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PAC-3 Technical Manual


Absorption: Assimilation of molecules or other Air rate: Mass flow of dry air per cross-sectional
substances into the physical structure of a liquid or area per hour in the heat transfer region of a cooling
solid without chemical reaction. tower.
Acid cleaning: The act of removing adhering Air rumbling: Introducing pressurized air or
deposits, by dissolving with an acid solution in which nitrogen into the water inlet of a heat exchanger to
the deposited material is dissociated into a com- dislodge accumulated foulants.
pletely soluble state or where the binding material is Air travel: Distance air travels in its passage through
made soluble. In the latter action, the insoluble part is the fill. Measured vertically on counterflow towers
disintegrated. and horizontally on crossflow towers.
Acid: A compound that dissociates in water to give Air velocity: Velocity of air-vapor mixture through a
an increase in hydrogen ion concentration. specific region of the tower.
Acidity: Theoretically, in water, an excess of Air washer: Scrubbers used to alter the temperature,
hydrogen ions over hydroxide ions that occurs at a pH humidity, and cleanliness of air in a building or
below 7. In water analysis, an excess of hydrogen manufacturing facility by spraying water (usually
ions that is measurable by titration where the pH is chilled) into the air stream.
less than 4.3, where M alkalinity disappears (at the Algae: Simple plants containing chlorophyll. Many
methyl orange endpoint). are microscopic, but under conditions favorable for
Activated bromine: Hypobromous acid produced by growth, they grow in colonies and produce mats and
reaction of sodium bromide and an oxidizer such as similar nuisance masses.
sodium hypochlorite. Algaecide: A toxic material used to retard or prevent
Active metal: A metal ready to corrode or being the growth of algae.
corroded. Contrast with noble metal. Alkaline: 1. Having properties of an alkali. 2.
Admiralty brass: A series of three zinc alloys of Having a pH greater than 7.
copper containing 1% tin and one of three inhibitors Alkalinity: Acid neutralizing power of a solution. In
for dezincification (arsenic, antimony, or phospho- water analysis, generally expressed as ppm calcium
rus). Typical applications for this material are carbonate.
condenser, evaporator, and heat exchanger tubing,
Alloy steel: Steel containing specified quantities of
condenser tubing plates, and ferrules.
alloying elements added to change mechanical or
Adsorbable organic halide (AOX): Halogen physical properties.
containing organic compounds adsorbable onto
Alloy system: A family of alloys having in common
activated carbon, environmental concern due to
a single, compositionally predominant metal.
potential toxicity.
Alloy: A substance having metallic properties and
Adsorption: Physical adhesion of molecules or
being composed of two or more chemical elements of
colloids to the surfaces of solids without chemical
which at least one is a metal.
Aluminum brass: A zinc alloy of copper containing
Aerated: A condition or state wherein a solution
2% aluminum and 0.1% arsenic for inhibition of
contains dissolved atmospheric gases through
dezincification. It is often specified when erosion
intimate contact with air.
resistance exceeding that of normal brasses is
Aerobe: An organism that grows in the presence of required.
free (molecular) oxygen.
Ambient wet bulb temperature: The wet bulb
Aerosol: A colloidal system involving liquid or solid temperature of the air encompassing a cooling tower,
particulates dispersed in air. not including any temperature contribution by the
Agglomerate: To gather fine particulates together tower itself. Generally measured upwind of a tower,
into a larger mass. in a number of locations sufficient to account for all
Air inlet: Opening in a cooling tower through which extraneous sources of heat.
air enters. Sometimes referred to as the louvered face Ambient: The atmosphere near (generally upwind)
on induced draft towers. but not affected by the cooling tower or other nearby
heat-producing equipment.

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Amines: A generic name for compounds formed by Applied stress: Stresses extrinsic to the material
the replacement of hydrogen atoms of ammonia by itself, such as those imposed by service conditions.
organic alkyl groups. Example: R-NH2 R-NH-R, Contrast with residual stress.
where R represents the alkyl group. Approach: a) For a cooling tower, the difference
Amorphous: Not having a crystalline shape or form. between the cold water temperature and either the
AMP: Aminotris methylene phosphonic acid. ambient or entering wet bulb temperature. b) For a
Amperometric: An analytical method based on the heat exchanger, the difference between the process
determination of a flow of current, where the current outlet and the cooling water inlet temperatures. An
flow is related to the concentration of the material increase in Approach can indicate heat transfer
being determined. Commonly used to measure active problems within the exchanger. Approach does not
halogen species in water. distinguish between waterside and process-side
Amphoteric: Capable of reacting chemically either
as an acid or a base. In reference to certain metals, Aquifer: A porous, subsurface geological structure
signifies their propensity to corrode at both high and carrying or holding water.
low pH. Area Effect: Anodic corrosion rates may be spread
Anaerobes: Organisms that have the ability to grow over a large area (low corrosion rates) or a small area
in the absence of oxygen. (high corrosion rates).
Anion: A negatively charged ion resulting from Atmospheric: Refers to the movement of air through
dissociation of salts, acids, or alkalis in aqueous a cooling tower purely by natural means or by the
solution. aspirating effect of water flow.
Anionic: The condition of a polymer, colloid, or ATP (Adenosine triphosphate): An important
large particle having exchangeable cations on its molecule in the metabolism of all microorganisms,
surface and an opposite, negative charge on the termed “energy rich” since reactions involving ATP
substrate. produce large amounts of energy.
Annealing: The process of heating to and holding at Austenite: A solid solution of one or more elements
a suitable temperature and then cooling at a suitable in face-centered cubic iron. Austenite is the basic
rate, for such purposes as reducing hardness, reliev- constituent of the 300 series stainless steels (304,
ing residual stresses, and producing a desired 316, etc.).
microstructure. When the term is used by itself, full Austenitic stainless steel: A nonmagnetic stainless
annealing is implied. When the treatment is applied steel possessing a microstructure of austenite. In
only for the relief of stress, it is properly called stress addition to chromium, these steels commonly contain
relieving or stress-relief annealing. at least 8% nickel.
Anode: The electrode of an electrochemical cell at Autocatalytic corrosion: Corrosion processes that
which oxidation occurs. Electrons flow away from the are self-sustaining.
anode in the external circuit. It is usually at the anode Autocatalytic reaction: Self-propagating reactions
that corrosion occurs and metal ions enter solution. that speed up the corrosion process.
Contrast with cathode. Automatic variable pitch fan: A propeller type fan
Anodic inhibitor: A material or combination of whose hub incorporates a mechanism, which enables
materials that prevent or reduce corrosion by a the fan blades to be repitched simultaneously and
physical, physiochemical, or chemical action at the automatically. They are used on cooling towers and
anodic surface of a metal. Contrast with cathodic air-cooled heat exchangers to trim capacity and
inhibitor. conserve energy.
Anodizing: The treatment of a metal surface Autotrophs: Organisms that use carbon dioxide for
whereby the metal is made anodic. some or all carbon requirements.
Antifoam: Substances such as silicones, organic Avogadro’s number: The number of molecules in a
phosphates, and alcohols that inhibit formation of gram-molecular weight of any substance, 6.02 X 1023.
bubbles in a liquid by reducing the surface tension of Back flushing: In a heat exchanger, reversing the
the liquid. water flow direction to dislodge accumulated

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Bacteria: Microscopic single-cell plants that Biofouling monitor: A device used to measure
reproduce by fission or by spores, identified by their biofilm development and removal.
shapes (coccus for spherical, bacillus for rod-shaped, Biofouling: The excessive growth and development
and spirillum for curved). of members of the lower forms of the plant kingdom.
Baffle cut: That portion of the inner diameter of the Biological fouling: In cooling systems, this repre-
shell, expressed as a percentage, which is not closed sents obstructive growth or accumulation of various
by a baffle. organisms, such as algae, bacteria, and fungi.
Baffle pitch or spacing: The center-to-center Biolytic agent: An agent capable of disrupting cell
distance between adjacent baffles. walls.
Baffle: Partition that causes fluids to change Biopolymers: Any of a group of high molecular
direction on the shell side of a shell-and-tube heat weight molecules that are significant for their role in
exchanger. the structure or metabolism of organisms, often
Barometric condenser: Creates a vacuum by composed of low molecular weight molecules bonded
condensing a gaseous stream in direct contact with together in a regular manner.
cooling water. Biota: All living organisms of a region or system.
Base metal: 1. In welding, the metal to be welded. 2. Birmingham wire gauge (BWG): A common scale
After welding, that part of the metal that was not used to define heat exchanger tube dimensions.
melted. Bivalve: Any mollusk with a shell containing two
Base: A compound that dissociates in water to give halves.
an increase in hydroxyl ion concentration. An Bleed-off rate: See Blowdown.
alkaline substance.
Bleed-off: See Blowdown.
Basin curb: Top level of the coldwater basin
Blowdown: The withdrawal of water from an
retaining wall; usually the datum from which pump-
evaporating water system to maintain a dissolved
ing head and various elevations of the tower are
solids balance within specified limits of concentra-
tion of those solids. Mathematically, Blowdown is
Basin: Generally that part of a cooling tower that equal to the Makeup divided by the Cycles of
receives the water passing over and dispersed by the concentration and the difference between the Makeup
interior wood structure. This may sometimes be and Evaporation.
referred to as the sump, or it may be used to designate
Blower: A squirrel cage (centrifugal) type fan usually
the pond area of a constructed spray cooling system.
for operation at higher than normal static pressures.
Bay: The area between adjacent transverse and
Blowout: See Windage.
longitudinal framing bents in a cooling tower.
Bonnet: The rounded closed end of a shell-and-tube
Bent: A transverse or longitudinal line of structural
heat exchanger.
framework composed of columns, girts, ties, and
diagonal bracing members in a cooling tower. Brake horsepower: The actual power output of a
motor, turbine, or engine.
Bicarbonate: A form of alkalinity found in varying
amounts in all natural waters and in cooling water Brass: An alloy consisting mainly of copper (over
systems. It represents carbonic acid with half of the 50%) and zinc to which smaller amounts of other
acidity neutralized, or it can be considered carbonate elements may be added.
with half of the alkalinity neutralized. Breakpoint chlorination: A process wherein
Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD): The oxygen enough chlorine is added to destroy the chloramines
required by bacteria for oxidation of the soluble and organics, and the total chlorine remaining is
organic matter under controlled test conditions. almost wholly composed of free available chlorine.
Biocide: A chemical used to control the population British Thermal Unit (Btu): The amount of heat
of troublesome microbes. gain (or loss) required to raise (or lower) the tempera-
ture of one pound of water 1°F.
Biofilm: The deposit formed when microorganisms
attach to surfaces. Can contain particulates such as Brittle fracture: Sudden fracture with little or no
scale, corrosion products, and silt. plastic deformation.

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Brominater: A device that uses water flow and Carburization: The introduction of carbon into a
temperature to control the dissolution of solid solid metal by exposure of the metal to a high-
bromine-based biocides within a chamber before the temperature environment in which carbon or its
bromine is fed to a cooling water system. compounds are present.
Bromochlorodimethyl hydantoin (BCDMH): A Casing: Exterior enclosing wall of a tower, exclusive
chlorine and bromine release compound, an oxidizing of the louvers.
biocide. Catalase: An enzyme that is capable of catalyzing
Bronze: A copper-rich copper-tin alloy with or the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to oxygen
without small proportions of other elements, such as and water, widely distributed in microorganisms.
zinc and phosphorus. Also, certain other essentially Catalysis: Addition of a material (catalyst) that does
binary copper-based alloys containing no tin, such as not take a direct part in a chemical reaction but
aluminum bronze, silicon bronze, and beryllium increases the rate of the reaction.
bronze. Catalyzed: Facilitated by an agent said to be a
Buffer: A substance in solution, which accepts catalyst. In chemical reactions, the catalyst increases
hydrogen ions or hydroxyl ions added to the solution the kinetics (speed) of the reaction by lowering the
as acids or alkalis, minimizing a change in pH. activation energy.
Bulk water: The water contained in the entire Cathode: In a corrosion cell, the area over which
system. reduction is the principal reaction. It is usually an
BZT: Benzotriazole. area that is not attacked. Contrast with anode.
Calcite: Most common form of calcium carbonate Cathodic inhibitor: A material or combination of
scale experienced in cooling water. At an SI over 8, materials that prevent or reduce corrosion by a
chemical treatment is required to control precipita- physical, physiochemical, or a chemical action at the
tion. cathodic surface of a metal. Contrast with anodic
Calcium hardness: Water hardness due to the inhibitor.
soluble calcium in water. Cathodic protection: The use of an impressed
Calcium sulfate: In solution, this is a noncarbonate current or sacrificial anodes to prevent or reduce the
or permanent type of hardness. In precipitated or rate of corrosion of a metal in an electrolyte by
insoluble form, it can produce a very inert, adherent making the metal the cathode of the corrosion cell.
deposit or scale. Cation: A positively charged ion resulting from
Capacity: The amount of water that a cooling tower dissociation of molecules in solution.
will cool through a specified range at a specified Cationic: The condition of a polymer, colloid, or
approach and wet bulb temperature. large particle having exchangeable anions on its
Carbide: A compound of carbon with one or more surface and an opposite, positive charge on the
metallic elements. substrate.
Carbon dioxide: A gaseous stable oxide of carbon Caustic cracking: A form of stress corrosion
that has an acidic reaction when dissolved in water. cracking in which continuous, predominantly
Forms carbonic acid. intergranular cracks are produced by the simulta-
Carbon steel: Steel that owes its properties chiefly neous exposure of a metal to tensile stresses and
to the presence of carbon in amounts up to 2%; also concentrated caustic.
termed ordinary steel, straight carbon steel, and plain Caustic soda: A common water treatment chemical,
carbon steel. sodium hydroxide (lye).
Carbonate hardness: That hardness in a water Caustic: A hydroxide of a light metal, such as
caused by bicarbonates and carbonates of calcium sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide.
and magnesium. If alkalinity exceeds total hardness, Cavitation corrosion: A form of erosion-corrosion
all hardness is carbonate hardness; if hardness caused by the hammer-like effect of collapsing air
exceeds alkalinity, the carbonate hardness equals the bubbles in high velocity turbines, propellers, etc.
alkalinity. Contrast with noncarbonate hardness. Cavitation damage: Metal loss caused by the rapid,
repeated formation and collapse of cavities in liquid.

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Cavitation: The formation and instantaneous Chevron pattern: A fractographic pattern of radial
collapse of innumerable tiny voids or cavities within marks that resemble nested letters V. Chevron
a liquid subjected to rapid and intense pressure patterns are typically found on brittle fracture
changes. surfaces in parts whose widths are considerably
Cell: Smallest tower subdivision that can function as greater than their thicknesses. The points of the
an independent unit with regard to air and water flow; chevrons can be traced back to the fracture origin.
it is bounded by either exterior walls or partition Chilled water systems: Closed recirculating cooling
walls. Each cell may have one or more fans and one water systems usually operated in conjunction with
or more distribution systems. some form of refrigeration or secondary cooling.
Cellulose: The fibrous material of wood. Chiller: See Refrigeration machine.
Cementite: A compound of iron and carbon known Chimney: See Shell.
chemically as iron carbide. Characterized by great Chloride: Soluble ionic form of elemental chlorine.
hardness. A lamellar constituent of pearlite. Useful as a measure of blowdown or bleed-off
C-Factor: A dimensionless number used to monitor control.
and trend waterside fouling in heat exchangers. It is a Chlorination: The treatment of water using gaseous
waterside measurement of orifice size. A drop in C- chlorine or other chlorine releasing agents. Chlorina-
Factor can indicate a flow restriction within the heat tion is most commonly used for making water safe
exchanger. C-Factor is more accurate than Delta P in for drinking purposes. In cooling water systems,
that it includes the effect of changes in water flow chlorine is used to control biological fouling.
rate. C-Factor equals the flow rate divided by the Chlorine demand: The difference between the
square root of the Delta P. amount of chlorine applied to treat a water supply and
Channeling: In cooling towers, a condition in which the amount of free plus combined chlorine (total
the distribution of water over packing is concentrated chlorine) remaining at the end of a specified contact
in a localized area rather than uniformly throughout period.
the tower, resulting in reduced cooling efficiency. Chlorine dioxide (ClO2): An oxidizing biocide.
Channels: The ends of shell-and-tube heat exchang- Chloroisocyanurates: Chlorine release compounds,
ers (sometimes part of the shell itself, sometimes oxidizing biocide.
bolted onto the end of the shell) that direct the
Chromate: Refers particularly to a chemical type
tubeside fluid to the tubesheet.
inhibitor containing hexavalent chromium in the
Charge reinforcement: The process of adding a compound. Generally considered to be sodium
like-charged polymer (usually anionic) to cooling chromate. However, when referring to a chromate
water in order for colloids to adsorb the charge, treatment, it can include any compound containing
increasing their repulsive forces. the chromate or dichromate radical.
Chelant: Compounds (EDTA and NTA) that form Circulating water rate: Quantity of hot water
soluble complexes with hardness. Used to control entering the cooling tower.
selective heavy metal deposits.
Cleanliness factor: The measured heat transfer
Chelating agents: Organic compounds having the coefficient (U value) divided by the design U value.
ability to withdraw ions from water solutions into For a completely clean condenser, the cleanliness
soluble complexes. Examples are EDTA and NTA. factor is 1.
Chelation: The act of withdrawing ions into soluble Closed circulating water system: See Closed
complexes. cooling system.
Chemical feeding: The controlled addition of Closed cooling system: A water system not sub-
chemicals into a water system to obtain a specific jected to evaporation or other losses and having no
effect. normal makeup demand.
Chemical oxygen demand (COD): A measure of Coagulation: The neutralization of the charges on
organic matter and other reducing substances in colloidal matter (sometimes also considered to be
water. flocculation).

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Coalescence: The union of particles of a dispersed Condenser: In a refrigeration machine, typically a

phase into larger particles, usually effected below the shell-and-tube heat exchanger that transfers heat from
fusion point. the primary refrigerant (Freon or ammonia) to the
Cold flow: Deformation of an elastic material condenser cooling water by condensing the primary
resulting from stresses applied at ambient tempera- refrigerant.
ture. Conduction: The transfer of heat through a body by
Cold water temperature: Temperature of the water molecular motion.
leaving the collection basin, exclusive of any tem- Conductivity meter: In cooling system applications,
perature effects incurred by the addition of makeup or a device used to control cycles of concentration by
the removal of blowdown. measuring the specific conductance of water.
Cold well: Section of the tower basin that contains Conductivity: In water treatment, this represents the
screens and pumps to circulate the cold water to the current carrying capacity of a water. It is easily
process heat load. determined by applying a fixed voltage between two
Cold worked: Plastic deformation resulting in non-polarizing electrodes of fixed area and set at a
substantial increases in strength and hardness of a fixed distance apart. Electrical conductivity is usually
metal. Visible structural changes include distortion of expressed in micromhos (microsiemens) per centimeter.
grains and, in some cases, mechanical twining. Contaminant: Any foreign component present in
Coliform bacteria: Bacteria found in the intestinal another substance.
tract of warm-blooded animals and used as indicators Convection: The transfer of heat through a fluid by
of pollution in water. circulating currents.
Collection basin: Vessel below and integral with the Cooling lake or pond: A type of recirculating
tower where water is transiently collected and cooling system that uses man-made lakes or ponds to
directed to the sump or pump suction line. dissipate heat.
Colloids: Matter of very fine particle size, usually in Cooling range: The numerical difference between
the range of 10-5 to 10-7 cm in diameter. the water temperature entering the cooling tower at
Combined residual chlorine: Chlorine in combina- the distribution system and the cold water tempera-
tion with ammonia or organic nitrogen compounds. ture leaving the sump of the cooling tower.
Competing ion effect: Certain ions are capable of Cooling tower: An enclosed, steady flow device for
forming a soluble ion pair that will decrease the cooling water by evaporation and sensible heat
deposition potential of certain scales. An example is exchange through direct contact with air.
magnesium forming a soluble ion pair with sulfate Cooling water: Any water that removes heat from a
and decreasing the scale potential of calcium sulfate. point or area of higher temperature and delivers to a
Concentration cell: An electrolytic cell, the electro- point or area of lower temperature.
motive force of which is caused by a difference in Corrater: Electronic device for measuring the
concentration of some component in the electrolyte. corrosion rates or pitting tendency of a given metal-
This difference leads to the formation of discrete lurgy.
cathode and anode regions and subsequent corrosion. Corrosion coupon: A small, preweighed, metal
Concentration ratio (CR): See Cycles of concen- specimen used to measure the average corrosion rate
tration. over the exposure period.
Concentration: The process of increasing the Corrosion fatigue: The process in which a metal
dissolved solids per unit volume of solution, usually fractures prematurely under conditions of simulta-
by evaporation of the liquid. Also, the amount of neous corrosion and repeated cyclic loading at lower
material dissolved in a unit volume of solution. stress levels or fewer cycles than would be required in
Condensate: Water obtained by evaporation and the absence of the corrosive environment.
subsequent condensation. Corrosion inhibitor: Any substance that effectively
decreases the corrosion rate when added to an
environment in small concentrations.

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Corrosion product: Substance formed as a result of Decarburization: The loss of carbon from the
corrosion. surface of a ferrous metal as a result of heating in a
Corrosion test rack: A serpentine piping arrange- medium that reacts with carbon.
ment used to hold corrosion coupons. Defect: An imperfection in a material that contrib-
Corrosion: The chemical or electrochemical utes significantly to failure or limited serviceability.
reaction between a material, usually a metal, and its Contrast with flaw.
environment that produces a deterioration of the Deionization: Any process removing ions from
material and its properties. water, but most commonly an ion exchange process
Corrosivity: The tendency of an environment to where cations and anions are removed independently
cause corrosion in a given system. of each other.
Counterflow: Airflow direction through the fill is Delignification: Destructive action on wood,
countercurrent to that of the falling water. resulting from chemical activity that removes tannins
Creep: The microstructural deformation of metals and lignins, leaving the structure in a fibrous,
held for long periods of time at stresses below the weakened state.
yield strength and at temperatures slightly above the Delta P: The pressure difference across a pump,
recrystallization temperature. Long-time creep at valve, orifice, or heat exchanger, generally used in
elevated temperatures frequently produces intergranu- flow calculations. Delta P is one of the variables
lar, discontinuous cracks. needed to calculate C-Factor.
Crevice corrosion: A type of concentration cell Delta T: The temperature difference across a cooling
corrosion caused by the concentration or depletion of tower or heat exchanger, generally used in heat
dissolved salts, metal ions, oxygen, or other gases in transfer calculations.
crevices or pockets remote from the principal fluid Demineralization: Any process used to remove
stream, with a resultant buildup of differential cells minerals from water; however, commonly the term is
that ultimately cause deep pitting. Also termed restricted to ion exchange processes.
deposit corrosion and gasket corrosion. Dendrite: A metal solidification crystal that exhibits
Crossflow: Airflow direction through the fill is a tree-like, branching pattern that forms in cast
essentially perpendicular to that of the falling water. metals that are slowly cooled through the solidifica-
Cupronickel: A copper-based alloy containing 5 to tion range.
30% nickel. Denickelification: Corrosion in which nickel is
Cycles of concentration (COC): In an evaporating selectively leached from nickel-containing alloys.
water system, the ratio of the concentration of a Most commonly observed in copper-nickel alloys
specific substance in the recirculating (blowdown) after extended service in fresh water.
water to the concentration of the same substance in Denitrification: Energy yielding metabolism where
the makeup water. Also, the quotient of the makeup nitrite or nitrate is reduced to ammonia or nitrogen gas.
water flow divided by the blowdown flow. Denitrifiers: Those bacteria capable of carrying out
Cyclic stress: A stress whose magnitude fluctuates. the denitrification process.
Contrast with static stress. Depassivation (activation): The changing of a metal
Dark etching constituents: Constituents of a surface from a chemically nonreactive (passive)
microstructure that appear dark after etching. They condition to a reactive (corroding) condition.
are generally mixtures, not a single, well-defined Depassivation agent: A substance, usually an ion
material. such as chloride, whose reaction with a metal surface
DBNPA (2,2-dibromo-3-nitrilopropionamide): A destroys its passive character.
non-oxidizing biocide, reacts with cell’s enzymes. Deposit: Material formed or deposited on a surface
Dealkalization: Any process for reducing the in contact with a solution.
alkalinity of water. Deposition: A water borne problem resulting in the
Dealloying: Selective corrosion of one or more accumulation of various solids.
components of a solid solution alloy. Also called Desalination: The removal of inorganic dissolved
parting or selective leaching. solids from water, especially salt water.

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Dezincification: The leaching of zinc from brass, DPD (Diethylparaphenylenediamine) test: A testing
which leaves the metal with a weak porous copper method to determine free and total residual chlorine
structure, and reddish, coppery color instead of the levels in which the red color that is produced by the
yellow color usually associated with brass. Most reaction of chlorine and iodide is either titrated to a
commonly found in copper-zinc alloys containing colorless endpoint or is measured on a photometer.
less than 85% copper after extended service in water Drift eliminators: An assembly of baffles or laby-
containing dissolved oxygen. Uniform loss of zinc is rinth passages through which the air passes prior to
termed layer-type dezincification; localized loss of its exit from the tower, for the purpose of removing
zinc is termed plug-type dezincification. entrained water droplets from the exhaust air.
Dialysis: A separation process that depends on Drift: In cooling tower operations, water lost from the
differences in diffusion rates of solutes across a tower as liquid droplets entrained in the exhaust air.
permeable membrane. Driver: Primary drive for the fan assembly. Al-
Diatoms: Organisms related to algae, having a though electric motors predominate, it may also be a
brown pigmentation and a siliceous skeleton. gas engine, steam turbine, hydraulic motor, or other
Differential aeration cell: An electrical potential power source.
generated by differences in the availability of oxygen. Dry bulb temperature: The temperature of the
Differential ion concentration cell: Cooling water entering or ambient air adjacent to the cooling tower
deposits can lead to increased pH at the cathode and as measured with a dry bulb thermometer.
decreased pH at the anode if the two sites do not mix, Dry cooling tower: See Fin-fan cooler.
as in an occluded cell. Ductile fracture: Fracture characterized by tearing
Differential Microbiological Analysis (DMA): Lab of metal accompanied by appreciable gross plastic
analysis to determine quantity and type of microor- deformation and expenditure of considerable energy.
ganisms present. Ductility: The ability of a material to deform
Dip slides: Agar impregnated paddles used to plastically without fracturing.
measure aerobic bacteria and fungi in cooling water Eddy-current testing: An electromagnetic nonde-
samples. structive testing method in which eddy-current flow
Disinfection: Application of energy or chemical to is induced in the test object. Changes in flow caused
kill pathogenic organisms. by variations in the object are reflected into a nearby
Dispersant: A chemical that causes particulates in a coil or coils where they are detected and measured by
water system to remain in suspension. suitable instrumentation.
Dissolved solids: Materials that are completely Eductor: The mechanical arrangement for the
dissolved in water solution and not removable by removal of a gas or a liquid from a system, by means
conventional filtration. of a high velocity flow of another gas or water stream
Distribution basin: Shallow pan-type elevated basin through an orifice.
used to distribute hot water over the tower fill by Elastic limit: The maximum stress that a material
means of orifices in the basin floor. Application is will withstand without permanent deformation.
normally limited to crossflow towers. Electrochemical: A chemical action that requires the
Distribution system: Those parts of a tower, transfer of electrons between anodes and cathodes in
beginning with the inlet connection, which distribute an electrolyte solution.
the hot circulating water within the tower to the Electrolyte: 1. An ionic conductor. 2. A liquid, most
points where it contacts the air for effective cooling. often a solution that will conduct an electric current.
May include headers, laterals, branch arms, nozzles, Electromotive Force: The driving force that causes
distribution basins, and flow regulating devices. electrons to flow through the external circuit in a
DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid): The repository of voltaic cell. Also known as the voltage or cell
genetic information in a microorganism. potential.
Double flow: A crossflow cooling tower where two Elution: The process of extracting one solid from
opposed fill banks are served by a common air another. Often used incorrectly to describe the
plenum. regeneration of an ion exchanger.

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Embrittlement: Reduction in normal ductility of a Eukaryote: Type of cell in which the chromosomes
metal due to a physical or chemical change. (See are separated from the cytoplasm in a defined
Hydrogen damage.) nucleus. Algae, fungi, and protozoa are eukaryotes.
Emulsion: A colloidal dispersion of one liquid in Eutrophication: The enrichment of waters with
another. nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorous) giving rise to
Endospore: A type of spore formed by an organism; algae growth. Death of algae results in an environ-
in the spore state the microorganism is very resistant ment in which bacteria flourish leading to oxygen
to lack of nutrients, heat, or antimicrobial agents. depletion and death of fish.
Endothermic: Absorbing heat. Evaluation: A determination of the total cost of
Entering wet bulb temperature: The wet bulb owning a cooling tower for a specific period of time.
temperature of the air actually entering the tower, Includes first cost of tower and attendant devices,
including any effects of recirculation. In testing, the cost of operation, cost of maintenance and repair, cost
average of multiple readings taken at the air inlets to of land use, cost of financing, etc., all normalized to a
establish a true entering wet bulb temperature. specific point in time.
Enthalpy: The internal energy (heat content) of a Evaporation: Water evaporated from the circulating
body. water into the air stream in the cooling process.
Mathematically, Evaporation is the difference
Entrainment: The transport of water into a gas
between the Makeup and Blowdown.
stream. In a boiler, this is carryover; in a cooling
tower, drift. Evaporative condenser: A cooling system that
employs condenser coils to cool hot fluid. Heat is
Entropy: A mathematical expression applying to the
rejected to water sprayed on the outside of the coils.
limits of the availability of energy; a measure of the
random motion of matter. Evaporator: In a refrigeration machine, typically a
shell-and-tube heat exchanger that transfers heat from
Enzyme: A protein that acts as a highly efficient and
the secondary refrigerant (chilled water or brine) to
specific biological catalyst for a chemical reaction.
the primary refrigerant (Freon or ammonia) through
EPA: US Environmental Protection Agency. evaporation of the primary refrigerant.
Equalization: Minimization of variations in flow Exfoliation: a) Subsurface corrosion in zones
and composition by means of a storage reservoir. parallel to the surface of the metal, causing layers of
Equivalent weight: The weight in grams of a the metal to be elevated by the formation of corrosion
substance, which combines with or displaces one products. This type of corrosion is most commonly
gram of hydrogen; it is usually obtained by dividing associated with cupronickel alloys and aluminum. b)
the formula weight by the valence. Localized dislodgement of high-temperature metal
Erosion: Destruction of metals or other materials by oxides in the form of flakes, often as a consequence
the abrasive action of moving fluids, usually acceler- of thermal stresses.
ated by the presence of solid particles or matter in Exothermic: Evolving heat.
suspension. When corrosion occurs simultaneously, Extractives: Generally refers to those natural
the term erosion-corrosion is often used. substances in wood that are soluble in water and can
Erosion-corrosion: The increase in the rate of metal be dissolved out.
deterioration from abrasive effects, increased by high Facultative anaerobe: An organism that normally
water velocities and suspended solids. grows in the presence of oxygen but which can grow
Etching: In metallography, the process of subjecting in its absence.
the surface of a metal to preferential chemical or Facultative organisms: Microbes capable of
electrolytic attack to reveal microstructural detail. For adapting to either aerobic or anaerobic environments.
ferrous metals, 2% nitric acid in ethyl alcohol (nital)
Failure: A general term used to imply that a part in
and 4% picric acid in ethyl alcohol (picral) are most
service (1) has become completely inoperable, (2) is
commonly used.
still operable but is incapable of satisfactorily
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA): The performing its intended function, or (3) has deterio-
sodium salt is the usual form of this chelating rated seriously to the point that it has become
material. unreliable or unsafe for continued use.

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Fan cylinder: Cylindrical or Venturi shaped struc- Fill sheet: One of a succession of vertically ar-
ture in which a propeller fan operates. Sometimes ranged, closely spaced panels over which flowing
referred to as a fan stack on larger towers. water spreads to offer maximum surface exposure to
Fan deck: Surface enclosing the top structure of an the air in a film filled cooling tower. Sheets may be
induced draft cooling tower, exclusive of the distribu- flat, requiring spacers for consistent separation; or
tion basins on a crossflow tower. they may be formed into corrugated, chevron, and
Fan pitch: The angle that the blades of a propeller other patterns whose protrusions provide proper
fan make with the plane of rotation, measured at a spacing and whose convolutions provide increased
prescribed point on each blade. heat transfer capability.
Fan scroll: Convolute housing in which a centrifugal Fill: That portion of a cooling tower that constitutes
(blower) fan operates. its primary heat transfer surface. Sometimes referred
to as packing.
Fatigue crack: A fracture that initiates and grows
under the conditions of fatigue. (Compare with Fillet: A concave junction at two surfaces.
Corrosion fatigue.) Film fill: Divides inlet water into a thin film falling
Fatigue limit: The maximum stress that presumably over a large packing area to expose maximum water
leads to fatigue fracture in a specified number of surface without breaking into droplets. A number of
stress cycles. film fill designs are available. Film fill is more
thermally efficient than Splash fill and more prone to
Fatigue: A phenomenon leading to fracture under
repeated or fluctuating stresses that have a maximum
value less than the tensile strength of the material. Filtrate: The liquid passing through a filter.
FDA: US Food and Drug Administration. Filtration: The process of separating solids from a
liquid by means of a porous substance through which
Fermentation: The conversion of organic matter to
only the liquid passes.
carbon dioxide, methane, and similar low-molecular
weight compounds by anaerobic bacteria. Fin-fan cooler: A series of tubes (typically with fins
to increase heat transfer) over which air passes
Ferric iron: A form of iron, oxidized to its trivalent,
(typically forced by a fan) for the purpose of cooling
most stable state. Very slightly soluble in water.
the fluid within the tubes. Sometimes called a dry
Ferrite: Designation commonly assigned to alpha cooling tower because no water is used for cooling.
iron-containing elements in solid solution.
Fission: In biology, the process of reproduction by
Ferrous hydroxide: A white corrosion product of cell splitting.
iron. Ferric ion incorporated in the substance will
Flaw: As used here, an imperfection in a material
alter the color to green, brown, or black.
that does not affect its usefulness or serviceability.
Ferrous iron: A form of iron oxidized to a divalent Contrast with defect.
Float valve: A valve that is mechanically actuated by
Filamentous: Long and thread-like in shape a float. Utilized on many cooling towers to control
Fill cube: (1) Counterflow: The amount of fill makeup water supply.
required in a volume one bay long by one bay wide Flocculation: The process of agglomerating coagu-
by an air travel high. (2) Crossflow: The amount of lated particles into settleable flocs, usually of a
fill required in a volume one bay long by an air travel gelatinous nature.
wide by one story high.
Flow control valves: Manually controlled valves that
Fill deck: One of a succession of horizontal layers of are used to balance flow of incoming water to all
splash bars utilized in a splash filled cooling tower. sections of the tower.
The number of fill decks constituting overall fill
Flow rate: The movement of water expressed as
height, as well as the number of splash bars incorpo-
volume per unit time.
rated within each fill deck, establishes the effective
primary heat transfer surface. Flow-induced vibration: Tube vibration resulting
from the mechanical effects of fluids impinging on
tube surfaces. Such vibrations may induce wear or
cracking, especially if the tubes vibrate at their
natural frequency.

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Flume: A raceway or channel constructed to carry Freundlich isotherm: The plot of test data related to
water or to permit flow measurements. the removal of colloidal matter from water showing
Flushing: The act of cleaning out a system, using a the process to be adsorption.
flow of water, generally at high rates. Fumes: An aerosol with solids as the dispersed
Flux: In welding, material used to prevent the colloids.
formation of or to dissolve and facilitate the removal Fungi: A lower form of plant life, filamentous and
of oxides and other undesirable substances. without chlorophyll, responsible for slime and
Foam: A collection of minute bubbles formed on the destruction of cooling tower wood. Includes mold
surface of a liquid by agitation, fermentation, etc. and yeast.
Fogging: A reference to the visibility and path of the Galvanic anode: A metal that provides sacrificial
effluent air stream after having exited the cooling protection to another metal that is more noble when
tower. If visible and close to the ground, it is referred electrically coupled in an electrolyte.
to as fog. If elevated, it is normally called the plume. Galvanic cell: A cell in which chemical change is
Fold: A surface defect, which often appears as a the source of electrical energy. It usually consists of
seam, caused by folding over of hot metal, seams, or two dissimilar conductors in contact with each other
sharp corners, and then rolling or forging them into and with an electrolyte or of two similar conductors
the surface. Also termed lap. in contact with each other and with dissimilar
Forced draft: Refers to the movement of air under electrolytes.
pressure through a cooling tower. Fans of forced draft Galvanic corrosion: Corrosion associated with the
towers are located at the air inlets to force air through current of a galvanic cell consisting of two dissimilar
the tower. conductors in an electrolyte or two similar conductors
Foulants: Any obstructive material in a cooling in dissimilar electrolytes.
system, other than scale forming precipitates. Galvanic couple: The connection of two dissimilar
Fouling factor: An allowance made in the design of metals in an electrolyte that results in current flow
a heat exchanger to address the reality that the water through the circuit.
side surfaces will rarely be perfectly clean. Suggested Galvanic potential: The magnitude of the driving
design values for a variety of process fluids and force in an electrochemical reaction resulting from
conditions can be found in the current edition of the coupling of dissimilar materials exposed to a
Standards of the Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers common, corrosive environment.
Association (TEMA). Galvanic series: A series of metals and alloys
Fouling: Act of obstructing flow of water or its arranged according to their relative electrode poten-
evaporation by materials entering into or developing tials in a specified environment.
in the water. Generally, but not necessarily, associated Gas porosity: Fine holes or pores within a metal that
with microorganisms. are caused by entrapped gas or by evolution of
Free chlorine residual: The residual in circulating dissolved gas during solidification.
water, consisting of hypochlorite ion and hypochlor- Gear reducer: See Speed reducer.
ous acid, which is established by chlorine treatment. Glass-lined reactor vessel: A jacketed reactor vessel
It may also be referred to as a free halogen residual, with glass lining on the inside of the vessel. The glass
especially if hypobromite ions are also present. lining is used to minimize corrosion from the process
Free inhibitor residual: An excess of inhibition in fluids and to maintain purity of the process material.
the bulk water. Glutaraldehyde: A non-oxidizing biocide, reacts
Free residual chlorine (FRC): Chlorine present in with cell proteins.
water as Cl2, HOCl, OCl, or in any mixture of these Gouging: A localized, crater-type attack normally
compounds. characterized by wastage of tube metal beneath a
Fretting: A type of wear that occurs between tight porous deposit or at some other point of chemical
fitting surfaces subjected to cyclic, relative motion of concentration.
extremely small amplitude.

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Grain boundary: A narrow zone in a metal corre- Heat affected zone (HAZ): That portion of the base
sponding to the transition from one crystallographic metal that was not melted during welding but whose
orientation to another, thus separating one grain from microstructure and mechanical properties were
another. altered by the heat.
Grain growth: An increase in grain size in metals. Heat capacity: See Specific heat.
Grain: The primary microstructural component of Heat exchanger: A device used to transfer heat from
metals, consisting of an individual crystal. a fluid flowing on one side of a barrier to a fluid or
Grains per gallon: A unit of concentration. 1 gr/gal fluids flowing on the other.
= 17.1 mg/L. Heat flux: Amount of heat exchanged or transferred
Gram-negative: Classification of microorgan- per unit of time and area. Scale and corrosion
isms according to their reaction to dye called a tendencies increase as heat flux increases.
Gram-stain (after Christian Gram); gram-negative Heat load: Total heat to be removed from the
bacteria appear red. circulating water by the cooling tower per unit time.
Gram-positive: Classification of microorganisms Heat of vaporization: The amount of heat that must
according to their reaction to dye called Gram-stain; be supplied to a substance to convert it from a liquid
gram-positive bacteria appear purple. to a vapor.
Graphitic corrosion: Corrosion of gray or nodular Heat transfer coefficient (U): To simplify under-
cast iron in which the iron matrix is selectively standing and evaluating exchanger performance, most
leached away, leaving a porous mass of graphite of the variables in heat transfer have been combined
behind; it occurs in relatively mild aqueous solutions into a single constant called the overall heat transfer
and on buried pipe fittings. coefficient or U value.
Graphitization: A metallurgical term describing the HEDP: 1-hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-diphosphonic acid.
formation of graphite in iron or steel, usually from Height: On cooling towers erected over a concrete
decomposition of iron carbide at elevated tempera- basin, height is measured from the elevation of the
tures. Not recommended as a term to describe basin curb. Nominal heights are usually measured to
graphitic corrosion. the fan deck elevation, not including the height of the
Ground water: Water obtained from below the fan cylinder. Heights for towers on which a wood,
earth’s surface, as from wells. steel, or plastic basin is included within the
Half-life: See Holding time index (HTI). manufacturer’s scope of supply are generally mea-
Hardness: a) In water treatment, the concentration sured from the lowermost point of the basin.
of calcium and magnesium salts in water. Hardness is Hematite: A magnetic form of iron oxide (Fe2O3).
a term originally referring to the soap-consuming Hematite is gray to bright red. The reddish forms are
power of water; as such it is sometimes also taken to not protective and indicate the presence of high levels
include iron and manganese. “Permanent hardness” is of oxygen.
the excess of hardness over alkalinity. “Temporary Henry’s law: An expression for calculating the
hardness” is hardness equal to or less than the solubility of a gas in a fluid based on temperature and
alkalinity. These are also referred to as partial pressure.
“noncarbonate” and “carbonate” hardness, respec- Holding time index (HTI): Time required to reduce
tively. b) In metallurgy, resistance of a substance to a chemical added to the system to 50% of the original
plastic deformation, usually by indentation. It may concentration. In essence, the system half-life.
also refer to stiffness or resistance to scratching or Holidays: Discontinuities in a coating (such as
cutting. Indentation hardness may be measured by porosity, cracks, gaps, and similar flaws) that allow
various hardness tests, such as Brinell, Rockwell, and areas of base metal to be exposed to any corrosive
Knoop. environment that contacts the coated surface.
Header: In a cooling tower distribution system, the Hot water temperature: Temperature of circulating
main pipe receiving hot water from the riser and water entering the cooling tower’s distribution
carrying the hot water to the distribution mechanism. system.

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Hot well: In towers with cyclical loads, the hot well Number of Passes x Skin Temperature) / (Water
is a pit that collects and holds the hot return water. Velocity x 1000). HFC is a relatively new parameter
Only enough water is pumped over the fill to satisfy used for stress determination and there are currently
thermal requirements; the rest overflows to the cold no specific limits assigned relative to stress. HFC
well. considers retention time within the exchanger as a
Humidification: The addition of water vapor to air. contribution to fouling potential. As the HFC
HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, and Air Condition- increases, so does the probability of scale formation
ing): Generally used to refer to commercial and within the selected exchanger.
industrial air conditioning systems using a refrigera- Hydrous ferrous oxide: The hydrated form of
tion machine (chiller) to supply chilled water for ferrous oxide, FeO, a jet-black corrosion product. It is
cooling. readily oxidized by air.
Hybrid cooling tower: See Wet-dry cooling tower. Hydroxide: A highly alkaline radical in water
Hydrate (hydroxide) alkalinity: The alkalinity solutions.
contribution from free hydroxide (OH) in water. Hydroxyapatite: A type of calcium phosphate scale
Hydrated ferric oxide (ferric hydroxide): A flaky, formed in cooling water at higher temperature and
red to brown corrosion product of iron or steel that alkalinity, which is generally easier to treat chemi-
forms upon exposure to subterranean, atmospheric, or cally than the much more prevalent and troublesome
aqueous environments. tricalcium phosphate (TCP).
Hydrogen damage: A form of embrittlement caused Hyperbolic tower: A natural draft cooling tower that
by the diffusion of atomic hydrogen into steel, and takes advantage of the temperature difference
the reaction with carbon and other nonmetallic between the ambient air and the hotter air inside the
impurities at the grain boundaries of the steel. The tower to create air flow through the tower.
steel is thus decarburized and the resultant formation Impingement attack: A form of corrosion in which
of methane and other gases builds up high pressures velocity negatively affects the protective oxide film,
that cause discontinuous, intergranular cracks in the causing increased metal loss.
metal. Inclusions: Nonmetallic impurities, such as oxides,
Hydrogen ion concentration: See pH. sulfides, and silicates, that are distributed in a metal.
Hydrogen sulfide: A vile smelling gas. It forms a Induced draft: Refers to the movement of air
weak acid in water solution. through a cooling tower by means of an induced
Hydrogen: In ionic form in water, it represents the partial vacuum. Fans of induced draft towers are
degree of acidity of a solution. located at the air discharges to draw air through the
Hydrolysis: A chemical process of decomposition
involving splitting of a bond and addition of the Inhibitor: A chemical that interferes with a chemical
elements of water. reaction, such as corrosion or precipitation.
Hydrophilic: “Water loving”, often with reference Inlet wet bulb temperature: See Entering wet bulb
to a part of a molecule that is polar and prefers temperature.
association with a polar solvent such as water. Intercrystalline: Between the grains or crystals of a
Hydrophobic: “Fears water”, often a part of a metal. Also called intergranular.
molecule that prefers association with non-polar Interference: The thermal contamination of a
hydrocarbon solvents. tower’s inlet air by an external heat source, especially
Hydrothermal film coefficient (HFC): A calcula- the discharge plume of another cooling tower.
tion relating to water temperature and retention time Intergranular corrosion: Corrosion occurring
within a heat exchanger. This parameter is significant preferentially at grain boundaries, usually with slight
in that, as both heat and retention time increase, the or negligible attack on the adjacent grains.
average particle size of a typical suspended solid in Intergranular: Between crystals or grains. Also
the cooling water also increases. The calculation for called intercrystalline.
HFC (for tube-side cooling) is HFC = (Tube Length x Internal decay: Decay of wood beneath its surface.

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Ion exchange: A process by which certain undesired Lap: A surface imperfection, with the appearance of
ions of given charge are absorbed from solution a seam, caused by hot metal, fins, or sharp corners
within an ion-permeable absorbent, being replaced in being folded over then being rolled or forged into the
the solution by desirable ions of similar charge from surface but without being welded.
the absorbent. Latent heat of evaporation: The heat necessary to
Ion: An atom or radical in solution carrying an overcome the attractive forces between molecules in
integral electric charge, either positive (cation) or the liquid state in order to convert the liquid to a
negative (anion). vapor at constant temperature.
Ionic strength: A measure of the strength of a Leaching: The act of extracting a soluble constituent
solution based on both the concentrations and from a material by dissolving action of water.
valences of the ions present. Leakage: Unintended water loss from a cooling
Iron oxides: A reaction product of iron with oxygen. water system.
It may refer to ferrous oxide, ferric oxide, or a Leaving wet bulb temperature: Wet bulb tempera-
combination that produces magnetite. ture of the air discharged from a cooling tower.
Iron phosphate: A reaction product of iron with Length: For crossflow towers, length is always
orthophosphate. Sometimes active as a barrier type perpendicular to the direction of airflow through the
inhibitor. fill (air travel) or from casing to casing. For
Iron rot: Deterioration of wood in contact with iron, counterflow towers, length is always parallel to the
a problem associated with iron fastenings or other long dimension of a multi-cell tower and parallel to
iron-wood assembly junctures. the intended direction of cellular extension on single
Isothiazoline: Non-oxidizing biocide, reacts with cell towers.
cell’s enzymes. Ligament: The shortest distance between two
Jacketed reactor vessel: A vessel with an annular adjacent tubes. Also called clearance.
space or jacket around the outside of the vessel. The Lignin: The major non-cellulose constituent of
jacket can be formed by plates or coils, can be seg- wood.
mented, and can carry steam, cooling water, chilled Lime: A common water treatment chemical.
water, brine, or any combination of these fluids for both Limestone (CaCO3) is burned to produce quicklime
heating and cooling as needed by the process. (CaO), which is mixed with water to produce slaked
Jet condenser: See Barometric condenser. or hydrated lime [Ca(OH)2].
Killed steel: Steel deoxidized with a strong reducing Lipid bilayer: Arrangement of lipids in an orga-
agent, such as silicon or aluminum, to reduce oxygen nized, layered structure forming a membrane such as
content to a minimum so that no reaction occurs found in cells.
between carbon and oxygen during solidification. Lipid: Glyceride esters resulting from the reaction of
Laminar flow: Streamlined flow in a fluid. Non- glycerol with a fatty acid, often contain other groups,
turbulent flow. Generally, liquid flow with a such as phosphate, yielding phospholipids.
Reynold’s number less than about 2100. Contrast Lipophilic: Having an affinity for oil. The opposite
with Turbulent flow. of hydrophilic (i.e., hydrophobic).
Laminations: Metal defects aligned parallel to the Liquid to Gas ratio (L/G): A ratio of the total mass
worked surface of metal. They may be the result of flows of water and dry air in a cooling tower.
blisters, seams, inclusions, or segregation that is Local action: Corrosion caused by local cells on a
elongated and made directional by forming the metal. metal surface.
Langelier Saturation Index (LSI): A means of Local cells: A cell with differences of potential
expressing the degree of saturation of a water as between areas on a metal surface in an electrolyte.
related to calcium carbonate solubility. A positive
Log Mean Temperature Difference (LMTD): The
value suggests the water might precipitate calcium
average temperature differential across an entire heat
carbonate while a negative value indicates the water
will dissolve calcium carbonate. LSI does not
indicate the amount of precipitation that might occur Longitudinal: Pertaining to occurrences in the
or the corrosiveness of the water. direction of tower length.

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Louvers: Blade or passage type assemblies installed Methyl Orange: An indicator dye used to determine
at the air inlet face of a cooling tower to control water total alkalinity. Color change at end point (pH 4.3)
splash out or to promote uniform airflow through the from yellow to salmon pink when the solution is acid.
fill. In the case of film type crossflow fill, they may Methyl Purple: An indicator dye used to determine
be integrally molded to the fill sheets. total alkalinity. End point color change is from green
M alkalinity: The total alkalinity of a water sample to purple (acid) at pH 4.3. Equivalent in purpose to
as measured to the methyl orange or methyl purple Methyl Orange, but with more easily discerned color
endpoint (about pH 4.3). change.
Macrofouling: Fouling of surfaces due to organisms Microbiological: Referring to biological organisms
larger than microscopic, most notably clams and of microscopic size.
mussels. Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC):
Magnesium hardness: Water hardness due to Deterioration of metals as a result of the metabolic
soluble magnesium in a water. activities of microorganisms.
Magnesium silicate: A particularly troublesome Micrograph: A photographic reproduction that has
scale due to its high thermal insulation and difficulty been magnified no more than 10 times.
in removal. The SI should be maintained below 8 by Microorganism: Organisms (microbes) observable
reducing the Cycles of concentration or the cooling only through a microscope; larger, visible types are
water pH. Chemical treatment can be marginally called macroorganisms.
effective, but expensive. Microstructure: The structure of polished and
Magnetite: A magnetic form of iron oxide, Fe3O4. etched metal and alloy specimens as revealed by the
Magnetite is dark gray to black and forms a protec- microscope.
tive film on iron surfaces. Mild steel: Carbon steel having a maximum carbon
Makeup: Refers to fresh or raw water added to a content of approximately 0.25%.
system to replace that lost by evaporation, bleed-off, Mill scale: A heavy oxide on metal, usually iron or
leaks, wind drift, etc. Mathematically, Makeup is steel, resulting from its heat treatment.
equal to the Blowdown times the Cycles of concen-
Mineral: Any inorganic or fossilized organic
tration and the sum of the Evaporation and
material having a definite chemical composition and
structure found in a natural state.
Martensite: A metastable microstructure of iron
Miscibility: The ability of two liquids, not mutually
formed during rapid cooling from high temperature
soluble, to mix.
that has the microstructural appearance of disarrayed
needles. Quenched structures found in ruptured boiler Mist: An aerosol with liquids as the dispersed
tubes may have martensitic structures. colloids.
Matrix: The principal phase or base metal in which Mixed inhibitor: A corrosion inhibitor that sup-
another constituent is present. Martensitic structures. presses the metal dissolution reaction at the anode
and interferes with the oxygen reduction process at
MBT: Mercaptobenzothiazole.
the cathode.
Mechanical draft: Refers to the movement of air
Module: A preassembled portion or section of a
through a cooling tower by means of a fan.
cooling tower.
Membrane: A barrier, usually thin, that permits the
Mole: A unit weight or volume of a chemical
passage only of particles up to a certain size or of a
corresponding to its molecular weight. A mole of
special nature.
water weighs 18 g, and its vapor occupies 22.4 L at
Metabolism: All biochemical reactions in a cell. standard temperature and pressure.
Metabolize: To convert food, such as soluble organic Monomer: Molecule that can be reacted with other
matter, to cellular matter and gaseous by-products via similar or different molecules to form a repeating
a biological process. structure referred to as a polymer.
Metallography: The science concerning the consti- Monomolecular: A descriptive term used with thin
tution and structure of metals and alloys as revealed films to indicate dimensional thickness that does not
by the microscope. exceed one molecular diameter of the film.

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Morphology: In biology, the shape and appearance Nonferrous: Metals, other than iron or steel, or
of a cell. alloys containing as their principle constituent, metals
Natural draft: Refers to the movement of air through other than iron or steel.
a cooling tower purely by natural means. Typically, by Nonoxidizing biocide: Compounds that interfere
the driving force of a density differential. with cell metabolism or disrupt the cell wall but do
Necking: Localized reduction in area during tensile not participate in a Redox reaction.
deformation. Notch sensitivity: A measure of the reduction of
Net effective volume: That portion of the total strength of a metal caused by the presence of stress
structural volume of a cooling tower within which the concentration.
circulating water is in intimate contact with the Nozzle: A device used for controlled distribution of
flowing air. water in a cooling tower. Nozzles are designed to
Neumann band: Mechanical twin in ferrite. deliver water in a spray pattern either by pressure or
Neutralization: Most commonly, a chemical by gravity flow.
reaction that produces a resulting environment that is NPDES permit: The National Pollution Discharge
neither acidic nor alkaline. Also, the addition of a Elimination System permit required by and issued by
scavenger chemical to an aqueous system in excess the federal and state governments in the U.S.
concentration to eliminate a corrosive factor, such as Nucleation: Formation of many small particles that
dissolved oxygen. do not precipitate but act as sites for additional
Nitrifier: A microorganism capable of converting crystal growth.
nitrite to nitrate. Nucleic acid: A polymer formed by the joining of
Nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA): A chelant with the nucleotides; DNA and RNA are most notable.
sodium salt being the usual form. Nucleotide: A molecule that consists of a sugar
Nitrites: Common term for sodium nitrite that is (mainly ribose) linked to an organic nitrogen. The
used for its corrosion inhibitory power in water sugar contains one or more phosphate groups. ATP is
solutions. a common nucleotide.
Nitrogen-fixing bacteria: Bacteria capable of Occluded cell: A semi-permeable barrier, such as a
converting nitrogen (N2) to ammonia. deposit, inhibits mixing of cathodic and anodic
Noble metal: A metal with marked resistance to reaction products but allows some species, such as
chemical reaction, particularly to oxidation and to chloride ions and hydrogen gas, to pass.
solution by inorganic acids. Contrast with active Occlusion: An absorption process by which one
metal. solid material adheres strongly to another, sometimes
Nominal diameter: The inside diameter of the shell occurring by coprecipitation.
rounded off to the nearest integer. Once through cooling system: A cooling system in
Nominal length: The length of the tube. The length which water is received from the plant supply, passed
for straight tubes is taken as the actual overall length, through the process equipment, and returned to a
whereas the tube length for U-tubes is taken as the receiving body of water.
straight length from the end of the tube to the bend Open recirculating system: A cooling system in
tangent. which water is taken from a cooling tower or evapora-
Noncarbonate hardness: Hardness in water caused tion pond, passes through the process equipment, and
by chlorides, sulfates, and nitrates of calcium and then returns to the evaporation unit. This system
magnesium. Contrast with carbonate hardness. requires fresh makeup water to replenish that lost by
evaporation and blowdown.
Noncondensables: Gaseous material not liquefied
when associated water vapor is condensed in the Organic: Generally referred to cooling water
same environment. treatments such as tannins, lignins, or any organic
material having a useful function in water treating.
Non-contact cooling: The use of water to remove
heat from a unit process without the water directly Orifice: An opening through which a fluid can pass;
contacting the finished product. a restriction placed in a pipe to provide a means of
measuring flow.

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Orthophosphate: A stable oxide of phosphorous, Passivation: The changing of a chemically active

which forms a trivalent negative radical. Combines surface of a metal to a much less reactive state.
with calcium to form insoluble calcium phosphate, Passivity: A condition in which a metal, because of
which is useful in some cooling water programs an impervious covering of oxide or other compound,
where the rate of precipitation is carefully controlled. has a potential much more positive than that of the
Osmosis: The passage of water through a permeable metal in its active state.
membrane separating two solutions of different Pasteurization: A process for killing pathogenic
concentrations; the water passes into the more organisms by heat applied for a critical period of time.
concentrated solution. Pathogens: Disease-producing microbes.
Oxidation Reduction Potential (ORP): See Redox PBTC: 2-phosphonobutane-1, 2, 4-tricarboxylic acid.
Pearlite: A microstructural aggregate consisting of
Oxidation: A chemical reaction in which an element alternate lamellae of ferrite and cementite.
or ion is increased in positive valence, losing elec-
Penetrant: Chemicals used to reduce the surface
trons to an oxidizing agent.
tension of water, allowing the water to penetrate
Oxidative phosphorylation: The conversion of previously impervious deposits.
adenosine diphosphate to adenosine triphosphate in
Penetration: Corrosive action considered relative to
the process of respiration.
the thickness or wall of a metal surface in contact
Oxide film: A thin film formed by the reaction with a solution. In welding, the distance from the
product of oxygen with a metal and deposited on the original surface of the base metal to that point at
metal surface. which fusion ceased.
Oxide: Reaction product of oxygen with a metal. Peracetic acid: Oxidizing biocide.
Oxidizing biocide: A biocide that is able to accept Perforation: Corrosive action that is completed
electrons from other chemical compounds. Examples through the thickness dimension or wall of a metal
include chlorine, bromine, chlorine dioxide, ozone, surface.
and peroxide.
Performance: See Capacity.
Oxygen: A gaseous material that is very reactive
Periodic chart: An arrangement of the elements in
with most common metals when dissolved in water
order of increasing atomic number that illustrates the
contacting these metals. In cooling waters, air is the
repetition (or periodicity) of key characteristics.
source of the dissolved oxygen.
Permanent hardness: The hardness in excess of the
Ozone (O3): An oxidizing biocide.
total alkalinity and associated with anions other than
P alkalinity: The alkalinity measured to the Phenol- carbonate and bicarbonate.
phthalein endpoint (about pH 8.3).
Permeability: The ability of a body to pass a fluid
PAA: Polyacrylic acid. under pressure.
Packing: The fill in a confined space in a stripping pH of saturation: The pH at which a water will be
vessel, ranging from simply shaped units such as saturated with precipitable material under specified
rocks or slats to complex shapes that provide large conditions. Useful in predicting scaling potential of a
surface area per unit volume. water.
Parting: See Dealloying. pH: A means of expressing hydrogen ion concentra-
Partition: a) Interior wall subdividing a cooling tion in terms of the powers of 10; the negative
tower into cells or separate fan plenum chambers. logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration.
Partions may also be selectively installed to reduce Phase diagram: A graphical representation of the
windage water loss. b) Baffle with a 0% baffle cut equilibrium temperature and composition limits of
installed in the channel of a shell-and-tube heat phase fields and phase reactions in an alloy system.
exchanger to force fluid or gas to pass through the In a binary system, temperature is the ordinate, and
tubes of the exchanger before it is allowed to exit. composition is the abscissa.
Parts per million (ppm): A measure of proportion Phase: A physically homogeneous and distinct
by weight of a compound or ions to the weight of portion of a material system.
solution. An expression of concentration. It is related
to mg/L as follows: mg/L = ppm x specific gravity.

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Phenolphthalein: A titrimetric indicator used in the Plume abatement: Methods to affect the height,
determination of carbonate and hydrate forms of density, or duration of a cooling tower plume.
alkalinity. Color change occurs at pH 8.3 to red when Methods include stack design and use of wet-dry
alkaline. cooling towers.
Photometric: Refers to a method for determining Plume: The cloud formed over a cooling tower as a
concentration of certain materials in water by result of the atmospheric condensation of evaporated
measuring the intensity of light or degree of light water in the warm exhaust air as it contacts cooler,
absorption of a beam passed through a prepared ambient air.
sample. POE: Polyol ester.
Photomicrograph: A photographic reproduction of Polarize: In corrosion, to develop a barrier on the
any object magnified more than 10 diameters. anodic or cathodic surface, disrupting the corrosion
Photosynthesis: The process of converting carbon process.
dioxide and water to carbohydrates, activated by Pollutant: A contaminant at a concentration high
sunlight in the presence of chlorophyll, liberating enough to endanger the aquatic environment or the
oxygen. public health.
Pickle liquor: Acid used in treating steel for removal Polyelectrolyte: A polymeric material having ion
of oxide scale. exchange sites on its skeleton.
Pitot tube: An instrument that operates on the Polymer: A chain of organic molecules produced by
principle of differential pressure. Its primary use on a the joining of primary units called monomers.
cooling tower is in the measurement of circulating Polymerization: Process whereby single polymer
water flow. units bond together into a chain of repeating units
Pits: Corrosion of a metal surface confined to a Polyphosphate: Molecularly dehydrated forms of
point or a very small area. Attack progresses in depth, phosphate, such as pyrophosphate, tripolyphosphate,
rather than laterally. and metaphosphate.
Pitting: A type of localized corrosion commonly Polysaccharide exopolymer: Gelatinous polymeric
found in water-bearing equipment caused by the material secreted by bacteria as a protective mecha-
formation of highly active, local anodic sites. nism.
Plain carbon steel (ordinary steel): Steel containing Polysaccharide: Macromolecule resulting from the
carbon up to about 2% and only residual quantities of joining of sugars.
other elements except those added for deoxidation.
Porosity: Voids in cast or welded metal.
Plankton: Minute animal and plant life found in
Power factor: The ratio of true power (Watts) to the
apparent power as calculated by amps times volts.
Planktonic: Free swimming in aqueous environ-
Precipitate: An insoluble reaction product; in an
ment, often applied to microorganisms.
aqueous chemical reaction, usually a crystalline
Plastic deformation: Permanent distortion of a compound that grows in size to become settleable.
material under the action of applied stresses.
Prokaryote: Simple cell of microorganism devoid of
Plate Count: Lab test to determine viable microor- organized nucleus.
ganisms present in a sample.
Protozoa: Large, microscopic single-cell organisms
Plate-and-frame heat exchanger: An exchanger higher on the food chain than bacteria, which
that consists of a stack of thin plates supported in a consume bacteria.
frame. The plates are typically corrugated. The two
PSO: Phosphino succinic oligomer.
fluids flow along opposite sides of each plate.
Psychrometer: An instrument incorporating both a
Plenum: The enclosed space between the drift
dry bulb and a wet bulb thermometer, by which
eliminators and the fan in induced draft towers, or the
simultaneous dry bulb and wet bulb temperature
enclosed space between the fan and the fill in forced
readings can be taken.
draft towers.
Pulp: Fibrous matter.

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Quaternary ammonium compound (QAC or or an engine to drive the compressor. Absorption

Quat): A non-oxidizing biocide, disrupts cell machines use water as the primary refrigerant and a
membranes. concentrated lithium bromide solution as an absor-
Radiation: In a furnace, the transfer of heat by bent for the water vapor. These machines use either
energy waves, much like other forms of electromag- steam or hot water as the driving force.
netic waves (e.g., light and radio waves). Relative humidity (RH): The ratio of the mole
Radiographic inspection: A nondestructive testing fraction of water vapor in air to the mole fraction of
technique that uses penetrating radiation (x-rays, water vapor in saturated air at the same temperature
gamma rays, etc.) to record differences in material and barometric pressure.
density, thickness, and composition on film or other Residual stress: Stress present in a body that is free
forms of radiation detectors. of external forces or thermal gradients. Usually
Range: The temperature difference between the hot results from manufacturing processes, welding, or
water return and the cold water supply in an open other mechanical or thermal processing.
recirculating cooling water system. Return temperature: Temperature of the cooling
Ranney collector: A central caisson with horizontal water after passing through the cooling tower.
spokes at the bottom used to obtain ground water Reverse osmosis (RO): A process that reverses (by
from shallow alluvial deposits. the application of pressure) the flow of water in the
Reaction kinetics: In general, the factors affecting natural process of osmosis so that it passes from the
the rates of a reaction. more concentrated to the more dilute solution.
Recirculating cooling water: Any cooling water Reversion: The return of molecularly dehydrated
system where the water is repeatedly returned to the phosphate (polyphosphate) to its hydrated origin
parts of the system. (orthophosphate).
Recirculation rate: The water flow rate in a cooling Reynold’s number: A dimensionless number
water system. indicating the energy of a liquid by means of a ratio
Recirculation: In cooling towers, a phenomenon that of the inertial forces to the viscous forces.
occurs when the hot exhaust air is forced downward Riser: Piping which connects the circulating water
and back into the cooling tower where it mixes with supply line from the level of the base of the tower or
and warms the cool, fresh inlet air, resulting in the supply header to the tower’s distribution system.
inefficient cooling. RNA (Ribonucleic acid): The nucleic acid involved
Recrystallization: The change from one crystal in all stages of protein synthesis.
structure to another that occurs upon heating and Root crack: A crack in either the weld or heat-
cooling through a transformation temperature. affected zone at the root of a weld.
Redox potential: Reduction-oxidation potential Root of joint: The portion of a weld joint where the
measured against a standard electrode. members are closest to each other before welding. In
Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an element cross section, this may be a point, a line, or an area.
or compound gains electrons, being reduced in Root of weld: The points at which the weld bead
positive valence. intersects the base-metal surfaces either nearest to or
Reformed pearlite: Recrystallized pearlite whose coincident with the root of joint.
colonies are generally different in size and shape than Rot: Wood destruction by biological organisms that
those of the original pearlite. use the wood for food.
Refrigeration machine (chiller): A mechanical Rust: Common designation for the stable ferric
device that cools a secondary refrigerant (typically oxide product of corrosion of iron and steel.
chilled water or brine) by repeatedly evaporating and Ryznar Stability Index (RSI): An empirical index
condensing a primary refrigerant, such as Freon or used to indicate the scaling tendency of a water with
ammonia. Chillers can be vapor compression respect to calcium carbonate. RSI < 6 indicates
machines or absorption machines. Vapor compression scaling conditions while RSI > 6 indicates increasing
units use either a reciprocating compressor (piston corrosive conditions.
and cylinder) or a centrifugal compressor (rotary) and Sacrificial anode: See Galvanic anode.
require an electric motor, steam or gas driven turbine,

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Salinity: The presence of soluble minerals, espe- Selecticide: Series of tests to gain information on
cially chloride, in water. efficacy of selected biocides. Result yields most
Salt splitting: The ability of an anion exchanger to effective biocide and dose for system water tested.
convert a salt solution to caustic; the ability of a Selective leaching: Corrosion in which one element
cation exchanger to convert a salt solution to acid. is preferentially removed from an alloy, leaving a
Saturation Index (SI) or Saturation Ratio (SR): A residue (often porous) of the elements that are more
calculation of the degree of saturation in water resistant to the particular environment. Common
relative to a particular compound and set of condi- examples of this type of corrosion are dezincification
tions. It is calculated as a function of mineral and denickelification. Also called parting or
concentration, pH, and temperature. An SI less than dealloying.
one indicates the mineral will dissolve into, not Selectivity: The order of preference of an ion
precipitate from, the water. An SI greater than one exchange material for each of the ions in the sur-
indicates super-saturation and mineral precipitation rounding aqueous environment.
can occur. The higher the SI, the greater the tendency Sensible heat loss: A heat transfer that occurs when
for the selected mineral to be a scaling problem. Note cooling water is warmer than the surrounding air. In
that each mineral has different tolerance limits this case there is a tendency for the air to cool the
relative to SI and that although treatment chemistry water by taking on its sensible heat.
does not affect SI, it can counteract the tendency of Sensible heat: Heat measurable by temperature
the mineral to form scale in heat transfer equipment. alone.
Scale pit: A collection chamber alongside a rolling Sensitization: In austenitic stainless steels, the
mill that receives roll cooling water containing precipitation of chromium carbides, usually at grain
metallic scale. boundaries, on exposure to temperatures of about
Scale: a) The precipitate that forms on surfaces in 1000 to 1500oF (540 to 820oC), leaving the grain
contact with water as the result of a physical or boundaries depleted of chromium and therefore
chemical change. b) An oxide or sulfide of metal susceptible to preferential attack by a corroding
formed on a surface by exposure to high temperature. medium.
Scaling temperature: That temperature at which Sequester: To form a stable, water-soluble complex.
relatively rapid formation of metal oxides or sulfides Sequestration: Formation of a water-soluble
begins. complex or compound.
Scrubber: A packed tower used to remove particu- Sessile bacteria: Permanently attached; not free to
lates, odors, or gases from a water stream by passing move.
the water over a packed bed countercurrent to a
Sessile: Attached to a surface, often applied to
forced airflow.
Seam welding: Making a longitudinal weld in sheet
Shell: a) For a shell-and-tube heat exchanger, the
metal or tubing.
cylindrical sleeve into which the other parts of the
Seam: On the surface of metal, an unwelded fold or exchanger fit. b) For a cooling tower, the chimney-
lap that appears as a crack, usually resulting from a like structure, usually hyperbolic in cross-section,
defect in casting or working. It may also be a me- utilized to induce airflow through a natural draft
chanical or welded joint, which may or may not have tower. Sometimes referred to as a stack or veil.
a different microstructure.
Shell-and-tube heat exchanger: The most widely
Sedimentation: Gravitational settling of solid used form of heat exchanger in which one fluid
particles in a liquid system. passes through a number of tubes housed in a shell
Seed: A particle or particles, usually crystalline, while the second fluid passes through the shell.
added to a supersaturated solution to induce precipi- Siderite: Ferrous carbonate, FeCO3.
Sidestream filtration: The process of filtering a
Segregation: Non-uniform distribution of alloying portion of the recirculating water to remove sus-
elements, impurities, or microphases. pended solids before returning the water to the

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Silica: Common designation for silicon dioxide, SiO2. Spheroidal carbides: An aggregate of iron or alloy
Silt Density Index (SDI): A measure of the ten- carbides, essentially spherical in shape, dispersed
dency of a water to foul a reverse osmosis membrane, singly or as colonies throughout a matrix of ferrite.
based on timed flow through a membrane filter at Spheroidization: Any thermal process (usually
constant pressure. prolonged mild overheating) that produces a rounded
Silt: Insoluble suspended matter in water. The source or globular form of carbide in steel.
may be air-borne dust or entrained soil minerals. Splash bar: One of a succession of equally spaced
Skin temperature: The maximum waterside surface horizontal bars comprising the splash surface of a fill
temperature, approximated as a function of outlet deck in a splash filled cooling tower. Splash bars may
water temperature and average heat flux and used as be flat or may be formed into a shaped cross-section
the basis to calculate system saturation indices. for improved structural rigidity and improved heat
Slag: In metallurgical processing, the impurities transfer capability. When flat, they are sometimes
separated from molten metal during refining; in referred to as slats or lath.
boiler furnaces, the noncombustible ash that has Splash fill: Variously shaped lathes, generally of
reached fusion temperatures. wood in older towers and plastic or fiberglass in
Slime: Substances of viscous organic nature usually newer towers, that cause the falling water to break
derived from microbiological growth. Often refers to into droplets that are thermally active and increase
the total accumulated mass of trapped insoluble the contact and heat transfer between the water and
organic and inorganic materials in water. air in a cooling tower.
Sludge volume index: An inverse measure of sludge Spore: A reproductive cell or seed, of algae, fungi,
density. or protozoa.
Slurry: A water containing a high concentration of Sporulation: Process of developing spores from
suspended solids, usually over 5000 mg/L. active microorganisms; the spore state is the cell’s
protection mechanism.
Soda ash: A common water-treatment chemical,
sodium carbonate or Na2CO3. Spray filled: Descriptive of a cooling tower which
has no fill, with water to air contact depending
Softening: The removal of hardness (calcium and
entirely upon the water breakup and pattern afforded
magnesium) from water.
by pressure spray nozzles.
Solubility curve: A graphical representation of the
Spray pond: A cooling pond in which cooling water
degree of solubility of a material with respect to one
is sprayed into the surrounding air to increase the rate
defined variable.
of evaporation.
Solubility: The amount of a substance that can be
Stability Index: See Ryznar Stability Index.
dissolved in a solution under given conditions.
Stabilization: When a material is dispersed and does
Sour water: Waters containing malodorous materi-
not settle, it is considered stabilized.
als, usually sulfur compounds.
Stabilized bromine: Sodium hypobromite reacted
Spalling: The cracking and flaking of particles out
with stabilizer to produce stable mixture, releases
of a surface.
hypobromous acid upon dilution in water.
Specific heat: The amount of heat (energy) a
Stabilizing: Act of keeping a water from changing,
substance can absorb per unit mass for a given
particularly with respect to its mineral content. For
temperature rise. The specific heat of water is 1 Btu/
example, preventing the precipitation of calcium
lb.oF (1 kcal/kg.oC).
Speed reducer: A mechanical device incorporated
Stack effect: Descriptive of the capability of a tower
between the driver and the fan of a mechanical draft
shell or extended fan cylinder to induce air (or aid in
tower, designed to reduce the speed of the driver to an
its induction) through a cooling tower.
optimum speed for the fan. The use of geared
reduction units predominates in the cooling tower Stack: An extended fan cylinder whose primary
industry, although smaller towers will utilize differen- purpose is to achieve elevation of the discharge
tial pulleys and V-belts for the transmission of plume.
relatively low power. Stagnant: The condition of being motionless.

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Stainless steel: Any of several steels containing 12 Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB): Group of
to 30% chromium as the principal alloying element; anaerobic bacteria that can reduce sulfate to sulfide,
the steels usually exhibit passivity in aqueous producing hydrogen sulfide.
environments as long as the surfaces remain clean Sulfur dioxide: A gaseous oxide of sulfur. Forms
and free of deposits. mild sulfurous acid in water solution.
Static stress: A stress whose magnitude remains at a Sulfur trioxide: A white, fibrous solid. Forms
constant value. Contrast with cyclic stress. sulfuric acid in water solution.
Stiff-Davis index: An index used to predict the Sump: A reservoir into which water collects and
stability of brackish waters, such as those used in from which it can be pumped. Sometimes used
waterflooding. synonymously with cooling tower basin.
Stoichiometric: The ratio of chemical substances Supernatant: The liquid overlying the sludge layer
reacting in water that corresponds to the combining in a sedimentation vessel.
weights in the theoretical chemical reaction. Supersaturated: Refers to a solution or water
Stokes’ law: An expression for calculating the rate of system that contains one or more dissolved com-
fall of particles through a fluid based on density, pounds in excess of their normal solubility limit.
viscosity, and particle size. Supply temperature: Temperature of the water
Story: The vertical dimension between successive leaving the cooling tower. It is a function of the
levels of horizontal framework ties, girts, joists, or system heat load, the efficiency of the cooling tower,
beams. Story dimensions vary depending upon the and the circulating rate of the cooling water.
size and strength characteristics of the framework Surface condenser: A shell-and-tube heat exchanger
material used. used to reduce exhaust steam pressure and tempera-
Stress corrosion cracking (SCC): Failure by ture to the lowest possible levels, thereby providing
cracking under the combined action of a specific greatest turbine efficiency.
corrodent and tensile stresses. Stresses may be Surface rot: Biological wood attack that is active at
applied (external) or residual (internal). Cracking the surface.
may be either intergranular or transgranular, depend-
Surface tension: The inward force on the surface of
ing on the metal and the corrosive medium.
a liquid, which minimizes the surface area of the
Stress frequency: The number of times a stress liquid.
cycle is repeated in a unit of time.
Surface water: Fresh water obtained from rivers
Stress raisers: Changes in contour or discontinuities and lakes.
in structure that cause local increases in stress.
Surfactant: A surface-active agent, usually an
Stress relieving or relief: Heating to a suitable organic compound, whose molecules contain a
temperature, holding long enough to reduce internal hydrophilic group at one end and a lipophilic group at
residual stresses, and then cooling slowly enough to the other.
minimize the development of new internal residual
Suspended solids: Substances in water that are not
completely dissolved and can be removed with
Stress: Force per unit area, often thought of as force conventional filtration.
acting through a small area within a plane. It can be
Synergism: The combined action of several chemi-
divided into components, normal and parallel to the
cals that produces an effect greater than the additive
plane, called normal stress and shear stress, respec-
effects of each.
tively. True stress denotes the stress where force and
area are measured at the same time. Conventional Tannins: Dark colored extractive, present in cell
stress, as applied to tension and compression tests, is cavities of wood.
force divided by original area. TEMA: Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Associa-
Strict (obligate) anaerobe: An organism that grows tion.
only in the absence of free oxygen. Temperature drop: See Range.
Substrate: In biochemistry, the molecule that is Tempering: Reheating hardened metal to some
transformed in a chemical reaction, e.g. hydrogen specified temperature to decrease hardness and
peroxide is the substrate for the enzyme catalase. increase toughness.

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Temporary hardness: Only that hardness equal to Transcrystalline: Literally, across the crystal.
the total alkalinity of the water and associated with Transformation products or structures: Micro-
carbonate and bicarbonate anions. structures that are the result of heating to tempera-
Tensile strength: In tensile testing, the ratio of tures above a transformation temperature and then
maximum load to original cross-sectional area. Also rapidly cooling. They are frequently not resolvable as
called ultimate strength. a single structure but exist as mixtures.
Terbuthylazine: Used for control of algae, inhibits Transformation temperature: The temperature at
photosynthesis. which a change in crystal structure occurs.
Terminal temperature difference (TTD): In a Transgranular: Through or across crystals or
surface condenser, the difference between the grains. Also called intracrystalline or transcrystalline.
saturation temperature of the exhaust steam and the Transpiration: Respiration of plants.
cooling water outlet temperature. Transverse: Pertaining to occurrences in the
Thermal stress: Stress in metal resulting from non- direction of tower width.
uniform temperature distribution. Trasar: An inert fluorescent dye and monitoring
Thermocline: The layer in a lake dividing the upper, tools, including a fluorometer, used to measure
current-mixed zone, from the cool lower stagnant chemical additives, flow rates, volumes, etc. very
zone. accurately in water treatment applications.
Threshold treatment: The control of scale or Treated lumber or wood: Wood treated with a
deposits by application of sub-stoichiometric dosage chemical preservative prior to its use in fabrication of
of treatment chemical. a cooling tower.
Time per cycle: Time it takes for all the water in a Tricalcium phosphate (TCP): The form of calcium
system to make one trip around the recirculating phosphate most troublesome in cooling water. At an
loop. SI over 50, chemical treatment is required to control
Ton: In refrigeration, a ton is the energy needed to precipitation. Enhanced treatment is generally
melt a ton of ice in 24 hours. Since the heat of fusion required over an SI of 1000 and is effective up to an
of water is 144 Btu/lb and a ton is 2,000 pounds, it SI of about 5000. For alkaline-phosphate programs, a
takes 288,000 Btu to melt a ton of ice. Therefore, a minimum of 200 to 400 SI for TCP is required to
ton of refrigeration is defined as the removal of ensure adequate corrosion control.
288,000 Btu/day, or 12,000 Btu/Hr, or 200 Btu/min. TT and TTA: Tolyltriazole.
Total air rate: Total mass flow of dry air per hour Tube bundle: The assembled collection of tubes,
through the tower. tubesheets, and baffles that are fabricated together as
Total hardness: The combined calcium and magne- a single assembly that fits inside the shell of a shell-
sium hardness in a water solution. and-tube heat exchanger.
Total organic carbon (TOC): The concentration of Tube pitch: The shortest center-to-center distance
all organic species, but not including any inorganic between adjacent tubes in a shell-and-tube heat
carbon species, such as bicarbonate, carbonate, and exchanger.
carbon dioxide. TOC is often used as a surrogate to Tube sheet: Piece of metal at the end of the tube
detect hydrocarbon contamination in cooling water bundle that anchors the tube ends and prevents
systems. passage of fluids except through the tubes.
Total residual chlorine (TRC): The sum of free and Tubercle: A knoblike structure of corrosion products
combined residual chlorine. that forms over corrosion sites on iron-based metals.
Total water rate: Total mass flow of water per hour Tuberculation: The formation of localized corrosion
through the tower. products scattered over the surface in the form of
Tower pumping head: The static lift from the knob-like mounds (tubercules).
elevation of the basin curb to the centerline elevation Tubes: Thin conduits bundled together inside a
of the distribution system inlet plus the total pressure shell-and-tube heat exchanger that carry one of the
(converted to ft of water) necessary at that point to fluids.
effect proper distribution of the water to its point of
contact with the air.

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Turbidity: A suspension of fine particles that Waste heat: Heat produced as a by-product of an
obscures light rays but requires many days for industrial process.
sedimentation because of the small particle size. Water loading: Circulating water rate per horizontal
Turbulent flow: Non-laminar flow. Generally, fill plan area of the cooling tower.
liquid flow with a Reynold’s number above about Water rate: Mass flow of water per fill plan area of
4000. the cooling tower per hour.
Turnover: The mixing of lower and upper layers in a Weir: A spillover device used to measure or control
lake in spring and fall caused by temperature and water flow.
density equalization. Weld bead: A deposit of filler metal from a single
Twin: Two portions of a crystal having a definite welding pass.
crystallographic relationship. Twins can be thermally Weld metal: That portion of a weld that has been
or mechanically produced. melted during welding.
Ultrasonic testing: A nondestructive test applied to Weld: A union made by welding.
sound-conductive materials having elastic properties
Welding current: The current flowing through a
for the purpose of locating inhomogeneities or
welding circuit during the making of a weld.
structural discontinuities within a material by means
of an ultrasonic beam. Weldment: An assembly whose component parts are
joined by welding.
Underbead crack: A subsurface crack in the base
metal near a weld. Wet bulb temperature: The temperature of satu-
rated air, or the dew point of air, which is also the
USDA: US Department of Agriculture.
coolest temperature water can be cooled by passing
USGS: US Geological Survey, Department of the through air.
Wet bulb thermometer: A thermometer whose bulb
U-tube: The tubes of a shell-and-tube heat ex- is encased within a wetted wick.
changer are bent in the form of a “U” and both ends
Wet-dry cooling tower: A cooling tower using both
of the tubes are rolled into a single tubesheet.
wet (conventional evaporative cooling tower) and dry
Van der Waals attractive forces: The innate (fin-fan type arrangement) within one structure.
attractive force between two identical particles such Used to reduce water consumption (evaporation) or
as calcium carbonate-calcium carbonate or iron-iron. for plume abatement.
Vegetative: A state in which nutrition and growth Wind load: The load imposed upon a structure by a
dominate the life of a microorganism. wind blowing against its surface.
Veliger: A larvae stage early in the growth of clams Windage: Water lost from the tower because of the
and mussels. effects of wind and drift. Sometimes called blowout.
Velocity recovery fan cylinder: A fan cylinder on Yield point: In low- and medium-carbon steel, the
which the discharge portion is extended in height and stress at which a marked increase in deformation
outwardly flared. Its effect is to decrease the total occurs without increase in load.
head differential across the fan, resulting in either an
Yield strength: The stress at which a material
increase in air rate at constant horsepower or a
exhibits a specified deviation from proportionality of
decrease in horsepower at constant air rate.
stress and strain. Compare with Tensile strength.
Venturi: A device for measuring fluid flow, includ-
Zeta potential: The difference in voltage between
ing a short converging cone succeeded on the same
the surface of the diffuse layer surrounding a colloi-
axis by a long diverging cone. This device is also
dal particle and the bulk liquid beyond.
used in gas scrubbing.
Zinc ion: Cathodic inhibitor commonly used in
Wastage: The sum of blowdown, drift, and leakage
conjunction with chromate, polyphosphate, and
in a cooling tower system.
organics or combinations of these.

442 CONFIDENTIAL, For Nalco Employee Use Only 2005 Nalco Company
PAC-3 Cooling Water Technical Manual (01-05)