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Solid wastage Management

It consists of highly heterogeneous mass of discarded


materials from the urban community as well as the more
homogonous accumulation of agricultural, industrial and
mining wastes.
Classification
• Garbage : Moisture content of about 70 %, heating
value of around 6 X 106 J/kg
• Rubbish : Combustible and noncombustible, moisture
content of about 25 %, heating value of the waste is 15
X 106 J/kg
• Pathological : Dead animals, human waste etc
Moisture – 85%
Heating value = 2.5 X 106 J/kg
• Industrial
• Agricultural Waste
• Public health Aspects: In warm climates exposed
garbage produces as many as 70,000 flies /0.03m3 in a
week
Method of Collection
• Efficient collection and transportation are essential parts
of the overall solid waste management programme since
these two activities
Types of Solid waste
• Municipal Waste
• Industrial Waste
• Hazardous Waste

A waste is said to be hazardous if it exhibits following


characteristics:
• Ignitability
• Corrosivity
• Reactivity
• Toxicity
Hazardous wastes are after grouped into the following
categories
• Radioactive Substances
• Chemicals
• Biological wastes
• Flammable wastes
• Explosives
Properties of Solid Water
Information on the properties of solid waste is important in
evaluating :
• Equipment needs
• Systems
• Management Programs
• Plans – implementation of disposal and resource and
energy – recovery options.
Physical Composition
• Identification of the individual components that make up
municipal solid wastes

• Analysis of particle size

• Moisture content

• Density of solid wastes


Physical Composition
The moisture content of solid wastes usually is expressed
as the mass of moisture per unit mass of wet or dry
material
Wet – Mass moisture content = {(a-b)/ a} *100
a – Initial mass of sample
b – Mass of sample after drying
Example : Estimate the moisture content of a solid waste sample
with the following composition
Component % by Typical moisture Dry mass kg
mass content
Food wastes 15 70 4.5
Paper 45 6 42.3
Cardboard 10 5 9.5
Plastics 10 2 9.8
Garden 10 60 4.0
trimmings
Wood 05 20 4.0
Tin cars 05 3 4.9
Total 79.00
Based on 100 kg sample of waste
Example : Estimate the density of solid waste sample
Component % by mass Typical Density Volume, m3
(kg/m3)
Food wastes 15 290 0.52
Paper 45 85 5.29
Cardboard 10 50 2.00
Plastics 10 65 1.54
Garden 10 105 0.95
trimmings
Wood 5 240 0.21
Tin cars 5 90 0.50
Total 11.07

Based on 1000 kg sample of waste


Density = = 90.33 kg /m3
Sampling Procedures
• Unload a truckload of wastes in a controlled
area away from other operations
• Quarter the waste load
• Select one of the quarters and quarter that
quarter
• Select one of the quartered quarters and
separate all of the individual components of the
waste into preselected components
• Measure the mass
• Determine percentage distribution of each
component by mass
Chemical Composition:
Information on the chemical composition of solid waste
is important in evaluating alternative processing and
energy recovery options
Chemical Composition:
If solid wastes are to be used as fuel, 4 must imp.
Properties to be known are
1) Proximate analysis
➢ Moisture (loss at 105 °C for 1 h )
➢ Volatile matter (additional loss on ignition at 950 °C )
➢ Ash ( residue after burning )
➢ Fixed carbon ( remainder)
2) Fusing Point of ash (Melt)
3) Ultimate analysis, % (c), (H) (0) (N) (S) and ash
4) Heating value (Energy value)
Energy content
KJ/kg ( dry basis)
= KJ/kg ( as discarded ) 100/(100-%moisture)

• The corresponding equation on an ash free dry


basis is KJ/kg ( ash – free dry basis)
= KJ/ kg(as discarded ) 100/(100-% ash-%moisture)
Problem
Estimate the energy content of a solid – waste sample with the composition given as
following. What is the content on a dry basis and on an ash free dry basis and wet basis
moisture content = 21%

Component Percent of Mass Energy (KJ/kg) Total energy KJ +


Food waste 15 4,650 69,750

Paper 45 16,750 753,750

Cardboord 10 16,300 163,000

Plastic 10 32,600 326,000


Garden 10 6,500 65,000
trimmings

Wood 05 18,600 93,000


Tin cars 05 700 3,500
Total 1,474000

Based on 100 kg sample waste


So total as discarded energy contents of the sold waste sample is 1,474,000 KJ
Unit energy content
Energy content = = 14,740 KJ/kg

The energy content an a dry basis


The moisture content of the waste is 21.0%
Energy on a dry basis is
KJ/kg (dry basis) = 14,740 ( 100/(100-21))
= 18,658

The energy content on an ash – free dry basis


Assume the ash content is equal to 5.0 present

the energy content on an ash-free dry basis is KJ/kg ( ash –free dry
basis )

= 14,740 ( 100/(100-5-21))
19,919
Chemical
= contents

If energy values are not available


)+ 95s approximate values may be

determined by modified Dulong formala and the ultimate analysis of


the combustible components in municipal solid wastes

= 337 C + 1428 (H-O/8) + 95S


C – carbon %
H – Hydrogen %
O – Oxygen %
S – Sulfur %
Estimation of the overall chemical composition of solid waste sample
Derive an approximate chemical formula for the organic portion of a solid waste sample with the
composition given in above problem. Use the resulting chemical composition to estimate the energy
content.
Component wet mass kg Dry Mass kg Composition kg

C H O N S Ash

Food waste 15 4.5 2.16 0.29 1.69 0.12 0.02 0.23

Paper 45 42.3 18.40 2.54 18.61 0.13 0.08 2.04

Cardboord 10 9.5 4.18 0.56 4.24 0.03 0.02 0.4

Plastic 10 9.8 5.88 0.71 2.23 - - 0.98

Garden trimming 10 4.0 1.91 0.24 1.52 0.14 0.01 0.18

Wood 05 4.0 1.98 0.24 1.71 0.01 - 0.06

Total 95 74.1 34.51 4.58 30.0 0.43 0.13 4.0


2. Summary table of above date

Component Mass kg

Moisture 20.9

Carbon 34.51

Hydrogen 4.58

Oxygen 30.00

Nitrogen 0.43

Sulfur 0.13

Ash 4.47