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The purpose of 5G

Name: João Pinheiro


Subject: Communication Networks
Degree: Computer Engineer
Date: 09/04/2019

According to “Global Mobile Data Traffic Forecast


I. INTRODUCTION Update 2014–2019 WhitePaper” by Cisco [2], the global
Ever since the first commercial use of G.S.M. back in mobile data traffic at the end of 2013 reached 1.5exabytes, an
1991, that mobile technology never stopped evolving, it increase of 81% from 2012, while the mobile data traffic of
started by simply being able to provide a safe way to do a 2014 was nearly as 18 times as the total annual amount of
phone call with the use of encryption, call forwarding, call Internet data in 2000.
waiting, conferencing, caller ID and even allowing to send Moreover, the global mobile data traffic from 2014 to 2020
S.M.S.´s. is continuing to grow exponentially, and it estimates that the
There have been major updates on the mobile generations, demand for data capacity will grow 1000-fold in the next 10
which are now focused in not the way you communicate but years.
in giving you access to a whole new role of smart interactions
by allowing you to be online anytime, everywhere and as long II. STATE OF THE ART
as you want (if your network plan allows it). 4G made mobile internet speeds up to 500 times faster than
3G and allowed support for HD TV on mobile, high–quality
According to statista [1] the number of smartphone users video calls, fast mobile browsing and wear-able devices.
is forecast to grow from 2.1 billion in 2016 to around 2.5
billion in 2019, with smartphone penetration rates increasing Using high-speed download and upload packets, 4G
as well. Just over 36 percent of the world’s population is allows you to access broadband style speeds whilst away from
projected to use a smartphone by 2018, up from about 10 your Wi-Fi. Users can often access speeds of up to 21Mb on
percent in 2011. the go.
And don´t forget Google’s Android and Apple’s iOS are 4G is now common throughout the world, but things are
the two most popular smartphone operating systems in the about to change again. The Internet of Things (IoT) is now a
industry where in 2016 alone, nearly 1.5 billion smartphones real possibility and 4G will not be able to manage the huge
with either Android or iOS operating systems were sold number of connections that will be on the network.
worldwide, which means people are just now realizing the
diversity of interactions a smartphone allows them to have and There is another hidden problem with 4G that we can only
making the transition accordingly. “feel” when using our devices, the disparity of download
speeds between those advertised (technical) and the reality
Behind all this must be a capable network generation to (experienced by the most of us) which is estimated to have a
support future applications and services in all aspects of deficit of 50Mbps between the two.
people’s living. Consider that smartphones are not alone but
instead are joined by wearable devices, Internet of Things Service quality is another influential variable, varying
(I.o.T.), Internet of Vehicles (I.o.V.), etc., both numbers and according to distance from dense urban areas, data rates are
types of smart devices accessing to wireless networks will usually lower in rural areas than those enjoyed in dense urban
result in a bottleneck situation of existing networks. areas.
Propagation loss is increased by operating at higher
frequencies and at higher transmission bit rates the received
signal level threshold must be higher than at lower bit rates, in
order to compensate for the greater effect of noise at higher bit
rates in order to receive the signal at an adequate SNR (Signal
to Noise Ratio).
But in fact according to an online sciences article [4] 4G
requires an expensive infrastructure to operate, this is
embodied in the Access Points and mainly Gateways or
Routers. 4G is optimal for data rates, but not necessarily the
best for voice services, regarding this limitation some of these
services are delegated to Wi-Fi or 3G/GSM cellular
technologies on your phone.
On further notice in some countries, 4G networks are so
underdeveloped, that they’re barely a step up from 3G when it
comes to stable data rates.

Fig. 1 – Characteristics of every mobile technology [1]

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III. HOW WILL 5G DIFFER potentially wasting both energy and power to beam radio
5G most obvious and immediate advantage will be solving waves at locations that aren't requesting access to the internet.
the current problem of bandwidth that we´re facing with 4G, 5G uses shorter wavelengths, which means that antennas
regarding the fact that as the days go on more and more can be much smaller than existing antennas while still
devices are joining in and claiming their piece of bandwidth providing precise directional control.
in order to be continuously updated and in touch with others
or the world. One base station can utilize even more directional
antennas, which means that 5G can support over 1,000 more
It uses different kinds of antennas and operates on different devices per meter than what’s supported by 4G.
radio spectrum frequencies, which allows to connect many
more devices to the internet, minimizes delays, and delivers These antennas should obey to a strategic plan since they
ultrafast speeds. operate in super-high frequencies they are only able to provide
their full potential when in clear, direct line of sight with the
5G is expected to be capable of speeds that completely device receiving the signal, otherwise there is a risk of these
surpass the ones existing in 4G networks, a current estimate of frequencies to be absorbed by the elements in the air, such as
peak capability is around 10Gbps, which is faster than any humidity, rain or other objects that surround the antenna in
existing consumer internet service, including mobile and that tight range.
wired networks.
Other alternative to make sure that we get every single bit
This means a high definition movie could be downloaded of signal available, is to place small antennas in every room or
in seconds, and video calling could be in Full HD, QHD, or building that needs it, large ones positioned throughout the
even 4K resolution. city or both.
Speed is not the only goal here but latency since current Not only that but it may probably be needed many
networks have up to 50 ms latency on an average connection, repeating stations to give an extra boost on the radio waves so
which means that data is not transmitted in real time. 5G is a we can make sure they go as far as possible to provide long
total game changer, it will go as low as 1 ms. range 5G support.
That would play as a huge role and advantage on future
data transmission since, according to a Cisco paper [2] mobile
data traffic is expected to grow to 77 exabytes per month by
2022, a seven-fold increase over 2017.

Fig. 2 - Mobile data traffic will grow at a CAGR Fig. 3 - Key difference between 4G and 5G antenna
(Compound annual growth rate) of 46 percent from 2017 to technology [6]
2022 [2]
A. Antennas
5G network also uses a set of unique radio frequencies, Still taking in account “fig. 3”, antenna design is one of the
broken up into bands, each with unique features as you move most critical and challenging aspects when changing from 4G
up into higher frequencies. to 5G.
4G networks uses frequencies below 6 GHz, but 5G uses According to semiengineering [6] until 4G came out, the
extremely high frequencies in the 30 GHz to 300 GHz range. traditional antenna technology’s transmission power (energy
This would be hugely important for autonomous driving consumed by power amplifier, RF chains) was greater when
vehicles, Internet of Thing (IoT), and virtual reality (VR) compared with the computation power for wireless signal
devices. Sensors could interact with networks in real time, processing.
making autonomous vehicles possible on 5G connections However, semiengineering [6] says that with 5G the
since they support a huge capacity for fast data but not only computation power would increase manifold, as small-cell
that, according to lifewire [5] they are less cluttered with base stations (BSs) are replacing macro cells BSs to perform
existing cellular data, and that allows them to be used in the the function of wireless data transmission in 5G cellular
future for increasing bandwidth demands. networks.
Being highly directional allows sensors to be used right They make clear that if the small-cell antennas provide
next to other wireless signals without causing interference low power consumption and high performance, a large-scale
opposed to 4G towers that fire data in all directions, deployment of these antennas will increase the energy
consumption.

2
So in resume still to be figured out remains the way to sensors, transfer it to large data centers, and apply both A.I.
minimize the energy consumption of this antennas while still and machine leaning and data science techniques to it for near
maintaining their performance at a level that would allow real-time analysis is where enterprises will see the biggest
them to be more efficient and greater than the previous early gains.
network generation.
Cars and robots per example show the benefits of 5G
Not forgetting of course that we cannot compromise the intersecting I.o.T., but both raise security questions.
amount of antennas we have, otherwise we would lose signal
range and efficiency, since 5G mm waves don’t travel well C. Security advancements related to IoT-5G correlation
through obstacles. A failed network could have serious repercussions or in
case of robots the communication device itself could be used
B. Impact on IoT as a botnet, where cyber-criminals takeover the robot for
According to I.o.T Agenda [7] the internet of things, or malicious purposes.
I.o.T, is a system of interrelated computing devices,
mechanical and digital machines, objects, animals or people In the case of smarter vehicles, hackers have multiple
that are provided with unique identifiers (UIDs) and the ability access points to exploit, since 5G supports network slicing, the
to transfer data over a network without requiring human-to- ability to create multiple virtual networks on top of one
human or human-to-computer interaction. platform.

This can be a person with a heart monitor implant, a farm The medical field can also be impacted with events like
animal with a biochip transponder, an automobile that has medical identity theft, invasion of health privacy, and medical
built-in sensors to alert the driver when tire pressure is low or data management can occur once 5G capabilities will help
any other natural or man-made object that can be assigned an with faster transfer of large patient files, remote surgery, and
IP address and is able to transfer data over a network. remote patient monitoring.
A way to solve this is by recurring to an already developed
Some examples of this objects and implementations are
showed below: and implemented technology, LiFi, a disruptive technology
that uses light to send data embedded in the beam. LiFi could
ensure the validity of the connected home with I.o.T. devices
only able to access the network, when in direct contact with
the light see “fig.5”.

Fig. 4 – What is consumer IoT? [8]


Still according to I.o.T. Agenda [7] devices share the
sensor data they collect by connecting to an I.o.T. gateway or
other edge device where data is either sent to the cloud to be
analyzed or analyzed locally.
Sometimes, these devices communicate with other related
devices and act on the information they get from one another. Fig. 5 – Procedure of Li-fi Technology [10]
5G larger bandwidth will largely benefit this cloud and In this way we would be able to maximize speed and
inter-communication (between devices) data sharing protocol capacity, without the added security risks in areas like smart
meaning that the number of “connected endpoints will have homes and offices, once they would be almost unrecognizable
an easier time communicating their data to neighboring while using these interconnected devices inside. Not to forget
locations where the data can be processed locally”. the unlimited possibilities to change layouts and units of this
Giving the option of “higher-level information, and/or the devices allowed by this technology.
data itself, optionally being transmitted on to cloud data Smart homes will although require stronger methods of
centers” says an investigator named Woo on semi engineering authentication, such as biometric identification or the
[6]. fingerprint-access door locks.
I.o.T. networks will also have the ability to become more According to Ericsson [9] the solutions for this I.o.T. top
extensive, once 5G allows up to 100x more devices connected security concerns, Identity and access management and Data
per unit area compared with 4G LTE, a 90% reduction in integrity would be the following:
network energy usage and an increment in battery life to up to
10 years for low power I.o.T. devices. a) Trusted identities;
b) Trusted data;
On the business side of things, the ability of 5G to handle
massive data volumes with high transaction rates from remote c) Trusted connectivity;
and/or mobile locations and to capture data from remote d) Privacy and confidentiality.

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a) Trusted identities A.R. and V.R. users will require a constant, stable signal
“As the number of connected devices grow, identifying since lag, stutter and disruption will significantly disrupt the
each device becomes increasingly important, and complex. A.R. and V.R. users experience. 5G's way of solving this is to
swallow all previous networks into one and use a large number
Device identification is done on the connectivity or of antennas to steer signal to the user's location, benefiting
application level. SIM cards, and the evolution to embedded those at the network's edges.
SIM's (eSIMs), provide good protection of the device
connectivity identity. The impact of 5G features in V.R. and A.R. can be
“measured” in the following next-gen scenarios where this
For device identification on application level, there are technologies work together “fig.6”:
different types of identification such as Pre-shared Keys
(PSK), Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) Certificates and Raw
Public Keys (RPK).”
b) Trusted data
“It is crucial to ensure that each device is behaving as it
should, and its data has not been manipulated.
Block chain technologies can be useful for data integrity,
generating a non-reversible signature for data, and verifying
that the current version of a data asset has not been altered.
Data also needs to be protected in transit, and 3GPP
networks support security controls to preserve data integrity,
confidentiality and availability to guarantee the security and Fig. 6 – 5G Essential for next-gen A.R./V.R. experiences
privacy of the information.” [11]
c) Trusted connectivity In each of this scenarios we will need some of the
“Traffic separation methods, including the 5G network following requirements to be fulfilled:
slicing concept, will provide isolation of network, application
and security functions, allowing service providers to offer a) Feedback times bellow 5 ms to enable multi-sensory
different security levels for different network slices. remote tactule control;
b) A latency ranging from 40 ms to 300 ms;
The Transport Layer Security (TLS) and Internet Protocol
Security (IPSec) protocols encrypt data to ensure traffic c) Tradeoff (balance) between throughput and latency;
protection.”
As you can see all this scenarios will mean that we will be
d) Privacy and confidentiality able to get away from the conventional use of this technology
“Europe's GDPR. Non-compliance could have serious (A.R./V.R.) with a P.C. and will instead use something called
consequences for the bottom line of any company operating in the edge cloud, where it will only be require a headset. This is
the EU.” cloud A.R./V.R. technology.
D. V.R. and A.R. E. Cloud A.R./V.R.
According to semiengineering [6] vendors are having According to Huawei [12] “Hybrid cloud processing for
difficulty eliminating motion sickness because of low data example can greatly diminish some of the processing and
rates, and that is limiting adoption of V.R. (Virtual Reality) bandwidth requirements for room scale video experiences and
technology by the public. help address network latency.
This is a supposed easy fix with the adoption of 5G thanks Mobile Edge Computing (MEC) enables cloud computing
to Millimeter-wave technology, where signals cannot go at the edge of the cellular network and it can be used for
through walls and only operate over relatively short distances, content distribution (e.g. at a stadium or concert – premium
which are perfect for V.R. headsets since they are usually only passes with showing multiple viewing angles could be sold)
a feet away from a controller. among other services at public locations and enterprises”.
At the moment, 4G handles 360º video at 4K 30fps (frames Cloud rendering A.R./V.R. technology allows users to
per second), but 5G is projected to improve the experience by stream video games or virtual contents from cloud servers, It
operating at 8K 90fps. will offer more varied and interactive V.R. contents and make
Not only waves are a major factor but low wireless latency the user device lighter, cheaper and freedom from the chain.
according to a document published by Qualcomm [11] since Hybrid cloud services will provide the necessary bridge
this is critical for immersion where “Motion to Photon (MTP) towards more pure cloud based services and platforms would
latency below 15 ms generally avoids discomfort processed become relatively hardware agnostic so consumers will have
on the device”. relatively consistent experiences across devices.
Also solved by 5G Ultra-low latency, benefiting A.R. on
the side since a head movement per example requires an A.R.
helmet to quickly process the new information.
5G will simplify and smoothen the whole processes
ensuring a better user experience.

4
Rel-14 C-V2X is designed for low-latency direct
communications for automotive safety, allowing vehicles to
communicate directly with each other (Vehicle-to-Vehicle or
V2V), to pedestrians (Vehicle-to-Pedestrian or V2P), and to
roadway infrastructure (Vehicle-to-Infrastructure or V2I)
without relying on network coverage or a cellular
subscription”.

Fig. 7 – Workflow for V.R. and 360° Streaming [13] As you can see V2X (Vehicle to everything) will be the
platform that regulates all connections a car makes with the
F. Autonomous Vehicles outside world, be that another car, an I.o.T. device or even a
5G Automotive Association (5GAA) is a global cross- human.
industry organization of companies from the automotive, Having this in mind there are already a pre-established
technology, and telecommunications industries working idea of what sensors autonomous vehicles must include, to
together to develop end-to-end solutions for future mobility communicate with each other, detect pedestrians, traffic,
and transportation services. signals and much more depending on what features we may
According to 5GAA, it is essential to redefining feel the need to implement in the future in order to make them
transportation by providing real-time, highly reliable, and more practical and roadworthy, refer to “fig.9”.
actionable information flows to enable safety, mobility, and
environmental applications.
But before connecting to 5G network a communications
standard needs to be implemented, and we must decide where
data is stored and the rules car manufacturers will need to
follow, with this in mind the U.S. Department of
Transportation intends to maintain the priority use of 5.9 GHz
for spectrum transportation safety communications.
Reliability will also be a key factor and will enable rapid
growth of vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-
infrastructure (V2I) technology (both operating in 5.9GHz) in
order to deliver additional value in a smart mobility eco-
system. Fig. 9 – Autonomous cars communication driven primary
features and sensors [14]
V2V technology supported through 5G, capable of
maintaining speed and distance is intended to improve driver Some of the sensors for this tasks would be sensors like
safety allowing cars to communicate with each other directly radar, and camera systems, but these sensors are limited by
for autonomous driving use cases, without dependency or their line-of-sight (LOS) operation.
reliance on wide area network coverage. Qualcomm [15] states that “Rel-14 C-V2X direct
V2I technology also has security at its core (traffic lights, communication complements the capabilities of these sensors
pollution levels, hazards, emergency services). But, on the top by providing 360-degree non-LOS (NLOS) awareness,
of that, V2I is more aimed at traffic flow, re-routing, fuel extending a vehicle’s ability to detect farther down the road
consumption, parking, WIFI, charging spots for electric cars — even at blind intersections or in poor weather conditions”.
on the move, etc. Sanjeev Athalye (the spokesman of Qualcomm) said in an
All you will need according to Qualcomm [15] is “Release interview to Techrepublic [17] “for autonomous vehicles to
16 5G NR-based C-V2X technology, which will bring about operate efficiently, you need what are called high definition
new direct communication capabilities, such as high maps or HD maps.
throughput and ultra-reliable low latency communication The collection and distribution of those maps requires very
(URLLC), for advanced autonomous driving use cases, while high data rates. That's where 5G can step in and really improve
maintaining backward compatibility to Release 14 C-V2X. on vehicle or use cases”.
Basically a high definition or HD map is what these
autonomous vehicles will use to get a “feel” of their
surroundings and has previous said they require very high data
rates, which may be over four terabytes of data for roughly
every 8 hours of driving.
These packets of information will need immediate access,
action, and reaction, especially since when it can mean the
difference between life and death. A particular solution would
be to set-up preloading maps and algorithms into the vehicle's
navigation system, even though the driverless unit would still
maintain communication with the Internet by providing other
Fig. 8 – Latest-V2X-technology [16] information’s about the vehicle status.

5
As final note edge cloud is a solution being considered to [2] Cisco, “Cisco visual networking index: global mobile data traffic
address latency, the concept of it is pretty simple and based on forecast update”, 2017–2022
having has much data centers scattered around the world as [3] Soffar, Heba. “4G Technology uses, features, advantages and
disadvantages” Available in: <https://www.online-
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<http://kadenzsearch.com/5g-what-is-it-and-do-we-really-need-it/>
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[6] Shah, Ronak. 5G – “Psst, Says 5G… Wanna See What My New
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Fig. 10 – Cloud vs edge computing [19]
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https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Procedure-of-Li-fi-
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this network upgrade potential and value isn´t resumed to its limits”, October 2018
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Once implemented 5G will lead to a lower cost-per- _5354639844001_5346626565001-
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[15] Qualcomm Technologies, Inc “How will 5G unlock the potential of
Cloud a service that´s already taken and looked as autonomous driving?” Available in: <
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[17] Detwiler, Bill. “5G's important role in autonomous car technology”
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