginia Woolf’s ideal of her novel
enclosing her subject, or forming a circle. And, in fact, she said of To The Lighthouse in her diary “I
feel as if it fetched its circle . pretty completely this time.”
THE OBJECTIVES OF LANGUAGE TEACHING:

The global objective of language teaching can defined as helping children learn a language.
These range from the sociable use of language fir phatic communion and a network of
communicative uses to its use at the highest level of “cognition”, “catharsis” and “self-expression”.
In which cognition means you can turn your idea and thought. Catharsis means drawing something
out of atoms, something amaze feeling in which you can express your thought in target language.
And learner can try to learn something can’t express in target language. In different feeling we can
use the target language for example, when we loose tempered we can use target language. In this
feeling we are not concentrating on grammatical mistake we are only speaking and that helps us.
Self-expression means you can easily translate your idea or thought in target language. Self-
expression is more important in learning language. When you produce sentences you come in
advance level. If you learn language, you can understand that. Asking a question is more important,
it shoes learner’s understanding or misunderstanding. And instructor has always encouraged the
student to ask a question that helps a lot in student’s understanding or misunderstanding.

India is multilingual and multicultural country. And as an Indian we always compared a structure
with the structure we learn. Sometime to hide something affected with us we used target language.
Language is changed every time and what people used to speak is become the language. The
learners are meaning makers. The main objective at every level of teaching should be help learner
how to draw out their latent creativity. Sentences and speech is learners own language because we
haven’t used the language and learnt the language.

Every learner is born with a built-in language learning mechanism. This gets activated when the
learner is exposed to that language. When you learn the language you listen to these people who
speak that language and learner should have verity to understand the language. And suggest them
listen different speaker and adjust them in that situation that was language in action. In that process
learner internalize not only the linguistic but also the sociolinguistic rules of the game, so that they
capture the system which enables them to focus on ‘what to say and how.’ System always has
performed and it refer to performance that students performs it helps to enhance the knowledge.
Learnt them the way of language’s function in different situation, not only accuracy but appropriate
is required in language. For example communication between mother and friend, senior and junior,
student and teacher etc. in conversation learner have every right to speak. If you have no line, you
can not participate in the conversation. Relationship, age and gender through we come to know how
participating in conversation.

· FUNCTIONALLY DETERMINED SUBCATAGORIES:

FIRST LANGUAGE (L1):

L1 is used for performing all the essential personal functions. You can not impart in target
language it have to be in mother tongue. When child learn with English the link of society is broken.
This language can not mix them with society. Learning through the mother tongue is the most
potent and comprehensive medium for the expression of the student’s entire personality.
SECOND LANGUAGE (L2):

L2 may be used as auxiliary or associate language as a slot-filler, performing those functions


which are not normally performed by L1. Educated people who lives in cities, towns they use English
as a second language. Some of them also use it as an international language of knowledge trade and
industry.

FOREGINE LANGUAGE:

It is used by a selected group of learner in much retracted set of situations. When you are going
to UK, study their language with their culture.

CLASSICAL LANGUAGE:

The classical language like Sanskrit provides access to ancient culture, learning and philosophy
of life and is assumed to contribute to the intellectual enrichment of its learners. Those who study
English deeply they have to study literary source of language (Latin and Greek). Best thought express
in classical language. Classical language is very important for language learning. It shows the root of
the language which we are learning.

OBJECTIVES OF TEACHING ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE IN INDIA:

The objectives have to be formulated in the light of what we perceive our needs for English to
be in multilingual setting at the both the national and individual levels. There are many countries
they don’t use English they their own language. Many countries used American English because
America is powerful country. India is not much powerful so our English is not as much accepted.
Power plays major role in English language.

English will function as the LANGUAGE OF DEVELOPMENT. Our scientist, technologist,


engineers, doctors and economists must be able not only to have access to professional literature in
English but also to communicate with their counterparts in other countries. The continuation of
English seems important if our science and technology, trade and commerce are to be truly
international. It is heartening to note that English-based Indian bilinguals constitute the third largest
pool of trained and technical manpower in the world.

As the associate official language, an international LINK LANGUAGE, the language favored by all-
India institutions, the legal and banking systems, trade and commerce and defence, English has
important function to serve internally, in addition to its role as our WINDOW ON THE WORLD.
Major Themes in “Sons & Lovers” by D. H. Lawrence

Major Themes

Oedipus complex

Perhaps Sigmund Freud's most celebrated theory of sexuality, the Oedipus complex takes its name
from the title character of the Greek play Oedipus Rex. In the story, Oedipus is prophesied to murder
his father and have sex with his mother (and he does, though unwittingly). Freud argued that these
repressed desires are present in most young boys. (The female version is called the Electra complex.)

D.H. Lawrence was aware of Freud's theory, and Sons and Lovers famously uses the Oedipus
complex as its base for exploring Paul's relationship with his mother. Paul is hopelessly devoted to
his mother, and that love often borders on romantic desire. Lawrence writes many scenes between
the two that go beyond the bounds of conventional mother-son love. Completing the Oedipal
equation, Paul murderously hates his father and often fantasizes about his death.

Paul assuages his guilty, incestuous feelings by transferring them elsewhere, and the greatest
receivers are Miriam and Clara (note that transference is another Freudian term). However, Paul
cannot love either woman nearly as much as he does his mother, though he does not always realize
that this is an impediment to his romantic life. The older, independent Clara, especially, is a failed
maternal substitute for Paul. In this setup, Baxter Dawes can be seen as an imposing father figure;
his savage beating of Paul, then, can be viewed as Paul's unconsciously desired punishment for his
guilt. Paul's eagerness to befriend Dawes once he is ill (which makes him something like the
murdered father) further reveals his guilt over the situation.

But Lawrence adds a twist to the Oedipus complex: Mrs. Morel is saddled with it as well. She desires
both William and Paul in near-romantic ways, and she despises all their girlfriends. She, too, engages
in transference, projecting her dissatisfaction with her marriage onto her smothering love for her
sons. At the end of the novel, Paul takes a major step in releasing himself from his Oedipus complex.
He intentionally overdoses his dying mother with morphia, an act that reduces her suffering but also
subverts his Oedipal fate, since he does not kill his father, but his mother.

Bondage

Lawrence discusses bondage, or servitude, in two major ways: social and romantic. Socially, Mrs.
Morel feels bound by her status as a woman and by industrialism. She complains of feeling "'buried
alive,'" a logical lament for someone married to a miner, and even the children feel they are in a
"tight place of anxiety." Though she joins a women's group, she must remain a housewife for life,
and thus is jealous of Miriam, who is able to utilize her intellect in more opportunities. Ironically,
Paul feels free in his job at the factory, enjoying the work and the company of the working-class
women, though one gets the sense that he would still rather be painting.

Romantic bondage is given far more emphasis in the novel. Paul (and William, to a somewhat lesser
extent) feels bound to his mother, and cannot imagine ever abandoning her or even marrying
anyone else. He is preoccupied with the notion of lovers "belonging" to each other, and his true
desire, revealed at the end, is for a woman to claim him forcefully as her own. He feels the sacrificial
Miriam fails in this regard and that Clara always belonged to Baxter Dawes. It is clear that no woman
could ever match the intensity and steadfastness of his mother's claim.
Complementing the theme of bondage is the novel's treatment of jealousy. Mrs. Morel is constantly
jealous of her sons' lovers, and she masks this jealousy very thinly. Morel, too, is jealous over his
wife's closer relationships with his sons and over their successes. Paul frequently rouses jealousy in
Miriam with his flirtations with Agatha Leiver and Beatrice, and Dawes is violently jealous of Paul's
romance with Clara.

Contradictions and oppositions

Lawrence demonstrates how contradictions emerge so easily in human nature, especially with love
and hate. Paul vacillates between hatred and love for all the women in his life, including his mother
at times. Often he loves and hates at the same time, especially with Miriam. Mrs. Morel, too, has
some reserve of love for her husband even when she hates him, although this love dissipates over
time.

Lawrence also uses the opposition of the body and mind to expose the contradictory nature of
desire; frequently, characters pair up with someone who is quite unlike them. Mrs. Morel initially
likes the hearty, vigorous Morel because he is so far removed from her dainty, refined, intellectual
nature. Paul's attraction to Miriam, his spiritual soul mate, is less intense than his desire for the
sensual, physical Clara.

The decay of the body also influences the spiritual relationships. When Mrs. Morel dies, Morel grows
more sensitive, though he still refuses to look at her body. Dawes's illness, too, removes his threat to
Paul, who befriends his ailing rival.

Nature and flowers

Sons and Lovers has a great deal of description of the natural environment. Often, the weather and
environment reflect the characters' emotions through the literary technique of pathetic fallacy. The
description is frequently eroticized, both to indicate sexual energy and to slip pass the censors in
Lawrence's repressive time.

Lawrence's characters also experience moments of transcendence while alone in nature, much as
the Romantics did. More frequently, characters bond deeply while in nature. Lawrence uses flowers
throughout the novel to symbolize these deep connections. However, flowers are sometimes agents
of division, as when Paul is repulsed by Miriam's fawning behavior towards the daffodil.
There can be no argument that D. H. Lawrence’s Sons and Lovers is a study of human relationships.
Gertrude Morel, because of her turbulent and odd relationship with her husband, ends up
developing deep emotional relations with her two eldest sons’. The second eldest in particular, Paul,
is the receiver of most of this deep emotion. Because of these feelings and the deeper-than-usual
emotional bond between the two, Paul has difficulty being comfortable in his own relationships.
Paul’s relationship with Miriam is plagued by his mother’s disapproval, jealousy, and Miriam’s own
spirituality.

Paul’s relationship with Miriam is one where the love is not allowed to flourish. Although there is no
doubt that there is love between the two, the forces around them create tension that suppresses it.
Miriam believes herself not nearly as beautiful as she really is. Because of this she is always looking
for things to love her. In the case of Paul she believes that if Paul was to need her, if she could take
care of him, “if he could depend on her, if she could, as it were, have him in her arms, how she
would love him.”(137) However, this is never allowed to happen. Paul’s mother Gertrude already
occupies this space in his life. Thus the relationship between the two is a struggle for an identity. The
relationship is a struggle between Paul and his mother and Paul and Miriam.

The main conflicts between Paul and Miriam are between physical-spiritual differences and his
mother. Miriam holds spirituality very close to her. Thing with Miriam are always on a very spiritual
level. Lawrence showed this sometimes with depiction’s of flowers. Paul has other needs that
Miriam herself feels that she could never fulfill. “You make me feel spiritual and I don’t want to be
spiritual.” (190) Eventually, Miriam introduces Paul to Clara to hopefully fulfill these needs. Paul’s
mother is also a major conflict. Paul’s relationship with his mother was very dominating. When Paul
compared his two loves, it caused great tension between the two, he would begin to hate Miriam.
This tension is similar to the tension that caused William to die. Whenever William brought his lover,
Lilly, around his mother, it pained him. He felt the need to belittle her constantly in comparison to
his mother. He knew she did not completely approve of her. After William’s death Paul became his
mothers chief emotional outlet, thus Miriam becomes subject to similar trials as Lilly. Because of
these conflicts Paul made Miriam suffer. Because he made her suffer he despised her.

The main problems that Gertrude has with Miriam is her worth and her family status. When the
eldest son William went out with Lilly Gertrude was not horribly adamant against her. Then, why
should she be against Miriam? Lilly was not as intelligent as Gertrude, Lilly had no chance of
breaking, or coming anywhere close to breaking that bond. Also, William was already out in the
business world. Gertrude wanted her son’s to be more successful than her and William was well on
his way. Although I’m sure Gertrude rather preferred William not married, she wasn’t totally anti it.
After William died, Paul was all she had left, Arthur being more like his father. Miriam is on the other
hand, intelligent, spiritual, and willing to learn. Gertrude’s worry and disapproval caused Paul to be
unhappy. Also, Gertrude’s goal of having her son’s do better than her financially and marry into a
respectable families didn’t match up to Miriam’s farm life.

The relationship and Miriam’s love grew. There did seem to be a moment when Paul realized there
were two female forces in life. The one of warmth and the one of inspiration. His mother of course
being the one of inspiration. Paul’s mother continued to vent her dislike for Miriam. Dealing with
that warmth, some of what Gertrude could not give him, Paul’s physical needs became apparent.
Miriam, being as religious as she is, shudders at the thought of consummating the relationship. This
is where Miriam’s endless love shows through. Miriam introduces Paul to Clara. Miriam loves Paul so
much she sacrifices herself to him. Even though Paul loves Miriam, upon comparing her with his
mother, he hates her. Finally, giving in to his mother, he breaks it off with Miriam. We get the
impression that Miriam waits for Paul forever. It concretely ends when his mother dies and he leaves
to find himself.

Son’s and Lover’s is a study of human relationships. Paul is the receiver of most of his mother’s deep
emotional feelings and has with her a bond tighter than normal. Because of this Paul has trouble
handling and being comfortable with his own relationships. Paul’s relationship with Miriam was
plagued by his mother’s disapproval. If it wasn’t for the selfishness of his mother Paul would have
most likely been happy with Miriam.

There can be no argument that D.H. Lawrence’s “Sons and Lovers” is a study of human relationships.
Gertrude Morel, because of her turbulent and odd relationship with her husband, ends up
developing deep emotional relations with her two eldest sons’. The second eldest in particular, Paul,
is the receiver of most of this deep emotion. Because of these feelings and the deeper-than-usual
emotional bond between the two, Paul has difficulty being comfortable in his own relationships.
Paul’s relationship with Miriam is plagued by his mother’s disapproval, jealousy, and Miriam’s own
spirituality.

Paul’s relationship with Miriam is one where the love is not allowed to flourish. Although there is no
doubt that there is love between the two, the forces around them create tension that suppresses it.
Miriam believes herself not nearly as beautiful as she really is. Because of this she is always looking
for things to love her. In the case of Paul she believes that if Paul was to need her, if she could take
care of him, “if he could depend on her, if she could, as it were, have him in her arms, how she
would love him.”(137) However, this is never allowed to happen. Paul’s mother Gertrude already
occupies this space in his life. Thus the relationship between the two is a struggle for an identity. The
relationship is a struggle between Paul and his mother and Paul and Miriam.

The main conflicts between Paul and Miriam are between physical-spiritual differences and his
mother. Miriam holds spirituality very close to her. Thing with Miriam are always on a very spiritual
level. Lawrence showed this sometimes with depiction’s of flowers. Paul has other needs that
Miriam herself feels that she could never fulfill. “You make me feel spiritual and I don’t want to be
spiritual.” (190) Eventually, Miriam introduces Paul to Clara to hopefully fulfill these needs. Paul’s
mother is also a major conflict. Paul’s relationship with his mother was very dominating. When Paul
compared his two loves, it caused great tension between the two, he would begin to hate Miriam.
This tension is similar to the tension that caused William to die. Whenever William brought his lover,
Lilly, around his mother, it pained him. He felt the need to belittle her constantly in comparison to
his mother. He knew she did not completely approve of her. After William’s death Paul became his
mothers chief emotional outlet, thus Miriam becomes subject to similar trials as Lilly. Because of
these conflicts Paul made Miriam suffer. Because he made her suffer he despised her.

The main problems that Gertrude has with Miriam is her worth and her family status. When the
eldest son William went out with Lilly Gertrude was not horribly adamant against her. Then, why
should she be against Miriam? Lilly was not as intelligent as Gertrude, Lilly had no chance of
breaking, or coming anywhere close to breaking that bond. Also, William was already out in the
business world. Gertrude wanted her son’s to be more successful than her and William was well on
his way. Although I’m sure Gertrude rather preferred William not married, she wasn’t totally anti it.
After William died, Paul was all she had left, Arthur being more like his father. Miriam is on the other
hand, intelligent, spiritual, and willing to learn. Gertrude’s worry and disapproval caused Paul to be
unhappy. Also, Gertrude’s goal of having her son’s do better than her financially and marry into a
respectable families didn’t match up to Miriam’s farm life.

The relationship and Miriam’s love grew. There did seem to be a moment when Paul realized there
were two female forces in life. The one of warmth and the one of inspiration. His mother of course
being the one of inspiration. Paul’s mother continued to vent her dislike for Miriam. Dealing with
that warmth, some of what Gertrude could not give him, Paul’s physical needs became apparent.
Miriam, being as religious as she is, shudders at the thought of consummating the relationship. This
is where Miriam’s endless love shows through. Miriam introduces Paul to Clara. Miriam loves Paul so
much she sacrifices herself to him. Even though Paul loves Miriam, upon comparing her with his
mother, he hates her. Finally, giving in to his mother, he breaks it off with Miriam. We get the
impression that Miriam waits for Paul forever. It concretely ends when his mother dies and he leaves
to find himself.

Son’s and Lover’s is a study of human relationships. Paul is the receiver of most of his mother’s deep
emotional feelings and has with her a bond tighter than normal. Because of this Paul has trouble
handling and being comfortable with his own relationships. Paul’s relationship with Miriam was
plagued by his mother’s disapproval. If it wasn’t for the selfishness of his mother Paul would have
most likely been happy with Miriam.
Novel Summary

Sons and Lovers is a novel by D.H. Lawrence that takes place in late 19th-century England and tells
the story of a man so emotionally connected to and influenced by his mother that he is unable to
form lasting relationships when he encounters other women.

In the first part of the story, the well-bred Gertrude Coppard falls for Walter Morel, a poor coal
miner. The couple marries, and Gertrude struggles with adjusting to reduced circumstances on a
meager salary in a rented house. The couple drifts apart, and she gradually shifts her affections to
her boys, beginning with William, the oldest. Walter Morel begins to retreat to the pub after work
with the other miners.

William goes out into the world and starts to rise up into the middle class. When he dies, Gertrude
shifts her affection to her second son, Paul, rediscovering her deep love for the boy after he survives
a serious bout with pneumonia.

In the second part of the novel, Paul struggles between the comfort and stability provided by his
mother and his own need to venture forth and experience his own romantic love. He begins a
romance with Miriam, a girl from his church. They seem to be well matched, but Paul's mother looks
down upon Miriam, which complicates the relationship. She is far below his social standing and from
an even poorer family.

Paul then meets Clara Dawes, a more sophisticated young woman who has separated from her
husband. Paul leaves Miriam behind as he spends more and more time with Clara. But in the end,
not even Clara can compete with Gertrude's affections, and Paul leaves Clara and returns to his
mother. When she dies, he is left alone.