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Circus Charlie:

Charles’ Law!

A
Strategic Intervention Material
in Chemistry

Submitted by: ANGELICA C. CALICA


TABLE OF CONTENTS
I. Cover page
II. Table of Contents
III. Guide Card
IV. Introduction
V. Activity Card1
VI. Activity Card 2
VII. Assessment Card
VIII. Enrichment Card
IX. Answer Card 1
X. Answer Card 2
XI. Reference Card
GUIDE CARD

Understanding the different concepts governing the behavior of


gasses (i.e. Ideal Gas) has always been focused by chemistry as it plays a
very important role in our society, in the industry and in the different
fields of our lives.

In this Strategic Intervention Material, the student is subjected


to a deeper understanding of Charles Law. After completing this SIM the
learner is expected to:

 State and Define the Charles Law.


 Recognize the key concepts regarding the behavior of ideal
gasses at constant pressure.
 Identify the applicability and limitations of Charles Law and its
association with other physical concepts (e.g. Ideal Gas Law,
Kinetic Theory & Absolute Zero).
 Solve practical problems involving Charles Law.

Now you are ready to learn! Let us have the basics of Charles Law!
INTRODUCTION
Charles' law (also known as the law of volumes) is an
experimental gas law which describes how gases tend to expand when
heated. It was first published by French natural philosopher Joseph
Louis Gay-Lussac in 1802, although he credited the discovery to
unpublished work from the 1780s by Jacques Charles. The law was
independently discovered by British natural philosopher John Dalton by
1801, although Dalton's description was less thorough than Gay-
Lussac's.[2] The basic principles had already been described a century
earlier by Guillaume Amontons.

Whatever the priority of the discovery, Gay-Lussac was the first


to demonstrate that the law applied generally to all gases, and also to
the vapours of volatile liquids if the temperature was more than a few
degrees above the boiling point. His statement of the law can be
expressed mathematically as: where V100 is the
volume occupied by a given sample of gas at 100 °C; V0 is the volume
occupied by the same sample of gas at 0 °C; and k is a constant which is
the same for all gases at constant pressure. Gay-Lussac's value for k was
1
⁄2.6666, remarkably close to the present-day value of 1⁄2.7315.

A modern statement of Charles's law is:

“At constant pressure, the volume of a given mass of an ideal gas


increases or decreases by the same factor as its temperature on
the absolute temperature scale (i.e. the gas expands as the
temperature increases).”

which can be written as:

where V is the volume of the gas; and T is the absolute temperature.


The law can also be usefully expressed as follows:

The equation shows that, as absolute temperature increases, the


volume of the gas also increases in proportion.
ACTIVITY CARD
Activity 1
Read and analyze each item. Write your answers on the corresponding boxes.
Complete the Cipher Code by filling in the number for the corresponding
English Alphabet Letter. Decode the mystery phrase.
Silly CIPHER
1. At constant (1) , the (2) of a given
mass of an ideal (3) increases or decreases
6 5 24 17 17 16 5 24 by the same factor as its temperature on the
2. absolute temperature scale(i.e. the gas expands as
the temperature increases).”
3 19 8 16 20 24
3
So at constant pressure, if the temperature (K) is
23 26 17 doubled, the volume of gas is also (4) .
4.
A hypothetical gas which obeys Charles' Law at all
12 19 16 13 8 24 12 temperatures and pressures is called an (5)
5. gas.

22 12 24 26 8

CIPHER CODE
A = F = 11 K = 21 P = U = Z = 1
B = G = L = Q = 18 V =
C = 25 H = 10 M = R = W = 15
D = I = N = 7 S = X = 2
E = J = 9 O = T = 4 Y = 14

Decode me!

C H ‘ W
25 10 26 5 8 24 17 8 26 15 22 17 26 8 17 19
K N WN T H L A F
21 7 19 15 7 26 17 4 10 24 8 26 15 19 11

3 19 8 16 20 24 17

The Cipher Text says that .


ACTIVITY CARD
Activity 2
In the following items, assume that the gas is hold at constant pressure.
CROSS NUMBER
A B

C D
E F G H
I
J K
L M

Down Across
A. V1=20L, T1=10°C, V2= L, T2=52°C A. V1=74mL, T1= °C, V2=200mL,
B. The volume of a gas at a certain T2=300°C
temperature is 224L. If a drop of C. The volume of a given mass of
12°C will reduce the volume by gas, at 288K is 400 ml. At what
24L, what is the original temperature, will it occupy a
temperature? volume of 600 ml?
D. V1= mL, T1=10°C, V2=70L, I. What is the new volume of a gas
T2=20°C after the temperature is tripled
E. Find the increase in temperature if the original volume is
of a gas whose original volume 21667mL?
and temperature is 150L and J. The temperature is reduced by
100°C respectively, if the new 2/3. If the original volume is
volume is equal to 412.5L? 1737mL, what is the new
F. If after the temperature is tripled volume?
the new volume of a gas is 1107L, K. The temperature is squared. If
find the original volume. the original volume is 20, find
G. V1=46mL, T1=Φ°C, V2= mL, the new volume.
T2=9Φ°C L. The volume of a gas is 9L under a
H. V1= mL, T1=10Φ°C, V2=10mL, temperature of 90°C, if after
T2=Φ°C applying heat the volume
L. 147 An ideal gas has a volume of changes to 10.6L, find the new
100L under the temperature of temperature?
100°C. If the temperature grows N. V1=1080mL, T1=300°C, V2= mL,
by 47°C, what is the new volume? T2=200°C
M.V1=600L, T1=300°C, V2= L, T2=315°C

ASSESSMENT CARD
Activity 1
Read and analyze each Problem. Show your solution.

PROBLEM SOLVING
1. A sample of gas at 101.3kPa had a volume of 1.2L at 100oC.
What would its volume be at 0oC at the same pressure?
Vi = 1.2L Vf = ?
Ti = 100oC = 100 + 273 = 373K Tf = 0oC = 0 + 273 =273K

2. A balloon had a volume of 75L at 25 oC. To what does the


temperature need to raised in order for the balloon to have a
volume of 100L at the same pressure?
Vi = 75L Vf = 100L
Ti = 25oC = 25 + 273 = 298K Tf = ? (K)
ENRICHMENT CARD
Charles’ Law and its effect on Real Gasses

A Real Gas is one which approaches Charles' Law as the


temperature is raised or the pressure lowered.

As a Real Gas is cooled at constant pressure from a


point well above its condensation point, its volume begins to
increase linearly. As the temperature approaches the gases
condensation point, the line begins to curve (usually downward)
so there is a marked deviation from Ideal Gas behaviour close
to the condensation point. Once the gas condenses to a liquid it
is no longer a gas and so does not obey Charles' Law at all.
Absolute zero (0K, -273oC approximately) is the temperature at
which the volume of a gas would become zero if it did not
condense and if it behaved ideally down to that temperature.
ANSWER CARD
Activity 1

1. At constant (1) , the (2) of a given


P R E S S U R E mass of an ideal (3) increases or decreases
6 5 24 17 17 16 5 24 by the same factor as its temperature on the
2. absolute temperature scale(i.e. the gas expands as
V O L U M E the temperature increases).”
3 19 8 16 20 24
3
So at constant pressure, if the temperature (K) is
G A S
23 26 17 doubled, the volume of gas is also (4) .
4.
D O U B L E D A hypothetical gas which obeys Charles' Law at all
12 19 16 13 8 24 12 temperatures and pressures is called an (5)
5. gas.
I D E A L
22 12 24 26 8

The Cipher Text states that Charles’ Law is also known as the Law
of Volumes.

Activity 2
A B
1 1 1

0 1
C D
4 3 2
E F G H
1 3 5 4 1
I
7 6 5 0 0 1 0
J K
5 7 9 0 4 0 0
L M
1 0 6

4 3
N
7 2 0
ANSWER CARD
Assessment 1

a. A sample of gas at 101.3kPa had a volume of 1.2L at


100oC. What would its volume be at 0oC at the same
pressure?

Vi = 1.2L Vf = ?

Ti = 100oC = 100 + 273 = 373K Tf = 0oC = 0 + 273


=273K

1.2/373 = V
f/273

3.22 x 10-3 = V
f/273

Vf = 3.22 x 10-3 x 273 = 0.88L (880mL)

b. A balloon had a volume of 75L at 25oC. To what does


the temperature need to raised in order for the balloon
to have a volume of 100L at the same pressure?

Vi = 75L Vf = 100L

Ti = 25oC = 25 + 273 = 298K Tf = ? (K)

V V
i/Ti = f/Tf

75/298 = 100/Tf

0.2517 = 100/Tf

Tf = 100/0.2517 = 397K (397-273 = 124oC)


REFERENCE CARD
1. Gay-Lussac, J. L. (L'An X – 1802), "Recherches sur la dilatation des
gaz et des vapeurs", Annales de chimie XLIII: 137. English
translation.

2. http://www.chemistryexplained.com/Fe-Ge/Gay-Lussac-Joseph-
Louis.html

3. Fullick, P. (1994), Physics, Heinemann, pp. 141–42,


ISBN 0435570781.

4. Clapeyron, E. (1834), "Mémoire sur la puissance motrice de la


chaleur", Journal de l'École Polytechnique XIV: 153–90. Facsimile
at the Bibliothèque nationale de France (pp. 153–90).

5. Thomson, William (1848), "On an Absolute Thermometric Scale


founded on Carnot's Theory of the Motive Power of Heat, and
calculated from Regnault's Observations", Philosophical
Magazine: 100–6,
http://zapatopi.net/kelvin/papers/on_an_absolute_thermomet
ric_scale.html.

6. Thomson, William (1852), "On the Dynamical Theory of Heat,


with numerical results deduced from Mr Joule's equivalent of a
Thermal Unit, and M. Regnault's Observations on Steam",
Philosophical Magazine 4.

7. http://www.ausetute.com.au/charslaw.html