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TEACHING WRITING NARRATIVE PARAGRAPH BY USING YOU OUGHT

TO BE IN PICTURE STRATEGY TO THE TENTH GRADE STUDENTS OF

STATE SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL 8 PALEMBANG

A Thesis by:

SEPTI ERLINSA

Student’s Registration Number 2014111096

English Education Study Program

Language and Arts Education Department

FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION

PGRI UNIVERSITY OF PALEMBANG

2018

1
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

In this chapter, the writer presents; (1) background, (2) the problem of the study,

(3) the objective of the study, and (4) the significance of the study.

1.1 Background

Writing is one of the Language skills in English which needs to be learned by

the students. Writing is very important for students because to help students

communicate to others and also could help students to developed their ideas. According

to Oshima (2007, p.15), “Writing is never a one-step action; it is an ongoing creative

act. When you first write something, you have already been thinking about what to say

and how to say it. Then after you have finished writing, you read over what you have

written and make changes and corrections. You write and revise again until you are

satisfied that your writing expresses exactly what you want to say”.1

According to Hellekson., et al (2010, p.21),

Writing is a process. Students, for whatever reason, often do not view


it this way. Unfortunately, the instructor walks a fine line between
trying to rush through as much material as possible and helping the
students actually develop a writing process.2
There are many kinds of texts that can used to make writing easier such as;

Descriptive, Narrative, Recount, Procedure, and Report, but in this chance the writer

choose narrative text. “Narrative is present in myth, legend, fable, novell, epic, history,

tragedy, drama, comedy, mime, painting, stained glass windows, cinema, comics, news

1
Alice Oshima, Anhe Hogue, Introduction to Academic Writing.3rd (ed), (New Youk: Pearson
Education,Inc, 2006), p.15
2
Helekson et al, Practicing Science Fiction CRITICAL ESSAYS on WRITING. READING and
TEACHING the GENRE, (North Crolina, and London: McFarland & Company, Inc., Publisher lefferson,
2010), p. 21.

2
items, conversation. Moreover, under this almost infinite diversity of forms, narrative is

present in every age, in every place, in every society, it begins with the very history of

mankind and there nowhere is nor has been a people without narrative, it is simply

there, like life itself” (Trahar 2011, p.17).3

According to Coffman (2010, p.5), narratives have been described as having

several common components including a setting, plot (series of episodes based on goals,

attempts, outcomes), resolution or story ending. The term and rules of aplication are

often reffered to as the story grammar of narrative.4

Futhermore, Oshima and Hogue (2007, p.15),

The process of writing has roughly for steps. In the first step, you
create ideas. In the second step, you organize the ideas. In the third
step, you write a rough draft. In the final step, you polish your
rough draft by editing it an making revisions.5

In this case, the teacher should help to guide the student to learn writing, he can taught

writing well until they can develop their ideas into paragraph.

Futhermore, According to Ghabool (2012, p.132), individuals with writing

problems may have difficulties in one or more aspects of writing skill such as proper

use of grammar, conventions, punctuation, capitalization, spelling, and some of the

basic and initiating aspects of writing.6 While another researcher, Alfaki (2015, p.41)

3
Sheila Trahar, Learning and Teaching Narrative Inquery, (Amsterdam / Philadelpia: John Benjamins,
2011), p. 17.
4
Gerry A. Coffman, Merlissa D. Reed, “ The True Story Of narrative Text:From Theory to Practice, “ The
Reading Professor, (Vol. 32 No. 1, 2010), p. 5.
5
Alice Oshima and Ann Hogue, (The Longman Academic Writing Series, Level 3): Introduction to
Academic Writing , 3rd Ed, (New York: Pearson Longman, 2007), p. 15.
6
Neda Ghabool, Investigating Malaysia ESL students’s writing problem on convention, punctuatuion,
and language Use at Secondary School Level, Malaysia, (Vol 2 No.3, 2012), p. 132.

3
state that, When students complain about how difficult it is to write in a second

language, they are talking not only about the difficulty of finding the right words and

using the correct grammar but also about the difficulty of finding and expressing ideas

in a new language.7 In short, the problem in writing which happened in Indonesia from

two researchers are proper use of grammar, conventions, punctuation, capitalization,

spelling, difficult to find the right word and also the students difficult to deloveped their

ideas.

In line with general problem happened above, based on the writers’ experienced

in PPL 2 at State Vocational High School 3 of Palembang, the students mostly get

conffuse when they have to started writing. It could be because of poor vocabulary,

confusing how to find a good topic and how to developed the main idea. Those problem

also experienced by the writer when she asked the students to write a passage.

In this regard, one way to help students improve their writing especially in

narrative paragraph is used strategy. One of the strategy is You Ought to be in Picture

Stategy. According to Sethna (2011, p.6) You Ought to be in Picture is Display various

photos that connect with the curriculum. Then give the students a prompt to record their

observations and thoughts.8 Sharing their responses with a partner and volunteers read

aloud to the class to support this strategy, we can use narrative text in the form of slice

of life by looking at the picture. This strategy was very unique and effective to develop

7
Ibrahim Mohamed Alfaki, University Students” English Witing Problem: Diagnosis and Remedy, Nile
Valley University Atbara: Sudan, (Vol 3 No.3, 2015), p. 41.
8
Melissa Sethna, Literacy Skill and Strategies for Content Area Teacher, (Mundelein High School, 2011),
p. 6.

3
4
their ideas according to slice of life they have ever experienced and they are also easier

to write paragraphs.

This study, thus, aims to fill this gap by examining the use of You Ought to be

in Picture in teaching writing narratrive paragraph at State Senior High School 8

Palembang. Specifically, this study attempts to find out whether You Ought to be in

Picture is effective in teaching the students’ writing skill.

Based on the explanation above, the writer conducted a research entitled

“TEACHING WRITING NARRATIVE PARAGRAPH BY USING YOU OUGHT

TO BE IN PICTURE STRATEGY TO THE TENTH GRADE STUDENTS OF

STATE SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL 8 PALEMBANG”

1.2 Problem of the study

In this study, the writer identify some problems in State Senior High School 8

Palembang, those problems are; First, students afraid to expressed their ideas in writing

form. Second. teacher does not mastery some techniques to improve students’ writing

skill, Third, The students very difficult to explore the words and how to start it.

1.2.1 Limitation of the Problem

This study was limited on teaching writing narrative paragraphs by usingYou

Ought to be in Picture strategy to the tenth grade students of State Senior High School 8

Palembang. The writer focused on teaching writing narrative paragraphs in theme

5
“Fairy Tales”. The writer used some pictures as the media, and then students made a

writing about Fairy Tales based on the picture given.

1.2.2 Formulation of the Problem

The problem was formulated as follows, “Is there any significant difference on the

tenth grade students’ writing achievement between those who are taught by using you

ought to be in picture strategy and those who are not of State Senior High School 8

Palembang?”

1.3 Objective of the Study

The objective of the research was to find out whether or not there is any

significant differences on the tenth grade students’ writing achievement between those

who are taught by using You Ought to be in Picture strategy and those who are not of

State Senior High School 8 Palembang.

1.4 Significances of the Study

The writer expected, this study would be useful and give contribution to some group

of peolple, as follows:

1) For the writer herself

It was expected to give the writer a good experienced and enlarge her knowledge

in conducting a scientific study.

1. For the students

6
It was hoped that the result of this study could increase the students’ ability to

understand writing narrative paragraph by using you ought to be in picture.

2) For the teachers of English

It was hoped that the result of this study would be useful for the teachers of

English to have an alternative way of teaching writing

3) For the other researchers

It was hoped that the result of this research would give information and

contribution to the other researchers so that they could apply the suitable technique of

teaching writing.

CHAPTER II

LITERATURE REVIEW

In this chapter, the writer presents; (1) the concept of teaching, (2) the concept of

writing, (3) the concept of narrative texts, (4) procedure of teaching narrative text by

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using you ought to be in picture, (5) the previous related study, (6) the hypotheses, and

(7) the criteria for testing hypotheses.

2.1 Concept of Teaching

According to Takagi (2008, p.205), teaching is a social art, necessarily involving

a relationship between people; and the success of a teacher in the practice of his art

depends upon his possessing that quality or attitude of mind which enables him to make

the relationship between himself and his students a reciprocal one. Not all the teaching

should be done by the teacher. Not all the learning should be done by the students. 9

Futhermore Fry, Kettridge and Marshol (2009, p.3) state that “Teaching is recognised as

being only one of the roles that readers of this book will be undertaking. It recognises

and acknowledges that academics have contractual obligations to pursue excellence in

several directions, most notably in teaching, research and scholarship, supervision,

academic administration and management and, for many, maintenance of standing and

provision of service in aprofession (such as teaching or nursing)”.10

According to Northon (2009, p.29), the concept of teaching as learning

facilitation and suggest methods such as problem-based learning or experiential learning

methods11. In addition, “Teaching is guiding and facilitating, enabling the students to

learning, seting conditions for lerning” ( Brown, 2007, p.8).12


98
Yo Takagi, Larry Allman, and Mpazi A.Sinela, Teaching of Intellectual Property, ( Cambridge
University Press, 2008), p. 205.
10
Heather Fry, Steve Ketteridge, Stephanie Marshall, A Handbook for Teaching and Learning in Higher
Education Enchancing Academic Practice Third Edition, (New York and London: Taylor & Francis e-
Library, 2009), p. 3.
11
Lin S. Northon, Action Research in Teaching & Learning, (London and New York), p. 29.
12
H. Douglas Brown, Principle of Language Learning and Teaching, (San Fransisco State University,
2007), p. 8.

8
Based on the explanation above. Teaching was very important in the education

field. Teaching as be an Interaction activity and feedback between the teacher and the

students. Teacher very needed a skill to organize and manage the classroom in the

learning process.

2.2 Concept of Writing

According to Berlin (in Clark., et al 2012, p.2), writing became more important,

the task of teaching writing was assumed by various educational institutions. The

writing classes developed were viewed as “a device for preparing a trained and

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disciplined workforce” and for assimilating “huge numbers ofi mmigrants into cultural

norms,defined in specifi cally Anglo-Protestant terms.13

According to Ilmi (2014, p.31) mentions that:

Writing is a basic skill which must be possessed by the students.This


skill is needed in every teaching and learning process in English
lesson. It is not only to express their imagination in the written
language but also to develop students' creativity and motivation in
writing.

One way to summarize the characteristics of one and multi drafters is to

consider what they gain by being one drafters and at what cost they gain these

advantages. Clearly, one drafters are efficient writers. This efficiency was achieved by

mentally revising before hand, by generating options verbal l rather than on paper, by

generating only a limited number of options before settling on one and getting on with

the task, and by doing little or no re-reading. They are able to pace themselves and

could probably perform comfortably in situations such as the workplace or in in class

writing where it is advantages to produce first draft, final draft pieces of discourse.

According to Flower and Hayes (in Clark., et al 2012, p.14), concerned with

avoiding models that suggest that the writing process is linear, set up a cognitive theory

based on four points.14

The first, the process of writing is best understood as a set of distinctive think

processes that writers orchestrate or organize during the act of composing. Second,
13
Irene L. Clark, Concept in Composition Theory and Practice in the Teaching of Writing 2 nd (ed), (New
York and London;Routledge, 2012), p. 2.
14
Ibid., p. 14.

10
theese proceses have a hierarchical, highly embedded organization in which any process

can be embedded within any other. Thrid, the act of composing itself is a goal-directed

thinking process, guided by the writer’s own growing network of goals and the last the

writers create their own goals in two key ways: by generating both high-level goals and

supporting Subgoals that embody the writer’s developing sense of purpose, and then, at

times, by changing major goals or even establishing new ones based on what has been

learned in the act of writing.

From the expalanation above, the writer could conclude that writing was very

important in English but it was actually not difficult to master writing skill, we just read

a lot. By discussion writing we could learned a lot such as: grammar, vocabulary,

spelling, developed ideas, writing style, etc. and we also have to practice often by

writing short stories or essay.

2.3 Concept of Narrative Texts

According to Trahar (2011, p.21), narrative is difficult to teach because it defies

a ‘quick fix’. While I have taught intensive workshops on narrative, I feel that these can

often be disappointing experiences, as participants come expecting that by the end of the

day, or three days, they will come away with all the tools they need. Teaching about

narrative concerns not only teaching about time and memory in human lives; it is also

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about taking time.15 In addition “A narrative is a sequence of actions, and readers must

always have a clear understanding of what’s happening when” (Hart 2011, p.118).16

“Narrative is not merely a neutral discursive form but rather entails ontological

and epistemic choices with distinct ideological and even specifically political

implications.” as Hayden White (in Dong 2012, p.147). 17 The generic structure of

narrative text are orientation: stating the topic of an actifity or even which will be told,

sequence of events: presenting the story about the past activities or events which has the

chronological of conflicts and resolutions: stating the problem solving, and coda.

Concluding in order togive the moral values.

Based on those statements, the writer concluded that narrative is the kind of text

that the sequence of events takes place from time to time is described in a certain order

and the story must be chronological. Examples of narrative texts such as mythical

stories, fictions, legends, fairy tales, fables, adventures, mysteries, horor stories,

romances, etc.

According to Wardiman., et al (2008, p.90), narrative text has three generic

structures. They are:18

1. Orientation

It is about opening paragraph where the characters of the story are inducated.

2. Complication
15
Sheila Trahar, Learning and Teaching Narrative Inquiry, (Amsterdam / Philadelpia: John Benjamins
Companny, 2011), p. 21.
16
Jack Hart, Story Craft The Complete Guide to Writing Narrative Nonfiction, (Chicago and London,
2011), p. 118.
17
Lan Dong, Teaching Comic and Graphic Narratives, (Carolina & London:McFarland& Company Inc.,
Publisher,, 2012), p. 147.
18
Artono Wardiman, Masduki B. Jahur, and M. Sukiman Djusma, English in Focus for Grade IX,
(Jakarta: Pusat Perbukuan Departement Pendidikan Nasional, 2008), p. 90.

12
Where the problem in the story developed.

3. Resolution

Where the problem in the story is solved.

2.4 Concept of You Ought to be in Picture

According to Sejnost (2010, p.147), has created an effective strategy to help

students relate to what they have read, especially as they read about events that are

complex or that have happened in the past. This strategy asks students to process what

they are askedto learn by using a sort of mental imagery. Points out, through the use of

this strategy, students become personally engaged in their learning, since they make use

of their imaginations as they study a topic rather than merely reading cold, impersonal

13
text.19 Furthermore (Sethna 2011, p.6), you Ought to be in Picture is Display various

photos that connect with the curriculum. Then give the students a prompt to record their

observations and thoughts. Share their responses with a partner and volunteers read

aloud to the class.20 According (Buehl 2000, p.103), you ought to be in picture is a

strategy that encourages students to imagine themselves within the context of

photograph.21

Based on those statements, the writer concluded that You Ought to be in Picture

was a very effective strategy for students expressed their ideas into written form. This

strategy was done use the picture and students developed their ideas through the picture

by imagining that they are in the picture and then they could write their ideas according

to the rules of writing that have been studied.

2.4.1 Procedure of Teaching Writing Narrative Paragraph by using You Ought to

be in Picture Strategy

According to Sejnost (2010, p.147), there are four steps in doing You Ought to be in

Picture Strategy.22

Steps for You Ought to Be in Pictures as follows:

1. Collect photographs that are related to the curriculum, unit, or lesson you

are teaching.

19
Roberta L. Sejnost and Sharon M. Thieise, Building Content Literacy, (USA:Corwin a Sage Company),
2010), p. 147.
20
Melissa Sethna, Literacy Skill and Strategies for Content Area Teacher, (Mundelein High School,
2011), p. 6.
21
Dough Buehl, Classroom Strategies for Interactive Learning 4th, (Manufactured in the United States of
America, 2017), p. 103.
22
Ibid., p. 147

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2. Show students one of the photographs, and guide them through a mental

imagery exercise by introducing the topic of the photo and then asking them

to look closely at the picture and use all of their senses to imagine what the

picture tells them about the topic you are teaching. They should especially

focus on any people in the picture.

3. Next, ask the students to pretend either that they are in the picture or that

they took the picture. Then ask them to imagine that they are showing this

picture to someone else. What would they say? What memories do they

have? How did they feel? What made them take the picture?

4. Finally, ask students to record these thoughts and feelings in a journal or an

essay.

So you ought to be in picture strategy very good for developed students idea in

writing, using strategy and understanding procedure to teach you ought to be in picture

student easier to explore and develop their idea in writing and the teachers also easier to

explain the material which would be taught to the students.

5.5 Previous Related Study

In this study, the writer took two thesis as previous study. The thesis written by

Syarifah Yuniza which entiled “Teaching Writing Narrative paragraph by using

Semantic Picture” in 2012 and the other writer takes a thesis as previous study. The

thesis written by Misianto “The use of Caption Picture Media for Improving the Skills

of Writing Narrative Texts and the Learning Process of Writing Narrative Texts” in

2016.

15
The similarity between Syarifah and Misianto study and this study is that to find the

The effectiveness of Semantic Picture and Caption Picture Media in Teaching Writing

Narrative Texts. The differences between Syarifah and Misianto study and this study is

that the writing was taught “Semantic Picture” and “Caption Picture Media” meanwhile

in this study the writer used “You Ought to be in Picture” the samples were 35 students

of Tenth Grade students of State Senior High School 8 Palembang and Syarifah use

were 36 students of Eighth Grade Students of State Junior High School 29 Palembang

and Misianto use were 34 students of Eleventh Public Senior High School 7 of Malang.

In conclusion, we can see the table.


TABLE 1
SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCE OF
PREVIOUS RELATED STUDY

No Title Writer Year Similarities Differences

16
1. Teaching Syarifah 2012 - The same - The writer will
Writing Yunizah model of conduct the study in
Narrative using State Senior High
Paragraph by picture School 8 Palembang
using Semantic to the tenth grade
- The
Picture strategy students, but
writer and
of State Junior Syarifah Yunizah in
Syarifah
High School 29 State Junior High
Yunizah
Palembang to School 29
use the
the eighth Palembang to the
same skill
grade students eighth grade
in writing
students.

2. The use of Misianto 2016 - The same - The writer uses


caption picture and Budi model of writing skill, but
media for Eka using Misianto and Budi
improving the Soedjipto picture Eka Soedjipto use
skills of writing caption picture
- The
texts and the media for improving
writer and
learning the skills of writing
Misianto
process of texts and the
and Budi
writing texts” learning process of
Eka
writing texts
Soedjipto
- The writer
use the
conducted the study
same skill
in State Senior High
in writing
School 8 Palembang
to the tenth grade
students, but
Misianto and Budi

17

15
Eka Soedjipto in
Public Senior High
School 7 of Malang
to the Eleventh
grade students

2.5 Hyphothesis

According to Fraenkel., et al (2012, p.83), a hypotheses is simply put, a

prediction of the possible outcomes of a study.23 Based on the problem and objective of

the study, there are two forms of hypothesis in this study. They were Null Hypothesis

(Ho) and Alternative hypothesis (Ha) as follows:

Null Hypothesis (Ho) : There is no any significant difference between teaching

writing by using You Ought to be in Picture strategy and

those who are taugh by the teacher of English who tenth

grade students of State Senior High School 8

Palembang.

Alternative Hypothesis (Ha) : There is significant difference between teaching writing

by using You Ought to be in Picture strategy and those

who are taugh by the teacher of English who tenth grade

stuednts of State Senior High School 8 Palembang.

23
Jack R. Fraenkel, Norman E Wallen, Hellen H Hyun, How to Design and EvaluateResearch in
Education 8th Ed, (NewYork:Springer International Publishing, 2012), p. 83.

18
2.7 Criteria for Testing Hyphothesis

To test the hypotheses, the writer would be use the table of the value of “t “is

use. The t-test is used to discover whether there are statistically significant differences

between the means of two groups, using parametric data drawn from random sample

with a normal distribution Cohen., et al (2007, p.543). 24 It compered the result of pre-

test and post-test of the experimental treatment to get the value of “t” with the value od

“t” table. The alternative hypothesis (Ha) will be accepted if the value of the “t” obtain

is same or higher than the value of t-table, but if the value of “t” obtain is less than the

value of t-table, the null hypothesis (Ha) will be accepeted and consequently, the

alternative hypothesis will be rejected.

The total number of the sample is 36 with the degree of freedom (df) is 35 (36-

1) and the significance level is 95% (0.05) for one tailed test and the critical value in the

t-table is 1.684.

CHAPTER III

RESEARCH PROCEDURE

In this chapter, the writer presents; (1) method of research, (2) research

variables, (3) operartional definitions, (4) population and sample, (5) technique for

collecting the data, and (6) technique for analyzing the data.

24
Louis Cohen, Lawrence Manion, Keith Morrison, Research Methods in Education, 6tth Ed, (USA &
Canada: Routledge, 2007), p. 543.

19
3.1 Method of Research

In this study, the writer used experimental method. According to Fraenkel et al.,

(2012, p.265):

Experimental research is unique in two very important respect: it is


the only type of research that directly attemps to influence a particular
variable, and when properly is applied it is the best type for testing
hypotheses about cause and effect relationship.25

Futhermore, “There are some types in experimental research such as pre-

experimental designs, quasi-experiments, true experiments, and single-subject designs”

(Creswell 2014, p.170).26 In this study, the writer used quasi-experimental design, that is

non-equivalent control group design. In quasi-experimental, the investigator used

control and experimental groups but does not randomly assign participants to groups.27

According to Cohen et al., (2007, p.283), the formula was:28

Experimental O1 X O2

---------------

Control O3 - O4

Where:
25
Ibid., 265
26
John W. Creswell, “Research Design: Qualitative and Quantitative”, (United States of America:
SAGE Publication, Inc, 2014), p. 170.
27
Ibid.
28
Ibidp. 283.

20
----- = the experimental and control groups have not been equated by randomization

X = Treatment using given by You Ought to be in Picture Strategy by the

researcher

– = Treatment given by the teacher of English in X IPA 7 class

01 = pre-test of experimental group

02 = post-test of experimental group

03 = Pretest of control group

04 = Posttest of control group

3.2 Variable of Research

According to Frankel et al., (2012, p.77), a variable is a concept-a noun that

stands for variation within a class of objects such as chair, gender, eye color,

achievement, motivation or running speed.29 Moreover, According to Frankel et al

(2012, p.80), a common and useful way to think about variables is to classify them as

independent or dependent30. Independent variables are those that the researcher

chooses to study in order to assess their possible effect(s) on one or more other

variables. An independent variable is presumed to affect (at least partly cause) or

somehow influence at least one other variable.

Hatch and Lazaraton (1991:63) explained that:

An independent variable is a variable that the writer suspects may


relate to or influence the dependent variable. In a sense, the dependent
variable depends on the independent variable. The dependent variable
is the major variable that will be measured in the research.31
29
Ibid., p. 77.
30
Ibid., p. 80.
31
Ibid.

21
In this study the variable was follows:

Independent Variabel (X) : The use of You Ought to be in Picture strategy

Dependent Variabel (Y) :Student’s achievement in writing narrative

paragraph

3.3 Operational Definition

The title of this study ‘Teaching Writing Narrative Paragraph by using you ought to

be in picture strategy to the Tenth Grade Students of State Senior 8 Palembang” in order

to avoid misunderstanding what this study was discussing about, the writer explained

about teaching, writing, narrative text, and you ought to be in picture.

3.3.1 Teaching

Teaching is the process of attending to people’s needs, experiences and feelings,

and making specific interventions to help them learn particular thing.

3.3.2 Writing

Writing is a medium of human communication that represents language and

emotion with sign and symbol. In most languages, writing is a complement to speech or

spoken language.

3.3.3 Narrative Text

Narrative text is a text that tells the events of the past and has a sequence of events

that are told in chronological.

3.3.4 You ought to be in picture

22
You ought to be in picture is an activity that encourages students to imagine

themselves within the context of a photograph.

3.4 Population and Sample

3.4.1 Population

The larger group to which one hopes to apply the result is called the population

(Fraenkel et al., 2012, p.91).32 The population may be all the individuals of a particular

type or a more restricted part of that group. In this study, the population was the all of

the tenth grade students of State Senior High School 8 Palembang, in the academic year

of 2017/2018. It consists of 350 students for 10 classes as shown in Table 1 below.

TABLE 2

THE POPULATION OF THE STUDY

No Classes Number of the students

1 X IPA 1 35

2 X IPA 2 36

3 X IPA 3 36

4 X IPA 4 31

5 X IPA 5 36

6 X IPA 6 36

32
Ibid., p. 91.

23
7 X IPA 7 36

8 X IPS 1 37

9 X IPS 2 36

10 X IPS 3 36

Total 355

(Source:State Senior High School 8 Palembang in academic year 2018/2019)

3.4.2 Sample

According to Fraenkel et al., (2012, p.91), a sample in a research study is the

group on which information is obtained.33 To get accurate data, the sample technique

was purposive sampling. According to Fraenkel et al., (2012, p.100), purposive

sampling is different convenience sampling in that researches do not simply study who

ever is available but rether use their judgement to select a sample that they believe,

based on prior information, would provide the data they need.34 The writer chosen

sample X IPA 5 and X IPA 7 in this study.

TABLE 3

THE SAMPLE OF THE STUDY

No Group Classes Total

1 The experimental group X IPA 5 36

2 Control group X IPA 7 36

Total 72

(Source : State Senior High School 8 Palembang in the Academic year 2018/2019)
33
Ibid., p. 100.
34
Ibid., p. 94.

24
3.5 Tehnique for Collecting data

In collecting the data, the writer applied written test. The writer asked the

students to write more or less 150 words is one of paragraph. According to Richard

(2010, p.591) test is any procedure for measuring ability, knowledge, or performence. 35

The test used because it is considered as the most reliable way to get some information.

There were two kinds of test that the writer would give to the students in order to

measure their achievement in writing. First, it was given before the teaching and

learning activities (pretest). Second, it was given after teaching and learning activities

(posttest).

3.5.1 Validity

According to Fraenkel et al., (2012, p.147), validity refers to the appropriateness,

meaningfulness, correctness, and usefulness of the inferences a researcher makes 36.

Validity test is done to know weather the ionstruments which are going to be used for

pretest and posttest are valid or not. Futhermore, According to Fraenkel et al.,

(2012:148) validity devided into three types; content-related evidence of validity,

criterion-related evidence of validity, and construct-related evidence of validity 37. The

validity of the test material was checked through the content validity.

35
Ibid., p. 591.
36
Ibid., p.147
37
Ibid., p.148

25
The content and format must be consistent with the definition of the variable and

the sample of subjects to be measured (Fraenkel et al., 2012, p.148). The writer

consulted to the advisor in compling the instrument (test), which is expected to have

high degree of content validity. To make the test valid the writer showed planning of the

test in table of specification below:

TABLE 4

TEST SPESIFICATION

Number of Type of
No Objective Material Indicator
Paragraph test

1 The students are Fairy Tale The students are 3 paragraphs, Essay

able to achieve able to write one paragraph

their ability in narrative text. consists of 150

writing narrative words.

text.

26
TABLE 5

THE CRITERIA FOR SCORING THE STUDENTS’ WRITING

Criteria
Element Score

1. Content 25 All of developing sentences support the main idea

20 Three foutrh of the developing sentences support the main

idea

15 A half of all sentences support the main idea

10 A quarte of the sentences support the main idea

10 There is no sentences support the main idea


2. Organization 20 Excellent to very good: fluent expression –ideas clearly

stated

15 Good to average: somewhat choppy-loosely organized but

main ideas stand out-etc

10 Fair to poor: non-fluent-ideas confused or disconected-etc

5 Very poor: does not communicate-no organization-etc.


4) Vovabulary 20 Excellent to very good: sophisticated range-ffective

word/idiom form, choice and usage-etc.

15 Good to average: aduquate range-frequent errors of

word/idiom form, choice, usage but meaning not

obscured.

10 Fair to poor: limited range-frequent errors of word/idiom

form, choice, uage-etc.

27
5 Very poor: essentially translation-little knowledge of

English vocabulary
5) Language 25 Excellent to very good: effective complex construction-

Use etc

20 Good to average: effective but simple construction-etc

15 Fair to poor: major problem in simple/complex

constructions-etc

10 Very poor: virtually no mastery of sentence constructins

rules-etc
6) Mechanics 5 Excellent to very good: demonstrates mastery of

conventions-etc

4 Good average: occasional errors of spelling, punctuations-

etc.

3 Fair to poor: frequent errors of spelling punctuations,

capitalizaton-etc

2 Very poor : no mastery of conventions-dominated by

errors of spelling, punctuations, capitalization,

paragraphing-etc
(Source: Heaton (1990:146)

3.5.2 Reliability

According to Richards and Schmidt (2002, p.454) reliability is a measure of the

degree to which a test gives consistent results.38 A test is said to be reliable if it gives the

38
Ibid., p. 454.

28
same results when it is given on different occasions or when it is used by different

people.

For this study, the writer estimated the inter-rater reliability of reability

coefficient of the test. The inter-raters reliability is the test of reliability that using by

two raters or judges to rate the writing performance of the students (Hatch and

Lazaraton. 1991, p.533).

In this study, there was two raters to rate the writing performance. The first is the

writer herself, and the second is the teacher of English at State Senior High School 8

Palembang. Fraenkel, et al., (2012, p.157) state that, for research purposes, a useful rule

of thumb is that reliability should be at least 70 and preferably higher. It means that if

the result of the correlation between two raters more than or equal to 0.70, the test is

reliable. Meanwhile, if the resul is under 70 the test is not reliable. The writer used

Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPPS) version 23 to analyze the reliability of

the test.

n rAB
rtt = 1 + (n – 1) rAB

In this formula:
rtt (the reliability of all the judges’ ratings)
n (the number of raters)
rAB (the correlation between two raters)

Before giving the test to the students, the writer did a try out to know the

reliability of the questions. In this study, the test gave to class X IPA 5. There were 36

29
students attending the try out. Fraenkel., (2012:157) states that “For research purposes,

a useful rule of thumb is that reliability should be at least 70 and preferably higher. “It

means that if the result of the correlation between two raters more than or equal to 0.70,

the test is reliable. Meanwhile, it the result is under 70, the test is not reliable. The

reliability of the tests can be seen in Table 5.

3.6 Technique for Analyzing the Data

In analyzing the data, the writer used paired t-test and independent sample test

using statistic calculation of t-test formula. The calculation is used IBM SPSS Statistics

23.

According to Field (2013, p.449) “paired-samples t-test is used when there are two

experimental conditions and the same participants took part in both conditions of the

experiment”.39 Here, the writer compare the students pre-test and post-test both of the

experimental class and control class.

Meanwhile, the independent-sample t-test is used when there are two

experimental conditions and different participants were assigned to each condition (this

is sometimes called the independent measures or independent-means t-test) (Field,

2013, p.449).40 Here, the writer compare the students pre-test both of experimental and

control class and also compare post-test both of experimental and control class.

Independent t-test to find out whether there is any significant difference between the

39
Andy Field, Discovering Statistics Using IBM SPSS Statistics.4th(ed), (London: SAGE Publications Ltd,
2013), p. 449
40
Ibid, p. 449

30
eighth grade students at state senior high school 8 Palembang who are by using You

Ought to be in Picture strategy in writing narrative paragraph those who are taught by

teacher of English in that school.

CHAPTER IV

FINDINGS AND INTERPRETATION

In this chapter, the writer presents; (1) finding and, (2) interpretation based on

the data analysis.

4.1 Findings
4.1.2 Data Description

This study was done at State Senior High School 8 Palembang on 16th July

2018. Three classes were chosen and used during the study, they are X IPA 6 (as the

tryout group), X IPA 5 (as the experimental group), and X IPA 7 (as the control group).

The data in this study were taken from pretest and posttest. In assessing the students’

writing, two raters/judges were needed in this study. It was aimed to avoid the

subjectively in giving the score. The teacher of English at State Senior High School 8

Palembang, Yuni Herawati, S.Pd. was the first judge and the writer herself was the

sescond judge.

4.1.3 The Result of the Study

31
4.1.2.1 The Result of Pretest in Experimental Group

The computation of pretest score in experimental group used SPSS 23 computer

program. The detail information about the students’ scores in pretest can be seen in table

6 and table 7 below.

TABLE 6

THE STUDENTS’ PRETEST SCORES IN EXPERIMENTAL GROUP

Rank
JUDGE 1 JUDGE II
No. Different Score

C O V L M Total Rank C O V L M Total Rank D D2

1 20 14 15 16 3 68 5 21 14 15 17 3 70 4 1 1 69

2 21 14 13 15 3 66 7 20 13 13 15 3 64 10 3 9 65

3 19 13 11 13 2 58 16 18 12 11 13 2 56 16 0 0 57

4 20 14 15 16 3 68 5 21 14 15 17 3 70 4 1 1 69

5 20 13 14 16 3 66 7 20 13 14 14 3 64 10 3 9 65

6 22 16 16 17 4 75 1 22 15 16 18 4 75 1 0 0 75

7 20 14 14 15 3 66 7 20 14 15 16 3 68 6 1 1 67

8 19 13 12 12 3 59 14 18 12 12 13 2 57 15 1 1 58

9 22 16 15 17 4 74 2 22 15 16 17 4 74 2 0 0 74

10 21 14 15 17 4 71 3 21 15 15 17 3 71 3 0 0 71

11 20 13 12 13 3 61 12 21 13 12 14 3 63 11 1 1 62

12 20 13 13 15 3 64 9 20 13 14 16 3 66 8 1 1 65

13 21 14 14 15 3 67 6 20 13 14 16 3 66 8 1 1 65

14 18 11 10 11 2 50 21 18 12 11 11 2 54 18 3 9 52

32
15 20 12 13 14 3 62 11 21 13 14 15 3 64 10 1 1 63

16 21 14 14 15 3 67 6 21 14 15 16 3 69 5 1 1 68

17 20 13 13 14 3 63 10 19 13 12 14 3 61 12 2 4 60

18 18 10 11 11 2 52 20 18 11 11 13 3 56 16 4 16 54

19 21 14 14 15 3 67 6 21 14 15 16 3 69 5 1 1 68

20 20 14 15 16 3 68 5 21 14 15 17 3 70 4 1 1 69

21 21 14 14 15 3 68 5 20 13 14 15 3 66 8 3 9 67

22 19 12 12 13 2 58 15 19 12 11 13 3 58 14 1 1 58

23 20 13 12 12 3 60 13 21 13 13 14 3 64 10 2 4 62

24 19 13 9 10 2 53 19 19 12 10 12 2 55 17 2 4 54

25 20 14 11 13 3 61 12 19 14 13 14 3 63 11 1 1 62

26 20 13 14 14 3 65 8 20 14 13 15 3 65 9 1 1 65

27 19 14 14 16 3 66 7 20 14 15 16 3 68 6 1 1 67

28 20 14 14 15 3 65 8 20 13 14 16 3 67 7 1 1 66

29 21 14 15 16 3 69 4 21 14 15 17 4 71 3 1 1 70

30 19 12 11 12 2 56 18 19 12 13 13 3 60 13 5 25 58

31 21 14 14 15 3 67 6 20 13 14 15 3 65 9 3 9 66

32 19 13 9 10 2 53 19 19 12 10 12 2 55 17 2 4 54

33 21 14 13 15 3 66 7 20 13 13 15 3 64 10 3 9 65

34 20 13 14 14 3 65 8 20 14 13 15 3 65 9 1 1 65

35 20 14 14 15 3 66 7 20 14 15 16 3 68 6 1 1 67

36 20 14 15 16 3 68 5 21 14 15 17 3 70 4 1 1 69

N= TOTAL 2311

36 Ʃ2311/36 = 64.19

C = Content O = Organization V = Vocabulary

L = Language use M = Mechanics D = Deviation

33
TABLE 7

CENTRAL TENDENCIES OF PRETEST IN EXPERIMENTAL GROUP

Statistics
VAR00001

N Valid 36

Missing 0
Mean 64,1944
Median 65,0000
Std. Deviation 5,65089
Variance 31,933
Range 23,00
Minimum 52,00
Maximum 75,00
Sum 2311,00

Based on the data analaysis of pretest in the experimental group above, the

lowest score was 52 while the higher score was 75 and the mean score was 64.19 with

standard deviation 5.65

4.1.2.1 The Result of Pretest in Control Group

The compulation of pretest score in control group was using SPSS 23 computer

program. The detail information about the students’ scores in pretest and the central

tendencies can be seen in table 8 and 9.

TABLE 8

THE STUDENTS’ PRETEST SCORES IN CONTROL GROUP

34
Rank
JUDGE 1 JUDGE II
No. Different Score

C O V L M Total Rank C O V L M Total Rank D D2

1 18 12 10 12 2 54 16 18 12 11 13 2 56 16 0 0 55

2 20 13 12 14 2 61 13 19 13 12 13 2 59 13 0 0 60

3 19 12 14 15 2 62 12 19 13 14 15 3 64 10 2 4 63

4 20 14 15 16 3 68 7 20 14 16 17 3 70 4 3 9 69

5 20 14 14 16 3 67 8 20 15 15 17 3 69 5 3 9 68

6 20 13 13 15 3 64 10 21 14 15 16 3 68 6 4 16 66

7 21 14 15 17 3 71 4 20 13 15 16 3 69 5 1 1 70

8 22 16 15 17 3 73 2 22 16 17 17 4 77 1 1 1 75

9 21 14 15 16 3 69 6 21 14 15 17 3 71 3 3 9 70

10 18 11 11 12 2 51 17 19 11 12 12 2 55 17 0 0 53

11 19 12 12 14 3 60 14 19 12 13 15 3 62 11 3 9 61

12 21 13 14 15 3 66 9 20 14 25 26 3 68 6 3 9 67

13 20 13 13 15 2 63 11 21 14 15 16 3 69 5 6 36 66

14 18 10 11 11 2 52 18 19 11 11 11 2 54 18 0 0 53

15 22 14 14 15 3 68 7 22 14 15 16 3 70 4 3 9 69

16 18 12 11 13 2 56 15 18 12 12 14 2 58 14 1 1 57

17 20 13 12 13 3 61 13 19 12 11 13 3 59 13 0 0 60

18 20 13 15 16 3 67 8 20 13 14 16 2 65 9 1 1 66

19 20 13 13 15 2 63 11 21 13 14 16 3 67 7 4 16 65

20 18 12 10 11 2 53 17 18 12 11 12 2 55 17 0 0 54

21 21 14 15 17 3 70 5 21 14 15 16 3 68 6 1 1 69

22 22 16 16 18 4 76 1 21 16 16 17 4 74 2 1 1 75

23 20 13 14 15 2 64 10 20 14 14 15 3 66 8 2 4 65

24 19 13 9 10 2 53 17 19 13 11 12 2 57 15 2 4 55

25 21 14 11 13 3 62 12 22 13 12 14 3 64 10 2 4 63

35
26 22 14 15 16 3 70 5 21 14 16 16 3 70 4 1 1 70

27 19 12 11 13 2 58 14 19 13 12 13 3 60 12 2 4 59

28 22 15 15 17 3 72 3 22 15 16 17 4 74 2 1 1 73

29 19 12 11 12 2 56 15 20 12 12 12 2 58 14 1 1 57

30 20 12 15 16 3 66 9 20 14 16 16 3 68 6 3 9 67

31 21 14 15 17 3 71 4 20 13 15 16 3 69 5 1 1 70

32 21 13 14 15 3 66 9 20 14 25 26 3 68 6 3 9 67

33 22 15 15 17 3 72 3 22 15 16 17 4 74 2 1 1 73

34 20 13 12 14 2 61 13 19 13 12 13 2 59 13 0 0 60

35 22 15 15 17 3 72 3 22 15 16 17 4 74 2 1 1 73

36 21 14 15 17 3 71 4 20 13 15 16 3 69 5 1 1 70

N= TOTAL 2333

36 Ʃ2333/36 = 64.80

C = Content O = Organization V = Vocabulary

L = Language use M = Mechanics D = Deviation

TABLE 9

CENTRAL TENDENCIES OF PRETEST IN CONTROL GROUP

Statistics
VAR00001

N Valid 36

Missing 0
Mean 64,8056
Median 66,0000
Std. Deviation 6,45786

36
Variance 41,704
Range 22,00
Minimum 53,00
Maximum 75,00
Sum 2333,00

Based on the data analaysis of pretest in the experimental group above, the

lowest score was 53 while the higher score was 75 and the mean score was 64.80 with

standard deviation 6.45

4.1.2.3 The Result of Posttest in Experimental Group

The prettest in control group was exactly the same as the pretest. The difference

was that before the test, the experimental group was by using You Ought to be in Picture

Strategy to improve the students’ writing. The computation of posttest score in this

group was using SPSS 23 computer program. The detail information about the student’s

scores and the central tendencies can be seen in table 10 and table 11.

TABLE 10

THE STUDENTS’S POSTTEST SCORES IN EXPERIMENTAL GROUP

Rank
No JUDGE 1 JUDGE II
Different Score
.
C O V L M Total Rank C O V L M Total Rank D D2

1 23 14 15 16 4 72 6 22 14 15 16 3 70 10 4 16 71

2 23 14 15 17 4 73 5 23 14 15 16 3 71 9 4 16 72

3 23 14 15 16 4 72 6 22 13 13 14 3 64 15 9 81 68

4 24 15 15 17 4 75 4 24 16 16 17 4 77 4 0 0 76

37
5 22 13 12 14 3 64 13 22 13 13 15 3 66 14 1 1 65

6 23 15 15 17 3 73 5 23 15 16 17 4 75 5 0 0 74

7 23 13 13 14 3 66 12 23 13 14 15 3 68 12 0 0 67

8 22 14 13 15 3 67 11 22 14 13 15 3 67 13 2 4 67

9 25 15 16 18 4 76 3 24 15 17 18 4 78 3 0 0 77

10 23 14 15 17 3 72 6 23 15 15 17 4 74 6 0 0 73

11 24 15 14 16 4 73 5 24 16 15 16 4 75 5 0 0 74

12 24 16 15 17 4 76 3 24 15 16 16 4 74 6 3 9 75

13 23 14 14 16 3 70 8 24 15 15 15 3 72 8 0 0 71

14 23 13 13 15 3 67 11 23 14 14 15 3 69 11 0 0 68

15 24 14 14 16 4 72 6 23 14 15 16 4 72 8 2 4 72

16 23 14 14 16 3 70 8 24 14 15 16 3 72 8 0 0 71

17 22 13 12 12 3 62 14 22 13 11 12 2 60 17 3 9 61

18 24 15 15 17 4 75 4 24 16 16 17 4 77 4 0 0 76

19 23 14 15 17 4 73 5 23 15 16 17 4 75 5 2 4 73

20 23 13 14 15 3 68 10 23 14 15 16 3 70 10 0 0 69

21 25 17 18 20 4 84 1 26 17 18 20 4 86 1 0 0 85

22 23 14 14 15 3 69 9 23 15 15 16 4 73 7 2 4 71

23 22 14 13 15 3 67 11 22 14 14 16 3 69 11 0 0 68

24 25 17 17 19 4 82 2 25 18 18 19 4 84 2 0 0 83

25 24 15 15 17 4 75 4 24 16 15 17 4 77 4 0 0 76

26 22 14 13 15 3 67 11 22 14 13 15 3 67 13 2 4 67

27 23 15 14 16 3 71 7 24 15 14 16 4 75 5 2 4 73

28 23 14 11 13 3 64 13 22 13 11 13 3 62 16 3 9 63

29 24 14 13 14 4 68 10 23 13 13 14 3 66 14 3 9 67

30 22 13 12 14 3 64 13 22 13 13 15 3 66 14 3 9 67

31 23 14 15 16 4 72 6 22 13 13 14 3 64 15 9 81 68

32 23 14 14 16 3 70 8 24 15 15 15 3 72 8 0 0 71

38
33 22 14 13 15 3 67 11 22 14 14 16 3 69 11 0 0 68

34 22 13 12 14 3 64 13 22 13 13 15 3 66 14 3 9 67

35 23 14 11 13 3 64 13 22 13 11 13 3 62 16 3 9 63

36 22 14 13 15 3 67 11 22 14 13 15 3 67 13 2 4 67

N= TOTAL 2544

36 Ʃ2544/36 = 70.66

C = Content O = Organization V = Vocabulary

L = Language use M = Mechanics D = Deviation

TABLE 11

CENTRAL TENDENCIES OF POSTTEST IN EXPERIMENTAL GROUP

Statistics
VAR00001

N Valid 36

Missing 0
Mean 70,6667
Median 71,0000
Std. Deviation 5,12696
Variance 26,286
Range 24,00
Minimum 61,00
Maximum 85,00
Sum 2544,00

39
Based on the data analaysis of posttest in the experimental group above, the

lowest score was 61 while the higher score was 85 and the mean score was 70.66 with

standard deviation 5.12

4.1.2.3 The Result of Posttest in Control Group

The posttest in control group was exactly the same as the pretest. The difference

was that before the test, the experimental group was by using You Ought to be in Picture

Strategy to improve the students’ writing. The computation of posttest score in this

group was using SPSS 23 computer program. The detail information about the student’s

scores and the central tendencies can be seen in table 12 and table 13

TABLE 12

THE STUDENTS’S POSTTEST SCORES IN CONTROL GROUP

Rank
JUDGE 1 JUDGE II
No. Different Score

C O V L M Total Rank C O V L M Total Rank D D2

1 22 14 16 17 4 71 6 21 14 16 16 4 69 7 1 1 70

2 24 16 17 19 4 80 1 23 16 17 18 4 78 1 0 0 79

3 20 14 13 15 3 66 10 20 13 13 14 3 64 12 1 1 65

4 21 12 13 14 3 60 14 20 12 13 13 3 58 16 2 4 59

5 20 12 12 13 3 61 13 20 12 11 12 3 59 15 2 4 60

6 23 14 15 16 3 71 6 22 12 15 15 3 69 7 1 1 70

40
7 20 14 14 15 3 66 10 20 13 14 14 3 64 12 2 4 65

8 19 12 12 13 2 56 16 18 12 12 12 2 54 19 1 1 55

9 23 14 15 17 3 72 5 22 14 15 16 3 70 6 1 1 71

10 19 13 11 13 2 57 15 19 12 11 12 2 55 18 3 9 56

11 21 13 12 14 3 63 12 20 13 12 13 3 61 14 2 4 62

12 21 14 15 16 3 69 8 21 14 16 17 3 71 5 3 9 70

13 22 14 15 16 4 70 7 21 14 15 16 3 68 8 1 1 69

14 21 15 15 16 3 71 6 20 15 15 16 4 71 5 1 1 71

15 19 13 14 15 3 64 11 20 14 14 15 3 66 10 1 1 65

16 18 12 11 12 3 56 16 18 11 11 12 2 54 19 3 9 55

17 21 14 15 17 3 70 7 21 14 16 17 4 72 4 3 9 71

18 22 14 15 15 3 69 8 21 13 15 15 3 67 9 1 1 68

19 19 13 11 13 2 57 15 19 12 11 13 2 56 17 2 2 55

20 20 14 15 16 3 67 9 20 14 14 16 3 66 10 1 1 65

21 20 13 13 14 3 63 12 19 13 13 13 3 61 14 2 4 62

22 21 13 11 13 3 61 13 20 13 11 12 3 59 15 2 4 60

23 21 14 13 15 3 66 10 20 14 13 14 3 64 12 2 4 65

24 23 14 15 17 4 73 4 22 14 15 16 4 71 5 1 1 72

25 20 14 12 14 3 63 12 20 13 13 14 3 63 13 1 1 63

26 23 16 16 17 4 76 3 22 15 16 17 4 74 3 0 0 75

27 22 16 17 18 4 77 2 21 15 17 18 4 75 2 0 0 76

28 20 13 13 15 2 63 12 20 12 13 15 3 65 11 1 1 64

29 21 14 14 16 3 69 8 20 14 14 15 3 67 9 1 1 68

30 20 13 12 13 3 61 13 19 13 12 12 3 59 15 2 4 60

31 20 14 15 16 3 68 5 21 14 15 17 3 70 4 1 1 69

32 19 13 11 13 2 57 15 19 12 11 13 2 56 17 2 2 55

33 18 12 11 12 3 56 16 18 11 11 12 2 54 19 3 9 55

41
34 20 13 13 15 2 63 12 20 12 13 15 3 65 11 1 1 64

35 22 14 15 16 4 70 7 21 14 15 16 3 68 8 1 1 69

36 19 12 12 13 2 56 16 18 12 12 12 2 54 19 1 1 55

N= TOTAL 2333

36 Ʃ2311/36 = 64.80

C = Content O = Organization V = Vocabulary

L = Language use M = Mechanics D = Deviation

TABLE 13

CENTRAL TENDENCIES POSTTEST IN CONTROL GROUP

Statistics
VAR00001

N Valid 36

Missing 0
Mean 64,8056
Median 65,0000
Std. Deviation 6,61090
Variance 43,704
Range 24,00
Minimum 55,00
Maximum 79,00
Sum 2333,00

Based on the data analysis of pretest in the experimental group above, the lowest

score was 55 while the highest score was 79 and the mean score was 64.80 with

standard deviation 6.61

4.1.3 The Result of Posttest in Experimental Group

42
This part shows the total sample (N), minimum and maximum scores, mean

scores, and standard deviation of the pretest and posttest in experimental group as well

as the pretest and posttest in control group.


4.1.3.1 Students’ Pretest and Posttest Scores in Experimental Group

The result of the descriptive statistics of pretest and posttest in experimental

group can be seen in table 14.

TABLE 13

DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS OF STUDENTS’ SCORES IN EXPERIMENTAL

GROUP

Descriptive Statistics

N Minimum Maximum Sum Mean Std. Deviation

VAR00001 36 52,00 75,00 2311,00 64,1944 5,65089


VAR00002 36 61,00 85,00 2544,00 70,6667 5,12696
Valid N (listwise) 36

4.1.3.2 Students’ Pretest and Posttest Scores in Control Group

The result of the descriptive statistics of pretest and posttest in control group can

be seen in table 14.

TABLE 14

DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS OF STUDENTS’ SCORES IN CONTROL GROUP

Descriptive Statistics

N Minimum Maximum Sum Mean Std. Deviation

VAR00001 36 52,00 75,00 2311,00 64,1944 5,65089

43
VAR00002 36 61,00 85,00 2544,00 70,6667 5,12696
Valid N (listwise) 36

4.1.4 Normality Test

The normality test was used to find out whether or not the data of writing

narrative paragraphs test was distributed normally. In the normality test, the total of

sampel (N), Kolmogorov-Smirnov Shapiro-Wilk, significant, and result were analyzed.

The scores were got from (1) students’ pretest scores in experimental group, (2)

students’ posttest scores in experimental group, (3) student’s pretest scores in control

group, and (4) students’ posttest scores in control group.

4.1.4.1 Normality of the Pretest Scores in Experimental Group

The computation of nomality was using SPSS 3 computer program. The result

can be seen in table 15.

TABLE 15

THE RESULT OF NORMALITY OF THE PRETEST SCORES IN

EXPERIMENTAL GROUP

44
Tests of Normality

Kolmogorov-Smirnova Shapiro-Wilk

Statistic df Sig. Statistic df Sig.

VAR00001 ,196 36 ,001 ,951 36 ,109

Based on the result above, the significance level was .... Since it was higher

than ...., the students’ pretest scores in experimental group was normal

4.1.4.2 Normality of the Pretest Scores in Control Group

The computatition of normality was using SPSS 23 computer program. The

result can be seen in table 16.

TABLE 16

THE RESULT OF NORMALITY OF THE PRETEST SCORES IN CONTROL

GROUP

Tests of Normality

Kolmogorov-Smirnova Shapiro-Wilk

Statistic df Sig. Statistic df Sig.

VAR00001 ,129 36 ,138 ,944 36 ,069

Based on the result above, the significance level was .... Since it was higher

than ....., the students’ pretest scores in control group was normal.

4.1.4.3 Normality of the Posttest Scores in Experimental Group

The computation of normality was using SPSS 23 computer program. The result

can be seen in table 17.

TABLE 16

45
THE RESULT OF NORMALITY OF THE POSTTEST SCORES IN

EXPERIMENTAL GROUP

Tests of Normality

Kolmogorov-Smirnova Shapiro-Wilk

Statistic Df Sig. Statistic Df Sig.

VAR00001 ,129 36 ,138 ,944 36 ,069


Based on the result above, the significance level was .... Since it was higher

than ....., the students’ posttest scores in exprimental group was normal.

4.1.4.4 Normality of the Posttest Scores in Control Group

The computation of normality was using SPSS 23 computer program. The result

can be seen in table 17.

TABLE 17

THE RESULT OF NORMALITY OF THE POSTTEST SCORES IN CONTROL

GROUP

Tests of Normality

Kolmogorov-Smirnova Shapiro-Wilk

Statistic df Sig. Statistic df Sig.

VAR00001 ,103 36 ,200* ,949 36 ,100

46
Based on the result above, the significant level was .... Since it was higher

than...., the students’ posttest scores in control group was normal.

4.1.4 Homogeneity Test


The Homogeneity Test was intended to describe the variance of the data. In this

test, the students’ scores in control and experimental groups were analyzed.

4.1.5.1 Students’ Pretest Scores in Experimental and Control Groups

The computation of homogeneity was using Levene Statistics analysis SPSS

program. The result can be seen in table 22.

TABLE 22

HOMOGENEITY TEST ON STUDENTS’ PRETEST SCORES IN

EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS

Test of Homogeneity of Variances


VAR00003

Levene Statistic df1 df2 Sig.

1,355 1 70 ,248

47
It was found that the significance level was .... Since the result was higher

than ...., the students’ pretest scores in experimental and control group were homogeny.

4.1.4.2 Students’ Posttest Scores in Experimental and Control Groups

The computation of homogeneity was using levene Statistics analysis SPSS

program. The result can be seen in table 23.

TABLE 23

HOMOGENEITY TEST ON STUDENTS’ POSTTEST SCORES IN

EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS

Test of Homogeneity of Variances


VAR00003

Levene Statistic df1 df2 Sig.

3,019 1 70 ,087

It was found that the significance level was .... Since the result was higher

posttest...., the students’ pretest scores in experimental and control groups were

homogeny.

4.1.5 The Statistical Analysis

To find out whether or not there was significant difference in students’ writing

ability, statistical analysis was done using SPSS 23 computer program. Paired samples

test was used to investigate the significant difference between the students’ achievement

48
in pretest and posttest in experimental group as well as pretest and posttest in control

group. Then, the independent samples test was used to analyze only the students’ pretest

score in both of experimental and control groups as well as only the students’ posttest

score in both of experimental and control group in order to find out the significant

difference of the students’ mean scores between experimental and control group.

4.1.6.1 The Result of Paired Sample T-test Analysis in Experimental group

The computation of paired samples t-test was using SPSS 23 computer program.

The analysis can be seen in table 24.

TABLE 24

THE RESULT OF PAIRED SAMPLES TEST IN EXPERIMENTAL GROUP

Paired Samples Test

Paired Differences

95% Confidence Interval of t


Difference

Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean Lower Uppe

Pair 1 VAR00001 - VAR00005 -6,47222 7,51565 1,25261 -9,01515 -3

49
The result shows that the mean difference between pretest and posttest in

experimental group was ..... and the significance level was ..... Since the significance

level is lower than alpha value ...., it indicates that the students in experimental group

gained writing achievement significantly.

4.1.5.2 The Result of Paired Samples T-test Analysis in Control group

The computation of paired samples t-test was using SPSS 23 computer program.

The analysis can be seen in table 25.

TABLE 25

THE RESULT OF PAIRED SAMPLES TEST IN CONTROL GROUP

Paired Samples Test

Paired Differences

95% Confidence Interval of t


Difference

Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean Lower Uppe

Pair 1 VAR00001 - VAR00005 -6,47222 7,51565 1,25261 -9,01515 -3

50
The result shows that the mean difference between pretest and posttest in

experimental group was .... and the significance level was .... Since the significance

level is lower than alpha value ..., it indicates that the students in control group gained

writing achievement significantly.

4.1.5.3 Data Analysis of Independent Sample Test

In order to find out whether or not there was significant difference in achievement

between the experimental group and control group, the result of the posttest in

experimental and control group were compared using SPSS independent sample test

program. The result can be seen in table 26.

TABLE 26

THE RESULT OF INDEPENDENT SAMPLE TEST

Independent Samples Test

Levene's Test for Equality of Variances

F Sig. t df Sig

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VAR00004 Equal variances assumed 3,019 ,087 4,204 70

Equal variances not assumed 4,204 65,917

The reslut above shows that the mean difference between the posttest in each

group was .... and the significance level was .... Since .... is lower than ..., it means that

there was significant difference in writiing between those two groups. This indicates

that the students in experimental group made better achievement than those in control

group.

4.2 Interpretation

The result of the test shoes that the use of Praise Question Polish (PQP) strategy

could help the students in making their writing narrative paragraph better. Based on the

reslut ot the test, the students who were taught through Praise Question Polish strategy

got higher scores than those who were not. In experimental group, the highest posttest

score was ..., the lowest posttest score was ..., and the average was ... While ... was the

highest scores in control group, the lowest posttest score was .... Meanwhile its critical

value at .... significance level for one tailed test with ... (df) was .... Since the t obtained

was higher than t table, Ho was rejected and Ha was accepted.

Based on the treatment process, the students in experimental group could improve

their writing through the strategy. They could get stimuli from their friends while

generating the ideas. Therefore, they could know what to write in their writing. It can be

seen in the scores distribution before that the studnets could make improvement in the

content, organization, vocabularies, language use, and mechanics of writing. Overall,

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the experimental group had improved their ability in writing narrative paragraphs as

well as decreased their difficulties.

On the other hand, the test result in the control group was not better than the

experimental group. The improvement was really low because the studentsn lost of

focus in their writing. They didn’t write the narrative paragraph based on its element

that already taught by their teacher.

In conclusion, the stragtegy of Praise Question Polish made significant difference

on the tenth grade students’ writing achievement between those who are taugh through

Praise Question Polish strategy and those who are not taught at PGRI Senior High

School 2 Palembang.

CHAPTER V

CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

In this chaphter, the writer presents about: (1) Conclusion, and (2) Suggestion of

the study.

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5.1 Conclusion

Based on the results of the study, it can concluded that the students that the

students’ acheviements in ariting activity by applying You Ought to be in Picture

Strategy. It was shown in the students’ acores in post test was higher than the students’s

scores in pre test. The average score in pre test was 0.94 an post test 80.7 Furthermore,

the writer used paired t-test to compare the students’s scores in the pre test and post test.

It was found that t-obtained was 20.94 in the other hand, the significance level was 0.05

with df=35, and critical value of t-table was 1.684. it indicated that t-obtained was

higher than the value of t-table. It can be concluded that by using You Ought to be in

Picture Strategy were effective in teaching writing to the tenth grade students of Senior

High School 8 Palembang.

5.2 Suggestion

The writer offers some suggestion to the teachers of English and the students

especially to the tenth grade students senior high school 8 Palembang as follows:

5.2.1 For Teachers of English

1. The teachers should create the various techniques to improve students’ writing.

2. The teachers should make the interesting way in teaching to make the students are

not feeling bored in learning activities.

3. You Ought to be in Picture is one of techniques in teaching that can be used by the

teacher in learning activities because You Ought to be in picture can improve the

students’ skill in writing.

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5.3 For students

1. The students should have an English dictionary in learning activities.

2. The students should more attention in learning activities in the class.

3. The students study hard and ask the teachers to solve their problems in writing.

4. The student should have more motivation in studying English especially in

writing.

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