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Explain the actions that a teacher can take to enhance the quality of an assessment based on
the principles of assessment.
a. Reliability
Reliability means the degree to which an assessment tool produces stable and consistent
result. With this principle, teacher can provides a conducive environment by having
good air ventilation, proper desks and chairs, good lighting of the classroom for the
students to have their assessment. Thus, students will feel comfortable during the
assessment and having good mood to go for the test.
b. Validity
Validity means whether the test is actually measuring what it claims to measure. What
the teacher can do is that the teachers should create the items based on the learning
standards of the syllabus. For example, teacher can create a Test Specification Table
before creating the test items. Besides, teacher should make sure that the questions
should not be too easy or too difficult or else the test will not be valid.
c. Objectivity
Objectivity refers to the degree to which equally competent scorers obtain same results.
To make sure the assessment is objective, teacher should come out with a rubrics or
marking scheme for the marking. With the rubrics or marking scheme, teacher will mark
based on the criteria given. Besides, teacher should examine item for all candidates
before proceed to the next.

2. Explain the purpose of classroom assessment.

 Provides information that helps teacher evaluate students’ learning and evaluate
instructional effectiveness.
 To diagnose students’ strengths and weaknesses
 To monitor students’ progress
 To provide constructive feedback about students’ understanding
 Help to identify the areas to improve
 To determine instructional effectiveness

3. Discuss on how you can enhance the reliability of a test.

a. Create a longer test which covers a wider range of topics
b. Create objective test because it is not exposed to a variety of interpretations
c. Create a good relationship with the students and give encouragement/ motivations to
the students to continue to work harder.
d. Provides chairs and desks, good air ventilation and lighting of the class
e. Provide clear and accurate instructions, give sufficient time of the assessment

4. Explain the characteristics of the authentic assessment.

 Ask to perform real- world tasks that demonstrate meaningful application of essential
knowledge and skills.
 Requires high quality products or performance and a justification of the solutions to the
problems encountered
5. Explain one way how a formative assessment can be carried out in the classroom.
During the lesson, teacher can verbally ask the students some questions regarding the topic
that the teacher is teaching. Through the verbal answers given by the students, teacher can
identify whether the students understand what the teacher is teaching. If the teacher
realized that the students could not answer the questions correctly, teacher then needs to
use other techniques to explain another time to the students.

6. Discuss the disadvantages of subjective items.

 Limited topics to be covered
 The scoring and marking consume a lot of time
 Some students might bluff the answers, hence less reliable

7. Explain how a teacher can unwrap standard in the classroom. Provide example.
 Unwrap standard means teacher need to analyse and identify the concepts and skills
stated in standards and indicators.
 Firstly, teacher should identify important concepts and skills to be taught. Underline
the concept and circle/ capitalized the skills that students are to demonstrate. For
Able to USE conjunctions correctly and appropriately.
 Next is teacher needs to write standards and indicators into a graphic organizer. For
example, transfer the unwrapped concept and skill into three column chart.
Unwrapped concept Unwrapped skill Level
Conjunctions Use Apply

 Next is teacher needs to determine the big ideas that the teacher wants the
students to discover. For example: Conjunctions is a word used to connect clauses or
sentences or to coordinate words in the same clauses.
 Lastly is teacher needs to write down the essential questions. For example: Why do
we need to use conjunctions?

8. Discuss the strengths of portfolio assessment.

 Allow the students to continuously self- evaluate to meet the goals
 Hold students accountable for mastering content standards in a subject area
 Involves students and teachers (help in peer evaluation, tutoring)