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Article · September 2015

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Srinath M S Malnad College of Engineering, Hassan Srinath M S Malnad College of Engineering, Hassan

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AUTOMATION OF ELECTRICAL POWER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

By M.S. SRINATH **

ROSHNY MATHEW *

N.S. JYOTHI ***

* M.Tech. Scholar, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Malnad College of Engineering, Hassan, Visvesvaraya Technological University, Belgam, India. ** Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Malnad College of Engineering, Visvesvaraya Technological University, Belgam, India. *** Associate Professor, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Malnad College of Engineering, Hassan, Visvesvaraya Technological University, Belgam, India.

ABSTRACT

Today energy is the most important basis for development of any country. Generation, transmission, distribution, and usage of energy are to be optimized for the proper conservation of energy. Electrical energy is generated from different founts like hydraulic power plants, thermal power plants, nuclear power plants etc. India has ample water sources to produce electrical energy. Presently the long time outage and fault detection during distribution will be a very serious problem. Also accidents are not uncommon in electrical transmission systems. It is too late to implement advanced systems for power distribution systems if not implemented now. The main focus of the present work is to modernize the present systems with powerful tools like PLC and SCADA for automatic control of distribution systems. The automatic tap changer maintains the voltage of whole system normally. Thus much manpower could be reduced and avoid major outages with maximumsafety to the system.

Keywords: Power Distribution System, Programmable Logic Controller (PLC), Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA).

INTRODUCTION

Power distribution networks are used for the regulation of supply to all over the country. High Voltage (HV) transmission systems are used in our country because of high transmission loss. Due to deficit of intelligent automation systems in the field of electrical power distribution system, power losses and accidents are not unaccustomed in our country. The haphazard development of distribution systems resulting in high system outages in addition to impecunious quality of supply. Efficient operation and maintenance of distribution system is hampered by non-availability of system topological information, current health information of the distribution components like distribution transformers and feeders, historical data etc. The lack of use of efficient tools are the other reasons for operational planning and advanced methodology for quick detection of fault, isolation of the faulty section and service restoration etc. Presently, fault detection, isolation and service restoration takes a long time causing the interruption of supply for a longer duration. Manual meter reading, delay in billing, faulty and inaccurate metering,

tampering of meters and pilferage of electricity are some of the main reasons for poor return of revenue to electricity utilities in India. Previously the power distribution automation and the communication infrastructure are by the application of microcontrollers [1,3]. For the power system design and analysis power flow analysis is used and MATLAB programming is used for software package [2]. Many international standards like IEC 61850, IEC 61499 etc are used for the automation of electrical power system [4,7]. Some of the systems use the CDMA wireless communication and analyse the system using various tools [6,11]. The present status of the distribution system is the 'smart grid' by using relays [5,8,10]. The substation, which was already tried to design and automate using the latest tools PLC and SCADA to overcome the problems that arise in the power station [9,12,13]. It is too late to modernize these distribution networks without these advanced automation tools. The present work is to integrate complete operations of the electrical substation to the SCADA installed in a computer. The SCADA communicate with the PLC and the entire system control is done through PLC.

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1. Introduction To PLC and SCADA

A PLC or programmable logic controller is a particularized digital computer.

1.1PLC: Programmable Logic Controller

Control engineering has evolved is over time. In the past manual control, were the main methods for controlling a system. More recently electricity has been used for control and early electrical control was based on relays. These relays allow power to be switched on and off without a mechanical switch. It is common to use relays to make simple logical control decisions. The development of low cost computer has brought the most recent revolution, the PLC. A PLC is a specialized digital computer. Unlike general-purpose computers, a PLC is designed especially for industrial use with multiple input and output, rigid construction, immunity to electrical and mechanical impacts and ease of programming and reprogramming. When combined with supervisory control and data acquisition, they can allow monitoring and control of complex systems.

The Figure 1 shows the comparison of relay logic system with PLC. The relay usually defined as an electrically operated switch. To operate a switch mechanically, most of the relays use electromagnet. Presumably other operating principles are also applied in relays like solid- state relays. The application of relays where umpteen circuits must be controlled by single signal, or it is imperative to control a circuit by low-power signal (with

is imperative to control a circuit by low-power signal (with Figure 1. Comparison between Relay Logic

Figure 1. Comparison between Relay Logic System and PLC

consummate electrical isolation between controlled circuits and control). The relays were used to perform

logical operations in previous computers and sweepingly

in telephone exchanges. The relay logic systems are using

a number of relays to accomplish one control sequence.

In relays, the no. of poles is limited to three so that more relays are to be used if same input is coming in many places.

1.1.1 PLC operation

A PLC works by continually scanning a program. This scan

cycle consists of 3 important steps shown in the Figure 2

and the detailed description of the scan cycle illustrated

in the Table 1.

After the third step the PLC goes back to step one and repeats the steps continuously. One scan time is defined as the time it takes to execute the 3 steps listed below.

1.1.2 SCADA

Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition systems (SCADA) which control supervisory level and collect data through

which control supervisory level and collect data through Figure 2. Scan Cycle Step Description 1 Check

Figure 2. Scan Cycle

Step

Description

1 Check Input Status-First the PLC takes a look at each input to determine if it is on or off. In other words, it checks whether the sensor connected to the input on.

2 Execute Program-Next the PLC executes the program one instruction at a time. Maybe the program said that if the first input was on then it should turn on the first output. Since it already knows which inputs are on/off from the previous step it will be able to decide whether the first output should be turned on based on the state of the first input. It will store the execution results for use later during the next step.

3 Update Output Status-Finally the PLC updates the status of the outputs. It updates the outputs based on which inputs were on during the first step and the results of executing your program during the second step.

Table 1. Scan Cycle of PLC Operation

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distribution system. It means that the supervisory control system is at the top of the real time control system. The process has been controlled and monitored by the supervisory control system and that is external to the control system. A separate or integrated real-time automated control system can respond quickly as countervail ample for process changes. The processes are of 3 types: industrial based, infrastructure based and facility based. They are described below:

· Industrial processes: manufacturing, production, power generation, fabrication, and refining. This may run in continuous, batch, repetitive, or discrete modes.

· Infrastructure processes: public or private electrical power transmission and distribution, and large communication systems, include water treatment and distribution, wastewater collection and treatment, oil andgas pipelines,

· Facility processes: occur both in public facilities and private ones, including buildings, airports, ships, and space stations. They monitor and control HVAC, access, and energy consumption.

The main objective of the Automation of Electrical Power

Distribution system is to automate the electrical power distribution system using PLC and SCADA and enhance the detection of variations in the voltage and temperature. In addition the enhancement of fault and outage detection in the system and notification. The automation of the feeder switching also can achieve by the system.

2. Design Methodology

The design methodology (Figure 3) adapted to the system as follows: The present work of automated electrical

power distribution system is done using PLC. The PLC being

a mini-controller uses ladder based logic to control the

distribution of power. Since the automated power supply is

of large scale magnitude and importance will be utilizing

the help of a model-simulation to show the working. The work consists of one main station and four sub stations. Each ofthe substations consists ofthe feeders.

The system basically consists of 3 modes of operations shown in the Table 2.

Sl.No

Modes

1

2

3

Manual mode

Auto mode

Time bound mode

Table 2. Modes of Operations Carried out by the System

mode Table 2. Modes of Operations Carried out by the System Figure 3. Design Methodology of

Figure 3. Design Methodology of Automated System

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The manual mode is where the main station is ON and switched OFF through two different push buttons. This mode is the archaic conventional mode where the substations can be switched ON only if the main station is switched ON. The feeders can be switched ON only if the corresponding Substation is switched on. The whole substations and the sub feeders have their own ON and OFFpush buttons.

The second mode is the automatic mode, which in normal conditions acts like manual mode. But when the 'auto' switch (toggle) is switched ON the logic acts in a different way. If any of the sub feeders are switched OFF in the automatic mode, it gets OFF first but after a minor delay will restart again itself automatically using the PLC logic.

The next mode is the 'time bound' mode. This mode is controlled through SCADA. The time bound mode is where the operator can decide the hours in which the power can be distributed and hold. That is if the operator sets a time between 5pm to 9pm; the sub feeder gets OFF from 5pm to 9pm and switches ON automatically after the time is over. The time delay and the range of operation can be set though SCADA. There are some problems related to the accuracy time during load shedding. This mode is useful for load shedding.

The present work focused a perfect conglomeration of PLC and SCADA and power supply control, which reduces human effort and throws light on a new dimension in automated.

2. Results and Discussion

The automation of electrical power distribution system is achieved by using PLC and SCADA. The earlier methods used for automation were replaced by Programmable Logic Controller (PLC), which controls the whole system. Simplicity, flexibility, quick and more sophisticated control are the essential features of PLC.

The software part of the system consists of two components: PLC and SCADA. Ladder logic is the most commonly used PLC programming language. Ladder Diagram (LD) Traditional ladder logic is graphical programming language. Initially programmed with

simple contacts that simulated the opening and closing of relays, Ladder logic programming has been expanded to include such functions as counters, timers, shift registers and math operations. The first two rungs of the ladder logic utilized in the system as shown in the Figure 4.

SCADA is the supervisory control of the system. The operator can accomplish the task very easily by applying SCADA to the system. PLC programming and SCADA are combined together for the automation of electrical power distribution system. The SCADA system consists of

one main window. The main window of the SCADA exhibits the selection of the other controlling windows. There are four windows in the system, which take part in the operator to accomplish the task more easily as shown in the Figure

5.

to accomplish the task more easily as shown in the Figure 5. Figure 4. Ladder Diagram

Figure 4. Ladder Diagram used in the System

in the Figure 5. Figure 4. Ladder Diagram used in the System Figure 5. Menu Selection

Figure 5. Menu Selection Window

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The control window, which shows the status of the main station (Figure 6), substations and feeders and controlling of all the stations and feeders. The selection of manual and auto mode also from the control window. In auto mode during the time of outage, time taken to restore the power in the substation also shown in the Figure 7.

the power in the substation also shown in the Figure 7. F i g u r

Figure 6. Main Station

Time synchronising is applied for the load shedding of feeders. The whole system should be in manual mode. The time synchronising window shows the status of the feeders during the time of load shedding. The time in which the feeder should off and the time in which it should on are indicated in the window as shown in the Figure 8.

The alarming system, which produces alarm in various fiasco conditions of voltage and temperature as shown in the Figure 9. The primary side voltage of the main station

the Figure 9. The primary side voltage of the main station Figure 8. Time Synchronising of

Figure 8. Time Synchronising of the System

the main station Figure 8. Time Synchronising of the System Figure 7. Main Control of the

Figure 7. Main Control of the System

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RESEARCH PAPERS Figure 9. Alarming Condition in the System will be measuredin the alarm window. Automatic

Figure 9. Alarming Condition in the System

will be measuredin the alarm window.

Automatic tap changer also present in the system, which maintain the output voltage ofthe main station normally.

Trend produces the graphical representation of the various parameters like voltage, current, temperature etc. The real time graphical representation of the parameters like voltage, current, temperature etc can be monitor by the trend. Trend represents the slight changes in the parameters. The variation of voltage indicated in the Figure 10.

Conclusion

variation of voltage indicated in the Figure 10. Conclusion Figure 10. Trend of the System The

Figure 10. Trend of the System

The presented system for automation of electrical power distribution using PLC and SCADA eliminate some of the problems occurred in the earlier methods. This simple, flexible and reliable method is allowing to the prevailing of distribution system. The method ensures safest and fastest transmission and distribution of power. Automatic restoration of power reduces time consumption and total outage time of feeders. The automatic tap changer maintains the voltage of whole system normally. The automation of electrical power distribution system emphasise easiest platform for the operator in this field.

References

[1]. Neha Gaur, Priyanka Gaur, (2012). “Automation in power distribution system: present status”, Review Article, Journal of Engineering Research and Studies, E-

ISSN0976-7916.

[2]. Dharamjit, D.K. Tanti, (2012). “Load Flow Analysis on IEEE 30 bus System”, ISSN 2250-3153, International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Vol.2, Issue 11.

[3]. Palak Parikh, “Distribution System Automation” ES 586b Course Project Report”, University of Western Ontario.

[4]. Neil Higgins, Valeriy Vyatkin, Nirmal-Kumar C. Nair, and Karlheinz Schwarz, “Distributed Power System Automation With IEC 61850, IEC 61499, and Intelligent Control”, IEEE.

[5]. R. P. Gupta and R. K. Varma, “Power distribution automation: present status”, University of Western Ontario, Canada.

[6]. T. Choi, K. Y. Lee, D. R. Lee, and J. K. Ahn(Apr. 2008), “Communication System for Distribution. Automation Using CDMA,” IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery, Vol.23, No.2.

[7]. E. Chikuni, F. Engelbrecht, O.I. Okoro, M. Dono, (2010). “The emergence of substation automation in South Africa”, INTECH, Chapter-6, pages 103-130.

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ABOUT THE AUTHORS

Roshny Mathew is currently is doing her M.Tech in Industrial Automation and Robotics(IAR), Department of Mechanical Engineering, Malnad College of Engineering, Hassan. She has completed her graduation from The Institution of Engineers (India) in Electrical Engineering. She has nearly 1.5 years of industrial experience. She has worked as substation operator in Kerala State Electricity Board.

Dr. M S Srinath is presently working as a Professor [PG-IAR] in the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Malnad College of Engineering, India. He has nearly 18 years of teaching, industry, and research experience. He has worked as Principal Coordinator for VGST sponsored project “Development of Cavitation Erosion Resistant Cladding through Microwave Energy”. He is presently the Principal Investigator of AICTE sponsored project “Melting of Materials using Microwave Energy”. He has also published 14 Journals and 25 Conference papers. His areas of interests include Advance Manufacturing, Microwave Material Processing and Modeling and Simulation of Manufacturing Systems.

Dr. N. S. Jyothi is presently working as an Associate Professor in the Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering at Malnad College of Engineering, Hassan, Karnataka, India. He has received his B. Tech. Degree from Government Engineering College, Thrissur, University of Calicut, M. Tech. from Regional Engineering College (National Institute of Technology), Calicut and Ph.D. from Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India. He is having an academic experience of 27 years. He is involved in various academic activities like curriculum developments, syllabus revisions etc. at Visvesvaraya Technological University and autonomous body of Malnad College of Engineering. He has taken part in the e-Learning program of Visvesvaraya Technological University and gave lectures on Modern Control Theory. He has published about 10 research papers in National, International Conferences and Journals. He has attended more than 30 National and International Conferences, Workshops, Seminars, Faculty and Development Programs. He is a member of Indian Society for Technical Education (ISTE), The Institution of Engineers (India) and Senior Member of IEEE. His technical interests are in the area of Dielectrics and Insulations, Control systems, and Electrical machines etc.

Insulations, Control systems, and Electrical machines etc. 40 i-manager’s Journal on Power Systems Engineering, Vol.
Insulations, Control systems, and Electrical machines etc. 40 i-manager’s Journal on Power Systems Engineering, Vol.
Insulations, Control systems, and Electrical machines etc. 40 i-manager’s Journal on Power Systems Engineering, Vol.

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