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Volume 7, Issue 4, April 2019 ISSN 2321-600X

Minimization of Power Losses and Improving

Voltage Profile in Distribution Systems by
Optimal Allocation of Distributed Generation
Abdulhamid Musa
Electrical and Electronic Engineering Department, Petroleum Training Institute, Effurun, Delta state, Nigeria.

This paper presents an optimization based on Ant Lion Algorithm (ALOA) for Minimization of power losses and improving
voltage profile in distribution systems by optimal allocation of distributed generation (DG) for 3 DG units. The optimal
allocation of size and location are determined to achieve the highest benefit in terms of improving the bus voltages of IEEE 33-
bus radial distribution system (RDS) and also minimizes the overall power losses of the network using multi-objective function
(MOF). The voltage stability index (VSI) method is employed for the study where the MATLAB programme is used to simulate
the optimal location and size of the DG allocation. The minimum voltage before and after allocation of distributed generations
(DGs) are found at bus 18 as 0.9131 pu and 0.9445 pu with corresponding voltage deviation index (VDI) and VSI before and
after optimal DG allocations as 0.0869, 0.6951 and 0.0555, 0.7960 respectively. The optimal location for the distribution system
is observed at bus 17, bus 16 and bus 32 with corresponding DG sizes of 0.146 MW, 0.01 MW and 1.357 MW. The total power
losses were recorded before and after optimal allocation at 0.2027 MW and 0.1132 MW or 44.1234% power loss reduction.
Keywords:Ant lion optimization algorithm, Distributed generation, power loss reduction, Voltage profiles.

Today's society is totally dependent on electricity for the day to day activities and the expected electric power should be
available [1]. However, the demand for energy in the world is constantly growing along with the development of the
economy and society. Thus, the extension of power supply and transmission system is limited. Therefore, the existing
system does not keep up with growth. Consequently, the operation of the power system network is too complicated,
especially in urban areas, due to the increasing demand for power and load density. Long distance transmission and
distribution systems are used to supply energy to meet consumer demands. More so, in recent decades, the world is
witnessing an unprecedented increase in its population with the consequent excessive demand for energy, which are the
main operational factors underlying global warming and carbon emissions. Unfortunately, we are still firmly dependent
on the use of fossil fuels that continue to play the leading rolein energy supply for power generation and the energy
costs,iconventio-nalipoweriplantsiareiini decline [2, 3]. Therefore, the solution is to find alternative energy sources to
replace the traditional energy sources. Besides, the growing concerns of global warming and the energy crisis in recent
decades have attracted the attention of experts to develop new and better technologies to supply sustainable and clean
ve energyigenerationianditheitechnicalilimitationsiinitheienergyisystemiareitheichallengesithatienergyicompaniesifaceit

oiprovideireliableienergyitoiconsumers. Theiincreaseiiniloadirequestsiinitheiindustrial,icommercialiandiresidentialisect

em.The increase in load requests in the industrial, commercial and residential sectors has caused the congestion of the
electricity grid and this situation leads to a voltage instability in the electrical system. The unstable energy system due
to the voltage drop can cause a voltage collapse [5]. Also, the voltage levels in the distribution systems are low and
current levels are high compared to the transmission system. The high R / X ratio and the voltage drop cause huge
losses in the distribution networks, which represent 80% of the total transmission and distribution losses.
lielectr-icaliresistance.iFurthermore,itechnicalilossesiareieasyitoisimulateiandicalculate[6].Thus, there is growing
interest in studies on renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, hydroelectric, biomass, geothermal and oceanic.
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A Publisher for Research Motivation ........
Volume 7, Issue 4, April 2019 ISSN 2321-600X

Therefore, the integration of the distributed generation (DG) in the network has increased rapidly. Each DG is
composed of distributed resources thatserve as electricity generation within the distribution networks or on the
customer's network site. When a DG is installed on a customer's site, the utility increases. But DG sources come from
conventional and unconventional energy sources. The growing increase in the demand for energy, the lack of active
energy generation and the technical limitations in the energy systems are the challenges that energy companies faceto
provide reliable energy toconsumers.
gysystemidueitoitheivoltageidropicanicauseiaivoltageicollapse [7].Accordingly, most studies in advances and
advantages of DG have categorized DG into types 1 to 4 [2, 8-12]. For example, Type 1 DG has the ability to deliver
only real power while operating at unity power factor, such as micro-turbines, photovoltaic, and fuel cells, which are
integrated into the main grid using inverters/converters. Recently, the cost of DG has been drastically reduced due to
the advanced technology available. The integration of DG units in the distribution network affects the energy flow and
it needs to be optimized. Optimization is an important field of research and solving optimization issues is a difficult
problem. However, optimization techniques using the best allocation of multiple DG units can be used for deregulation
of the energy sector. Technological advances, low-cost and reliable customer demand for electricity have led to growing
interest in the DG, but reliability and maintenance problems have prevented the penetration of DG resources into
distribution networks. Also, the location of the DG has a critical impact on the functioning of the distribution network
[1].Many traditional methods are not suitable for solving complex optimization problems [13].
niq-uesihaveibecomeimoreipopulariinirecentiyearsiasiitiextendsitoiincludeiaidifferentitypeiofistudy_[14]. Moreover, DG
can play an important role in supporting the efficient use of conventional and centralized power plants. The integration
of DG units in energy systems has many aids, such as improving voltage profiles (VP) and load capacity, strengthening
the network, postponing or eliminating system upgrades, minimizing energy losses and costs operational maximums
and improvement of the reliability, stability and efficiency [15].DG placement and sizing has been identified as one of
the major problems due to the combination of possible buses, number of DGs and their capacities. However, the
maximum benefit of integrating DG to a distributed system is a function of determining its suitable location and sizing.
By installing a DG at a suitable position and sizing it appropriately, the losses can be minimized. The idea of
implementing DG for loss reduction needs special attention because of various benefits that it provides as a result of
objectives of DG implementation. This is why many studies by researchers have been performed on this problem and
can be by no means exhaustive. Several algorithms have been proposed to place DG in a distributed system that
includes a metaheuristic and non-metaheuristic analysis.

1.1 Optimization objectives and methods for optimal allocation of DG

The optimization approaches of DG Allocation and DG Planning have common goals and common challenges. One of
the major challenges experienced by the developing countries’ governments is coming up with techniques of increasing
access to DG technologies and promoting greater energy efficiency and conservation while still maintaining the
viability and competitiveness of the existing electric utilities [16]. Moreover, most of the DG allocation studies were
carried out in an attempt to minimize the actual energy loss. Likewise, the voltage profile, the loss of reactive power
and the mega volt ampere (MVA) capacity of the network are also distinguished as objectives to be achieved. In
general, the base destination index was determined by the actual energy loss and other destinations are configured to
form multiple and individual objective optimization capabilities. A summary of the most common optimization
combinations is shown in figure 1 [17].
Accordingly, different optimization approaches, such as, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Ant Lion Optimization
Algorithm (ALOA), Genetic Algorithm (GA), Genetic Bee Colony (GBC) Algorithm, Artificial Bee Colony (ABC),
Simulated Annealing (SA), Differential Evolution (DE), Fuzzy Genetic Systems (FGS), Gravitational Search
Algorithm (GSA), Fuzzy Expert System (FES), Grey Wolf Optimizer (GWO) and many other methods have been
suggested to determine the optimal or ideal location as well as size of the renewable DG units in the power systems.
The primary objectives of these methods include voltage stability, minimizing line losses to an acceptable level,
minimizing voltage deviation, minimizing costs, emission reduction, among others.
Analytical algorithms have been considered as being among classical approaches that are significantly based on the
mathematical solutions of the problem. The approach is helpful as it assists to identify the optimal DG installation size
as well as site in the distribution network as reported by some studies. In [18], a presentation of the novel analytical

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Volume 7, Issue 4, April 2019 ISSN 2321-600X

approach that aimed at determining the optimal siting and sizing of the DG units in the balanced radial distribution
network (RDN) for minimizing the losses of power in the system was made. The proposed approach was set on the
basis of loss reduction in relation to the active and reactive components of branch currents by placing the distributed
generation at different locations. The approach was implemented on the IEEE 15-bus as well as the 33-bus distribution
networks. The work as described in [19] was focused on DG through the addition of means to minimize the losses on
the line with the help of mathematical optimization technique. The study solved the optimal location and size problem
by developing a multi-objective particle swarm. The proposed algorithm was applied to the IEEE fourteen-bus. In [20],
the use of a GA as a way of optimizing size and locating the DG units in a distribution system was proposed. GA was
implemented through a MATLAB package and automatic interaction with the load flow program to obtaining the
optimum solutions. In [21], a presentation of a solution to the output as well as location of single and multiple sources
of DG through the use of modified ABC was done. In the analysis a consideration of several case studies with varying
load profile were made where MATLAB programming software was employed to simulatedata on IEEE 33- bus
distribution system. In [22], a proposal for a GWO based approach that optimized the placing and sizing of multiple
DG with the aim of reducing the active as well as the reactive energy losses in the distribution system was made. The
performance of the GWO approach was implemented on 15-bus and 33-bus RDS. In [23], an optimization process that
is population-based, also referred to as Crow Search Algorithm (CSA) is proposed and used to size and place the DG in
a RDNs. The proposed algorithm was employed to a real network in which different load types are considered with a
constraint objective function to maximize the savings while improving network’s voltage stability. In [24] a novel
Selective PSO technique to optimize the problem of DG placement in a radial distribution system (RDS) is presented
where Type-1 DG is implemented on IEEE 33-bus and 69-bus RDNs. In [25], an algorithm for the Metaheuristic
Cuckoo search was used to optimize DG allocation as well as sizing in a traditional distribution network was presented
where the load variations for the whole year was considered. In [26], a novel algorithm that is nature-inspired
commonly known as Dragonfly algorithm was presented to optimize the DG units size. IEEE 15-bus, IEEE 33-bus and
IEEE 69-bus test systems were employed for algorithm validation. In [27], a new metaheuristic method commonly
known as War Optimization (WO) for optimization of placement and sizing of DG for losses in the real power
minimization in distribution systems was proposed. In [28], a method known as a feed-forward artificial neural network
to determine the size of DG units is proposed. The objective of the paper was to evaluate a simple and fast technique to
allocate DG and its size. A voltage stability indicator for the distribution network is determined and arranged in rank-
wise to form a priority list for allocation of DG units. In [3], a new chaotic, stochastic fractal search technique was used
to optimize sizing, siting, and numbering of DG units in distribution systems. The method was for minimizing the loss
of power in distribution systems subject to constraints. The novel technique was assessed on the IEEE 33-bus and IEEE
69-bus RDS.

Figure 1. Selected objectives in optimal DG allocation

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pipropellersiareoptimizedibyiALOiasiairealichallengeiinilife. The paper in [30]Ifocusedmainlyionitheiimpactiof
itheiDGiposition onitheidistributioni system. The iintegrationi ofi thei DGistransforming ithe itraditional iRDSiintoi ai
multi-sourceisystem. The effects of DG in a RDN are
ti-purposeifunction. In [32], an optimization method is proposed to solve the optimal problem of the size and position
of DG in a distribution system (DS). The optimization problem is solved by using an antlion optimizer (ALO) with
different objectives. These objectives are the reduction of the cost of the network purchased upstream energy due to the
generation of DG, greater reliability, reduction of DG implementation costs, reducing DS losses and reducing bus
voltage deviation. This problem is solved as a multi-objective optimization (MOO) in addition to a single objective
optimization (SOO). The optimal size and position of the proposed DGs are implemented in the IEEE 33 and IEEE 69
buses. In [33], the Ant Lion optimization (ALO) is presented to solve the problem of dynamic economic dispatch
(DED) considering the effects of the valve point, the ramp speed limits and the transmission losses. Practical DED
problems have a non-uniform cost function with equality and inequality constraints, which makes it difficult to find the
global optimum when using mathematical approaches. It has a fast convergence speed with the use of the roulette
selection technique. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm was verified in a 10-unit generation system during a
24-hour time interval.
Thisipaperipresentsi an Ant Lion Algorithm (ALOA) for Minimization of power losses and improving voltage profilein
distribution systemsby optimal allocation of DG for 3 DG units. Theobjectives of the paper are to minimize total power

The analysis and the investigations of the benefits of DG are easy on the mathematical model. In this article, the goal is
to minimize the total power loss (TPL) as well as improve the voltage profile (VP) of the IEEE 33-bus RDN.

2.1 Objective function (OF).

The objective function (OF) of this study is to reduce the voltage deviation (VD), improve the VP, VSI and also to
minimize the TPL. The optimal DG locations are obtained by solving equation 1.


Where , and are the weightage as applied to minimizing VD, VSI and TPL. The weighing factors are assigned
to all the variables that should sum up to one as shown in equation 2.


For this study , and are chosen as 0.25, 0.25 and 0.5 respectively. However, and are fitness
functions and are given in equations 3, 4 and 5.


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Here, is taken as 1.0 pu indicating the reference voltage, is the real voltage at bus i and is the total number of
buses in the network.


is power loss with DG at bus i
is power loss without DG at bus i.

2.2 VoltageiStabilityiIndex (VSI) Analysis

The VSI is considered one of the indices used to verify the level of safety of the energy system. The VSI is evaluated
from the load flow of all nodes in the grid and the values are organized in ascending order. To avoid the risk of voltage
collapse, the VSI of the nodes must be optimized byiinstalling a storage resource management system based on the
optimal The VSI isiconsidered one of theiindices used to verify theilevel ofisafety of the energy system. VSI is
evaluatedifrom theiloadiflow location and capacity ofithe DN. However, the evaluation of VSI in each node can be
evaluated using equation 6.


Pk is theitotalieffectiveiactive power at the bus k
Qk is the total effective reactive power at the bus k
ViThe magnitudeiof voltageiat bus i
Rik isitheiresistance and reactance of the lineibetween bus i andik
Xik is theresistance andireactanceiof the linebetween bus i andiik

However, forisafetyiandisecuredioperationiof powerisystem, itiisibetter toimaintainitheihigh valueiof VSI.

2.3 PoweriLossiIndex (PLI)


2.4 Fitness Function

The adopted fitness function presented a method of measuring the solutions quality after the generation by the ALOA.
The function determined how the candidate solution and the actual solution differed. The fitness function of the ALOA
can be calculated using equation 7. The design of the function is a significant part of the entire optimization method for
the modelling process.


Where denotes the variables to be determined and represents all the dependent variables.

The constraints for the optimal DG placement formulation are DG location constraints, real power constraints, and
voltage drop constraints and are calculated using equations 8, 9 and 10 respectively.


Where n indicates the total number of buses.

DG size will be less than or equal to the total load power according to the literature [34]. Therefore,

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Where and indicate minimum and maximum DG power limits. Also, and indicate minimum and
maximum voltage limits.


The optimization based on ALO is a new algorithm inspired by nature presented by Mirjalili in 2015 (E. S. Ali et al.,
2017, Mani, Bozorg-Haddad and Chu, 2018). The ALOmimicsitheihuntingi mechanismi ofi thelionsofianti lionsi ini
ediinitheiwell. Theiedgeiofitheiconeiisisharpienoughi foritheinsectsitoieasilyifall itoitheibottom iofitheitrap.i Onceithei
antilions irealizei



Where is the cumulative sum and is given by equation 12.


The ants’ location are stored for use in the optimization activity of equation 13, where Mant signify the matrix for
saving the position of each ant andanti,j is the value of the j-th variable of i-th ant.


The location of an ant refers to the parameter of each solution and save the position of each ant. Other matrices are
formulated that saves the fitness value of each ant and where the ant lions are hiding in the search space. However, it
can be seen from equation (13) that ants can change their positions. Besides, they are normalized using equation 14 to
keep them in random walks inside the search space.


Ai iisitheiminimumiofirandomiwalkiofii-thivariable

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It follows that random walks of ants are affected by ant lions’ traps. These are modeled with equations 15 and 16.
These equations enable ants walk randomly in hyper sphere defined by the vectors C and D around a selected ant lion.



is the position of the selected j-th ant lion at t-th iteration

The radius of ant’s random walk hyper sphere can be reduced to equations 17 and 18.



5. Replaceiailionessiwithitheicorrespondingiantiifisheigetsiinishape


The ALOA is used for testing the proposed study in finding the optimal allocation for the IEEE 33-bus RDN. Load flow
program was simulated first on the system to get the voltage at each bus and the total real power loss of the network
before allocation of the DG. This section will provide the simulation result and analysis of IEEE 33-bus distribution
network at a unity power factor. The choice of the generating limits is to verify the capability and robustness of the
proposed study.

4.1 Convergence characteristics of optimization using ALOA.

The convergence characteristic of the OF for 100 iterations with 200 initial number of ants over 100 iterations is shown
in Figure 2. The OF is minimized when the DG is at the optimum bus location and size at the set-up termination point,
which is 100 iterations. Primarily, the drop in the value of the OF curve is sharp and gradually decreases to a constant
value as the number of iterations increases.

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Figure 2: Convergence characteristics of Ant Lion Optimization Algorithm

4.2 Effect of DG allocations on voltage profile

The bus voltages of the 33-bus networks before and after the allocation of DG into the IEEE 33-bus DS were simulated
in MATLAB 2016a. The voltage profile before and after optimal allocation of DGs are presented in figure 3. It can be
observed from the figure that the minimum bus voltage at base case and optimal allocation is found at bus 18 with
0.9131 pu and 0.9445 pu respectively. However, the minimum VSI at bus 18 has improved from 0.6951 pu at base case
to 0.7960 at optimal allocation of three DGs as shown in table 1. Besides the minimum VDI has shifted from 0.0869
pu to 0.0555 pu, which translates to 36.13% voltage performance of the distribution network.

Figure 3: Voltage profile of IEEE 33-bus distribution network without and with DG allocation

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Table 1: Voltage performance indices of the 33-bus distribution system using ALA



V_MIN. (PU) 0.9131 0.9445

VDI 0.0869 0.0555

VSI 0.6951 0.7960

4.3 Optimal allocation of the DG and TPL minimization

The optimization results for the power constraints at 3 optimal allocation of DG units is presented in Table 2. It can be
seen from the table that optimal locations are obtained at bus 17, bus 16 and bus 32 respectively. However, it is
observed that the total power loss of the IEEE 33-bus distribution system without and with DG integration are 0.2027
MW and 0.1132 MW, or 44.1234% power loss reduction of the distribution system as calculated using equation 19.
Meanwhile, the power loss index is found to be 0.5588.

Table 2. The optimization results for ALA

Total Power
Total Power
No. of DG location DG size Total DG loss with % Power loss
loss without
DG (MW) (MW) (MW) DG reduction
Bus 17 0.146
3 Bus 16 0.010 1.5127 0.2027 0.1132 44.1234
Bus 32 1.357

= (19)

This paper presentsan Ant Lion optimization Algorithm in finding the optimal solution to the size and location of
multiple DG for loss minimization in the IEEE 33-bus distribution system. The voltage stability index (VSI) method is
employed where the MATLAB programme is used to simulate the optimal location and size of the DG allocation.The
allocation of optimal location and size of the distributed generation is implemented using MATLAB program where the
result is simulated. The result shows minimum voltage before and after allocation of distributed generation at bus 18 to
be 0.9131 pu and 0.9445 pu with corresponding voltage deviation index (VDI) and voltage stability index (VSI) before
and after DG as 0.0869, 0.6951 and 0.0555, 0.7960 respectively. The study shows the total power loss of the IEEE 33-
bus distribution system without and with DG integration are 0.2027 MW and 0.1132 MW, or 44.1234% power loss
reduction of the distribution system.


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