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CHAPTER-1

INTRODUCTION
1.1 INDIAN RAILWAYS:- It is the central government-owned railway company of
India, which owns and operates most of the country's rail transport. It is overseen by
the Ministry of Railways of the Government of India.

Indian Railways has more than 64,215 kilometers of track and 7,083 stations. It has
the world's fourth largest railway network after those of the United States, Russia and
China. The railways traverse the length and breath of the country and carry over 30
million passengers and 2.8 million tons of freight daily. It is one of the world's largest
commercial or utility employers, with more than 1.6 million employees. As to rolling
stock, IR owns over 2,30,000 (freight), wagons. 60,000 coaches and 9,000
locomotives.

In 2013-2014 Indian Railways had revenues of Rs 1441.67 billion which consist of Rs


940 billion from freight and Rs 375 billion from passengers tickets.

Railways were first introduced in India in 1853. By 1947, the year of independence,
there were forty-two rail systems. In 1951 the system were nationalized as one unit,
becoming one of the largest network in the world. Indian Railways operates both long
distance and suburban rail system on a multi-gauge network of broad, metre and
narrow gauges. It also owns locomotive and coach production facilities.

Indian Railways is the world's seven largest commercial or utility employer. Indian
Railways holds over 239,281 freight wagons, 62,924 passengers coaches, 9,013
locomotives (43 steam, 5,345 diesel and 4,568 electric locomotives). The trains have a
5 digit numbering system and runs 12,617 passengers trains and 7421 freight trains
daily. As of 31 March 2013, 20,884 km (31.9%) of total route length was electrified.
Almost all electrified locomotives in Indian Railways works on 25000 volt AC
through overhead centenary delivery.

An electric locomotive is a locomotive powered by electricity from an external source


included overhead lines, third rail, or on-board electricity storage device such as
battery, flywheel system or fuel cell.

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CHAPTER 2
RAILWAYS ZONES

Indian Railways is divided into zones,


which are further sub-divided into
divisions. The number of zones in
Indian Railways increased from
six to eight in 1951, nine in 1952,
and rest 17 in 2010. Division, each
having a divisional headquarter. There
are total of sixty-seven divisions.

Fig 2.1:- Indian Railways Zones

The Delhi Metro is built and operated by the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Limited
(DMRC). The Government of India and the Government of Delhi jointly set up a
company called the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) on the march 5,1995 with
E. Sreedharan, as the managing director. He is Padma Vibushan awarded (Second
height honour) by Government of India. It is no way connected to Indian Railways.

Each of the seventeen zones, including Kolkata Metro, is headed by a General


Manager who reports directly to the Railways Board. The zones are further divided
into divisions under the control of Divisional Railways Managers (DRM). The
divisional officers of engineering, mechanical, electrical, signal and
telecommunication, accounts, personal, operating, commercial and safety branches
assets. Further down the hierarchy there are station masters who control individual
stations and the train movement through the track territory under their station's
administrations.

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S.No Zones Headquarter

1. Northern Railways Delhi

2. North-East Railways Gorakhpur

3. Northeast Frontier Railways Guwahati

4. East-Central Railways Hajipur

5. Eastern Railways Kolkata

6. South-Central Railways Secunderabad

7. South Railways Chennai

8. Central Railways Mumbai

9. Western Railways Mumbai

10. South-West Railways Hubli

11. North-West Railways Jaipur

12. West-Central Railways Jabalpur

13. North-Central Railways Allahabad

14. South-East-Central Railways Bilaspur

15. South-East Railways Kolkata

16. East-Coast Railways Bhubhaneswer

17. Konkan Railways Navi Mumbai

Table-1: Railways Zones

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CHAPTER 3

SUBSIDIARIES
Indian railways manufactures much of its rolling stock and heavy engineering
components at its six manufacturing plants, called Production Units, which are
managed directly by the ministry substitution of expensive technology related
products when the general states of the national engineering industry was immature.
Each of these six production units is headed by a General Manager, who also reports
directly to the Railway Board.

3.1 Locomotive

Indian railways uses a number of different Diesel and Electric locomotives, Steam
locomotives were once very common but are now only used on heritage routes.

3.1.1 Types of Locomotives

(A). Steam Locomotives

A steam locomotive is a type of railways locomotives that produces its pulling power
through a steam engine. These locomotives are fueled by burning combustible
material-usually coal, wood, or oil – to produce steam in a boiler. The steam moves
reciprocating pistons which are mechanically connected to the locomotive's main
wheels. Both fuel and water suppliers are carried with the locomotives, either on the
locomotives itself or in wagons (tenders) pulled behind.

Fig. 3.1 Steam Locomotive

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(B). Diesel Locomotive

A diesel locomotive is a type of railways locomotive in which the prime mover is a


diesel engine. Several types of diesel locomotives have been developed, differing
mainly in the means by which mechanical power is conveyed to the driving wheels.
Early internal combustion engine-powered locomotives and railcars used kerosene
and gasoline as their fuel. Soon after Dr. Rudolf Diesel patented his first
compression ignition engine in 1898. It was considered for railways propulsion
progress was slow, however, as several problems had to be overcome.

Power transmission was a primary concern. As opposed to steam and electric engines,
internal combustion engines work efficiently only within a limited range of turning
frequencies. In light vehicles, this could be overcomes by a clutch. In heavy railways
vehicles, mechanical transmission never worked well or wore out too soon.
Experience with early gasoline powered locomotives and railcars was valuable for the
development of diesel traction. One step towards diesel-electric transmission was the
petrol-electric vehicle, such as the Acsev Weitzer railmotor, which could operate from
batteries and electric overhead lines too.

Fig. 3.2:- Diesel Locomotive

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(C) Electric Locomotive

An electric locomotive is a locomotive powered by electricity from overhead lines, a


third rail or on-board energy storage such as battery or a supercapacitor.

Electric locomotives with on-board fueled prime movers, such as diesel engines or
gas turbines, are classed as diesel-electric or gas turbine-electric and not as electric
locomotives, because the electric generator/motor combination serves only as a power
transmission system.

Electric locomotives benefits from the high efficiency of electric motors, often above
90% (not including the inefficiency of generating the electricity). Additional
efficiency can be gained from regenerative braking, which allows kinetic energy to be
recovered during braking to put power back on the line. Newer electric locomotives
use AC motor-inverter drive system that provide for regenerative braking. Electric
locomotives are quiet efficient compared to diesel locomotives since there is no
engine and exhaust noise and less mechanical noise.

Fig. 3.3:- Electric Locomotive

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CHAPTER 4

TECHNICAL DETAILS

4.1 Track and Gauge

The total length of track used by Indian Railways was about 114,000km while the
total route length of the network was 64,215km on 31 March 2011. About 33% of the
route-kilometer and 44% of the total track kilometer and 44% of the total track
kilometer was electrified on 31 March 2011.

Broad gauge is the predominant used by Indian Railways. India broad gauge (1.676
mm ) is the most widely used gauge in India with 102,000km of the track length (90%
of the entire track length of all the gauges) and 54,600 km of route – kilometer (85%
of the entire route – kilometer of all the gauges) on 31 March 2011.

In some regions with less traffic, the metre gauge (1,000 mm) is common, although
the Unigauge project is in progress to convert all tracks to broad gauge. The metre
gauge had about 9,000 km of the track length (7.9% of the entire track length of all
the gauges) and 7,500 km of route-kilometer (11.6% of the entire route-kilometre of
all the gauges) on 31 March 2011.

The Narrow gauges are present on a few routes, lying in hilly terrains and in some
erstwhile private railways (on cost considerations), which are usually difficult to
convert to broad gauge. Narrow gauges had a total of 2,400 route-kilometre on 31
March 2011. The Kalka-Shimla Railways, the Nilgiri Mountains Railways and the
Darjeeling Himalayan Railway are three notable hil lines that use narrow gauge.
Those three will not converted under the Unigauge project.

The share of broad gauge in the total route-kilometre has been steadily rising,
increasing from 47% (25,258 route-km) in 1951 to 85% in 2011 whereas the share of
metre gauge has declined from 45% (24,185 route- km) to less than 12% in the same
period and the share of narrow gauges has decreased from 8% to 3%. However , the
total route-kilometre has increased by only 18% (by just 10,000 km from 53,596
route-km in 1951) in the last sixty years. This compares very poorly with Chinese

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railways, which increased from about 27,000 route-km at the end of second world war
to about 100,000 route-km in 2011, an increase of more than threefold. More than
28,000 route-km (34% of the total route-km) of Chinese railways is electrified
compared to only about 21,000 route-km of Indian Railways. This is an indication of
the poor state of Indian railways where the funds allocated to new railway lines are
meager, construction of new uneconomic railway lines are taken up due to political
interference without ensuring availability of funds and the projects incur huge-cost
and time overruns due to poor project-management and paucity of funds.

Fig. 4.1:- Track & Gauge

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CHAPTER 5
DEPARTMENTS
In North-West Railway Jaipur Division, there are three departments which is allotted
to every intern are as follows:-

1. RAC (Refrigeration & Air Conditioning)


2. TL (Train Lighting)
3. P (Power)

These are the three departments which is allotted to every electrical intern. Here all
the three departments are described one by one.

5.1 RAC (Refrigeration & Air Conditioning)

5.1.1 INTRODUCTION
The first Indian air-conditioned train was Frontier Mail which was introduced in
1934. Earlier, the AC coaches of the train were kept cool by using ice blocks. These
were replenished at several halts and along the line. A battery operated blower
constantly blew air into these receptacles, and the cold air entered the insulated car
through vents.
British officers used to travel by Frontier Mall. It was a challenge to maintain the
temperature of the AC coaches.
The Frontier Mail was one of the first train in India to get an air conditioned car. The
AC car started running from 1934.
The North-West Railways introduced air-conditioned stock in the late 1930's (the
earliest was probably the Frontier Mail in 1936 or1937).
In 1952-1953 there were air-conditioned services between Bombay and Howrah,
Delhi and Madras (Grand Trunk Exp.), Bombay and Delhi, Bombay-Amritsar
(Frontier Mail), Bombay-Viramgam (Saurashtra Mail), and Bombay – Ahmadabad
(Gujrat Mail). These all used AC units that were mounted beneath the coach body
(underslung), interconnected by pipes.

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The first fully air-conditioned train was introduced in 1956 between Howrah and
Delhi. Popularly known as the AC Express, it ran on the Grand Chord.
Later there were two, one running on the Grand Chord and the other on the main line.
Another train popularly known as the AC Express was the Dakshin Exp. between
Madras and New Delhi in the 1960s.
AC Chair Car stock was introduced around 1955. Until about 1979, air conditioning
was available only these and in AC First Class cars.
Around 1979 the first two-tier AC coaches were introduced. The first 3-tier AC
coaches were introduced in 1993.

In Air condition various factors decide comfort level which are as follows

 Temperature

 Humidity

 Draft (Velocity of air)

 Purity of air

 Noise

Net refrigerating effect, KW per ton of refrigeration and C.O.P are of extreme
importance in the design and operation of A.C. systems. The value of these factors
depends on the refrigerant used, efficiency of the components and the temperatures of
evaporator and condenser.

5.1.2 REFRIGERATING EFFECT


The quantity of heat that each Kg of refrigerant absorbs from the refrigerated space is
known as the refrigerating effect, For example, when one Kg of ice melts, it absorbs
from the surrounding air and adjacent objects an amount of heat equal to its latent
heat of fusion. If the ice melts at 0°C, it will absorb 80 K. cal/kg, so the refrigerating
effect of 1 kg of ice is 80 K. cal. While selecting a refrigerant, care must be taken to
ensure that it has better refrigerating effect.

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5.1.3 EFFICIENCY OF REFRIGERATING MACHINE
A refrigerating machine is a reversed heat engine and similar principles of efficiency
are involved in both. The efficiency of a heat engine operating on carnot cycle
between temperature limits T1 and T2 is given by the following formula.

Efficiencyc = (T1 – T2 )/ T1 Where, Ts are in ° kelvin.

Since the refrigerating machine is a reversed heat engine theoretical carnot


efficiency for a refrigerating machine is given by the following formula.

Efficiencyc = T2 /(T1-T2)

Where, T1 is the condenser temperature (absolute)

T2 is the evaporator temperature (absolute)

5.1.4 CO-EFFICIENT OF PERFORMANCE ( C.O.P.)


The co-efficient of performance of a refrigerating cycle is an expression of the cycle
efficiency and is stated as the ratio of the heat absorbed in the refrigerated space to the
equivalent heat energy supplied to the compressor.

Coach Condition Low Medium High

I AC Cooling 22oC 24oC 26oC


Heating

II AC Cooling - 24oC 260C

Table-2: Temperature rating of AC Coaches

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Fig. 5.1.1:- Diagram of AC System

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5.1.5 kW PER TON RATIO
A measure of refrigerating machine efficiency that has been used is KW per ton. On
an actual performance test under "standard" conditions for the type of service
intended, the net output cooling rate in K. Cal / hr. is determined The average KW
input to the machine during the test is also measured. The KW per ton ratio (KW/ton)
is then calculated.

5.1.6 ENERGY EFFICIENCY RATIO (E.E.R.)


A recently popular measure of efficiency, especially for unitary conditioners of small
to medium capacity is the ratio K.Cal per hour per watt (K.cal/hr-W). This measure is
called the "Energy efficiency ratio" (E.E.R.). The average cooling capacity of the unit
is determined by a test run under standard conditions. The average power input to the
condensing units in watts is measured. From this data the E.E.R. can be calculated by
using the following formula.
K.cal/Hr cooling rate
EER = ------------------------------
Watts input

5.1.7 Air Conditioning of Railway Coaches


5.1.7.A INTRODUCTION
Passengers in a railway travel are adversely affected by infiltration of air unpleasantly
laden with dust due to open windows. This is more so in case of high speed passenger
carrying trains. Secondly for a tropical country like India, the temperature varies from
46 degree C during summer to 2 degree C during winter. Airconditioning of railway
coaches is, therefore, necessary for the maximum comfort and well being of
passengers in a railway travel. In keeping with modern trend, airconditioning of
coaches for upper class travellers and lately even for lower class travellers has been
introduced by the Indian Railways.

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5.1.7.B SPECIAL PROBLEMS FACED IN RAIL AIRCONDITIONING
As compared to the normal buildings, Air conditioning of Railway coaches poses the
following additional problems:
• Requirement of very high reliability standard.
• Equipment should be light in weight.
• Equipment should take minimum space.
• Available power, generally at 110V D.C. has to be utilised. 415 V, 50 Hz, 3 Ph,
industrial power is available only on a few nominated trains like Rajdhani and
Shatabdi Express. However, in such cases, the flexibility of attaching and detaching
coaches is lost.
• Due to large number of passengers in small space, the space left for air circulation
is limited.
• In the Railway coaches, where people move in and out at all hours of the day, to
sudden changes in temperature, which may cause chill or heat are to be avoided.
• Rapidly changing ambient conditions as the train moves from one part of the country
to another.
• Excessive vibrations.
• Dusty atmosphere.
• Vandalism and abuse.
• Flying ballast hitting the equipment.
• Safety of passengers and trains.
• Dirty environment for the maintenance staff.
• Restricted time available for maintenance.

All these problems have to be solved,' within a comparatively small outlay, so that air-
conditioned travel can become more common.

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5.1.8 AC REQUIREMENTS OF RAILWAY COACH AIRCONDITIONING
SYSTEM
• Supplying clean fresh air at a controlled uniform temperature.
• Catering, within the confines of the Railway carriages to the continuously
changing number of passengers.
• Providing for heating as well as cooling on a train that travels through areas of
widely differing climate during its journey.

• Operation of the equipment from power generated, stored and controlled on the
train.

5.1.9 DESCRIPTION OF POWER SUPPLY


5.1.9.A SG Coaches
The electrical power for the self generating type of coaches is derived from the
alternator mounted on bogie transom of the coach and driven by the axle through 'V
belt drive as long as the coach is in motion at the minimum full load output (MFO)
speed of the alternator. During stationary or when the coach is running at less than
MFO speed the entire coach load is met by the battery of 800 AH capacity. Provision
for charging and precooling the coach from external supply has been made by means
of battery charger, 200A rating mounted on the coach under frame. Two numbers of
415 V, 3 ph, ac, precooling sockets have been provided diagonally on the end walls.
The alternator working in association with rectifier cum regulator gives an output of
18 KW at 130 V, DC in the underslung type of AC coach, whereas the alternator
capacity is 25Kw in the RMPU AC coach. One alternator set per AC plant has been
fitted in the self generating type AC coaches.

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5.1.9.B EoG Coach
The electrical power supply for end on generation type AC coaches is derived from
separate generator cars marshaled at the ends of the train formation, with generation
and transmission voltage of 415 V, 3 ph, AC. The power for individual coaches is
tapped by means of rotary switch from any one of the double feeders running along
the coach leading from the power cars, and coupled between coaches by means of
inter-vehicular couplers. The air-conditioning equipment works at 415V, 3 phase AC
supply and train lighting equipment work at 110V, AC, obtained between phase and
neutral derived from a 3 KVA,415/190V, 4 wire step down transformer.

5.1.10. AC DRIVING EQUIPMENTS

Driving equipments consist of motors for driving the compressor, condenser impeller
fans and the evaporator blower fans. The driving motors in self generating type
coaches are all of D.C. machines needing more care for attention of commutator and
brushes. The E.O.G. type coaches are provided with 3 phase AC squirrel cage
induction motors for driving the AC equipments.

A/C EQUIPMENT IN RAILWAY COACHES


This consists of the following:
• Evaporator Unit.
• Compressor.
• Condenser Unit.
• Gauge panel.
• A/C control panel.
• Air Duct.
• Refrigerant piping & joints.
• Wiring

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Fig. 5.1.2:- Schematic Diagram of Air Conditioning System

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Fig. 5.1.3:- Schematic Diagram of Power and AC Equipment

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Fig. 5.1.4:- Layout of AC System in 2-tier Sleeper Coach

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Evaporator Unit
The evaporator unit consists of a thermostatic expansion valve, a heat exchanger, a
resistance heating unit and centrifugal blower driven by a motor The thermostatic
expansion valve controls quantity of high pressure liquid refrigerant and allow to
expand to a lower pressure corresponding to the load demand The expanded
refrigerant passes through the distributor into the heat exchanger consisting of finned
copper tubes. The return air from the air conditioned compartment (75 %) is mixed
with fresh air (25%) and this mixture is drawn/blown through the heat exchanger,
where heat in the air is transferred to the cool refrigerant causing cooling of the air
and the evaporation of the refrigerant inside the tubes. The cooled air is led through
the ducting to the various compartments and diffused by means of air diffusers Filters
are provided in the fresh air and return air path to eliminate dust. When the outside
ambient temperature is very low, heater is switched on according to the setting of the
thermostats.

Compressor
The refrigerant vapour drawn from the evaporator is compressed by means of a multi
cylinder reciprocating compressor and compressed to a pressure ranging from 10 to
2
15 Kg/Cm according to the load demand. The work done due to compressor raises
the temperature of the refrigerant vapour.

Condenser
The condenser serves the function of extracting the heat absorbed by the refrigerant
vapour in the evaporator and the heat absorbed during the compression process. The
condenser consists of a heat exchanger, which is forced-air-cooled by means of two or
three axial flow impeller fans. The refrigerant vapour is liquified when ambient cool
air is passed through the heat exchanger. The refrigerant liquid leaving the condenser
is led into the liquid receiver from where it proceeds to the expansion valve on the
evaporator. The liquid receiver is a cylindrical container which contains a reserve of
the refrigerant liquid. A dehydrator and filter are also provided to ensure that the
refrigerant is free from moisture and dust particles.

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. Low oil pressure cutout
It ensures adequate lubrication of compressor to avoid piston seizure due to less
2
lubricating oil or failure of oil pump. This cutout is set at 2.5 Kg/Cm . It is also a
pressure operated switch similar to the H.P. cutout switch, but it shuts down the
2
compressor if the suction pressure drops down below 0.7 Kg/Cm . It protects the
system against unduly low evaporator temperatures and formation of frost on the
evaporator. No manual reset is provided on this and therefore the compressor starts
automatically if the suction pressure rises above the preset value.

A/C control panel


The control of the airconditioning system is achieved by means of air conditioning
control panel. The design of the various elements in the control panel takes into
account the system safety requirements. The safety requirements for the operation of
the A/C system are listed as under:
a. The working of blower fan of the evaporator and the blower fan of the condenser
have to be ensured before the compressor starts functioning.
b. Suitable protection to ensure adequate lubrication of compressor to avoid piston
seizure.
c. The excessive pressure on the discharge side of the compressor (High Head
Pressure) should be avoided.
2
d. The suction pressure should not be lower than 0.7 Kg/Cm to prevent frosting of the
evaporator.
e. The compressor motor has to be soft started to limit the sudden in rush of starting
current.
f. A suitable interlock has to be provided to ensure that heater is not on, when the
compressor is working.
g A low voltage protection for compressor motor to ensure that voltage does not go
below 100 volts in order to avoid undue drain on battery.
h. The blower fan has to come 'ON’ before the heater comes 'ON'.

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Over load protection and short circuit protection for all electrical circuits.
The A/C control panel incorporates all the above safety requirements.

Air duct
The air conditioning system includes three air ducts as follows:
a. Fresh (Inlet) air duct.
b. Main air duct.
c. Return air duct.
Actually there is no separate return air duct provided in A/C coaches. In the case of
A/C two tier coach and A/C chair car, the return air is drawn through the return air
filters directly from the nearest compartment. In 1st class A/C coach, the corridor acts
as a return air duct and the return air is drawn through return air filters located at the
corridor ceiling near the first compartment.
Fresh (Inlet) air duct
This is provided at the rate of two per AC plant. It is mounted on the side wall just
below the roof evaporator unit. There is an opening in the side wall with louver hinge
door arrangement and with the provision to house a fresh air filter. The fresh (inlet)
air duct has been designed with damper valve to control the quantity of fresh air to be
drawn into the compartment. This arrangement has been standardised for all types of
air conditioned coaches.

Roof Mounted Packaged Unit (RMPU)


RMPU of 5.2 introduced in the year 1992 with 25 kW alternator. AC II tier and III
tier has two units of 7.0 ton. First AC has one unit of 7 ton. It is mounted above the
toilets on both ends supplying conditioned air in the tapered duct to serve the coach
end to end.

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Fig. 5.1.5:- Evaporator Unit

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Main air duct
The conditioned air from the evaporator unit is blown into the main air duct by means
of two centrifugal blower fans driven by a motor with double extended shaft, The air
is distributed to each compartment in the case of 2 tier sleeper coach and full AC first
class coach through adjustable diffusers. In the case of a c chair cars, the conditioned
air from the main air duct is distributed along the hall through longitudinal apertures
suitably set at factory. The main air duct has been provided with central diagonal
partition making it two independent taper ducts so that each compartment is
influenced by the diffused air of both plants. Further air distribution to the entire
compartment is maintained at constant velocity. The cross section of the main air duct
has been designed in such a way that air velocity inside the duct shall not be higher
than 350 metre/min. in order to reduce turbulence and noise due to air motion in the
duct. For the same reason the main air duct has been connected to evaporator outlet by
means of an intermediate transition duct made of fire resistant canvas to prevent
transmission of noise produced by the blower unit- The aperture of air diffuser has
been designed to deliver the required quantity of air into the compartment at a
velocity not greater than 250M/min. This diffuser is provided with a knob to deflect
the air to the required angle. By the above arrangement the air velocity inside the
compartment obtained is between 6M/min. to 12M/min. (0.1 M/sec. to 0.2M/sec.) at
the face level of the passenger.

Refrigerant piping and joints


The refrigerant piping consists of the suction line (from the evaporator out let to
compressor inlet) discharge line (from compressor outlet to condenser inlet) and
liquid line (from the liquid receiver to the inlet side of expansion valve), connections
to the gauge panel from the compressor delivery side (high pressure side), low
pressure side and from the compressor crank case. The lubricating oil connections are
also part of the piping system Only copper pipes to specification BS:2017-63, C-106
Sec - 3 are used. Main pipelines are jointed with couplers or elbows by means of
silver brazing where as joints to various components like gauges pressure cutouts,
hand shut off valves, expansion valve, strainer etc. are connected by means of flare
joints to facilitate easy removal of the above elements for replacement and inspection.

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Wiring

All wiring has been done by means of multistranded PVC insulated copper cables to
specification. ICF/Elect./857. All cables have been laid on steel trough/conduits for
easy maintenance and prevent fire hazards. Crimped type of connections have been
adopted throughout. All the terminal boards are of fire retardant FRP material,
Reliability of wiring has been made very high.

Temperature setting
The temperature inside the airconditioned compartment is controlled by mercury in
glass thermostats with different settings as mentioned below. Operation of cooling or
heating takes place in accordance with ambient conditions.

The temperature control thermostats are fitted in the return air passage. Two types of
thermostats are used, one for controlling the cooling and the other for controlling the
heating. Both these thermostats are alike, each consisting of a sealed glass tube
O
containing a column of mercury. Presently there are two settings for cooling at 25 C
O O O
and 23 C and for heating at 21 C and 19 C respectively. The mercury thermostats
O
are being replaced by electronic thermostat with one setting each for cooling at 24 C
O
and for heating at 20 C.

5.2 TL (Train Lighting)


In Indian railways there are three type to generate electricity and provide to the rack.
These types are used for different type of coaches.
So, three types are described here which are as follows:-
1. SG (Self Generation)
2. MoG (Mid-On Generation)
3. EoG (End-On Generation )
Now, here all the type will described one by one

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5.2.1 SG (Self Generation)
Generally this type of generation is used in ICF coaches and full form of ICF is
Integral Coach Factory. In ICF coaches, an alternator is connected to wheel of
compartment with axle pulley. When train is in rotating condition it rotates and
produce electricity with 97V AC 3- phase. After the generation, the electricity send
to the coaches as well as battery box.
A battery box has 27 cell at either side in a bogie, i.e. a particular bogie have 54 cells
at both side. The rating of each cell is 2.1 V, 1000Ah. The 54 cell makes 113.7 V DC
which stored in batteries. Whenever train is in rotating condition the alternator
produces electricity, it send it direct to coaches but when train is not in rotating
condition batteries gives supply to the coach.
The operating voltage of a coach is 110V DC i.e. all the appliances like fans, tube
lights are working on 110V DC. This system is also known as Axle Drive System.

Fig. 5.2.1 (A):- Side View of Alternator Connected Fig. 5.2.1 (B):- Front view of Alternator connected
Axle Pulley System pulley system

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5.2.2 MoG (Mid-on Generation)
In this system a power car housing DG sets is used in middle of rake. It is chosen for
small branch line slow trains having long halts where batteries are likely to remain
uncharged if conventional axle driven system is adopted.
Capacity of DG set will depends on composition of rake (usually 30kVA) and
generation is at 415 V, 3-phase ,AC and is stepped down to 110V AC, 3-phase. After
several process of rectification this voltage convert to 110V AC.
5.2.2.A Advantages
The system was most suitable for slow moving branch line passengers trains. Light
and fans of all the coaches had a centralized control in power car coach. Fan and
lights were working on AC supply. There was no need for standby batteries.

5.2.2.B Disadvantages
 There were noise and smoke, pollution due to DG set.
 The operator was required to power car coach.
 Some valuable passenger space occupies by DG set.

Fig. 5.2.2:- Mid On Generation

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5.2.3 EoG (End On Generation)
The EoG system is used in Rajdhani and Shatabdi type trains which have only AC
coaches and have large power requirement. Each EoG train has 2 power cars with
2*250kW alternator each. The power is fed by any two coach through inter vehicle
coupler. The power is supplied at 3 phase, 750V, which is stepped down in an
individual coach to 415V, 3phase for supplying various loads. The 110V AC supply
for lights and fans is obtained by further stepping down the 415Vsupply.
In EoG system 9 light weight battery bank is connected to each coach. Its rating is 24
V. In case of emergency it can be used as power supply.
5.2.3.A Advantages
 With the development of high capacity power cars, 2*336kW power is
available from each power car.
 The system does not require the use of bulky batteries and alternators in
individual coaches.
 The system has higher reliability due to standby of every coach and reduced
number of equipments.
 Due to elimination of heavy equipment, the dead weight of the coach is
reduced.
 The system is independent of the type of traction i.e. diesel or electric
locomotives
 The system has better energy efficiency as compared to the self – generating
system.
 Low maintenance

5.2.3.B Disadvantages
 The cost of energy is high due to fuel cost.
 Even with 750 V,3 phase, there is still an effect of voltage drop as the farthest
end of the train.
 The passenger carrying capacity of the train is reduced due to provision of
power car.

So, these are the the type of generation. After the generation some rectification and
regulation method adopted to obtain better power supply.

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5.2.4 Battery Box
In different- different type of coaches different – different battery configurations are
adopted but the basic concept is same that is it gives supply to coaches when any
power failures or train is in standstill condition occurs.
Before supplying the power to the coaches there are some rectification and regulation
process which convert AC into DC and regulates the supply.
5.2.4.A Battery Box in Self Generation type Coaches

Fig. 5.2.3:- Battery Box in ICF Coaches

The rating of each cell is 2.1V and 1000Ah. There are two rectangular box at both
side of each ICF Coach. In a box 27 cells are present i.e. 9 battery bank is present. 1
battery bank have 9 cells.
This rectangular box is attached to each and every coach at both of the side i.e. total
54 cells are connected to each coach which gives 113.4 V DC.

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5.2.4.B Battery Box in End on Generation type Coaches

Fig. 5.2.4:- Battery Box in End On Generation

This type of battery box is used in LHB Coaches. LHB Coaches falls on End on
Generation category. In this system two power cars connected to starting of train and
end of the train. All the coaches connected to power cars with help of inter vehicle
couplers. The coupler are most interesting equipment in LHB coaches.
There couplers are connected to coaches as well as battery box. Here 9 cell present at
every coach. The rating of each cell is 12V. It gives 110Vsupply to coach

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.5.2.5 RRU & ERRU
Rectifier and Regulation Unit (RRU) & Electronic Rectifier and Regulation Unit
(ERRU) is used to convert the 3-phase power into 110V DC.

Alternator

RRU & ERRU

Coach Battery Box

Fig. 5.2.5:- RRU & ERRU

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5.2.6 Single Line Diagram of Train Lighting

Fig. 5.2.6:- Single Line Diagram of Train Lighting

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5.3 Power Supply
NWR Jaipur Division takes 132kV power supply and stepped down it to 33kV. This
power is send to all the department like RAC department, TL department and Power
department itself. It also send the power to the Divisional Rail Management Office
(DRM), station, platforms. Power is send to railways employees also.
The other panel of power departments are
 Loco Colony Panel
 Station Panel
 Ganpati Nagar Panel

They take power from RSEB and stepped down according to requirement. NWR
Jaipur Division has control panel to control the power and voltage profile.

The Jaipur route is not electrified but soon it will electrify. After that they will provide
the supply also to the train.

Fig. 5.3.1:- Control Panel in Power Department

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CONCLUSION
Indian Railways, as a organization is a very vast center of electrical engineering in
itself. Today the electrical world is getting its roots, grabbing the new era more
firmly. In Indian Railways, training is given to engineering aspirants desiring to
secure future in the dynamic world of Electrical Technology.

The main achievement of the training at Indian Railways are that I got familiar with
the latest technologies and principles. The main achievement could be said to get
knowledge about recent technology like electrification of trains. I got experience as to
how to organize the things. The training at Indian Railways cultivated the zeal of
inquisitiveness and the excitement to know more than more about field in Limited
duration.

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REFERENCES

1. www.indianrail.gov.in
2. www.irctc.co.in
3. Indian Railways institute of Electrical Engineering Nasik
irieen.indianrailways.gov.in
4. www.indianrailways.gov.in
5. www.nwrjaipur.gov.in

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