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LAB REPORT

SBC 3043 (Group A)


DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY

LAB 4
Mammalian Reproductive System and Development

No. Name Matrix No.


1. Noor Nadzirah binti Mohamad Nordin D20172080215
2. Farah Syahira Bt Mohamad Zamir D20172080231
3. Dheepah Reddi d/o Perumal D20172080250
4. Nanthini d/o Mathu D20172081411

Date of Exp : 22nd April 2019


Lecturer : Dr. Alene binti Tawang
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CONTENTS

No. Title Page


1. Introduction 3
2. Objectives 5
3. Materials 6
4. Methods 7
5. Results 10
6. Discussion 16
7. Conclusion 22
8. References 22
9. Reflection 23
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INTRODUCTION

Basically, reproductive systems for male and female are specialized with their own unique

functions and structures. These two generally have something that we called as gonads which are

male have testes and female have ovaries that take parts in producing gametes and sex organs.

Testes in male produce sperm whereas ovaries in female produce egg.

When we talked about reproductive organs in male, they have their own specialized functions

which are producing, maintaining and transporting sperm (the male reproductive cells) and

protective fluid (semen),discharge sperm within the female reproductive tract during sex as well

as secrete male sex hormone in order to maintain the reproductive system. Most of the organs are

located outside of the body such as penis, scrotum and testicles. Mainly, penis consists of three

parts which are the root, body or shaft and the glands. This penis will expel the semen which

contains sperm when the man reaches sexual climax. In order for penis to expel (ejaculate), it needs

to erect, which will block the flow of urine and allowing only semen to be ejaculated. As for

scrotum, it will act as the climate control system for the testes which ensure the temperature of

testes to be slightly cooler than body temperature. Lastly, testes are important in producing

testosterone which is the primary male sex hormone. Male reproductive system undergo

spermatogenesis which is the process of stem cell develop into mature spermatozoa.

As for female reproductive systems, they are designed to produce female egg cells called the

ova or oocytes. Then, it is transported to the site of fertilization. In fallopian tubes, egg is fertilized

by a sperm. The fertilized egg will be implanted into the walls of the uterus. But, the uterine lining

will be shed (menstruate) if implantation does not take place. Unlike the male reproductive organs,

female reproductive organs include parts inside and outer of the body. Generally, those outer parts

of female organs includes labia majora, labia minora, Bartholin’s glands and clitoris whereas for
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inner parts include vagina, uterus, ovaries, and fallopian tubes. This female reproductive system

will undergo oogenesis in order to create female gametes, or ova.


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OBJECTIVES

 To learn the main structures of the male and female reproductive system using both models

and diagrams.

 To study the main role of male and female reproductive organs.

 To analyze basic histology of selected male and female reproductive organs.

 To understand the process of gametogenesis and differentiation between spermatogenesis

and oogenesis.
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MATERIALS

The following materials will be available in the laboratory:

 models of male and female reproductive structures

 prepared slides of human sperm

 section of mammalian testes

 section of mammalian ovary


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METHODS

A. The male reproductive structures

1. The following reproductive structure were identified using the textbook and the available

model:-

Testes; scrotal sac, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicle, Prostate gland Bulbourethral, and

gland penis

2. The function of each structure identified above was stated.

B. Female reproductive structures

1. The following reproductive structures of vulva vagina cervix uterus, ovary fallopian tubes broad

ligament urethra were identified using the textbook and the available models.

2. The function of each structure identified above was stated.

C. Human Sperm

The specimen was focused using the low power objective. The amount of light was switched to

high power and increased by opening the diaphragm. The appearance of human sperm was

sketched under high power magnification.

D. X-section of mammalian testes

1. A seminiferous tubule was focused, using the scanning power of the microscope.

2. Switched to high power. The spermatogonia was identified. These cells are destined to become

spermatozoa through a process called spermatogenesis.

3. The lumen of the tubule is looked closely. The dark, fiber-like structures that seem to fill the

lumen are the flagella of spermatozoa. These sperm will eventually go out of the testes and into

the vas deferens on its way out of the body.

4. A seminiferous tubule was sketched and the spermatogonia, spermatozoa were labelled.
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5. Returned to the low power objective and two adjacent seminiferous tubules were found.

6. Switched back to the high power and the cells were focused between the adjacent seminiferous

tubules. These are the interstitial cells. Under the influence of FSH and LH, these cells secrete the

male sex hormone testosterone.

7. The interstitial cell and the adjacent seminiferous tubules were sketched.

E. X-section of mammalian ovary

1. The growing follicles was identified using the scanning power of the microscope.

2. The corpus luteum was identified. The function of the structure was identified.

3. The field of view showing the maturing follicle was sketched.

4. A follicle that is close to the surface of the ovary, getting ready to be ovulated was located.

5. Slide/ Model of Ovary:

a) A mature follicle was examined and the mature ovum was located within the follicle. A

prepared slide of an ovary was examined with the help of Microscopic ovary anatomy (from

references book/internet exploring, etc). Under low power we saw a large number of small,

primary follicles near the outer edge. A primary follicle contains a primary oocyte.

b) The secondary follicle was found using high power. Note the secondary oocyte (egg) surrounded

by numerous cells; the Graafian follicle with contain a mature secondary oocyte. The numbers of

secondary follicle and Graafian follicle on the slide were identified.

F. Model of mammalian ovary

1. The following structures in the model of a mammalian ovary were identified using your

textbook:

 maturing follicles antrum ovarian artery

 mature follicle ovarian vein corpus luteurn

2. The model was sketched and the structures identified above was labelled.
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3. The function of the structures identified above was stated.


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RESULT

Figure 1: Shows the starfish sperm

Magnification: 40x
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Figure 2: Shows testis of starfish

Magnification: 40x
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Figure 3: Shows the ovary of starfish

Magnification: 40x
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Figure 4: Shows the human sperm

Magnification: 40x
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Figure 5: Shows the male reproductive system


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Figure 6: Shows the female reproductive system


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DISCUSSION

Gametogenesis is the development and production of the male and female germ cells

required to form a new individual. Gametes have one haploid (n) genome, which is half of somatic

cells that have one diploid (2n) genome combined through fertilization from two gametes. In

humans, gametes have 23 chromosomes, and somatic cells have 23 homologous pairs, which is 46

chromosomes. Spermatogenesis is the process by which haploid spermatozoa develop from germ

cells in the seminiferous tubules of the testis. This process starts with the mitotic division of the

stem cells located close to the basement membrane of the tubules. These cells are called

spermatogonial stem cells. Sperm cells cannot divide and have a limited life span, but after fusion

with egg cells during fertilization, a new organism begins developing, starting as a totipotent

zygote. The human sperm cell is haploid, so that its 23 chromosomes can join the 23 chromosomes

of the female egg to form a diploid cell.

Oogenesis is the differentiation of the ovum (egg cell) into a cell competent to further

develop when fertilized. It is developed from the primary oocyte by maturation. Oogenesis is

initiated in the embryonic stage. Germ cells have only half the number of chromosomes as a diploid

cell, one of each pair and are termed haploid (n). In a human egg, there are 23 chromosomes, one

of which is an X and X. A zygote is a first cell formed of an organism after fertilization and it

carries two sets of Chromosomes one from each parent. So if we talk about humans then in a

human zygote there are 46 number of chromosomes or 23 pairs of it.

From the experiment conducted, firstly we have examined the slide of starfish sperm. When

observing using 4x magnification, there are not much clear image can be seen except for the nearly

dust-like image. But, after changing to 40x magnification, only then the head and tail structure of

sperm almost clearly seen. Basically, from the image of starfish sperm that have been observed, it
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is most likely as the human sperm except for the head part which is those in starfish, the head are

less ovoid than those in human sperm. Theoretically, sperm in starfish is blunt-ovoid structured

which penetrate very little into the jelly and collect on its outer border far from the surface of eggs.

In order to follow the development of the gonads throughout the year, it seemed most convenient
to establish a series of arbitrary but easily recognizable stages in the reproductive cycle based on
the shapes of the gametes and the space that the gametes occupy within the follicle. Seven stages
covering the entire course of development of the gonads were chosen which is juvenile (Stage 0),
follicle (Stage 1), early-growth (Stage 2), later-growth (Stage 3), pre-mature (Stage 4), mature
(Stage 5) and spent (Stage 6). The characteristic features of each stage are described as follows.
At this stage it is impossible to recognize the existence of gametes in the transverse section of the
gonad stain with haematoxylin and eosin. In relatively advanced specimens the follicular cavity is
filled with mesenchyme which disappears with development, perhaps being absorbed by the
gametes.

At stage 1, the follicular cavity is entirely empty, and the gonia can be recognized along
the follicular wall. However, it is still impossible to determine sex. Specimens belonging to this
stage may be classified into two forms which are one has spawned in the preceding year and the
other which is yet to spawn for the first time. The sections of these two forms are very similar in
appearance except that larger empty spaces are found in the follicle of the former than in the latter.
Moreover, sperms or oocytes may sometimes be observed in the follicular cavity of specimens
which have spawned during the preceding year because of incomplete discharge.

At stage 2, an important feature at this stage is the appearance of oocytes and spermatocytes
making it easy to differentiate between sexes. In male, a section of the testis shows a layer of
spermatocytes becoming thicker towards the center of the lumen, and spermatogonia attached to
the follicular wall. It is easy to distinguish the spermatogonia from the spermatocytes when stained.
A spermatocyte stains heavily with haematoxylin, the amount of cytoplasm is small and the
nucleus large. The spermatogonium is surrounded by a comparatively large amount of cytoplasm.
In female, a section of the ovary in this stage of development can be easily recognized since it will
contain a very large number of oogonia with a few young oocytes attached to the inside of the
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follicular wall. Although the young oocytes contain a relatively small amount of cytoplasm, as the
oocyte develops, it becomes richer in cytoplasm and extends towards the follicular cavity.

At stage 3, male and female starfish can be distinguished by the color of the gonads; the
testes are yellowish white while the ovaries yellowish orange. The inside of the follicular wall is
densely covered by a large number of cells and only the central part of the follicle is empty. In
male, the spermatocytes, which are attached to the follicular wall, increase markedly in number by
fission, and form a thick layer leaving only the central part of the lumen. Spermiogenesis probably
occurs at the inner surface of this thick layer. In female, the oocytes which have increased in
number while attached to the follicular wall, tend to free themselves from the wall and appear in
the follicular cavity pear-shaped in form. Some of free oocytes can be already seen in the lumen.
In this stage the diameter of oocyte, which has become separated from the follicular wall.

At stage 4, the gametes in both the ovaries and testes develop rapidly causing the gonads
to increase markedly in size. In male, the mature spermatocytes or spermatogonia fill the lumen in
the center of the follicle. The spermatocytes form a cluster surrounding the spermatozoa, and
spermatogenesis is actively in progress. In female, almost all of the pear-shaped oocytes, which
had been attached to the follicular wall in the previous stage, are thrust into the lumen, the amount
of cytoplasm in the oocytes also shows a marked increase.

At stage 5, well developed reproductive cell, spermatozoa or ova, fill the follicular cavity
while a small number of young oocytes and spermatocytes are still present near the follicular wall.
The racemose gonads attain their maximum growth in this stage and are tightly packed in the body
cavity. In male, the entire space of the follicular lumen is filled with a large number of spermatozoa
although a few spermatocytes and spermatogonia are still found on the wall of the follicle. Because
of the compact aggregation of the spermatozoa, the central part of the follicular cavity stains deeply
with haematoxylin, the number of spermatozoa is sparse near the follicular wall. Spermatogenesis
has nearly stopped. In female, all the available space in the follicular lumen is packed with
circularshaped. The germinal vesicles of these ova disappear at this stage.

At stage 6, Water discharge of ova and spermatozoa the follicular cavity becomes almost
empty although some young oocytes and spermatozoa may remain in the follicular lumen. The
weight of the gonads decrease rapidly. In male, the follicular wall shrinks although some relict
sperm may remain within the follicular cavity. In female, the ovary at this stage of development is
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characterized by the appearance of an empty space in the center of the follicle and by the presence
of a small number of young oocytes attached to the follicular wall. These unspawned young
oocytes will probably be absorbed. The follicular wall then shrinks rapidly.

Sperm consist of 3 parts which are Head, Middle piece (body) and tail. Head contain
digestive enzyme and nucleus. Also, they have a well-develop acrosome thar cover 40-70 percent
of the oval shaped of the head. Acrosome is the product of Golgi complex and contains a number
of contents such as acrosin enzyme in the acrosomal matrix. Apart from the enzymes, the acrosome
also contains such polysaccharides as mannose, hexosmine and galactose. Acrosome vital on
fertilization, when the sperm comes and contact with oocyte membrane at different sites. This
allows acrosome enzymes to be release and support sperm to entry into the egg. The part of the
middle piece known as collar that contain many mitochondria while tail function as swimmer to
egg.

Most species have two sexes which are male and female. Each sex has its own unique
reproductive system. They are different in shape and structure, but both are specifically designed
to produce, nourish, and transport either the egg or sperm.

Then, we were observed model of the reproductive system of male. The reproductive
system of male is quite different with females. The organ reproductive system of the male function
to produce and transport sperm. Also, to send out sperm within the female reproductive tract during
ejaculation. Unlike the female reproductive, the male reproductive system is located most at the
outside of the body. Testes mature within the epididymis are produced the sperm which are tightly
coiled duct located outside the testes. The scrotum contain two oval-shaped glands responsible for
producing and storing sperm but the main always being testosterone. The scrotum hang outside
the body because it need to main a slightly lower temperature maintain the sperm production
instead in the body quite high temperature. Sperm needs to be mature before swim to the egg.
When sperm leave the epididymis, they will enter the vas deferens to store for a time. Then, sperm
in the vas deferens passes into the abdominal cavity. During the ejaculation, mature sperm were
are leaves the penis in a fluid called semen also known as seminal fluid. Males have three glands
and each one contributes to the protection of the semen. They are the seminal vesicles, the prostates
glands and the bulbourethral glands. The seminal vesicles is at the base of the bladder and has a
duct connect to the vas deferens. The prostate glands is single that looks like donut shaped glands
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and surround the upper portion of the urethra below the urinary bladder. Bulbourethral glands
organs that lie underneath the prostate between sides of urethra. Component of semen have their
own particular function. In fact, sperm seem like white basic solution and milky appearance, has
likely basic pH (approximately 7.5). The fluid contain fructose for nutrition because swimming
sperm needs energy and contain fibrinogen to stimulate the formation of a sperm clot in the female
after ejaculation. After that, the penis is the male organ of sexual. Penis contain several part which
is long shaft and enlarged tips knows as Glans (head) of the penis, Corpus cavernosum, Corpus
spongiosum and the urethra.

Unlike the male, the human female has a reproductive system located entirely in the pelvis
which is the lowest part of the abdomen. The external part of the female reproductive organs is
called the vulva, which means covering. Located between the legs, the vulva covers the opening
to the vagina and other reproductive organs located inside the body.

The fleshy area located just above the top of the vaginal opening is called the mons pubis. Two
pairs of skin flaps called the labia which means lips surround the vaginal opening. The clitoris, a
small sensory organ, is located toward the front of the vulva where the folds of the labia join.
Between the labia are openings to the urethra (the canal that carries urine from the bladder to the
outside of the body and vagina. Once girls become sexually mature, the outer labia and the mons
pubis are covered by pubic hair.

A female's internal reproductive organs are the vagina, uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries.
The vagina is a muscular, hollow tube that extends from the vaginal opening to the uterus. The
vagina is about 3 to 5 inches (8 to 12 centimeters) long in a grown woman. Because it has muscular
walls it can expand and contract. This ability to become wider or narrower allows the vagina to
accommodate something as slim as a tampon and as wide as a baby. The vagina's muscular walls
are lined with mucous membranes, which keep it protected and moist. The vagina has several
functions for sexual intercourse, as the pathway that a baby takes out of a woman's body during
childbirth, and as the route for the menstrual blood (the period) to leave the body from the uterus.

A very thin piece of skin-like tissue called the hymen partly covers the opening of the
vagina. Hymens are often different from person to person. Most women find their hymens have
stretched or torn after their first sexual experience, and the hymen may bleed a little this usually
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causes little if any, pain. Some women who have had sex don't have much of a change in their
hymens, though.

The vagina connects with the uterus, or womb, at the cervix. The cervix has strong, thick
walls. The opening of the cervix is very small (no wider than a straw), which is why a tampon can
never get lost inside a girl's body. During childbirth, the cervix can expand to allow a baby to pass.

The uterus is shaped like an upside-down pear, with a thick lining and muscular walls in
fact, the uterus contains some of the strongest muscles in the female body. These muscles are able
to expand and contract to accommodate a growing fetus and then help push the baby out during
labor. When a woman isn't pregnant, the uterus is only about 3 inches (7.5 centimeters) long and
2 inches (5 centimeters) wide.

At the upper corners of the uterus, the fallopian tubes connect the uterus to the ovaries. The
ovaries are two oval-shaped organs that lie to the upper right and left of the uterus. They produce,
store, and release eggs into the fallopian tubes in the process called ovulation. Each ovary measures
about 1½ to 2 inches (4 to 5 centimeters) in a grown woman.

There are two fallopian tubes, each attached to a side of the uterus. The fallopian tubes are
about 4 inches (10 centimeters) long and about as wide as a piece of spaghetti. Within each tube
is a tiny passageway no wider than a sewing needle. At the other end of each fallopian tube is a
fringed area that looks like a funnel. This fringed area wraps around the ovary but doesn't
completely attach to it. When an egg pops out of an ovary, it enters the fallopian tube. Once the
egg is in the fallopian tube, tiny hairs in the tube's lining help push it down the narrow passageway
toward the uterus. The ovaries are also part of the endocrine system because they produce female
sex hormones such as estrogen and progesterone.
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CONCLUSION

In conclusion, the reproductive system or genital system is a set of organs within an

organism that work together to produce offspring. Many non-living substances, such as fluids,

hormones, and pheromones, are important accessories to the reproductive system. Unlike most

organ systems, the sexes of differentiated species often have significant differences. These

differences allow for a combination of genetic material between two individuals and thus the

possibility of greater genetic fitness of the offspring.

REFERENCES

Prof. Madya Dr. Norhayati Daud & Dr. Alene Tawang. Laboratory Manual SBC 3043,

Developmental Biology. Semester 2, Session 2017/2018.

Chambers,R., (1930).The Biological Bulletin.The Manner of Sperm Entry in the Starfish

Egg,Vol. 58, No. 3 ,344-369

Vevers, H.G. (1951). "The biology of Asterias rubens L. II. parasitisation of the gonads by the

ciliate Orchitophyra stellarum Cepede" (PDF). Journal of the Marine Biological

Association of the United Kingdom. 29 (3): 619–625.


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REFLECTIONS

i. Nanthini
a) What did you learn in this lab experiment?
From this experiment, we have learnt the mammalian reproductive system. We also learnt about
the development. We know about the structures of starfish sperm, starfish testis, starfish ovary,
human sperm, male reproductive system and female reproductive system.

b) How did you operate /handle the instrument?


During this experiment, we have used the slides properly to be observed under the microscope.

c) How did you handle the specimen or/and slide preparation?


We handle the specimen by observing the parts of the reproductive system and their development
under the light microscope.

d) What skills did you learn and/or practice in this lab experiment?
From this experiment, we learnt the main structures of the male and female reproductive system
using both models and diagrams. We also analyze basic histology of selected male and female
reproductive organs. Lastly, we understand the process of gametogenesis and differentiation
between spermatogenesis and oogenesis.
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ii. Noor Nadzirah

a) What did you learn in this lab experiment?


From the experiment, I learned about male reproductive structures, female reproductive structures,
human sperm, starfish ovary as well as starfish testes. In learning this lab, I have also learned about
gametogenesis mainly its chromosome number. Same goes to spermatogenesis and oogenesis.
Besides that, I studied about fertilization process which is in a human egg, there are 23
chromosomes, one of which is an X and X. A zygote is a first cell formed of an organism after
fertilization and it carries two sets of Chromosomes one from each parent. So if we talk about
humans then in a human zygote there are 46 number of chromosomes or 23 pairs of it.

b) How did you operate /handle the instrument?


In handling the microscope, I turned the revolving turret so that the lowest power objective lens
(eg. 4x) is clicked into position. Then, I placed the microscope slide on the stage and fasten it with
the stage clips. I looked at the objective lens and the stage from the side and turned the focus knob
so the stage moves upward. I moved it up as far as it will go without letting the objective touch the
coverslip. Then, I looked through the eyepiece and moved the focus knob until the image comes
into focus. Next, I adjusted the condenser and light intensity for the greatest amount of light. When
I have a clear image of sample with the lowest power objective, I changed to the next objective
lenses. When finished, I lowered the stage, clicked the low power lens into position and removed
the slide.

c) How did you handle the specimen or/and slide preparation?


In handling the slide, I obtained a slide to view, and placed it on the stage and fastened it with the
stage clips. Then I do the steps as stated in question 2.

d) What skills did you learn and/or practice in this lab experiment?
I learned proper skills of handling microscope. I also learned how to handle the slide properly in
order to get the best view of the specimen.
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iii. Farah Hira

a) What did you learn in this experiment?

In this experiment, I am learned about reproductive system of star-fish and human by observed of
the slide preparation of star-fish sperm , testis , ovary also slide preparation of human sperm. In
addition, we also observed the model of the male reproductive system and female reproductive
system. This hand on experiment was allows me to learn better. Male reproductive system include
the organ such as testes, epididymis, vasa deferential, seminal vesicle, prostate gland, urethra,
bulbourethral glands and penis. Each of the reproductive organ of the male have their own specific
functions as represented sexual organ which must produce gametes, haploid sex cells that become
united during fertilization. The female organ is quite different with male reproductive organ. The
female reproductive system include ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, cervix and vagina. In this
experiment I am also learned about star-fish reproductive organ. According to the observation ,
starfish sperm that have been observed, it is most likely as the human sperm except for the head
part which is those in starfish, the head are less ovoid than those in human sperm. Theoretically,
sperm in starfish is blunt-ovoid structured which penetrate very little into the jelly and collect on
its outer border far from the surface of eggs.

b) How did you operate/ handle the instrument?

I am using the light microscope properly. Each of the slide preparation of star-fish sperm, testis,
ovary also slide preparation of human sperm were placed on the stage of the microscope fastened
it with the stage clips. The prepared slide moved until it in the center of the field view while looked
at focus knob. The light intensity and condenser was adjust for suitable condition. We observed
from the lowers magnification to high magnification. Besides, all the instruments that we had used
are returned at the placed we takes. In addition, I am ensure that the model of the female and male
reproduction system were always at the good condition during made the observation on it.

c) How did you handle the specimen or/and slide preparation?

Each of the slide will specimen will observed using light microscope from the lower magnification
until suitable magnification.
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d) What skills did you learn and/or practice in this lab experiment?

Skill that I am practice during this experiment are skill observation such I will do the research
according the things that I saw under the microscope for ensure that I know what I am observed.
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iv. Dheepah

First and foremost, I have learnt about mammalian reproductive system and its
development by observing and identifying its stages. I also managed to observe the main structures
of the male and female reproductive system using both models and diagrams. I have also studied
about the main role of male and female reproductive organs. Moreover, I have analysed basic
histology of male and female reproductive organs through this lab activity. I totally understood the
process of gametogenesis and differentiation between spermatogenesis and oogenesis.

After done this lab session, I am able to recognize the female reproductive system and the
male reproductive system. The differentiation between spermatogenesis and oogenesis also could
managed to identify and now I can label the reproductive parts easily. In addition, I went through
the notes based on this chapter before carry on with this activity. That was really helpful for me to
focus on this activity which are about male and female reproductive system.

Besides, through this lab activity I have learned and understood that, just like
spermatogenesis, oogenesis involves the formation of haploid cells from an original diploid cell,
called a primary oocyte, through meiosis. I was really learned something new nny getting the result
of this lab activity because this was my first time ever observing female and male reproductive
system through microscope. I was so excited when I observed something that I have never seen
before which are most important system among all.

Moreover, I have learned few physical skills through this activity which is handling the
microscope. I managed to handle the microscope correctly and done observing ovule development,
system in male and female reproduction. By using it, I have enhanced my skill on using it with
different magnifications. As I know, I could only see the microscope in the lab during lab session
so I take this opportunity to manipulate my skills by using the microscope in correct order. In
addition, I also done the observation part very carefully to avoid misconduct of this activity.
Observing with patience is gained through this activity. By conducting this lab activity, my
objectives were obtained and accomplished.