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Assignment : 1

1. The count of the carded sliver is 0.12s Ne.

PROCESS-A (Lap doubling): 24 carded slivers are combined and a draft of 2.2 is applied
to get the sliver lap. 6 such laps are combined in the ribbon lap machine and draft of 6.8
is applied to obtain a final lap for comber.

PROCESS-B (Sliver doubling): 8 carded slivers are combined in a draw frame process and
a draft of 8.1 is applied. 36 such slivers are combined in a super lap former and a draft of
3.56 is applied to obtain a final lap for comber.

Calculate the total doubling, total draft and the weight per unit length (g/m) of the lap
produced in each process.

2. In the above case, the carded slivers have a mass variation of 12% CV. Additional CV%
introduced due to drafting in different machines are:

Sliver lap machine : 1.5%


Ribbon lap machine : 4.0%

Draw frame : 7.5%


Super lap former : 2.8%

Calculate the CV% of laps produced in Processes A and B.

3. The linear density of the feed lap is 60 g/m. The net forward movement of the detaching
roller per cycle is 30 mm. The feed length per cycle is 6 mm. Slivers from 4 combing
heads are combined and a draft of 10 is given. The resultant combed sliver count (N e) is
0.16. What is the noil extraction percentage?
Assignment 1
Solution

1. Process A
Total number of doublings = 24 x 6 = 144
Total draft = 2.2 x 6.8 = 14.96

Tex of the card sliver = 590.5/0.12 = 4920.8


Tex of the ribbon lap = 4920.8 x (24/2.2) x (6/6.8) = 4736.6
So, g/m of the ribbon lap is = 4736.6/1000
= 47.4

Process B
Total number of doublings = 8 x 36 = 288
Total draft = 8.1 x 3.56 = 28.84

Tex of the sliver = 4920.8 x (8/8.1)


Tex of the comber lap = 4920.8 x (8/8.1)x (36/3.56) = 4914.6
So, g/m of the ribbon lap is = 4914.6/1000
= 49.1

2. Process A
CV% of the comber lap = 12.74%
Process A
CV% of the comber lap = 14.43%

3. Count of the combed sliver = 0.16s Ne


Therefore, the count of the fibre strand emerging out of single combing head
= 0.16 x(4/10)
= 0.064 s Ne
Tex of the fibre strand emerging out of single combing head
= 590.5/0.064 = 9226.6 Tex
= 9226.6/1000 = 9.23 g/m

Weight of fibres fed per cycle per head = 60 x (1/1000) x 6 = 0.36 g


Weight of fibres delivered per cycle per head = (30/1000) x 9.23 = 0.28 g

Therefore, Noil percentage

= 22.2 %
Assignment : 2
1. A roving machine with all the drafting rollers of same diameter has the following
processing conditions:
Feed sliver count 0.15s Ne Roving diameter 1.1 mm

Draft 10.5 Roving Twist Multiplier 1.20

Back drafting roller speed 22 rpm Bottom roller diameter 25.4 mm

I. Calculate the spindle speed in rpm.


II. Calculate the production rate per spindle in kg/hr. assuming a utilization
percentage of 85%.
III. If the empty bobbin diameter is 60 mm, calculate the bobbin speed (rpm) and
the bobbin rack speed (m/min.) for the very first roving layer on the bobbin.
Assignment : 2
Solution
I. Delivery roving count = 0.15 x 10.5 = 1.575

TPI of the roving


= 1.25

Delivery rate = 725.97 inches/min.

Therefore, Spindle speed = 1.25 x 725.97 = 907.5 rpm

II. Delivery rate = 725.97 x (2.54/100) = 18.44 m/min


Tex of roving = 590.5/1.575 = 374.9
= 374.9/1000 = 0.375 g/m

Therefore, production rate per spindle


= 18.44 x 0.375 x (60/1000)x0.85
= 0.35 kg/hr

III. Winding speed

= 97.9 rpm

Bobbin speed = Spindle speed + Winding speed


= 907.5 + 97.9 = 1,005.4 rpm

Time to wind one coil

= (1/97.9) min.

In ideal winding, each coil should be just touching the next one.

Therefore, speed of the bobbin rack

= 0.108 m/min
Assignment : 3

In a ring frame, the traveler travels at the speed of 120 ft/sec on a 1.75 inch
diameter ring when the wind-on diameter on the bobbin is 1.25 inch. The 20 tex
100% cotton yarn is being spun from 1.0 Ne roving. What is the spindle speed
(rpm)? The full roving bobbin of 1.5 kg (net mass of roving) exhausts in 70 hours of
continuous running of ring frame.

Assume that 1.2% of the feed roving is lost in ring frame and the ring frame is
running at 100% efficiency.

Solution

1.5Kg of roving is consumed in 70 hrs and there is 1.2% fibre loss in ring frame.

Therefore weight (in grams) of yarn produced in one hr = 1.5 x 0.988 x 1000/70
= 21.17 g

Length of yarn produced in one minute = (21.17 x 1000)/(20 x 60) m


= 17.64 m

Circumference of one coil at a wind-on dia. of 1.25 inch = π x 1.25 x 25.4 mm


= 99.79 mm

Number of revolutions required per minute for winding = (17.64/99.79) x 1000


= 176.8 revolutions

Circumference of ring = π x 1.75 x 25.4 mm


= 139.7 mm

Traveller speed = 120 ft/sec = 120 x 12 x 25.4 x 60 mm/min.


= 21,94,560 mm/min

So, traveler rotation per min for twist insertion = 21,94,560 / 139.7
= 15,709 rpm

Hence, the total spindle revolutions per min. or spindle speed


= 15,709 + 176.8
= 15,885.9 or 15,886 rpm
Assignment-4
Ring Spinning

1. A spinning mill has 60,000 ring spindles and it produces only 40 s Ne cotton yarn.
The yarn TPI is 26.4, the spindle speed is 18,000 rpm and the ring frame
utilization percent is 91.0%. The waste produced as a percentage of the feed in
respective sections are as follows:
Section Waste (%)
Ring spinning 3.0
Roving 1.0
Drawing: Finisher 0.25
Breaker 0.25
Carding 6.0
Blow-room 3.0
What should be the cotton consumption/year in tonnes (mill works 350 days/year
and 24 hours a day) and the Yarn Realization Percentage.

Solution to Assignment:

Ring frame production:

Yarn TPI = 26.4

Yarn delivery rate =

= 681.82 inches/min.

Yarn production per year =

= 70,42,159 kg = 7042.2 tonnes

Cotton Consumption / year =

= 8083 tonnes

Yarn Realization Percentage =

= 87.1%
Assignment 5 : New Spinning systems

1. A 48 head friction spinning machine, running at 98% efficiency, is producing 60 tex cotton
yarn of 600 twist/m. The friction drum speed and diameter are 4000 rpm and 50 mm
respectively. Calculate the productivity of the machine in kg/hr.

[Consider: Specific volume of the yarn is 1.1 cc/g; Twist efficiency factor is 0.15]

Solution:

Yarn specific volume = 1.1 cc/g

dy = yarn dia in cm

60 tex yarn = NT ; 60 tex =

Volume of yarn of 1000m length = cm3

Specific volume = = 1.1

dy = 0.0289 cm = 0.29 mm

VD = delivery speed (m/min)

Twist/m = 0.15 = 600

VD = 172.4 m/min

Production (kg/hr) = kg/hr = 29.5kg/hr


Assignment 6:Yarn Doubling

1. A Two-For-One twister is running at 9,000 rpm with 96% efficiency, and producing 4-ply yarn
from 60 denier polyester multi-filament yarn, 90 Ne dyed cotton single yarn, 15 tex grey combed
cotton single yarn and 50 Nm 100% wool single yarn with 900 twist per meter in plied yarn.
What is the production rate of the machine in terms of kg/100sp/hr if the twist contraction is 2%?

Solution:

TFO running speed = 9,000 rpm

Twisting rpm = 18000 rpm

Yarn twist = 900 t/m

3 ply

(i) 60 denier ; = 88.59 Ne

(ii) 15 tex ; = 39.37 Ne

(iii) 50 Nm ; 50 0.59 = 29.5 Ne

(iv) 90 Ne

Delivery speed = m/min = 20 m/min

resultant count of 4-ply yarn before twist contraction

= 0.0132 + 0.0169 + 0.0282 + 0.01 = 0.0817

NR = 12.24 Ne or 48.24 tex

NR after twist contraction = 12.24 x 0.98 = 12.0 Ne or 49.23tex


Productivity = kg/100sp/hr = 5.67 kg/100sp/hr