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The Jazz Rhythm and Articulation Workbook

Daniel Fedele

www.jazzlanguageworkbooks.com
The Jazz Rhythm and Articulation Workbook

Copyright © 2007-2019 Daniel Fedele

All rights reserved


Contents

1 Introduction to jazz rhythm and articulation


4 Jazz language: syncopation
5 Jazz language: articulations
6 Jazz language: phrasing
7 Basic syncopated rhythmic patterns -model-
8 Basic syncopated rhythmic patterns -template-
9 Syncopated rhythmic patterns: how to study
10 Syncopated rhythmic pattern 1 -model-
11 Syncopated rhythmic pattern 1 -template-
12 Scales study with syncopated rhythmic pattern 1
13 Syncopated rhythmic pattern 2 -model-
14 Syncopated rhythmic pattern 2 -template-
15 Scales study with syncopated rhythmic pattern 2
16 Syncopated rhythmic pattern 3 -model-
17 Syncopated rhythmic pattern 3 -template-
18 Scales study with syncopated rhythmic pattern 3
19 Syncopated rhythmic pattern 4 -model-
20 Syncopated rhythmic pattern 4 -template-
21 Scales study with syncopated rhythmic pattern 4
22 Syncopated rhythmic pattern 5 -model-
23 Syncopated rhythmic pattern 5 -template-
24 Scales study with syncopated rhythmic pattern 5
25 Syncopated rhythmic pattern 6 -model-
26 Syncopated rhythmic pattern 6 -template-
27 Scales study with syncopated rhythmic pattern 6
28 Basic syncopated rhythmic patterns combinations 1-6 -model-
29 Basic syncopated rhythmic patterns combinations 1-6 -template-
30 Basic syncopated rhythmic patterns combinations 6-1 -model-
31 Basic syncopated rhythmic patterns combinations 6-1 -model-
32 Basic syncopated rhythmic patterns combinations I -model-
34 Basic syncopated rhythmic patterns combinations I -template-
36 Scales study with combinations of syncopated rhythmic patterns I
38 Basic syncopated rhythmic patterns combinations II -model-
40 Basic syncopated rhythmic patterns combinations II -template-
42 Scales study with combinations of syncopated rhythmic patterns II
44 Basic syncopated rhythmic patterns combinations III -model-
46 Basic syncopated rhythmic patterns combinations III -template-
48 Scales study with combinations of syncopated rhythmic patterns III
50 Basic syncopated rhythmic patterns combinations IV -model-
52 Basic syncopated rhythmic patterns combinations IV -template-
54 Scales study with combinations of syncopated rhythmic patterns IV
56 Basic syncopated rhythmic patterns combinations V -model-
58 Basic syncopated rhythmic patterns combinations V -template-
60 Scales study with combinations of syncopated rhythmic patterns V
62 Basic syncopated rhythmic patterns combinations VI -model-
64 Basic syncopated rhythmic patterns combinations VI -template-
66 Scales study with combinations of syncopated rhythmic patterns VI
68 Basic syncopated rhythmic patterns combinations with the major scale
69 Basic syncopated rhythmic patterns combinations with melodic patterns of the major scale
70 Basic syncopated rhythmic patterns combinations with the mixolydian scale
71 Basic syncopated rhythmic patterns combinations with the dorian scale
72 Basic syncopated rhythmic patterns combinations with the major (blues) pentatonic scale
73 Basic syncopated rhythmic patterns combinations with the minor (blues) pentatonic scale
74 Rhythm and articulation exercises with the major scale
75 Scales study with syncopated rhythmic pattern and articulations
76 Scales study in relation to the beat
77 Scales study with swing
78 Jazz language: ghost notes
79 Major scale study with rhythmic displacement
80 Pentatonic scales with rhythmic displacement
81 Bebop scales with rhythmic displacement
82 Rhythmic reading of the jazz standard melodic line
83 Interpretation of the jazz standard melody: Blues For Alice
84 Rhythmic transformation of the jazz standard: All The Things You Are
85 Rhythmic transformation of the jazz standard melody: All The Things You Are
86 Rhythmic transformation of the jazz standard melody: Autumn Leaves
87 Basic syncopated rhythmic patterns in jazz standards melodies
88 Major II-V-I: syncopated rhythmic patterns
89 Minor II-V-I: syncopated rhythmic patterns
90 Articulations variations
91 Articulations variations with the major scale
92 Syncopated rhythmic patterns with sixteenth notes -model-
93 Syncopated rhythmic patterns with sixteenth notes -template-
94 Scales study with sixteenth notes
95 Jazz language: rhythms
97 Notes I
98 Notes II
1/3 introduction to jazz rhythm and articulation

1 rhythm: a form of alternation of a series of elements that are repeated periodically in a


determined interval of time.

bossa nova rhythm:


   
                    
2 pulse: basic unit of rhythm measurement.

        
3 beat: one part of a steady pulse.

                
 normally, in 4/4, pulse and beat are the same. the pulse may also be the accented beat of a measure.

4 tempo: speed of the musical piece. q: 90 (90 quarter notes per minute).

5 measure/bar: organization of the beats in groups.


time signature: 4/4: 4 quarter notes in each bar.
 4/4 is the most used time signature in jazz because it´s not as closed as 2/4 and 3/4 and allows more rhythmic variations
inside the bar.


                

6 metric accent: emphasis on certain beats created by the natural meter and rhythm of the music.
1 2 3 4

                
strong / weak / semi-strong / weak

7 down beat: first beat of the bar. up beat: last beat of the bar.
on beat: beats 1 and 3 of the bar. off beat: beats 2 and 4 of the bar.
modern music styles stress beats 2 and 4 of the bar.
down beat up beat
on beat on beat off beat off beat

a

1

2 

3 4
 
1 
2

3 
4
  
b
               
 
-1-
introduction to jazz rhythm and articulation - 2/3

8 syncopation: note starting on the weak part of the bar or beat and extending over the strong
part, producing a rhythmic displacement of the strong parts to the weak parts of the bar.
syncopation
               
                     
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
 syncopated rhythms come from the african american music and are one of the most important characteristics
of jazz, harmony and melody come from the classical european music.

9 swing is the interpretation of the eighth notes with a triplet, where the first two eighth
notes are tied and the third eighth note is accentuated on a place not exactly defined that
depends on the interpreter. swing is played with a triplet feel.

a    b  syncopation 
      
          
du daht du daht du dah du dah

swing feel:
3
  3  3  3 
     
          

10 in music, articulation means giving a different intention to each note, in duration as well as
in intensity, and how to relate each note to the next note or group of notes.
over one note there may be a dynamic accent (attack and volume), over a group of notes
there may be an interruption or continuity between them.

tenuto staccato horizontal accent vertical accent vertical accent with staccato
 
             
du duht dah daht dot

 different combinations of articulations determine different rhythmic perceptions.


            
                         
rhythmic perception:
    
              

-2-
introduction to jazz rhythm and articulation - 3/3

11 phrasing is the grouping of the elements in different places of the bar.


forward motion is the rhythmic perception obtained grouping elements in an arch that goes from the weak parts of the bar
to the strong parts of the bar.

                   
 

12 the interpreter can accelerate or delay the interpretation in relation to the beat.
ahead of the beat on the beat behind the beat

                  
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4

13 ghost notes are suggested notes, with rhythmic value and undetermined pitch.
ghost note

         

                     
dud-n du daht dud-n dud-n du dud-n dud-n dud-n du

14 dynamics are variations of the volume of each note and of the melodic line.

mf pp mp f
  
         
dahd-n du daht
mf f

15 the intention with which each note is played determines the authentic jazz sound.

            

                    
mp f mp f mp

-3-
jazz language : syncopation
 syncopation: note starting on the weak part of the bar or beat and extending over the strong part, producing
a rhythmic displacement of the strong parts to the weak parts of the bar or beat.

1 2 3 4 syncopation syncopation
a
 44                
strong / weak / semi-strong / weak weak weak

syncopation
1 a b
 44              

weak

2 a b syncopation

 44              
weak

3 a b syncopation

 44                 
weak

syncopation syncopation
4 a b
 44               
  
weak weak

5 a b syncopation

 44             
 
weak

triplet
6 a b
3
syncopation
3
 44               
weak weak weak

-4-
jazz language: articulations
 in music, articulation means to give a different intention in duration and intensity to each note and how to
relate it to the next note or group of notes.
over the same note we talk about accent and volume, and over a group of notes, of interruption or continuity
among them.

1 types of articulations
tenuto staccato vertical accent vertical accent with staccato
legato tongue light accent heavy accent heavy accent

 
hold full value hold half value hold less than full value short as possible


            
du duht daht dot

       
  
                
du du du du duht duht duht duht daht daht daht daht dot dot dot dot

horizontal accent ghost note breath articulation legato portato


heavy accent attack with half tongue or no tongue, diaphragm push connected notes legato-staccato combination

       
hold note full value less definition of pitch emphasizing each note

      
        
dah dud-n du duh huh huh du du du du du

2 legato and staccato combinations and their rhythmic perception


1 2 3 4
            
   
   
    

        


rhythmic perception:

5 6 7 8
          
                 

   

  
 
 

     
     
-5-
jazz language: phrasing
An effective way of organizing the melodic phrasing and generate forward motion is to
1 start playing on the weak bars and finish on the strong bars.
This way the phrasing accompanies the instability of the dominant chords on weak bars
and the stability of the tonic chords on strong bars.

melodic activity

strong bar weak bar strong bar weak bar


                 
tension release

strong bar weak bar strong bar weak bar


                

 example: melodic activity

             

tension release

           
    

Using the same concept we can start playing on the weak part of the bar and finish on the
2 strong part of the next bar.

melodic activity
weak strong weak strong weak strong
                
tension release

 example:
melodic activity

                
     
tension release

-6-
basic syncopated rhythmic patterns
 fundamentals:
down beat up beat
on beat on beat off beat off beat
 
 
 
 

 44                    
daht daht

1 a b syncopation

 44             
   
    

daht daht dah dah
swing:
3 3 3 3

 44         

     

   



2 a b

 44                    
du daht du daht du dah du dah
swing:
3
    3    3
       3    
 44        

3 a b

 44                        
du du du daht du du du dah

4 a b
              
 44           

du duht daht du duht dah

5 a b

 44    

  

    

  


du daht du dah

triplets
6 a 3
b
3
4  
 
                   
4
3 3
du du daht du du daht du du dah du du dah
-7-
basic syncopated rhythmic patterns
 fundamentals:


 

  

 

 44            
daht daht

1 a b syncopation
 44          

swing:
 44          

2 a b

 44          

swing:
 44          

3 a b

 44      

4 a b

      

5 a b

      

triplets
6 a b

 44        

-8-
syncopated rhythmic patterns: how to study

A feel the rhythm:

1 off beats feel syncopation


a       
  b
 
 44                     

2 triplets feel
syncopation
         
a b

 44                
3 3 3 3 3 3

3 swing triplets feel


syncopation
a b

     
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
         
3 3 3 3 3 3
4
4    

B to facilitate the reading, divide each bar in two half notes:

   
a b

 44                
du du du daht du du du dah

   
a b
         
 44              
du duht du du duht daht du duht dah duht daht

-9-
syncopated rhythmic pattern 1

1 a b syncopation
     
4        
   
    
4   
daht daht dah dah

swing:
3 3 3 3

     
4
4
   

     

   



2 a b

     
4         
     
   
4   

3 a b
 
  
4
4
                 

4 a b

  
4                    
4    

-10-
syncopated rhythmic pattern 1

1 a b syncopation
 44              

swing:
3 3 3 3

  
4
4
           

2 a b

 44                

3 a b

 44              

4 a b

  
4                
4

-11-
scales study with syncopated rhythmic pattern 1
1 c major scale play ascending and descending in all keys

  
              

  

 
basic syncopated rhythmic pattern 1

   
syncopation
         
      
  

2 c mixolydian bebop scale


  
                 
  

       
syncopation
        
 

 

   

3 c dorian bebop scale


 
              

 
 

  
syncopation
          
     

4 c major blues pentatonic scale


  
               

  
 

syncopation
                
    
 
-12-
syncopated rhythmic pattern 2

1 a b syncopation
 
     
4               
4
du daht du daht du dah du dah

swing:
3
    3    3
       3    
    
4
4

  

2 a b
 44                      

3 a b
               
 44    

4 a b
 44                      

-13-
syncopated rhythmic pattern 2

1 a b syncopation
 44          

swing:
3
 
4
4
        

2 a b
 44            

3 a b
 44          

4 a b
 44            

-14-
scales study with syncopated rhythmic pattern 2
play ascending and descending in all keys
1 c major scale
  
     

    
         
basic syncopated rhythmic pattern 2
syncopation
       
        
   

2 c major bebop scale


  
            
        

syncopation
                 
       

3 c phrygian scale
  
         
 
 
 
    
 

syncopation

          
      

4 c minor blues pentatonic scale


  
                  
    

syncopation
            
    
-15-
syncopated rhythmic pattern 3

1 a b
syncopation
44                          
du du du daht du du du dah

swing:
3
  3    3   3   3
   3       3   3    
    

4
4
 
     

2 a b
44                          

-16-
syncopated rhythmic pattern 3

1 a b
syncopation
44        

swing:
3
 4
4
      

2 a b
44        

-17-
scales study with syncopated rhythmic pattern 3
1 c major scale play ascending and descending in all keys

    
               
  
basic syncopated rhythmic pattern 3

     
       
       

2 c minor pentatonic scale


syncopation
                         
    

  
        
  
      
    
  

3 c melodic minor scale



    
                 
  
 

     
       
       

4 c major pentatonic scale


syncopation
    
     
 
  
      
 

                   
   
  
-18-
syncopated rhythmic pattern 4

1 a b syncopated
                   
 44           
du duht daht du duht dah

swing:
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
                      
 44            

2 a b
 44                      
       

-19-
syncopated rhythmic pattern 4

1 a b syncopation
 44        

swing:
3 3 3 3 3

 4
4
          

2 a b
 44        

-20-
scales study with syncopated rhythmic pattern 4
play ascending and descending in all keys
1 c major scale
 
       
               
  
basic syncopated rhythmic pattern 4

        
        
        

2 c aeolian scale
        
syncopation
               
     

        
      
      
   

 

3 c harmonic minor scale


 
   
                  
  

        
    

      
    

4 c whole tone scale


  
            
syncopation
        
     

             
    
      
   
-21-
syncopated rhythmic pattern 5

1 a b syncopation
44    

  

     

    

du daht du dah

swing:
3
 

4      3       3      3    
  4    

2 a b
               
44      

-22-
syncopated rhythmic pattern 5

1 a b syncopation
44        

swing:

        

2 a b

44        

-23-
scales study with syncopated rhythmic pattern 5
play ascending and descending in all keys
1 c major scale
  
    
             
basic syncopated rhythmic pattern 5

         


       
 

2 c lydian augmented scale


syncopation
 
        
 

  
      
  
 

  
    
     

 

  
   

3 c half step-whole step diminished scale


  
     

   
 
        

    
   

 

     

4 c diminished whole tone scale


syncopation
             
           

 
     
        
   
  
-24-
syncopated rhythmic pattern 6
 the triplet
1 a b syncopation
3

  

4 
    3   3
        3    
4
du du daht du du dah

2 a 3
b
 44               3     3  
3

du du daht du du daht du du dah du du dah

3 a b
                 
 44       
3 3 3 3

4 a b
                    
 44      
3 3 3 3

5 a b
 44                        
3 3 3 3

6 a b
     
 44                    
3 3 3 3

-25-
syncopated rhythmic pattern 6
 the triplet
1 a b syncopation
3 3
 4
4
      

2 a b
 44        

3 a b
 44          

4 a b
 44            

5 a b
 44          

6 a b
 44            

-26-
scales study with syncopated rhythmic pattern 6
play ascending and descending in all keys
1 c major scale
 
    
3

   
3 3

        
  
 
basic syncopated rhythmic pattern 6

   
syncopation
    
3
3

           
3 3

   

2 c mixolydian bebop scale


     
   
3 3

               
   3
3


         
syncopation
      
    
3

       
3

    3 3 3
3

3 c dorian bebop scale


  
 
3
  
3 3

         
  
    
  

syncopation
  
      
3

   
3

  
3

   

4 c minor blues pentatonic scale


     
 
          
3
       
3

   3 3

      
syncopation

           
3
  
3

  3 3

-27-
basic syncopated rhythmic patterns combinations 1-6

1 1 2
 
 44        
syncopation
 
 44        

2 1 2 3
   
 44           
syncopation
   
 44           

3 1 2 3 4
      
 44            
syncopation
      
 44             

4 1 2 3 4 5

 44            


  
syncopation
      
 44               

5 1 2 3 4 5 6
3

            
4
4
       
 
3
syncopation
        3     
 44              
3
-28-
basic syncopated rhythmic patterns combinations 1-6

1 1 2
 44    
syncopation
 44    

2 1 2 3
 44   
syncopation
 44   

3 1 2 3 4
 44   
syncopation
 44   

4 1 2 3 4 5
 44  
syncopation
 44  

5 1 2 3 4 5 6
 44  
syncopation
 44  
-29-
basic syncopated rhythmic patterns combinations 6-1

1 2 1
 44        
syncopation
  
4     
4   

2 3 2 1
 44           
syncopation
    
4        
4   

3 4 3 2 1

 44       

    
  

syncopation

 44            
  

4 5 4 3 2 1
 44               
   
syncopation
            
 44      

5 6 5 4 3 2 1
3
  
 44                  
   
syncopation
3
               
 44        
-30-
basic syncopated rhythmic patterns combinations 6-1

1 2 1
 44     
syncopation

 44    

2 3 2 1
 44    
syncopation
 44   

3 4 3 1
 44    
syncopation
 44   

4 5 4 3 2 1
 44   
syncopation
 44  

5 6 5 4 3 2 1
 44   
syncopation

 44  
-31-
basic syncopated rhythmic patterns combinations i
1/2

1 syncopated rhythmic patterns 1 + 1


a 1 1 b syncopation
44              
  

a b
         
       
4
4    

a b
44                
  
a b
44                    
  

2 syncopated rhythmic patterns 1 + 2


a 1 2 b syncopation
44              
  
a b
         
44           

a b
44                

a b
44                    
 

3 syncopated rhythmic patterns 1 + 3


a 1 3 b syncopation
44                  
  

a b
44                     
 
-32-
basic syncopated rhythmic patterns combinations i -2/2

4 syncopated rhythmic patterns 1 + 4

a b syncopation
1 4
          
44             

a b
44                    
     

5 syncopated rhythmic patterns 1 + 5

a 1 5 b syncopation

44      
        
  

a b
44                  
   

6 syncopated rhythmic patterns 1 + 6


syncopation
a 3
1 6 b 3
 
4 
  
 
     

   
  
  4  

a 3
b
3
  
4       
            
4  
-33-
basic syncopated rhythmic patterns combinations i
1/2

1 syncopated rhythmic patterns 1 + 1


a 1 1 b syncopation
44           

a b
   
4
4
         

a b
44           

a b
44               

2 syncopated rhythmic patterns 1 + 2


a 1 2 b syncopation
44          
a b
44            

a b
44          

a b
44              

3 syncopated rhythmic patterns 1 + 3


a 1 3 b syncopation
44          

a b
44           

-34-
basic syncopated rhythmic patterns combinations i -2/2

4 syncopated rhythmic patterns 1 + 4

a b syncopation
1 4
44          

a b
44            

5 syncopated rhythmic patterns 1 + 5

a 1 5 b syncopation

44          

a b
44            

6 syncopated rhythmic patterns 1 + 6


syncopation
a 1 6 3 b
   
4
4       

a b
44            

-35-
1/2 scales study with combinations of
syncopated rhythmic patterns i
1 c major scale
syncopated rhythmic patterns 1 + 1
a      
             

  
  

b

syncopation
   
          
     
    

   

2 c major pentatonic scale


syncopated rhythmic patterns 1 + 2
   
     
a
            
   


syncopation
   
    
b
    
         
   
 

3 c dorian bebop scale


syncopated rhythmic patterns 1 + 3
  

 
a
                        

 
      
syncopation

b
      
               
        

-36-
scales study with combinations of syncopated rhythmic patterns i - 2/2

4 c melodic minor scale


syncopated rhythmic patterns 1 + 4


a
         
                     


  

b

syncopation
          
                      
 
  

5 c major blues pentatonic scale


syncopated rhythmic patterns 1 + 5
   
     
a
          
   
    
 

syncopation
    
b
                    
     
 

6 c mixolydian b9 b13 scale


syncopated rhythmic patterns 1 + 6
    

3
  
a 3
    
3

                
    
   

syncopation
   3 

      
  
b

3 3 3

                
     

-37-
1/2 basic syncopated rhythmic patterns combinations ii
1 syncopated rhythmic patterns 2 + 1

a 2 1 b syncopation
         
44         

a b
          
44          

a b
       
44         

a b
44                    

2 syncopated rhythmic patterns 2 + 2

a 2 2 b syncopation
          
44          

a b
44                    

3 syncopated rhythmic patterns 2 + 3


a 2 3 b syncopation

44                    

a b
44                      

-38-
basic syncopated rhythmic patterns combinations ii - 2/2

4 syncopated rhythmic patterns 2 + 4

a 2 4 b syncopation
           
44            

a b
44                    
   

5 syncopated rhythmic patterns 2 + 5

a 2 5 b syncopation
44                
 

a b
44                  
 

6 syncopated rhythmic patterns 2 + 6

2 6 syncopation
a 3 b
       
4
       3   
4

a 3
b
3
  
4       
             
4

-39-
1/2 basic syncopated rhythmic patterns combinations ii
1 syncopated rhythmic patterns 2 + 1
a 2 1 b syncopation
44         

a b
44          

a b
44        

a b
44            

2 syncopated rhythmic patterns 2 + 2

a 2 2 b syncopation
44            

a b
44            

3 syncopated rhythmic patterns 2 + 3


a 2 3 b syncopation

44        

a b
44          

-40-
basic syncopated rhythmic patterns combinations ii -2/2

4 syncopated rhythmic patterns 2 + 4

a b syncopation
2 4
44        

a b
44          

5 syncopated rhythmic patterns 2 + 5

a 2 5 b syncopation

44        

a b
44          

6 syncopated rhythmic patterns 2 + 6

2 6 syncopation
a 3 b 3
  
4
4      

a b
44          

-41-
1/2 scales study with combinations of
syncopated rhythmic patterns ii
1 c lydian syncopated rhythmic patterns 2 + 1


a    
     
        
   
   

    
     
b syncopation

          
  

2 c dorian
syncopated rhythmic patterns 2 + 2
a   
              
     
       

b

syncopation       
            
     
 

3 c locrian
syncopated rhythmic patterns 2 + 3
 
       

      
a
                  
  

 syncopation
  
       
  
b
            
  
-42-
scales study with combinations of syncopated rhythmic patterns ii - 2/2

4 c aeolian
syncopated rhythmic patterns 2 + 4


a 
      
          
         

b

syncopation
      
                   
    
        
  

5 c mixolydian
syncopated rhythmic patterns 2 + 5
    
 
a
        
        
 
 
  

    
    
b syncopation
     
           
   

6 c lydian augmented


syncopated rhythmic patterns 2 + 6
  
 

3
a
     
      
3 3
        
 
  

 3 
syncopation
  
b
 
3
 
3 3

                 
     

  
-43-
basic syncopated rhythmic patterns combinations iii
1/2

1 syncopated rhythmic patterns 3 + 1

a 3 1 b syncopation
            
44           

a b
44                      

2 syncopated rhythmic patterns 3 + 2

a 3 2 b syncopation
44                    

a b
44                      

3 syncopated rhythmic patterns 3 + 3

a 3 3 b syncopation
44                      

a b
                 
44      

-44-
basic syncopated rhythmic patterns combinations iii - 2/2

4 syncopated rhythmic patterns 3 + 4

a 3 4 b syncopation
         
44             

a b
44                      
   

5 syncopated rhythmic patterns 3 + 5

a 3 5 b syncopation
44       
         
  

a b
             
44   
  



6 syncopated rhythmic patterns 3 + 6

syncopation
a 3 6 3 b
        
4
        3   
4

a b
     3        3  
  
4
4
   

-45-
1/2
basic syncopated rhythmic patterns combinations iii
1 syncopated rhythmic patterns 3 + 1

a 3 1 b syncopation
44         

a b
44          

2 syncopated rhythmic patterns 3 + 2

a 3 b syncopation
2
44        

a b
44          

3 syncopated rhythmic patterns 3 + 3

a 3 b syncopation
3
44      

a b
44        

-46-
basic syncopated rhythmic patterns combinations iii -2/2

4 syncopated rhythmic patterns 3 + 4

a 3 4 b syncopation

44      

a b
44        

5 syncopated rhythmic patterns 3 + 5

a 3 5 b syncopation

44      

a b
44        

6 syncopated rhythmic patterns 3 + 6

syncopation
a 3 6 3 b 3
 4
4     

a b
44        

-47-
1/2 scales study with combinations of
syncopated rhythmic patterns iii
1 c half step-whole step diminished scale
syncopated rhythmic patterns 3 + 1
     

a
 
     
  
    
           

    

 
syncopation
b
 
 
        
             
       
    

2 c diminished whole tone scale


syncopated rhythmic patterns 3 + 2
a 
              
              
    

     
syncopation
b
     

                    
       

3 c chromatic scale
syncopated rhythmic patterns 3 + 3

   
a
       
    
            

  
b syncopation
  
       
         
-48-
scales study with combinations of syncopated rhythmic patterns iii - 2/2

4 c harmonic minor scale


syncopated rhythmic patterns 3 + 4
   
   


a
     
           
     
  

       
b syncopation
   
        
  

5 c locrian +2 scale
syncopated rhythmic patterns 3 + 5
     
 
a
              
     


b syncopation
     


       
  

6 c lydian b7 scale
syncopated rhythmic patterns 3 + 6
a 3
 
        
3

           
   
  

syncopation
 
b
3
 
 
  

3

      
     
-49-
basic syncopated rhythmic patterns combinations iv
1/2

1 syncopated rhythmic patterns 4 + 1

a 4 1 b syncopation
          
44            

a b
  
4                  
4     

2 syncopated rhythmic patterns 4 + 2

a 4 2 b syncopation
        
44            

a b
44                    
   

3 syncopated rhythmic patterns 4 + 3

a 4 3 b syncopation
         
44             

a b
               
44    
  
 


-50-
basic syncopated rhythmic patterns combinations iv - 2/2

4 syncopated rhythmic patterns 4 + 4

a 4 4 b syncopation
            
44              

a b
44                    
       

5 syncopated rhythmic patterns 4 + 5

a 4 5 b syncopation
      
44     


   

  

a b
44                  
     

6 syncopated rhythmic patterns 4 + 6

syncopation
a 4 6 3 b
4 
               3   
4  

a b
    3       3  
  
4
4  
  
 


-51-
basic syncopated rhythmic patterns combinations iv
1/2

1 syncopated rhythmic patterns 4 + 1

a 4 1 b syncopation
44         

a b
  
4
4
       

2 syncopated rhythmic patterns 4 + 2

a 4 b syncopation
2
44        

a b
44          

3 syncopated rhythmic patterns 4 + 3

a 4 b syncopation
3
44      

a b
44        

-52-
basic syncopated rhythmic patterns combinations iv -2/2

4 syncopated rhythmic patterns 4 + 4

a 4 4 b syncopation

44      

a b
44        

5 syncopated rhythmic patterns 5 + 5

a 4 5 b syncopation

44      

a b
44        

6 syncopated rhythmic patterns 4 + 6

syncopation
a 4 6 b
44      

a b
44        

-53-
1/2 scales study with combinations of
syncopated rhythmic patterns iv
1 c minor pentatonic scale
syncopated rhythmic patterns 4 + 1


a
      
 
                   
     

syncopation
         
b
  
 
       
      
  

2 c whole step-half step diminished scale


syncopated rhythmic patterns 4 + 2
  
             
a
        
        

        
b syncopation

     
          
   

3 c minor blues pentatonic scale


syncopated rhythmic patterns 4 + 3


a
             
 
  

b 
syncopation
 
      
   
          
  
-54-
scales study with combinations of syncopated rhythmic patterns iv - 2/2

4 c whole tone scale


syncopated rhythmic patterns 4 + 4
 
           
a

          

   

b

syncopation
   
             
   
  

5 c major pentatonic scale


syncopated rhythmic patterns 4 + 5
a   
        
  
 

    
  

b syncopation
    
   
        
  

6 c mixolydian bebop scale


syncopated rhythmic patterns 4 + 6
   
   
a 3 3

          
  
         

syncopation
b      
      
3 3

        
   
-55-
basic syncopated rhythmic patterns combinations v
1/2

1 syncopated rhythmic patterns 5 + 1

a 5 1 b syncopation
           
44        

a b
           
44    
  



2 syncopated rhythmic patterns 5 + 2

a 5 2 b syncopation
44      
        
  

a b
           
44   
  



3 syncopated rhythmic patterns 5 + 3

a 5 3 b syncopation
44       
         
  

a b
             
44   
  



-56-
basic syncopated rhythmic patterns combinations v - 2/2

4 syncopated rhythmic patterns 5 + 4

a 5 4 b syncopation

44                
     

a b
44  
               
     

5 syncopated rhythmic patterns 5 + 5

a 5 5 b syncopation
44    


      


  

a b
         
44    
  
 


6 syncopated rhythmic patterns 5 + 6

syncopation
a 5 6 3 b
  3 
  
4
4
   
    
  

a 3
b
     
     3  
  
4
4 
  



-57-
basic syncopated rhythmic patterns combinations v
1/2

1 syncopated rhythmic patterns 5 + 1

a 5 1 b syncopation
44         

a b
44         

2 syncopated rhythmic patterns 5 + 2

a 5 b syncopation
2
44        

a b
44          

3 syncopated rhythmic patterns 5 + 3

a 5 b syncopation
3
44      

a b
44        

-58-
basic syncopated rhythmic patterns combinations v -2/2

4 syncopated rhythmic patterns 5 + 4

a 5 4 b syncopation

44      

a b
44        

5 syncopated rhythmic patterns 5 + 5

a 5 5 b syncopation

44      

a b
44        

6 syncopated rhythmic patterns 5 + 6

syncopation
a 5 6 3 b 3
 4
4     

a b
44        

-59-
1/2 scales study with combinations of
syncopated rhythmic patterns v
1 c major bebop scale
syncopated rhythmic patterns 5 + 1


a       
                 
     

b 
syncopation
   
              
    
 

2 c melodic minor scale


syncopated rhythmic patterns 5 + 2
a    
        
  
      
 

b 
syncopation
   
      
          

  

3 c major blues pentatonic scale


syncopated rhythmic patterns 5 + 3
a   
       
   
      
    

b
   
    
syncopation
     
      

-60-
scales study with combinations of syncopated rhythmic patterns v - 2/2

4 c diminished whole tone scale


syncopated rhythmic patterns 5 + 4
  
       
a
      
    
       

   
  
b syncopation
        
 
    

5 c melodic minor bebop scale


syncopated rhythmic patterns 5 + 5
a    
         
       

 

b syncopation
  
        
    
 

6 c lydian augmented scale


syncopated rhythmic patterns 5 + 6
   

a
          
3 3
  
     

syncopation
  
b

3

   
3

     
     

-61-
basic syncopated rhythmic patterns combinations vi
1/2

1 syncopated rhythmic patterns 6 + 1

syncopation
a 6 3
1 b 3
44                  

a b
  
4  3          3      
4 

2 syncopated rhythmic patterns 6 + 2

a 6 2 b syncopation
3 3
44                  

a b
 3       3     
  
4
4
   

3 syncopated rhythmic patterns 6 + 3

a 6 3 b syncopation
3 3
44                    

a b
 3        3      
  
4
4
   

-62-
basic syncopated rhythmic patterns combinations vi - 2/2

4 syncopated rhythmic patterns 6 + 4

a 6 4 b syncopation
3 3
            
44            

a b
 3       3     
  
4
4  
  
 


5 syncopated rhythmic patterns 6 + 5

a 6 5 b syncopation
3 3
44      
        
  

a b
 3      3    
  
4
4 
  



6 syncopated rhythmic patterns 6 + 6


syncopation
a 6 6 3 b 3
 
 

4
3

            3   
4

a b
 3   3    3   3  
  
4
4
   

-63-
basic syncopated rhythmic patterns combinations vi
1/2

1 syncopated rhythmic patterns 6 + 1


syncopation
a 6 3
1 b 3
 4        
4

a b
44           

2 syncopated rhythmic patterns 6 + 2


syncopation
a 6 2 b
3 3
 4
4
      

a b
44          

3 syncopated rhythmic patterns 6 + 3

syncopation
a 6 3 b
3 3
 4
4     

a b
44        

-64-
basic syncopated rhythmic patterns combinations vi -2/2

4 syncopated rhythmic patterns 6 + 4


syncopation
a 6 4 b 3
3
 4
4     

a b
44        

5 syncopated rhythmic patterns 6 + 5


syncopation
a 6 5 b 3
3
 4
4     

a b
44        

6 syncopated rhythmic patterns 6 + 6


syncopation
a 6 6 3 b 3 3
3
 4
4     

a b
44        

-65-
1/2 scales study with combinations of
syncopated rhythmic patterns vi
1 c lydian scale
syncopated rhythmic patterns 6 + 1

 
a
       
    
 
3 3
          

 3   
syncopation
  
b

3
       
3
    
  

2 c harmonic minor bebop scale


syncopated rhythmic patterns 6 + 2
a
     
3   
     
               
3 3

  
     

b
 
     
syncopation 3
       
3 3
     
   

3 c aeolian bebop scale


syncopated rhythmic patterns 6 + 3
a 
 3    
     
              
3

  
     

     
b syncopation
 
 
3

   
3

     
-66-
scales study with combinations of syncopated rhythmic patterns vi - 2/2

4 c lydian dominant scale


syncopated rhythmic patterns 6 + 3
        
     
a
                  
3

  
3 3

   
       
     
b syncopation
   
 
  

3

     3
3

5 c phrygian scale
syncopated rhythmic patterns 6 + 5
a
    
             
3

3

     

  
b syncopation

3
     
3
 
    

6 c chromatic scale
syncopated rhythmic patterns 6 + 6
a  3


3
  
3
    
3
     
         


syncopation
  3 
b 3

           
3

  
3 3

         3
-67-
basic syncopated rhythmic patterns
combinations with the major scale
1
  
1 2
  

    
  
            
  

syncopation
    
    
               
  

2 1 2
 3
       
  

                   
      
 
 
syncopation                  

              
      

3 1 2 3 4
   

        
 
           
   
  

    
syncopation 
        



          
      
 
4 1 2 3 4 5
       
      
               
         

           
syncopation
 


                   
   
 


   
5 1 2 3 4 5 6
         
  
       
3

       
syncopation
     
          
 3

-68-
basic syncopated rhythmic patterns combinations
with melodic patterns of the major scale
1 thirds


1 2 
    
                    
   
syncopation
  
    
         
    
    
  
2 arpeggios
      

1 2 3
     
   
                       
 
        
    

                         
syncopation

 
   
3 chord + scale
1 2 3  4 

           
             
       

syncopation  
  
            
          
    
   
4 connected chords
 
           
4 5

1 2 3
                
  
syncopation
          
  
       
              
    
5 chromatics
5 6
 3 
    
1 2 3 4
        
      
syncopation
    3 
            
 
    

-69-
basic syncopated rhythmic patterns combinations
with the mixolydian scale
1
  
1 2
  

    
            
    


syncopation
    
    
               
  

2 1 2
 3
      
   
                    
       
  
syncopation                  

              
      

3 1 2 3 4
         
        


  
         

     
syncopation
           
          
      
 
4 1 2 3 4 5
       

         


             
    


syncopation
    
 
                       
       
  


    
5 1 2 3 4 5 6
            

       
3

       
syncopation
     
          
 3

-70-
basic syncopated rhythmic patterns
combinations with the dorian scale
1
  
1 2
   

     
  
            
  


syncopation
    
    
               
  

2

1 2 3
       
  

                   
        
  
syncopation                  
 
                   
      
3 1 2 3 4
         
        


           
  
syncopation
   
           
            
     
 
 
4 1 2 3 4 5
          


         

         
    


syncopation      
 
                      
      
   
    

    
5 1 2 3 4 5 6

   

              
 3

       
syncopation
     
          
 3

-71-
basic syncopated rhythmic patterns combinations
with the major (blues) pentatonic scale
1
 1
2      
                    
     

syncopation
        

                 
 
 
 
2
          
1 2 3
 
            
      
     
          
syncopation
  
  
    
     

3 3  12 4
  
       
     
                
   
syncopation
             
   
      
   
    

4
4 3
5
   1  2 
        
       
  
  

      
syncopation
              
  

5
5 6 3

   
2
 

1 4

6 3

         
3
      
    
 
syncopation
  
                  
3
     
  3
-72-
basic syncopated rhythmic patterns combinations
with the minor (blues) pentatonic scale
1
2
 1      
            
       
           

 blue note


syncopation
       
          
            
 
 
2 
1 2 3
 
         
                   
  
blue note
syncopation            
                 
    
 
3 3  12 4
        
       
          
  


 
syncopation
  
                      
  

4
4

3
 
5
   1 2
 
        
   
    
  
  
 
syncopation
   
                  
    

5
          3 
5 6 3 2 1 4 6

      
3

       

       
syncopation
 
    
               
3

   3
-73-
rhythm and articulation exercises with the major scale

           
1 tenuto 2 staccato
   
       


       

3 vertical accent 4 vertical accent with staccato


              
 
                

5 legato 6 portato
       
                

7 horizontal accent

         
      
 

   
         
      
 

      
   
        
      
 

8 swing articulation
         
       
        
   

                          
9 breath articulation

           
   
-74-
scales study with syncopated rhythmic pattern
and articulations
            
same rhythmic pattern and articulations with different scales

1 c major scale

syncopation
   
          
        
      
basic syncopated rhythmic pattern 4b
2 c mixolydian scale
   
              
  
        

3 c dorian scale
   
                
  
       
4 c major pentatonic scale
    
        
       
     
5 c melodic minor scale
     
                
       
 
6 c whole tone scale
 
                  
       

7 c half step-whole step diminished scale
  
              
           

8 c diminished whole tone scale


   
           
     
    
-75-
scales study in relation to the beat

    


playing ahead, on or behind the beat

1 c major scale

                     
 
behind the beat: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4

2 c mixolydian scale
                  
     
on the beat: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4

3 c dorian scale
                       
  
ahead of the beat: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4

4 c major pentatonic scale ahead on behind

               
      
ahead, on and behind the beat: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4

5 c melodic minor scale behind on ahead

                  
  
  
behind, on and ahead of the beat: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4

-76-
scales study with swing
 different dynamics applied to each note of the scale

1 c major scale  mf ppp mp f


 

ppp ppp

                
       
   
thirds: dahd-n du daht
 ghost note: suggested note, with rhythmic value but undetermined pitch.
mf mp mp ppp
2 c mixolydian scale dahd du -n dahd du -n
   
                 
    
seventh chords:
ghost note
ppp

mf ppp mf ppp
3 c dorian scale dahd-n dahd-n

             
      
           
thirds:

4 c major pentatonic scale


mp mf mp ppp
     
  
du dahd -n du dahd -n

   
              
   
groups of four: 

5 c minor blues pentatonic scale


mf ppp f
3 
  
dahd-n daht

  
3 3 3

              
          

 
triplets: 
ppp mf mp f
6 c whole tone scale 

n- dahd-n daht 
              
       
    
chromatics:   
-77-
jazz language: ghost note
 ghost note: suggested note, with rhythmic value and undetermined pitch.

1
 
diatonic i
      
 
pp
        
dud-n daht
x: ghost note

   
2 chromatic i
     
            
dud-n daht

 
3 diatonic ii
         
      


dud-n daht

 
4 chromatic ii
        
        


dud-n daht

5 thirds i
       
    
dahd-n du daht

6 thirds ii
      
     
 
dahd-n dahd-n

7 clichés
   
              
3
          

3
-78-
major scale study with rhythmic displacement

1 rhythmic pattern 3 starting on down beat


   
                 
  
major scale in groups of four
     
     

 forward motion:
2 rhythmic pattern 3 starting one eighth note before down beat
    

              
 
      
     
    
  
 

3 rhythmic pattern 3 starting two eighth notes before down beat


    

        
   
     
     
 

4 rhythmic pattern 3 starting three eighth notes before down beat


     

    
         

      

       

-79-
pentatonic scales with rhythmic displacement
1 major pentatonic scale in groups of four

           
starting on down beat
 
A

         
  
 forward motion:

     
one eighth note before down beat
 
b

      
         
  


two eighth notes before down beat
    
c

   
       
  

      
three eighth notes before down beat
 
d

     
    
  

2 minor pentatonic scale in groups of four

        
starting on down beat
   
A

                   

 forward motion:

one eighth note before down beat

                        
b

 

         
c two eighth notes before down beat

     
       
    

three eighth notes before down beat


 
                          
d

 

-80-
bebop scales with rhythmic displacement
 tension and release with rhythmic displacement of the passing tones

1 major bebop scale with three passing tones


 
  
       
    
   

major bebop scale with three passing tones and rhythmic displacement with syncopated rhythmic
patterns and articulations

        
     
                
  
    
tension - release

2 mixolydian bebop scale with three passing tones


 
  
       
        
 
mixolydian bebop scale with three passing tones and rhythmic displacement with syncopated rhythmic
patterns and articulations

3    3  
      
 
           
     
  
tension - release

3 dorian bebop scale with three passing tones


 
        
       
   

dorian bebop scale with three passing tones and rhythmic displacement with syncopated rhythmic
patterns and articulations

           
    
                 
 
tension - release 
-81-
rhythmic reading of the jazz standard melody

 sonny moon for two. bars 1-4.


3x swing
            
                  
            

1 rhythmic reading of the melody:


                              
    
       

2 off beats feel:


off beat off beat
   
  
                   
on beat on beat

3 triplets feel:

                                                   
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

4 swing triplets feel:

                                      
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

-82-
interpretation of the jazz standard melody
 Blues For Alice. bars 1-4.

1 interpretation with swing


 swing is the intention with which the notes are played using different dynamics.
 swing feel: eighth notes are played with a triplet feel.
 ghost notes are suggested notes, with rhythmic value and undetermined pitch.


f

mf ppp

f mf ppp mf

f mf f
mf f 
ppp

f
      
     
ghost note


swing:  
3
mf
 
mf f
ppp
mp f
 3
mf ppp ppp mf

f mf
 3
mf mf mf

              
   


2 interpretation in relation to the beat


the interpretation can be delayed playing behind the beat or accelerated playing ahead of the beat.

behind the beat on the beat ahead of the beat


    
          
    

behind the beat on the beat ahead of the beat


 
 
  3

  
   
          
3

-83-
rhythmic transformation of the jazz standard
 all the things you are: bars 1-4
1 swing
    
          

   3    3    
  

2 shuffle
 
            

          


3 latin
 
            
latin clave 3-2
         2
 

4 bossa
 
            

         
2
   

5 jazz waltz

    
    
   

         2
 
-84-
rhythmic transformation of the jazz standard melody

 all the things you are. bars 1-4.


1
 
    
swing
        

2 syncopated rhythmic pattern 1



   
          

                
  
3 syncopated rhythmic pattern 2
     
               
           

4 syncopated rhythmic pattern 3


      

                    
 

5 syncopated rhythmic pattern 4


    
   
        
            
   

6 syncopated rhythmic pattern 5


      
   
        
      

7 syncopated rhythmic pattern 6


   3     3

3
 
3 3

      
3 3
            
  

8 syncopated rhythmic patterns combinations


1 
 
3 5
  4

6 3 3
   5

                         
3

 
-85-
rhythmic transformation of the jazz standard melody
 autumn leaves. bars 1-4.
1
  
         
swing
     

2 syncopated rhythmic pattern 1


                          
            
     

3 syncopated rhythmic pattern 2


          
   
      
           

4 syncopated rhythmic pattern 3


              
             

5 syncopated rhythmic pattern 4


                 
            

6 syncopated rhythmic pattern 5


                 

               


7 syncopated rhythmic pattern 6


   3         
    
3

  
3 3

  
3

8 syncopated rhythmic patterns combinations


1  
         
2 3 4 5 6
    
       
3
           
-86-
basic syncopated rhythmic patterns in jazz standards melodies

1 c jam blues (duke ellington)


3x  
    
4          
4 
2a 2a 2a 5a

2 bags groove (milt jackson)


3x
44              

   
2a 2a 2a 5a

3 four (miles davis). bars 1-4.


         
 44                      
1a 2a 1a 2a 1a 2a 1a 2a 1a 2b

4 sonny moon for two (sonny rollins)


3x
      
4                    
4    
1b 4a 1a 2b 2a 1a 2b 2a

5 oleo (sonny rollins)


  
44                          
4a 5a 1a 2a 4a 3a 3a 4a

     
                      
5a 1a 4a 3a 1a 4a 1a 3a

6 the girl from ipanema (antonio carlos jobim)


             
44                          
5a 2b 2b 3b 2b 3b 3b
             
     
  
4b 3b 4b 2a

7 billie´s bounce (charlie parker)


44                                 
3a 3b 2a 1b 2a 1b 3a 3a 3a

                           
1a 2a 1b 2b 3a 1a 1b 2a 3a

                            
1a 3a 1a 3a 1b 2a 1b 2a 1a
-87-
major ii-v-i: syncopated rhythmic patterns
1 syncopated rhythmic pattern 1
D-7  G7 Cmaj7  
    

         
 
2 D-7 
syncopation G7 Cmaj7  
   
 
      
 
  
 

3 syncopated rhythmic pattern 2


D-7 
 G7  Cmaj7 
    
   
       
   
  G7     
4 D-7 Cmaj7
    
      
     
5 syncopated rhythmic pattern 3
   
D-7 G7      
Cmaj7
   
                  
   G7        
6 D-7 Cmaj7
                     
7 syncopated rhythmic pattern 4
   
D-7 G7      
Cmaj7
   
        
     
8
  
D-7 G7     
Cmaj7
  
         
       
9 syncopated rhythmic pattern 5

D-7  G7  Cmaj7
   
   
        
   
10 D-7
  G7  Cmaj7
   
  

      
     
11 syncopated rhythmic pattern 6
D-7 3
   G7 3   
Cmaj7 3
 
3
    
 
  3   
12 D-7 G7 Cmaj7
3 3 3
  
    
 
-88-
minor ii-v-i: syncopated rhythmic patterns
1 syncopated rhythmic pattern 1
D-7b9  
G7b9 C- 
    

         
 
G7b9 
2
D-7b9  
   
C-
   
 
  
 
  
 

syncopated rhythmic pattern 2
D-7b9         
3

G7b9 C-
   
     
   

       
4 D-7b9 G7b9 C-
    
       

  

5 syncopated rhythmic pattern 3


  
D-7b9  G7b9      
C-
   
                  
   G7b9        
6
D-7b9 C-
           
         
7 syncopated rhythmic pattern 4
               
D-7b9 G7b9 C-
             
           
8 D-7b9 G7b9 C-
                 
9 syncopated rhythmic pattern 5
D-7b9 
 
G7b9  C-
   
   
        
   
10 D-7b9
  G7b9  C-
   
  

      
     
11 syncopated rhythmic pattern 6

 
D-7b9 3  3

G7b9
 
C- 3
 
3
    
 
12 D-7b9 3 
  3

G7b9

C- 3

3
  
    
 
-89-
articulations variations
1 a ghost note b
syncopation
      
4
4
                   
dud-n du duh dud-n du du

swing:
3 3  3   3  
 44          3   3     3   3    
     

2 a b
                     
 44      
duht-n du dah
duht-n du duh

3 a b
                      
 44      
dahd-n du duht dahd-n du dah

4 a b
 44                          
daht-n du daht daht-n du dah

5 a b
                      
 44      
dot-n du dot dot-n du dah

-90-
articulations variations with the major scale

1 a ghost note b syncopation

  
              
      
  
dud-n du duh dud-n du du

2 a b

               
      
   
duht-n du duh duht-n du dah

3 a b

   

           
      

      
dahd-n du duht dahd-n du dah

4
 
a b
   
               
      
   
daht-n du daht daht-n du dah

5 a
 b

   
               
      
   
dot-n du dot dot-n du dah
-91-
syncopated rhythmic patterns
with sixteenth notes

1 a b syncopation
                    
 44        

2 a b
 44                        

3 a b
 44                        

4 a b
 44                        

5 a b
 44                        

6 a b
                 
 44       

-92-
syncopated rhythmic patterns
with sixteenth notes

1 a b syncopation

 44          

2 a b
 44          

3 a b
 44          

4 a b
 44              

5 a b
 44            

6 a b
 44          

-93-
scales study with sixteenth notes
play ascending and descending in all keys
1 c major scale
a
  
 
      
                

b syncopation

              
 
   

2 c mixolydian scale
a
  
  
           
          

    
b syncopation

              
  

3 c dorian scale

a
                   
  

 
    
b syncopation
           
   

4 c major pentatonic scale


a     
        
  
        

b syncopation
       
        
    
-94-
1/2 jazz language: rhythms

1 new orleans second line two beat swinging march



              
  
     

2 back beat
 
    
  

3 shuffle
   
           

4 blues shuffle

            
      
3 3 3 3
  

5 swing 3
 
     
        

6 jazz waltz
 
 
    
-95-
jazz language: rhythms - 2/2

7 bossa nova
        2
           

8 samba i
     
          
2

9 samba ii
       
     
2
      

10 latin clave 3-2


    
      
2
    

11 latin clave 2-3


    
        
2
 

12 reggae
3

     
          
2
  
-96-
notes

-97-
notes


-98-