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IPASJ International Journal of Electrical Engineering (IIJEE) Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJEE/IIJEE.htm A Publisher

IPASJ International Journal of Electrical Engineering (IIJEE)

Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJEE/IIJEE.htm

A Publisher for Research Motivation

Volume 7, Issue 4, April 2019

Email:editoriijee@ipasj.org ISSN 2321-600X

Minimization of Power Losses and Improving Voltage Profile in Distribution Systems by Optimal Allocation of Distributed Generation

Abdulhamid Musa

Electrical and Electronic Engineering Department, Petroleum Training Institute, Effurun, Delta state, Nigeria.

Abstract

This paper presents an optimization based on Ant Lion Algorithm (ALOA) for Minimization of power losses and improving voltage profile in distribution systems by optimal allocation of distributed generation (DG) for 3 DG units. The optimal allocation of size and location are determined to achieve the highest benefit in terms of improving the bus voltages of IEEE 33- bus radial distribution system (RDS) and also minimizes the overall power losses of the network using multi-objective function (MOF). The voltage stability index (VSI) method is employed for the study where the MATLAB programme is used to simulate the optimal location and size of the DG allocation. The minimum voltage before and after allocation of distributed generations (DGs) are found at bus 18 as 0.9131 pu and 0.9445 pu with corresponding voltage deviation index (VDI) and VSI before and after optimal DG allocations as 0.0869, 0.6951 and 0.0555, 0.7960 respectively. The optimal location for the distribution system is observed at bus 17, bus 16 and bus 32 with corresponding DG sizes of 0.146 MW, 0.01 MW and 1.357 MW. The total power losses were recorded before and after optimal allocation at 0.2027 MW and 0.1132 MW or 44.1234% power loss reduction.

Keywords:Ant lion optimization algorithm, Distributed generation, power loss reduction, Voltage profiles.

1.

INTRODUCTION

Today's society is totally dependent on electricity for the day to day activities and the expected electric power should be available [1]. However, the demand for energy in the world is constantly growing along with the development of the economy and society. Thus, the extension of power supply and transmission system is limited. Therefore, the existing system does not keep up with growth. Consequently, the operation of the power system network is too complicated, especially in urban areas, due to the increasing demand for power and load density. Long distance transmission and distribution systems are used to supply energy to meet consumer demands. More so, in recent decades, the world is witnessing an unprecedented increase in its population with the consequent excessive demand for energy, which are the main operational factors underlying global warming and carbon emissions. Unfortunately, we are still firmly dependent on the use of fossil fuels that continue to play the leading rolein energy supply for power generation and the energy

transportation_system

costs,iconventio-nalipoweriplantsiareiini decline [2, 3]. Therefore, the solution is to find alternative energy sources to replace the traditional energy sources. Besides, the growing concerns of global warming and the energy crisis in recent decades have attracted the attention of experts to develop new and better technologies to supply sustainable and clean energy

[4].Onitheiotherisideiofitheielectricipoweriproblemsiareitheigrowingiincreaseiinitheidemandiforienergy,itheilackiofiacti

veiienergyigenerationianditheitechnicalilimitationsiinitheienergyisystemiareitheichallengesithatienergyicompaniesifaceit oiprovideireliableienergyitoiconsumers.mTheiincreaseiiniloadirequestsiinitheiindustrial,icommercialiandiresidentialisect orsihasicauseditheicongestioniofitheielectricityigridiandithisisituationileadsitoiaivoltageiinstabilityiinitheielectricalisyst em.The increase in load requests in the industrial, commercial and residential sectors has caused the congestion of the electricity grid and this situation leads to a voltage instability in the electrical system. The unstable energy system due to the voltage drop can cause a voltage collapse [5]. Also, the voltage levels in the distribution systems are low and current levels are high compared to the transmission system. The high R / X ratio and the voltage drop cause huge losses in the distribution networks, which represent 80% of the total transmission and distribution losses. Distributionipowerilossesicanibeidividediintoitwoicategories;itechnicaliandinontechnicalilosses.iTheiareaiofitechnicalilos

sesisirelateditoitheipropertiesiofitheimaterialiandiitsiresistanceitoitheiflowiofielectricicurrentithatidissipatesiasiheat.iBe

sides,theimostiobviousiexamplesiareitheipoweridissipatediinitheidistributionilinesianditransformersidueitoitheiriinterna

growing

lielectr-icaliresistance.iFurthermore,itechnicalilossesiareieasyitoisimulateiandicalculate[6].Thus,

interest in studies on renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, hydroelectric, biomass, geothermal and oceanic.

Dueitoitheidepletionioficonventionaliresourcesianditheiincreaseiinitransmissioniandidistributioni

there

is

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Therefore, the integration of the distributed generation (DG) in the network has increased rapidly. Each DG is composed of distributed resources thatserve as electricity generation within the distribution networks or on the customer's network site. When a DG is installed on a customer's site, the utility increases. But DG sources come from conventional and unconventional energy sources. The growing increase in the demand for energy, the lack of active energy generation and the technical limitations in the energy systems are the challenges that energy companies faceto provide reliable energy toconsumers.

Onitheiotherihand,itheiincreaseiiniloadirequestsiinitheiindustrial,icommercialiandiresidentialisectorsihasicauseditheico

ng-

estioniofitheielectricityigridiandithisisituation_leadsitoiaivoltageiinstability_iinitheielectricalisystem

gysystemidueitoitheivoltageidropicanicauseiaivoltageicollapse [7].Accordingly, most studies in advances and advantages of DG have categorized DG into types 1 to 4 [2, 8-12]. For example, Type 1 DG has the ability to deliver only real power while operating at unity power factor, such as micro-turbines, photovoltaic, and fuel cells, which are integrated into the main grid using inverters/converters. Recently, the cost of DG has been drastically reduced due to the advanced technology available. The integration of DG units in the distribution network affects the energy flow and it needs to be optimized. Optimization is an important field of research and solving optimization issues is a difficult problem. However, optimization techniques using the best allocation of multiple DG units can be used for deregulation of the energy sector. Technological advances, low-cost and reliable customer demand for electricity have led to growing interest in the DG, but reliability and maintenance problems have prevented the penetration of DG resources into distribution networks. Also, the location of the DG has a critical impact on the functioning of the distribution network [1].Many traditional methods are not suitable for solving complex optimization problems [13]. However,iseveralioptimizationitechniquesihaveibeeniapplieditoisolveitheipoweriflowiproblemiandiitiisiapplieditoideter mineitheioptimalilocationiandisizeiofitheiDGitoiimproveitheiperformanceiofitheidistributionisystem.iOptimizationitech niq-uesihaveibecomeimoreipopulariinirecentiyearsiasiitiextendsitoiincludeiaidifferentitypeiofistudy_[14]. Moreover, DG can play an important role in supporting the efficient use of conventional and centralized power plants. The integration of DG units in energy systems has many aids, such as improving voltage profiles (VP) and load capacity, strengthening the network, postponing or eliminating system upgrades, minimizing energy losses and costs operational maximums and improvement of the reliability, stability and efficiency [15].DG placement and sizing has been identified as one of the major problems due to the combination of possible buses, number of DGs and their capacities. However, the maximum benefit of integrating DG to a distributed system is a function of determining its suitable location and sizing. By installing a DG at a suitable position and sizing it appropriately, the losses can be minimized. The idea of implementing DG for loss reduction needs special attention because of various benefits that it provides as a result of objectives of DG implementation. This is why many studies by researchers have been performed on this problem and can be by no means exhaustive. Several algorithms have been proposed to place DG in a distributed system that includes a metaheuristic and non-metaheuristic analysis.

Theiunstableiener

1.1 Optimization objectives and methods for optimal allocation of DG The optimization approaches of DG Allocation and DG Planning have common goals and common challenges. One of the major challenges experienced by the developing countries’ governments is coming up with techniques of increasing access to DG technologies and promoting greater energy efficiency and conservation while still maintaining the viability and competitiveness of the existing electric utilities [16]. Moreover, most of the DG allocation studies were carried out in an attempt to minimize the actual energy loss. Likewise, the voltage profile, the loss of reactive power and the mega volt ampere (MVA) capacity of the network are also distinguished as objectives to be achieved. In general, the base destination index was determined by the actual energy loss and other destinations are configured to form multiple and individual objective optimization capabilities. A summary of the most common optimization combinations is shown in figure 1 [17]. Accordingly, different optimization approaches, such as, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Ant Lion Optimization Algorithm (ALOA), Genetic Algorithm (GA), Genetic Bee Colony (GBC) Algorithm, Artificial Bee Colony (ABC), Simulated Annealing (SA), Differential Evolution (DE), Fuzzy Genetic Systems (FGS), Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA), Fuzzy Expert System (FES), Grey Wolf Optimizer (GWO) and many other methods have been suggested to determine the optimal or ideal location as well as size of the renewable DG units in the power systems. The primary objectives of these methods include voltage stability, minimizing line losses to an acceptable level, minimizing voltage deviation, minimizing costs, emission reduction, among others. Analytical algorithms have been considered as being among classical approaches that are significantly based on the mathematical solutions of the problem. The approach is helpful as it assists to identify the optimal DG installation size as well as site in the distribution network as reported by some studies. In [18], a presentation of the novel analytical

network as reported by some studies. In [18], a presentation of the novel analytical Volume 7,
network as reported by some studies. In [18], a presentation of the novel analytical Volume 7,

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approach that aimed at determining the optimal siting and sizing of the DG units in the balanced radial distribution network (RDN) for minimizing the losses of power in the system was made. The proposed approach was set on the basis of loss reduction in relation to the active and reactive components of branch currents by placing the distributed generation at different locations. The approach was implemented on the IEEE 15-bus as well as the 33-bus distribution networks. The work as described in [19] was focused on DG through the addition of means to minimize the losses on the line with the help of mathematical optimization technique. The study solved the optimal location and size problem by developing a multi-objective particle swarm. The proposed algorithm was applied to the IEEE fourteen-bus. In [20], the use of a GA as a way of optimizing size and locating the DG units in a distribution system was proposed. GA was implemented through a MATLAB package and automatic interaction with the load flow program to obtaining the

optimum solutions. In [21], a presentation of a solution to the output as well as location of single and multiple sources of DG through the use of modified ABC was done. In the analysis a consideration of several case studies with varying load profile were made where MATLAB programming software was employed to simulatedata on IEEE 33- bus distribution system. In [22], a proposal for a GWO based approach that optimized the placing and sizing of multiple DG with the aim of reducing the active as well as the reactive energy losses in the distribution system was made. The performance of the GWO approach was implemented on 15-bus and 33-bus RDS. In [23], an optimization process that

is population-based, also referred to as Crow Search Algorithm (CSA) is proposed and used to size and place the DG in

a RDNs. The proposed algorithm was employed to a real network in which different load types are considered with a

constraint objective function to maximize the savings while improving network’s voltage stability. In [24] a novel Selective PSO technique to optimize the problem of DG placement in a radial distribution system (RDS) is presented where Type-1 DG is implemented on IEEE 33-bus and 69-bus RDNs. In [25], an algorithm for the Metaheuristic Cuckoo search was used to optimize DG allocation as well as sizing in a traditional distribution network was presented where the load variations for the whole year was considered. In [26], a novel algorithm that is nature-inspired commonly known as Dragonfly algorithm was presented to optimize the DG units size. IEEE 15-bus, IEEE 33-bus and IEEE 69-bus test systems were employed for algorithm validation. In [27], a new metaheuristic method commonly known as War Optimization (WO) for optimization of placement and sizing of DG for losses in the real power minimization in distribution systems was proposed. In [28], a method known as a feed-forward artificial neural network to determine the size of DG units is proposed. The objective of the paper was to evaluate a simple and fast technique to allocate DG and its size. A voltage stability indicator for the distribution network is determined and arranged in rank- wise to form a priority list for allocation of DG units. In [3], a new chaotic, stochastic fractal search technique was used to optimize sizing, siting, and numbering of DG units in distribution systems. The method was for minimizing the loss of power in distribution systems subject to constraints. The novel technique was assessed on the IEEE 33-bus and IEEE 69-bus RDS.

was assessed on the IEEE 33-bus and IEEE 69-bus RDS. Figure 1. Selected objectives in optimal

Figure 1. Selected objectives in optimal DG allocation

33-bus and IEEE 69-bus RDS. Figure 1. Selected objectives in optimal DG allocation Volume 7, Issue
33-bus and IEEE 69-bus RDS. Figure 1. Selected objectives in optimal DG allocation Volume 7, Issue

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Theipaperiini[29]iproposediainewialgorithmiinspiredibyinatureicallediAntiLioniOptimizeri(ALO).iTheiALOAireprodu

cestheihuntingimechanismiofiantlionsiininature.iFiveimain_stages_ofihuntingiforipreyiareiimplemented,isuchiasitheira

ndomwalkiofitheiants,itheiconstructioniofitraps,itheicaptureiofiantsiinitraps,_itheicaptureiofipreyiandithe_reconstructio

niofitrap.Theiproposedialgorithmiisievaluatediinithreeiphases.iFirst,iaisetiofi19imathematicalifunctionsiisiuseditoitesti

differentifeaturesiofiALOA.iSecondly,iALOisolvesithreeiclassiciengineeringiproblems.iFinally,itheishapesiofitheitwoishi pipropellersiareoptimizedibyiALOiasiairealichallengeiinilife. The paper in [30]Ifocusedmainlyionitheiimpactiof itheiDGiposition onitheidistributioni system. The iintegrationi ofi thei DGistransforming ithe itraditional iRDSiintoi ai

are

obtainedifromitheiidealipositioniandisizeiofitheiDGiunits.iIdealipositionsiareiobtainedibyitheivectoriindeximethod.iThe

iALOAiis_evaluatediiniIEEEi15iandiIEEEi33_busitestisystems.iTheistudyiini[31]iappliesanioptimizationitechniqueical

lediALOitoidetermineitheioptimalisizeiandilocationiofiDGiunitsiiniaiRDNs.iTheiuseiofirenewableisourcesiasiaisortiofi DGitechnologyiinitheiRDNiprovidesibothiaicleanigenerationiofielectricityiandianiimprovementiinitheiperformanceiofi

theiRDN.iInithisistudy,iphotovoltaicicellsiareiusediasiDGiunitsiinstallediiniIEEEi33_andi69busstandardisystems.iTheief

fectsiofitheseiunitsiareitoiminimizeitotaliactiveilossesiandiimproveitheivoltageiprofileiofiallisystemibusesiusediasiaimul ti-purposeifunction. In [32], an optimization method is proposed to solve the optimal problem of the size and position of DG in a distribution system (DS). The optimization problem is solved by using an antlion optimizer (ALO) with different objectives. These objectives are the reduction of the cost of the network purchased upstream energy due to the generation of DG, greater reliability, reduction of DG implementation costs, reducing DS losses and reducing bus voltage deviation. This problem is solved as a multi-objective optimization (MOO) in addition to a single objective optimization (SOO). The optimal size and position of the proposed DGs are implemented in the IEEE 33 and IEEE 69 buses. In [33], the Ant Lion optimization (ALO) is presented to solve the problem of dynamic economic dispatch (DED) considering the effects of the valve point, the ramp speed limits and the transmission losses. Practical DED problems have a non-uniform cost function with equality and inequality constraints, which makes it difficult to find the global optimum when using mathematical approaches. It has a fast convergence speed with the use of the roulette selection technique. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm was verified in a 10-unit generation system during a 24-hour time interval. Thisipaperipresentsi an Ant Lion Algorithm (ALOA) for Minimization of power losses and improving voltage profilein distribution systemsby optimal allocation of DG for 3 DG units. Theobjectives of the paper are to minimize total power lossi(TPL),iimprovingivoltageiprofileiandivoltageistability.iNextiAntilionioptimizationialgorithm,ianiefficientibasedi techniqueiisiuseditoireduceitheiobjectiveifunctionibyideterminingitheibestisizesiofiDGiunitsiatitheseilocations.iTheifres hnessofitheiproposediworkiisitoisolveimultiiobjectiveifunction,iincludingiTPLiminimizationiwithireducediDGisizes.iAl so,ivoltageiprofileiandivoltageistabilityiindexi(VSI)ivaluesiareiimprovediupitoitheidesiredivalues.iTheiproposedimetho

diisiappl-ieditoiIEEEi33_busidistributionisystemitoicheckiitsicapability.i

multi-sourceisystem.

The

effects

of

DG

in

a

RDN

2. PROBLEM FORMULATION

The analysis and the investigations of the benefits of DG are easy on the mathematical model. In this article, the goal is to minimize the total power loss (TPL) as well as improve the voltage profile (VP) of the IEEE 33-bus RDN.

2.1 Objective function (OF).

The objective function (OF) of this study is to reduce the voltage deviation (VD), improve the VP, VSI and also to minimize the TPL. The optimal DG locations are obtained by solving equation 1.

The optimal DG locations are obtained by solving equation 1. (1) Where , and are the

(1)

Where ,

DG locations are obtained by solving equation 1. (1) Where , and are the weightage as
DG locations are obtained by solving equation 1. (1) Where , and are the weightage as

and

are obtained by solving equation 1. (1) Where , and are the weightage as applied to

are the weightage as applied to minimizing VD, VSI and TPL. The weighing factors are assigned

to all the variables that should sum up to one as shown in equation 2.

variables that should sum up to one as shown in equation 2. (2) For this study

(2)

For this study , and are chosen as 0.25, 0.25 and 0.5 respectively. However, functions and are given in equations 3, 4 and 5.

However, functions and are given in equations 3, 4 and 5. (3) and are fitness Volume
However, functions and are given in equations 3, 4 and 5. (3) and are fitness Volume
However, functions and are given in equations 3, 4 and 5. (3) and are fitness Volume
However, functions and are given in equations 3, 4 and 5. (3) and are fitness Volume

(3)

However, functions and are given in equations 3, 4 and 5. (3) and are fitness Volume

and

However, functions and are given in equations 3, 4 and 5. (3) and are fitness Volume

are fitness

However, functions and are given in equations 3, 4 and 5. (3) and are fitness Volume
However, functions and are given in equations 3, 4 and 5. (3) and are fitness Volume

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Here,

buses in the network.

ISSN 2321-600X Here, buses in the network. is taken as 1.0 pu indicating the reference voltage,

is taken as 1.0 pu indicating the reference voltage,

is taken as 1.0 pu indicating the reference voltage, (4) is the real voltage at bus

(4)

is taken as 1.0 pu indicating the reference voltage, (4) is the real voltage at bus

is the real voltage at bus i and

reference voltage, (4) is the real voltage at bus i and is the total number of

is the total number of

is the real voltage at bus i and is the total number of (5) Where is

(5)

Where

is power loss with DG at bus i is power loss without DG at bus i. i is power loss without DG at bus i.

2.2 VoltageiStabilityiIndex (VSI) Analysis

The VSI is considered one of the indices used to verify the level of safety of the energy system. The VSI is evaluated from the load flow of all nodes in the grid and the values are organized in ascending order. To avoid the risk of voltage collapse, the VSI of the nodes must be optimized byiinstalling a storage resource management system based on the optimal The VSI isiconsidered one of theiindices used to verify theilevel ofisafety of the energy system. VSI is evaluatedifrom theiloadiflow location and capacity ofithe DN. However, the evaluation of VSI in each node can be evaluated using equation 6.

of VSI in each node can be evaluated using equation 6. Where (6) P k is

Where

(6)

P k is theitotalieffectiveiactive power at the bus k Q k is the total effective reactive power at the bus k V i The magnitudeiof voltageiat bus i R ik isitheiresistance and reactance of the lineibetween bus i andik X ik is theresistance andireactanceiof the linebetween bus i andiik

However, forisafetyiandisecuredioperationiof powerisystem, itiisibetter toimaintainitheihigh valueiof VSI.

2.3 PoweriLossiIndex (PLI)

TheiratioiofitotalipowerilossiwithiDGsiunitsitoitheitotalipowerilossiwithoutiDGsiisiconsiderediandiestimatedias

theiPLI.

2.4 Fitness Function

The adopted fitness function presented a method of measuring the solutions quality after the generation by the ALOA. The function determined how the candidate solution and the actual solution differed. The fitness function of the ALOA can be calculated using equation 7. The design of the function is a significant part of the entire optimization method for the modelling process.

of the entire optimization method for the modelling process. (7) Where denotes the variables to be

(7)

Where

optimization method for the modelling process. (7) Where denotes the variables to be determined and represents

denotes the variables to be determined and

(7) Where denotes the variables to be determined and represents all the dependent variables. The constraints

represents all the dependent variables.

The constraints for the optimal DG placement formulation are DG location constraints, real power constraints, and voltage drop constraints and are calculated using equations 8, 9 and 10 respectively.

and are calculated using equations 8, 9 and 10 respectively. (8) Where n indicates the total

(8)

Where n indicates the total number of buses.

DG size will be less than or equal to the total load power according to the literature [34]. Therefore,

than or equal to the total load power according to the literature [34]. Therefore, Volume 7,
than or equal to the total load power according to the literature [34]. Therefore, Volume 7,

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4, April 2019 Email:editoriijee@ipasj.org ISSN 2321-600X (9) (10) Where and indicate minimum and maximum DG power

(9)

(10)

2019 Email:editoriijee@ipasj.org ISSN 2321-600X (9) (10) Where and indicate minimum and maximum DG power limits.
2019 Email:editoriijee@ipasj.org ISSN 2321-600X (9) (10) Where and indicate minimum and maximum DG power limits.
2019 Email:editoriijee@ipasj.org ISSN 2321-600X (9) (10) Where and indicate minimum and maximum DG power limits.
2019 Email:editoriijee@ipasj.org ISSN 2321-600X (9) (10) Where and indicate minimum and maximum DG power limits.

Where and indicate minimum and maximum DG power limits. Also, and indicate minimum and maximum voltage limits.

3.ANT LION OPTIMIZATION ALGORITHM (ALOA)

The optimization based on ALO is a new algorithm inspired by nature presented by Mirjalili in 2015 (E. S. Ali et al., 2017, Mani, Bozorg-Haddad and Chu, 2018). The ALOmimicsitheihuntingi mechanismi ofi thelionsofianti lionsi ini nature.Aniantilionilarvaidigsiaicone_shapediholeiinitheisandimovingialongiaicircularipathiandithrowingisandsiwithiitsi hugeijaw.iAfteridiggingitheitrap,itheilarvaihidesiunderitheibottomiofitheiconeiandiwaitsiforitheiinsectsitoiremainitrapp

ediinitheiwell. Theiedgeiofitheiconeiisisharpienoughi foritheinsectsitoieasilyifall itoitheibottom iofitheitrap.i Onceithei

irealizei

antilions

thatipreyiisiinitheitrap,itryitoicatchiit.iTheniitiisithrowniundergroundiandiconsumed.iAftericonsumingitheiprey,itheian

tilionsithrowitheileftoversioutiofitheipitiandiprepareitheiwelliforitheinextihunti[35].TheiALOialgorithmiincludesitwoip

opulations,inamelyiantsiandiantlions.iAntsiareitheisearchiagentsiinitheidecisionispaceiandiant_lionsihidingisomewhere

iinitheidecisionispaceicanihuntithemiandicaptureitheiripositionsitoigetiinishape.iInianioptimizationiproblemiwithiNide

cisionivariablesioriN_dimensionalioptimizationiproblem,itheipositionsiofitheiantsi/iantlionsiiniaispaceiofiNidimensionsi

areitheideci-sionivariables.iThen,ieachidimensioniofitheianti/iantlionipositionibelongsitoioneiofitheidecisionivariables.

Sinceiantsimoveistochasticallyiininatureiwhenisearchingiforifood,iairandomiwalkiisichoseniforimodelingiants'imoveme

ntiasigiveniiniequationi11.

ntiasigiveniiniequationi11. Where is the cumulative sum and is given by equation 12.

Where

is the cumulative sum andntiasigiveniiniequationi11. Where is given by equation 12. (12) (11) The ants’ location are

ntiasigiveniiniequationi11. Where is the cumulative sum and is given by equation 12. (12) (11) The ants’
ntiasigiveniiniequationi11. Where is the cumulative sum and is given by equation 12. (12) (11) The ants’

is given by equation 12.

(12)

(11)

The ants’ location are stored for use in the optimization activity of equation 13, where M ant signify the matrix for saving the position of each ant andant i,j is the value of the j-th variable of i-th ant.

i , j is the value of the j-th variable of i -th ant. (13) The

(13)

The location of an ant refers to the parameter of each solution and save the position of each ant. Other matrices are formulated that saves the fitness value of each ant and where the ant lions are hiding in the search space. However, it can be seen from equation (13) that ants can change their positions. Besides, they are normalized using equation 14 to keep them in random walks inside the search space.

14 to keep them in random walks inside the search space. (14) Where tiisitheistepiofirandomiwalk A i

(14)

Where

tiisitheistepiofirandomiwalk A i iisitheiminimumiofirandomiwalkiofii-thivariable iisitheiminimumiofii-thivariableiatit-thiiteration

iisitheiminimumiofii-thivariableii

iisitheimaximumiofii-thivariableiatit-thiiteration

i -thivariableii iisitheimaximumiofi i -thivariableiati t -thiiteration Volume 7, Issue 4, April 2019 Page 16
i -thivariableii iisitheimaximumiofi i -thivariableiati t -thiiteration Volume 7, Issue 4, April 2019 Page 16

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It follows that random walks of ants are affected by ant lions’ traps. These are modeled with equations 15 and 16. These equations enable ants walk randomly in hyper sphere defined by the vectors C and D around a selected ant lion.

defined by the vectors C and D around a selected ant lion. Where is the position
defined by the vectors C and D around a selected ant lion. Where is the position

Where

is the position of the selected j-th ant lion at t -th iteration iisitheiminimumiofi i -thivariableiati t -thiiteration t-th iteration iisitheiminimumiofii-thivariableiatit-thiiteration

C t iisitheiminimumiofiallivariablesiatit-thiiteration iisitheimaximumiofii-thivariableiatit-thiiteration

D t iisitheivectoriincludingitheimaximumiofiallivariablesiatit-thiiteration

t -thiiteration (15) (16) The radius of ant’s random walk hyper sphere can

(15)

(16)

The radius of ant’s random walk hyper sphere can be reduced to equations 17 and 18.

(17)

(17)

(18)

(18)

Therefore,itheipseudo-codeiofitheiALOialgorithmiisidefinediini[36]iasfollows:

1.iiInitializeitheifirstirandomlyiselectediantipopulation,iantlionsiandiDG.iExecuteitheiflowiofichargeiandicalculateit

heifitnessiofiantsiandiantilions.

2.iiFinditheibestiantilionsiandisupposeiit'sitheielite.

3.iiForieachiant,iselectianiantilioniusingitheirouletteiwheel.

Createiairandomiwalkiandinormalizeiititoikeepiitiinitheisearchispace. Updateitheipositioniofitheiant. Updateitheivaluesioficiandid. Endiof

4.iRunitheiloadiflowiandicalculateitheifitnessiofialliants.

5. Replaceiailionessiwithitheicorrespondingiantiifisheigetsiinishape

6.iiImproveitheieliteiifiailioniantiisifitterithanitheielite.

7.iiRepeatifromi3iuntiliaistopicriterioniisifilled

4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

The ALOA is used for testing the proposed study in finding the optimal allocation for the IEEE 33-bus RDN. Load flow program was simulated first on the system to get the voltage at each bus and the total real power loss of the network before allocation of the DG. This section will provide the simulation result and analysis of IEEE 33-bus distribution network at a unity power factor. The choice of the generating limits is to verify the capability and robustness of the proposed study.

4.1 Convergence characteristics of optimization using ALOA.

The convergence characteristic of the OF for 100 iterations with 200 initial number of ants over 100 iterations is shown in Figure 2. The OF is minimized when the DG is at the optimum bus location and size at the set-up termination point, which is 100 iterations. Primarily, the drop in the value of the OF curve is sharp and gradually decreases to a constant value as the number of iterations increases.

and gradually decreases to a constant value as the number of iterations increases. Volume 7, Issue
and gradually decreases to a constant value as the number of iterations increases. Volume 7, Issue

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4, April 2019 Email:editoriijee@ipasj.org ISSN 2321-600X Figure 2: Convergence characteristics of Ant Lion

Figure 2: Convergence characteristics of Ant Lion Optimization Algorithm

4.2 Effect of DG allocations on voltage profile

The bus voltages of the 33-bus networks before and after the allocation of DG into the IEEE 33-bus DS were simulated in MATLAB 2016a. The voltage profile before and after optimal allocation of DGs are presented in figure 3. It can be observed from the figure that the minimum bus voltage at base case and optimal allocation is found at bus 18 with 0.9131 pu and 0.9445 pu respectively. However, the minimum VSI at bus 18 has improved from 0.6951 pu at base case to 0.7960 at optimal allocation of three DGs as shown in table 1. Besides the minimum VDI has shifted from 0.0869 pu to 0.0555 pu, which translates to 36.13% voltage performance of the distribution network.

to 36.13% voltage performance of the distribution network. Figure 3: Voltage profile of IEEE 33-bus distribution

Figure 3: Voltage profile of IEEE 33-bus distribution network without and with DG allocation

Voltage profile of IEEE 33-bus distribution network without and with DG allocation Volume 7, Issue 4,
Voltage profile of IEEE 33-bus distribution network without and with DG allocation Volume 7, Issue 4,

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Table 1: Voltage performance indices of the 33-bus distribution system using ALA

ITEM

WITHOUT DG

WITH DG

V_MIN. LOCATION

18

18

V_MIN. (PU)

0.9131

0.9445

VDI

0.0869

0.0555

VSI

0.6951

0.7960

4.3 Optimal allocation of the DG and TPL minimization

The optimization results for the power constraints at 3 optimal allocation of DG units is presented in Table 2. It can be seen from the table that optimal locations are obtained at bus 17, bus 16 and bus 32 respectively. However, it is observed that the total power loss of the IEEE 33-bus distribution system without and with DG integration are 0.2027 MW and 0.1132 MW, or 44.1234% power loss reduction of the distribution system as calculated using equation 19. Meanwhile, the power loss index is found to be 0.5588.

Table 2. The optimization results for ALA

         

Total Power

 

No. of

DG

DG location

(MW)

DG size

(MW)

Total DG

(MW)

Total Power

loss without

DG (MW)

loss with

DG

(MW)

% Power loss reduction

 

Bus 17

0.146

       

3

Bus 16

0.010

1.5127

0.2027

0.1132

44.1234

Bus 32

1.357

=
=

5.

CONCLUSION

(19)

This paper presentsan Ant Lion optimization Algorithm in finding the optimal solution to the size and location of multiple DG for loss minimization in the IEEE 33-bus distribution system. The voltage stability index (VSI) method is employed where the MATLAB programme is used to simulate the optimal location and size of the DG allocation.The allocation of optimal location and size of the distributed generation is implemented using MATLAB program where the result is simulated. The result shows minimum voltage before and after allocation of distributed generation at bus 18 to be 0.9131 pu and 0.9445 pu with corresponding voltage deviation index (VDI) and voltage stability index (VSI) before and after DG as 0.0869, 0.6951 and 0.0555, 0.7960 respectively. The study shows the total power loss of the IEEE 33- bus distribution system without and with DG integration are 0.2027 MW and 0.1132 MW, or 44.1234% power loss reduction of the distribution system.

References

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Big Data Analytics, Springer Briefs in Forensic and Medical Bioinformatics, 2019. Volume 7, Issue 4, April
Big Data Analytics, Springer Briefs in Forensic and Medical Bioinformatics, 2019. Volume 7, Issue 4, April

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[3] T. P. Nguyen, T. T. Tran, and D. N. Vo, "Improved stochastic fractal search algorithm with chaos for optimal determination of location, size, and quantity of distributed generators in distribution systems," Neural Computing and Applications, 2018. [4] B. Rout and N. M. Pindoriya, "Active Distribution Network Analysis-A Case Study," 2018 IEEE Innovative Smart Grid Technologies - Asia (ISGT Asia), 2018. [5] Z. A. Kamaruzzaman, A. Mohamed, and R. Mohamed, "Optimal placement of grid-connected photovoltaic generators in a power system for voltage stability enhancement," Indonesian Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, vol. 13, no. 1, p. 339~346, 2019. [6] O. Y. Saeed, "Optimal Reconfiguration and Distributed Generation placement in Baghdad Distribution Sector," Engineering and Technology Journal, vol. 36, Part A, no. 3, pp. 333-343, 2018. [7] S. Koziel, A. L. Rojas, M. F. Abdel-Fattah, and S. Moskwa, "Power Loss Reduction Through Network Reconfiguration and Distributed Generation by Means of Feasibility-Preserving Evolutionary Optimization," presented at the EngOpt 2018 Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Engineering Optimization, 2019.

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Innovative Smart Grid Technologies - Asia (ISGT-Asia) Melbourne, Australia, 2016. Volume 7, Issue 4, April 2019
Innovative Smart Grid Technologies - Asia (ISGT-Asia) Melbourne, Australia, 2016. Volume 7, Issue 4, April 2019

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[23] S. M. Ismael, S. H. E. A. Aleem, and A. Y. Abdelaziz, "Optimal Sizing and Placement of Distributed Generation in Egyptian Radial Distribution Systems Using Crow Search Algorithm," 2018 International Conference on Innovative Trends in Computer Engineering (ITCE), Aswan, Egypt 2018. [24] Sarfaraz, D. A. Bansal, and S. Singh, "Optimal Allocation And Sizing Of Distributed Generation For Power Loss Reduction," International Conference & Workshop On Electronics And Telecommunication Engineering 2016, Mumbai, India 2016. [25] M. Majidi, A. Ozdemir, and O. Ceylan, "Optimal DG Allocation and Sizing in Radial Distribution Networks by Cuckoo Search Algorithm," 2017 19th International Conference on Intelligent System Application to Power Systems (ISAP). San Antonio, TX, USA 2017. [26] M. C. V. Suresh and E. J. Belwin, "Optimal DG placement for benefit maximization in distribution networks by using Dragonfly algorithm," Renewables vol. 5, no. 4, 2018.

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AUTHOR

ABDULHAMID MUSA [JP, FNSE, FNIEEE, FSM, FIMS, CHNR] WAS BORN IN ZARIA, THE KADUNA STATE OF NIGERIA IN MARCH 1971. HE OBTAINED BACHELOR’S DEGREE IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING FROM BAYERO UNIVERSITY KANO (BUK), NIGERIA AND MASTER’S DEGREE OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING IN UNIVERSITI TENAGA NASIONAL (UNITEN), MALAYSIA. HE IS A TRAINING OFFICER AT ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, PETROLEUM TRAINING INSTITUTE, EFFURUN, NIGERIA. HIS CURRENT RESEARCH INTEREST IS ON ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND OPTIMIZATION IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM.

INTEREST IS ON ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND OPTIMIZATION IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM. Volume 7, Issue 4, April
INTEREST IS ON ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND OPTIMIZATION IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM. Volume 7, Issue 4, April
INTEREST IS ON ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND OPTIMIZATION IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM. Volume 7, Issue 4, April

Volume 7, Issue 4, April 2019

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