© All Rights Reserved

Als DOCX, PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

0 Aufrufe

© All Rights Reserved

Als DOCX, PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

- Two Phase Flow
- Chemical engineering with computer applications
- 1-s2.0-001021807990018X-main
- Lecture24 Fluid Mechanics
- Mechanical Syllabus
- 111115 - Kalkulasi - Additional
- FluidMechanicsICourseOutlines Prof WenJhyLee 01011F527210
- Pressure Comp Override 3
- Finite Element Analysis of Convective Micro Polar Fluid Flow through a Porous Medium in Cylindrical Annulus
- Me Thermal Pt
- System Design of Orifice Pulse-tube , Huang
- Bernoulli Therom Major Misconception
- Short Intro to EFDC.ppt
- [002144]
- y+ cfd.pdf
- Simulation of Particles and Gas Flow Behavior in t
- Problems-in-Fluid-Mechanics_Baranyi.pdf
- ME3560ChapterIII
- 05 Permeability
- MOrison.pdf

Sie sind auf Seite 1von 4

Have you ever wondered how an airplane can fly? The simple answer is that as air flows around the wing, the

plane is pushed up by higher pressure air under the wing, compared to lower pressure over the wing. But to

understand this phenomenon more deeply, we must look at a branch of physics known as fluid mechanics,

and in particular a principle known as the Bernoulli equation. Not only can this equation predict the air

pressure around an airplane's wing, but it can also be used to find the force of high winds on a skyscraper, the

pressure through a chemical reactor, or even the speed of water coming out of the hose in your backyard.

CONCEPT

Bernoulli's principle, sometimes known as Bernoulli's equation, holds that for fluids in an ideal state, pressure

and density are inversely related: in other words, a slow-moving fluid exerts more pressure than a fast-moving

fluid. Since "fluid" in this context applies equally to liquids and gases, the principle has as many applications

with regard to airflow as to the flow of liquids. One of the most dramatic everyday examples of Bernoulli's

principle can be found in the airplane, which stays aloft due to pressure differences on the surface of its wing;

but the truth of the principle is also illustrated in something as mundane as a shower curtain that billows

inward.

HOW IT WORKS

The Swiss mathematician and physicist Daniel Bernoulli (1700-1782) discovered the principle that bears his

name while conducting experiments concerning an even more fundamental concept: the conservation of

energy.

Bernoulli was one of the first scientists to propose what is known as the kinetic theory of gases: that gas, like

all matter, is composed of tiny molecules in constant motion. In the 1730s, he conducted experiments in the

conservation of energy using liquids, observing how water flows through pipes of varying diameter. In a

segment of pipe with a relatively large diameter, he observed, water flowed slowly, but as it entered a

segment of smaller diameter, its speed increased.

As fluid moves from a wider pipe to a narrower one, the volume of that fluid that moves a given distance in a

given time period does not change. But since the width of the narrower pipe is smaller, the fluid must move

faster in order to achieve that result. One way to illustrate this is to observe the behavior of a river: in a wide,

unconstricted region, it flows slowly, but if its flow is narrowed by canyon walls (for instance), then it speeds

up dramatically.

The above is a result of the fact that water is a fluid, and having the characteristics of a fluid, it adjusts its

shape to fit that of its container or other solid objects it encounters on its path. Since the volume passing

through a given length of pipe during a given period of time will be the same, there must be a decrease in

pressure. Hence Bernoulli's conclusion: the slower the rate of flow, the higher the pressure, and the faster the

rate of flow, the lower the pressure.

Bernoulli published the results of his work in Hydrodynamica (1738), but did not present his ideas or their

implications clearly. Later, his friend the German mathematician Leonhard Euler (1707-1783) generalized his

findings in the statement known today as Bernoulli's principle.

Bernoulli discovers how to measure blood pressure

Together Bernoulli and Euler tried to discover more about the flow of fluids. In particular, they wanted to

know about the relationship between the speed at which blood flows and its pressure. To investigate this,

Daniel experimented by puncturing the wall of a pipe with a small open ended straw and noted that the height

to which the fluid rose up the straw was related to fluid's pressure in the pipe.

Soon physicians all over Europe were measuring patients blood pressure by sticking point-ended

glass tubes directly into their arteries. It was not until about 170 years later, in 1896 that an Italian

doctor discovered a less painful method which is still in use today. However, Bernoulli's method of

measuring pressure is still used today in modern aircraft to measure the speed of the air passing the

plane; that is its air speed.

importance

The Bernoulli equation is an important expression relating pressure, height and velocity of a fluid at one point

along its flow. The relationship between these fluid conditions along a streamline always equal the same

constant along that streamline in an idealized system. An idealized system refers to a fluid that has a constant

density (incompressible), and is inviscid.

Assuming that the fluid is inviscid means that it has no viscosity. Therefore, certain effects of viscosity, such as

water sticking to the walls of its pipe or container, do not apply.

Because the Bernoulli equation is equal to a constant at all points along a streamline, we can equate two

points on a streamline. Using information on the system at one point, we can solve for information at another.

Limitations of the Applications of Bernoulli’s Equation

One of the restrictions is that some amount of energy will be lost due to internal friction during fluid flow. This is

because fluid has separate layers and each layer of fluid will flow with different velocities. Thus, each layer will

exert some amount of frictional force on the other layer thereby losing energy in the process.

The proper term for this property of the fluid is viscosity. Now, what happens to the kinetic energy lost in the

process? The kinetic energy of the fluid lost in the process will change into heat energy. Therefore, we can easily

conclude that Bernoulli’s principle is applicable to non-viscous fluids (fluids with no viscosity).

Another major limitation of this principle is the requirement of the incompressible fluid. Thus, the equation does

not consider the elastic energy of the fluid. However, elastic energy plays a very important role in various

applications. It also helps us to understand the concepts related to low viscosity incompressible fluids.

Furthermore, Bernoulli’s principle is not possible in turbulent flows. This is because the pressure and velocity are

constantly fluctuating in case of turbulent flow.

principle appropriate for flowing fluids. It is one of the most important/useful equations in fluid mechanics. It

puts into a relation pressure and velocity in an inviscid incompressible flow. Bernoulli’s equation has some

restrictions in its applicability, they summarized in following points:

density is constant (which also means the fluid is incompressible),

no work is done on or by the fluid,

no heat is transferred to or from the fluid,

no change occurs in the internal energy,

the equation relates the states at two points along a single streamline (not conditions on two different

streamlines)

This equation is the most famous equation in fluid dynamics. The Bernoulli’s equation describes the

qualitative behaviour flowing fluid that is usually labelled with the term Bernoulli’s effect. This effect

causes the lowering of fluid pressure in regions where the flow velocity is increased. This lowering of

pressure in a constriction of a flow path may seem counterintuitive, but seems less so when you

consider pressure to be energy density. In the high-velocity flow through the constriction, kinetic

energy must increase at the expense of pressure energy. The dimensions of terms in the equation are

kinetic energy per unit volume.

- Two Phase FlowHochgeladen vonAbdul Basit Ahmad
- Chemical engineering with computer applicationsHochgeladen vonAnonymous NxpnI6jC
- 1-s2.0-001021807990018X-mainHochgeladen vonBehzad Roshan
- Lecture24 Fluid MechanicsHochgeladen vonSata Ajjam
- Mechanical SyllabusHochgeladen vonBilla Uppalapati
- 111115 - Kalkulasi - AdditionalHochgeladen vonMuhamad Fadli Arsyada
- FluidMechanicsICourseOutlines Prof WenJhyLee 01011F527210Hochgeladen vonMohammed Soleiman
- Pressure Comp Override 3Hochgeladen vonjackiepallo
- Finite Element Analysis of Convective Micro Polar Fluid Flow through a Porous Medium in Cylindrical AnnulusHochgeladen vonIJMER
- Me Thermal PtHochgeladen vonJithuJohn
- System Design of Orifice Pulse-tube , HuangHochgeladen vonAli AH
- Bernoulli Therom Major MisconceptionHochgeladen vonJagdeep Sekhon
- Short Intro to EFDC.pptHochgeladen vonMohd. Yunus
- [002144]Hochgeladen vondanonnino
- y+ cfd.pdfHochgeladen vonSarath Babu S
- Simulation of Particles and Gas Flow Behavior in tHochgeladen vonLTORRESM
- Problems-in-Fluid-Mechanics_Baranyi.pdfHochgeladen vonNasser Shelil
- ME3560ChapterIIIHochgeladen vonAmit Mondal
- 05 PermeabilityHochgeladen vonHasan Nasoetion
- MOrison.pdfHochgeladen vonBrendon Menezes de Abreu
- 6_1.pdfHochgeladen vonkiranran99
- Tutorial 2Hochgeladen vonAndrew
- On the Assessment of a VOF Based Compressive Interface CapturingHochgeladen vonRAJESH SIMHADRI
- Theory of high pressure system.pdfHochgeladen vonDeenanath
- Fertilizer ManualHochgeladen vonPrabal Kahar
- maquinas hidráulicasHochgeladen vonfrc121996
- Pressure Drop CalculationHochgeladen vonSushil Wadiye
- petroleum engineeringHochgeladen vonnoor
- Assignment 3Hochgeladen vonshafin sharaf
- mekfluHochgeladen vonrifqi0400

- IJMET_08_01_004.pdfHochgeladen vonIAEME Publication
- Finals CompilationHochgeladen vonJoe
- Volume issue 2013 [doi 10.1016_B978-0-12-374739-6.00013-0] Sherman, D.J. -- Treatise on Geomorphology 1.13 Sediments and Sediment Transport.pdfHochgeladen vonAlirezaKhoshkonesh
- Simulation of Energy Loss Due to Changes in Pipe Direction Across a ManholeHochgeladen vonTint Tiger
- Wind Tunnel Pope.pdfHochgeladen vonKrmxl Tdre
- CCNY LabManualHochgeladen vonShady Hegazy
- projectreport-150808085647-lva1-app6892Hochgeladen vonwaseemjutt
- 19830016278_1983016278Hochgeladen vonDjokab
- OutlineHochgeladen vonmichsantos
- NACA RM A55DO7 Estimation of Incremental Pitching Moments Due to Trailing Edge Flaps on Swept and Triangular WingsHochgeladen vonMark Evan Salutin
- Pages From Chapter 8 Gas Well Performance-4c592002ebde4d7067a054a8d70da19aHochgeladen vonAzakura1988
- The effect of particle sizes and solids concentration on the rheology of silica sand based suspensionsHochgeladen vonSarahMakumbe
- chapter 1 INTRODUCTIONHochgeladen vonFoong Kah Loon
- Chp6B_Drawdown & BuildupHochgeladen vonKaoru Amane
- 1980_Rouillard_The Viscosity Of Mollasses.pdfHochgeladen vonCarlos Tomey
- loveday_design_2006.pdfHochgeladen vonmukeshmyst
- International Standard Atmosphere (ISA)Hochgeladen vonrahulsamyal
- Latihan Kelompok Mekanika Fluida Dan PartikelHochgeladen vonrizka
- Peerless Pump Tech BulletinsHochgeladen vonWilhelm Thorley
- Fundamentals of Aerodynamics Part 5Hochgeladen vonAmanullah Rafi
- Blade.element.theoryHochgeladen vonAdimasu Ayele
- StabilityHochgeladen vonJenelia Jojo
- PEX-05-04Hochgeladen vonJila Hafizi
- Calibration of Peristaltic PumpHochgeladen vonMahathir Mohmed
- SST Turbulence ModelHochgeladen vonmatteo_1234
- 2392-3302.pdfHochgeladen vonFawaz Parto
- Introduction to Turbulent FlowsHochgeladen vonDoddy Carvallo
- Pump_Graph.pdfHochgeladen vonJohan Carranza Alvarez
- Objective of pumpsHochgeladen vonTomide Olasupo
- Hydraulics of Stepped Spillways.pdfHochgeladen vonGuillermo Andres Salvatierra

## Viel mehr als nur Dokumente.

Entdecken, was Scribd alles zu bieten hat, inklusive Bücher und Hörbücher von großen Verlagen.

Jederzeit kündbar.