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Ministry of higher University of kufa

Education & scientific College of engineering

Research Department of Electrical

Space-Time Coding

Research Work Submitted to College of Engineering
University of Kufa
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for
the Degree of B.S.C.A In Electrical Engineering.

Presented by
Ali Jasim Ramadhan

Supervised by
Dr . Raed S. H. al-Mousawi

2011 A.D 1431 A.H


Space-time coding is a powerful technique to improve the error

performance of wireless communications systems. We apply the
idea of space-time coding devised for multiple- antenna systems
to the problem of communications over a wireless network with
Rayleigh fading channels. Fading is problem effect on data rate
transmittion over wireless communication system. Fading is
happen due to the propagation of signal in built-up area so the
receiver received the signal from multipath with different phase
shift and gain. The Diversity Technique is used to overcome the
effect of fading. In practical, Space-Time Coding has given
good solution to this problem and improvement the capacity of
wireless communication system. In this project we have
implemented a Matlab program to simulation Space-Time
coding technique for several cases these include
(2Tx,1Rx),(2Tx,2Rx), (3Tx,1R) and (4Tx,1Rx). Our result have
shown a very good improvement over single transmitter single
receiver case.

Dedications I
Abstract II
CHAPTER 1: Introduction
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Project Organization 2

CAPTER 2: Fading and Diversity in Wireless Communication

2.1 Introduction of Fading 4
2.2 Fading types in wireless environment 5
2.3 The modeling of flat Fading 5
2.4 Introduction of Diversity 8
2.4.1 Space Diversity 8
2.4.2 Frequency Diversity 8
2.4.3 Time Diversity 9
CHAPTER 3: Space-Time Coding

3.1 Introduction 10
3.2 Space-Time Coding With Two Transmitters 11
3.2.1 Two-Branch Space-Time Coding with one Receiver 11
3.2.2 Two-Branch Space-Time Coding with q Receiver 14
3.3 Other Space-Time Coding 16

CHAPTER 4: Computer Simulation Results and Conclusion

4.1 Introduction 18
4.2 Results 18
4.3 Conclusion 23

Appendix 25
Space-Time Coding Simulation Code
Table of acronyms

STC Space-Time coding

pdf probability density function

PSK Phase Shift Keying

BPSK Binery Phase Shift Keying

QBSK Quadrature Phase Shift Keying

AWGN Additive White Gaussian Noise

SNR Signal to Noise Ratio



In this Chapter we will evaluate the bit error rate performance of the
Space Time Coding over Rayleigh Fading Channel using computer
simulation. To evaluate the bit error rate performance of Space-Time
Codes computer simulation has been implemented using MATLAB. Also
the conclusioin of this project is given.


In this section we will present the result of computer simulation using

MATLAB of the performance of Rayleigh Fading Channel and also the
performance of some Space-Time Codes G2, G3 and G4 that have been
presented in the previous chapter.
Figure 4.1 shows the bit error rate performance of the transmission over
Rayleigh Fading Channel using uncoded BPSK .
The transmission using one transmitter antenna and one receiver antenna.
Also in this Figure the bit error rate of uncoded BPSK over Additive
White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) Channel and we use this Figure as the
reference for all systems performance we study in this project and from
this Figure we note the effect of Rayleigh Fading for example the
probability of bit error 10-3 the SNR of Rayleigh Fading Channel about
25 dB and it will be 7dB over AWGN Channel at the same probability of
bit error.

Figure 4.1 the error rate performance of BPSK over Rayleigh Fading
Channel and AWGN Channel

Figure 4.2 compares the performance of Space-Time Code G2 using one

and two receiver’s antenna having an effective throughput 1 BPS over
Rayleigh Fading Channel with the performance of uncoded BPSK over
Rayleigh Fading Channel.
BPSK modulation was employed in transmission of G2 and assume
that the total power received from poth transmit antennas in the Space-
Time Code (G2) is the same as the transmit power of uncoded BPSK over
Rayleigh Fading Channel using one transmitter antenna. From Figure 5.2
and at probability of bit error 10-4 the required SNR For uncoded BPSK is
about 19 dB and by using G2 (2Tx, 1Rx) the required SNR is 10 dB
.Thus an improvement by a bout 9 dB has been achieved by using G2
(2Tx, 2Rx).

Figure 4.2 The bit error performance of G2 (2Tx, 1Rx) and G2 (2Tx,
Figure 4.3 The bit error performance of Space-Time Codes G3 and G4

Figure 4.3 compares the performance of bit error of Space-Time Codes

G3 (3Tx, 1Rx) and G4 (4Tx, 1Rx) with uncoded BPSK over Rayleigh
Fading Channel. The G3 and G4 are half-rate codes. The BPSK
modulation is used in context of G3 and G4, however to get a throughput
1 BPS the QPSK modulation must be used. In our simulation we use
BPSK modulation to simplify in simulation programs and we get the
same error performance when QPSK modulation is employed in Space-
Time Codes G3 and G4.

We assume that the power received from transmit antennas in the

Space-Time Codes (G3, G4) is the same as the transmit power of
uncoded BPSK over Rayleigh Fading Channel using one transmitter
antenna. We can note from Figure 4.3 that to achieve bit error rate 10 -4
the SNR must be 15 dB when G3 is used and it will be about 12 dB when
G4 is used. Also, we can note from Figure 4.3 that a gain of 3 dB is
achieved at bi error rate 10-4 by employing the code G4 compare to G3.

In this project we have studied the Space-Time Coding (STC) which we

needed to improvement the performance of probability of bit error
transmission over Rayleigh Fading Channel. We have studied the bit
error probability performance on Rayleigh Fading Channel for different
Space-Time Codes.
The bit error performances of different systems have been evaluated
using computer simulation with MATLAB software.
We have studied the performance of Space-Time Codes G2 which has
code rate =1 and G3,G4 which has code rate =1/2 and comparing the
effect of increase number of transmit and receive antenna in the
performance of bit error under Rayleigh Fading and the same total power
transmission from antennas and we get :
When using we Space-Time Coding the probability of bit error for
transmission over Rayleigh Fading Channel will be improved for
example at probability of bit error 10− 4 the SNR will be about 19 dB
when we use G2 codes comparing with uncoded BPSK over Rayleigh
Fading Channel.
When we use the same Space-Time Code and increase the number of
received antenna bit error rate is improved for example from simulation
result when we use two receive antenna for G2 code the SNR will be 10
dB at probability of bit error 10−4 compare with G2 code using one
receive antenna.
Also we noticed from the simulation result that by increasing the number
of transmitting antennas, by using codes such as G3 or G4 instead of G2,
that further improvement of the bit error rate has been achieved . For
example to achieve probability of bit error 10−4 the code gain at this value
about 4 dB when change the type of Space-Time Code from G2 to G3
and this gain will be increase to 6 dB when change code type from G2 to
Finally, improvement of bit error rate over Rayleigh Fading Channels by
using Space-Time Codes is obtained at expense of the system complexity.
In fact as we increase the number of transmitting or receiving antennas
better bit error performance is achieved yet the complexity is increase

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Channels and Diversity Combining”, Information and
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Fading Usin MATLAB for ClassRoom Instruction”, Department of
Electrical Engineering And Computer Engineering, Drexel

[3] Siavash M. Alamouti, “A Simple Transmit Diversity Technique

for Wireless Communications”, IEEE Journal on Select Areas in
Communications, vol.16, No. 8, October 1998, pp.1451-1458.

[4] T. H. Liew and Lajos Hanzo, “Space-Time Codes and Concatenated

Channel Codes for Wireless Communications”, Proceedings of the
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[5] Vahid Tarokh, Hamid Jafarkhani, and Robert Calderbank, “Space-

Time Block Coding for Wireless Communication: performance
Results”, IEEE Journal on Select Areas in Communications,VOL.
17, NO. 3, MARCH 1999
[6] Simon Hyakin, “Communication Systems” 4th Edition, Jhon Wiley
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