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T Topic:

T Role of oxyacids of nitrogen and sulphur

T Submitted to: Mam Anum Hayat

T Submitted by: Kinza Zulfiqar

T Major: Chemistry

T Topic: Role of oxyacid’s of sulphur and nitrogen in environment

Date: 17/4/2018

Course: Chemistry of p-block elements

Criteria points
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Grammar and spelling mistakes 0.25
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Table of contents:
 oxyacids_________________________________________________3
 oxyacid of sulphur_________________________________________3
 oxyacid of nitrogen________________________________________3
 preparation_______________________________________________3
 Role in environment_______________________________________ 5
 Conclusion_______________________________________________9
 References______________________________________________10

T
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Role of oxyacid’s of sulphur and nitrogen in environment:

Oxyacids:

Nitrogen dioxide
Fig: 1

Oxyacid’s of sulphur:

Formulas of oxides of sulphur


Fig: 2
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Most important ones are sulfuric acid H2SO4 and sulfurous acid H2SO3

Sulfuric acid:

Sulphur dioxide
Fig: 3

Preparation: They are mostly produced by contact process. This starts when sulfur or sulfur
ores are heated together and sulfur dioxide is produced. Burning sulfur produced almost 60 % of
it. Rest 40 % is produced by roasting of sulphide minerals.

Role of oxides of sulphur and nitrogen: Mostly they play negative role if are involved
in formation of acid rain, reason for global warming, cause health issue, destroys habitat for
aquatic life, Ozone formation in troposphere, smog formation, plays role in biogeochemical
cycles etc.

Acid rain: Acid rain is basically produced by chemicals that start with sulfur dioxide and
nitrogen dioxide and after that released in air, as these can cover a long distance upward
therefore combines with water vapors, oxygen and other chemicals. This produces more acidic
pollutants that are in form of acid rain. As easily dissolved in water therefore are taken away by
wind and a source of numerous pollution causes and affecting different life form in one way or
other way. Human activities are considered responsible for this enormous addition to the
environment moreover the increase up to harmful level is also because of burning of fossil fuels.
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Acid rain formation


Fig: 4

Causes of acid rain: Reaction in environment is the reason behind the acid rain. In last few
decades it is increased to a much high level only due to uncontrolled human activities. Burning
of coal, oil, natural gas all are adding it in our environment. Damages crops when the acidity of
acid rain is up to 5 and below 4 it is threatening existence of life in water. Toxic metals are added
in soil badly affecting its growth. Bacteria living in roots for nitrogen fixation die. Crop land is
destroyed through this. Fishes invade and the bottom of sea is covered by dead organic matter
rather than the presence of planktonic species. It leaches important nutrients for plant growth
from soil. Buildings are destroyed because off this acid rain because the limestone easily
dissolves in it. If it adds from water pipes to drinking water than these metals could be too
harmful for our body and responsible for many diseases.

Smog formation: Smog which is abundant in Los Angeles is formed by burning of fuels
which consists of oxides of sulfur and nitrogen and then this reacts with sunlight forming
irritating smog which is further of two type classical and photochemical smog. This reduces
visibility and when enters the body through breathing results in lung cancer, bronchitis, asthma
and many respiratory diseases it causes inflammation in breathing passageway resulting in
difficulty in breathing.
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Effects on body
Fig: 5

This does not get over like this it continues forming secondary pollutants which further are
source of damages to life and environment and is adding enormous level of pollution.

Formation of secondary pollutants through smog


Fig: 6

Global warming: Greenhouse gases when absorb infrared radiation than cause the warming of
earth heat is trapped in atmosphere not reflected back thus causing climatic changes melting of
polar ice caps, raising tides in sea due to which flood occurs and in areas where no rain occurs
due to the climatic changes results in droughts.
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Greenhouse gases
Fig: 7

Ozone layer depletion: Ozone layer is depleting in stratosphere due to which harmful
radiation can reach earth surface and cause skin cancer like ultraviolet radiation, lung cancer and
this all happens due to burning of fossil fuels that is a source of oxides of sulphur and nitrogen
the balance of temperature is disturbed further reaction add harmful effects that are destructive to
life on earth. Too much hot weather may be the reason of species extinction which are not able to
migrate at fast rate and crops cannot grow in too hot and too dry weather.

Formation of ozone in troposphere: When ozone is near humans it can cause serious
problem with our lungs.

Sulphur cycle: sulfur cycle involves the movements of sulphur through environment.

Nitrogen cycle: It involves movement of nitrogen from environment to living organism and
its conversion in nitrogen dioxide nitric acid nitrous acid .
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Nitrogen cycle
Fig: 8

Effects of nitrogen oxides in environment: It may affect the senses and reduces person
ability to odour and smell

Effects
Fig: 9

Damages to human respiratory tract and person’s vulnerability to chronic lung cancer and asthma
increases.
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Conclusion: Overall addition of these oxides to any form of life does not seem good in any way
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References:

 https://www.britannica.com/science/oxyacid
 https://www3.epa.gov/acidrain/education/site_students/whatcauses.html
 https://www.airqualitynow.eu/pollution_environmental_problems.php
 http://www.meteor.iastate.edu/gccourse/alumni/chem/nitro/text.html
 https://www.qld.gov.au/environment/pollution/monitoring/air-pollution/sulfur-
dioxide