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 DESCRIBE AND DISCUSS THE THREE PARENTING STYLES

(BAUMRIND, 1980)
 DISCUSS THE SECURE ATTACHMENT
Richard Teesdale ID# 95727156
Assignment 6: Parenting Styles and the Secure Attachment

PARENTING STYLES
The most influential proposal about styles of parenting has come from Diana
Baumrind (1973). This pioneering study looked at combinations of the various
dimensions of parenting:
 warmth, or nurturance;
 level of expectations, which she calls “maturity demands”;
 the clarity and consistency of rules, referred to as control; and
 communication between parent and child.
Baumrind saw three specific combinations of these characteristics:
 The permissive style is high in nurturance but low in maturity demands,
control, and communication.
 The authoritarian style is high in control and maturity demands but low in
nurturance and communication.
 The authoritative style is high in all four.
It is important to note that later work by Eleanor Maccoby and John Martin
(1983), extended Baumrind’s category system, proposing a model that has been
widely influential.
Maccoby and Martin were able to isolate and identify the uninvolved neglecting
parenting style.
Though not specifically identified by Baumrind in her early work, Maccoby and
Martin’s research shows clearly that this is a parenting style that deserves more
study. (Boyd & Bee, 2014, p. 402)

Introduction to Child Psychology (Open Campus Feb-April 2019)


Tutor: Isidorn Yvonne Johnson
Richard Teesdale ID# 95727156
Assignment 6: Parenting Styles and the Secure Attachment

Table of Parenting Styles


Parenting Style Defining Characteristics Effect on Child
Children growing up in
such families do
less well in school, are
typically less skilled with
peers, and have lower
Highly demanding and
self-esteem than
yet unresponsive.
children from other
types of families
(Baumrind, 1991;
Maccoby & Martin,
1983).
Authoritarian Control their children's
conduct by establishing
rules and regulations.
Some of these children
Obedience is greatly
appear subdued; others
valued, and the threat
may show high levels of
offeree is
aggressiveness
used to correct behavior.
or other indications of
A parent's decisions
being out of control
cannot be questioned.
(Caputo, 2004).
The authoritarian
parent's word is
law.(Kaplan)
Academically may do
Tolerant and warm but
slightly less well in school
exercise little authority
in adolescence.
Likely to
Make few demands on
be aggressive—
their children. Open to
particularly if the parents
Permissive communication, and do
are specifically
not attempt to shape the
permissive toward
children's behavior.
aggressiveness
Somewhat immature in
Children are not
their behavior with peers
punished.
and in school.
Introduction to Child Psychology (Open Campus Feb-April 2019)
Tutor: Isidorn Yvonne Johnson
Richard Teesdale ID# 95727156
Assignment 6: Parenting Styles and the Secure Attachment

Parenting Style Defining Characteristics Effect on Child


The children regulate
their own activities. Less likely to take
When necessary, responsibility and are
Permissive permissive less independent
parents use reason (Maccoby &
rather than power to Martin, 1983).
control their children.
Parents are high in both Children reared in such
control and warmth, families typically show
setting clear limits, higher self-esteem and
expecting and reinforcing are less likely to use
socially mature behavior, alcohol or drugs in
and at the same time adolescence (Luyckx,
responding to the child’s Tildesley, Soenens, &
individual needs. Andrews, 2011).
Children are
more independent but at
Parents who use this the same time are more
style of parenting do not likely to comply with
let the child rule the parental requests,
Authoritative roost. and they may show more
altruistic behavior as
well.
Parents are quite willing
to discipline the child
appropriately if the child
misbehaves
Less likely to use physical
punishment than are
authoritarian parents,
preferring instead to use
time out or other
mild punishments, but it is
important to understand that
such parents are not wishy-
washy

Introduction to Child Psychology (Open Campus Feb-April 2019)


Tutor: Isidorn Yvonne Johnson
Richard Teesdale ID# 95727156
Assignment 6: Parenting Styles and the Secure Attachment

ATTACHMENT THEORY
All attachment theorists share the assumption that the first attachment
relationship is the most influential ingredient in the creation of the
child’s working model of relationship with the parent.
Variations in this first attachment relationship are almost universally
described using Mary Ainsworth’s category system (Ainsworth et al.,
1978).
She distinguished between secure attachment and two types of
insecure attachment.
Attachment behaviors can be measured using a standardized procedure
called the STRANGE SITUATION (Ainsworth and Whittig, 1969).
The "strange situation" consists of eight standardized episodes in which
children are brought to an unfamiliar room where a series of brief
separations and reunions with their mothers are observed (Waters and
Deane, 1982).

SECURE ATTACHMENT

An internal working model of relationships in which the child uses the


parent (usually the mother) as a safe base and is readily consoled after
separation, when fearful, or when otherwise stressed. Infants are
classified as secure if they greet their mothers positively, and actively
attempt to reestablish proximity during the reunions, and show few if
any negative behaviors toward them after separation during the
STRANGE SITUATION.

Introduction to Child Psychology (Open Campus Feb-April 2019)


Tutor: Isidorn Yvonne Johnson
Richard Teesdale ID# 95727156
Assignment 6: Parenting Styles and the Secure Attachment

Boyd, D. G., & Bee, H. L. (2014). The Developing Child. Pearson New International Edition.

Duane Shultz, S. S. (2009). Theories of Personality.

Kaplan. (1986). A Child's Odyssey- Child and adolescent developement.

Shaffer, D. R., & Kipp, K. (2013). Developmental Pyschology - Childhood and Adolescence. Cengage
Learning.

Introduction to Child Psychology (Open Campus Feb-April 2019)


Tutor: Isidorn Yvonne Johnson