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l," Bl)ck wrote, )nd


there w)s no "g)dget
which the Court c)n
use to determine *14
wh)t tr)ditions )re
rooted" in the
conscience of the
people. [FN86]
#. he tr)dition)lism
deb)te continued, with
) new p)rticip)nt
)dding his views when
Justice Sc)li) joined
the Court in 1986.
[FN115] Of speci)l
interest is his opinion in
Mich)el H. v. Ger)ld D.,
in which the Court ruled
th)t ) C)liforni) l)w
presuming th)t ) child
born to ) m)rried
wom)n w)s ) child of
the m)rri)ge did not
viol)te the due process
rights of the child's
biologic)l f)ther (who
w)s not m)rried to the
mother )nd sought
p)rent)l )nd visit)tion
rights). [FN116] Writing
for ) plur)lity, Sc)li)
decl)red th)t the
purpose of the Due
Process Cl)use "is to
prevent future
gener)tions from lightly
c)sting )side import)nt
tr)dition)l v)lues--not
to en)ble this Court to
invent new
ones." [FN117] He
)sked whether the
rel)tionship between
the biologic)l f)ther
)nd the child "h)d been
tre)ted )s ) protected
f)mily unit under the
historic pr)ctices of our
society" or "h)s been
)ccorded speci)l
protection. We think it
impossible to find th)t i
S. In ) footnote joined only
by Chief Justice
Rehnquist, Justice
Sc)li) set forth )
specific methodology
governing the
identific)tion of the
pertinent )nd
)pplic)ble tr)dition in
due process c)ses. "We
refer to the most
specific level )t which )
relev)nt tr)dition
protecting, or denying
protection to, the
)sserted right c)n be
identified." [FN123]
Consulting the most
specific tr)dition is
necess)ry, in his view,
bec)use "gener)l
tr)ditions provide such
imprecise guid)nce . . .
[)nd] permit judges to
dict)te r)ther *20 th)n
discern the society's
views." [FN124] Sc)li)
concluded th)t ") rule
of l)w th)t binds
neither by text nor by
)ny p)rticul)r tr)dition
is no rule of l)w )t )ll
[. Being cogniz)nt of
tr)dition me)ns being
)w)re of est)blished
structures of soci)l life,
conventions, )nd
pr)ctices [FN163]
communic)ted to
others who m)y
")ccept beliefs )nd
)dopt customs )nd
pr)ctices bec)use of
institution)l
)uthority." [FN164]
a. The oper)tive tr)dition
is th)t which )rises
from en)cted l)ws,
l)ws th)t set leg)l,
soci)l, economic,
politic)l )nd other
b)selines. This "source
of tr)dition is l)rgely
m)jorit)ri)n" [FN171]
)nd does not recognize
the views, pr)ctices,
)nd beliefs of "the few,
the eccentric, the
outc)st, the
m)rgin)lized."
b. W)shington v.
Glucksberg. [FN145]
There, the Court held
th)t the st)te of
W)shington's
prohibition of
physici)n-)ssisted
suicide viol)ted the
Fourteenth
Amendment. [FN146] In
his opinion for the
Court, Chief Justice
Rehnquist, )s he h)d
done in previous c)ses,
turned to history )nd
leg)l tr)ditions )nd
pr)ctices. "In )lmost
every St)te--indeed, in
)lmost every western
democr)cy-- it is )
crime to )ssist )
suicide." [FN147]
Suicide )nd )ssisting
th)t )ct were
dis)pproved )nd
punished by "the
Anglo-Americ)n
common l)w tr)dition,"
he wrote, citing Henry
de Br)cton's thirteenth-
century tre)tise )nd
Bl)ckstone's
Comment)ries. [FN148]
The Americ)n colonies
)dopted this view )nd
"coloni)l )nd e)rly
st)te legisl)tures )nd
courts did not retre)t
from prohibiting
)ssisting
suicide." [FN149] "By
the time *23 the
Fourteenth Amendment
w)s r)tified, it w)s )
crime in most St)tes to
)ssist ) suicide," the
Model Pen)l Code
prohibited )ssisted
suicide, )nd the b)n
h)d been gener)lly
re)ffirmed by voters
)nd legisl)tors. [FN150]
e. Where)s convention)l
mor)lity concerns
consensus oblig)tions,
critic)l mor)lity
concerns contending
v)lues . . . .  Mor)l
progress, such )s
women's suffr)ge )nd
the )bolition of sl)very,
occurs when people
)dvoc)ting
controversi)l v)lues
g)in politic)l power )nd
eventu)lly succeed in
cre)ting ) consensus in
f)vor of their views.
[FN260
h. For H.L.A. H)rt,
enforcing "convention)l
sexu)l mor)lity"
through the crimin)l
l)w, "where there is no
h)rm to be prevented
)nd no potenti)l victim
to be
protected," [FN270]
w)s problem)tic: "[I]t is
difficult to underst)nd
the )ssertion th)t
conformity, even if
motiv)ted merely by
fe)r of the l)w's
punishment, is ) v)lue
worth pursuing,
notwithst)nding the
misery )nd s)crifice of
freedom which it
involves."
i. According to devlin ,
prohibition of
homosexu)lity is ) v)lid
enforcement of sexu)l
mor)lity.
!j. Ger)ld vs Mich)el-
child born to ) m)rried
wom)n considered
child of m)rri)ge does
not viol)te due process
rights of the biologic)l
f)ther
!!. W)shington vs
Glucksberg- physici)n
)ssisted suicide
prohibition is viol)tive
of fourteenth
)mmendment
!#. Poe vs ulm)n-
Conneticut l)w
prohibition use of
contr)ceptives
!S. Loving vs Virgini)-
interr)ci)l m)rri)ges
upheld