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Direct speech Indirect speech

He said'I live in Paris'. He said he lived in paris.

He said'I am cooking dinner.' He said he was cooking dinner.
He said ‘I was doing some exercises He said he was doing some exercises
yesteday’ the day before
He said' I have visited London twice.' He said he had visited London twice.
He said he had gone to New Yorkthe
He said' I went to New York last week.'
week before
He said 'I had already eaten'. He said he had already eaten.
He said, 'I am going to find a new job'. He said he was going to find a new job.
He said,'I will give Jack a call'. He said he would give Jack a call.
He said,'I have been working on that He said he had been working on that
project for over two weeks'. project for over two weeks.
He said,'I can come tonight '. He said he could come that night .
He said,'I may buy a new car.' He said he might buy a new car .
He said,'I might go to Denver.' He said he might go to Denver.
He said,'I must give Ken a call.' He said he had to give Ken a call.
He said,'I have to give Ken a call.' He said he had to give Ken a call.
He said he should see a doctor.
He said,'I should see a doctor'.
He said he should go to the dentist.
He said “ I shall go to the dentist?


yesterday the previous day/the day before

the previous (night/week/month/year/etc)
last (night/week/month/year/etc)
the (night/week/month/year/etc) before
this (evening/month/etc) that (evening/month/etc)
the following/next (week/month/year/etc)
next (week/month/year/etc)
the (week/month/year/etc) after
the next/following day
the day after
now then
today that day
... ago ... before / ... previous
…recently those days


Questions in Direct speech change to sentences(Connector+ Subject+ verb) joined with connectors in
indirect speech .

SIMPLE STATEMENTS= Optional “I had a terrible headache” She told me (that) she had had
that a terrible headache
YES/NO QUESTIONS= Do you have a car? She asked me if I had a car
IF/Whether She asked me whether I had a
INFORMATION QUESTIONS= WH Where did you go? He asked me where she had
WORDS gone
(what, where,when,how,etc)
IMPERATIVES= TO Go to school! My mom ordered me to go to
NEGATIVE IMPERATIVES= NOT Don’t see that movie! My brother ordered me not to
TO see that movie

These forms are perfectly correct for reporting what others have said. However, there are a number
of other reporting verbs which can more accurately describe what someone has said. These verbs
take a variety of structures. The following list gives you reporting verbs in various categories based
on sentence structure. Notice that a number of verbs can take more than one form.

verb object verb verb (that) verb gerund verb object verb
infinitive infinitive preposition preposition
gerund gerund
advise agree admit deny accuse apologize
encourage decide agree recommend blame insist
invite offer decide suggest congratulate
remind promise deny
warn refuse explain
threaten insist
Examples: Examples: Examples: Examples: Examples: Examples:
Jack She offered Tom admitted He denied They accused He
encouraged me to give him a (that) he had having the boys of apologized
to look for a lift to tried to leave anything to cheating on the for being
new job.They work.My early.She do with exam.She late.She
invited all their brother agreed (that) her.Ken blamed her insisted on
friends to refused to we needed to suggested husband for doing the
attend the take no for reconsider our studying early missing the washing up.
presentation. an answer. plans. in the train.

1. Benjamin: "I often have a big hamburger."

he often had a big hamburger
Benjamin says (that) .
2. Hannah: "They live in Boston."
they lived in Boston
Hannah said (that) .
3. Tyler: "Ian doesn't invite girls to his parties."
Ian didn't invite girls to his parties
Tyler told me (that) .
4. Dominic: "She understands Japanese."
she understands Japanese
Dominic remarks (that) .
5. Sophia: "Bella doesn't collect stickers."
Bella doesn't collect stickers
Sophia explains (that) .
6. Luke: "I don't know what to do."
he didn't know what to do
Luke added (that) .
7. Lily: "Mr Jones is rude to Samantha."
Mr Jones was rude to Samantha
Lily thinks (that) .
8. Jessica: "I am going to clean the room."
Jessica told me that she was going to clean the room
9. Teacher: "Rachel has never been to Philadelphia."
The teacher said that Rachel had never been to Philadelphia
10. Lucy: "The train didn't arrive on time."
Lucy said to Gerry that the train had not arrived on time
11. Holly: "Abby and Nathan will travel to Alaska."
Holly remarked that Abby and Nathan would travel to Alaska

Directions: Change each question from direct speech (contained within quotation marks: "...." )
to indirect speech. Example: "Are you a teacher?" He asked if I was a teacher.

12. "Are you working tomorrow?" (a woman is asking you a question)

She asked me if I was working tomorrow .

13. "Has he ever played golf." (a man is asking a woman a question about her brother)

He asked her if her brother had ever played golf .

14. "Do you think the car is okay?" ( a woman is asking a male mechanic a question)

She asked the mechanic if he though the car was okay.

15. "Do you have your homework?" ( a teacher is asking her students a question)

The teacher asked the class if they had their homeowork.

16. "Can I borrow your car?" (a female friend name Donna is asking you a question)

Donna asked me if she could borrow my car.

17.Justin: "What are you doing?"

Justin asked me what you doing was.

18.Frank: "How much pocket money does Lisa get?"

Frank wanted to know how much pocket money did lisa got

19.Anne: "Must I do the shopping?" Anne asked if I had to do the shopping

20.Andrew: "Clean the blue bike!"

Andrew told me to clen the blue bike

21.Jessica: "Write a text message!"

Jessica told me to write a text message
22. Nelly: "Help Peter's sister!"
Nelly told me to help Peter’s sister
23. Fred: "Wash your hands!"
Fred told me to wash your hands

1. Christopher: "Do you want to dance?"

Christopher asked me if I wanted to dance.
2. Betty: "When did you come?"
Betty wanted to know when I had come.
3. Mark: "Has John arrived?"
Mark asked me if John had arrived.
4. Ronald: "Where does Maria park her car?"
Ronald asked me where Maria parked her car.
5. Elisabeth: "Did you watch the latest film?"
Elisabeth asked me if I had watched the latest film.
6. Mandy: "Can I help you?"
Mandy wanted to know if she could help me.
7. Andrew: "Will Mandy have lunch with Sue?"
Andrew asked me if Mandy would have lunch with Sue.
8. Justin: "What are you doing?"
Justin asked me what I was doing.
9. Frank: "How much pocket money does Lisa get?"
Frank wanted to know how much pocket money Lisa got.
10. Anne: "Must I do the shopping?"
Anne asked if she had to do the shopping.
1. Leave me alone," she said.
→ She told me to leave me alone
1. Who knows the answer?" the teacher asked.
→ The teacher wanted to know who knew the answer.
2. "Why don't you help me?" she asked him.
→ She wanted to know why he didn't help her
3. "Did you see that car?" he asked me.
→ He asked me if I had seen that car.
4. "Have you tidied up your room?" the mother asked the twins.
→ The mother asked the twins if they had tidied up their room.
5. I told him ____ do it.
a. To not b. don´t c. not to
6. He asked us ____ show our passports.
a. If b. to c. for
7. She asked us if we ____ finished the work on Monday.
a. Have b. had c either could be used here
8. She asked us ____ on time.
a. To be b. for being

9. She asked if she ____ leave early.

a. Can b. could
10. She said that no one _____ to the meeting last week.
a. Has come b. had come
11. She told me ____ she wasn't going to come.
a. That b.----------- c. Either could be used here.
12. He told me he ___ be here by three o'clock at the latest and it's half past already.
a. Will b. would c Either could be used here.
13. She said it _____ raining when she got here.
14. a. already started b. had already started c. Either could be used here.
15. He said he _____ her before.
a. didn't meet b. hadn't met c. Either could be used here.
16. She explained how ______ do it.
a. To b. should c. either could be used here