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L.D.

College of Engineering

Civil Engineering Department


(Transportation Engineering)

Advance in Transportation Engineering(2721313)


M.E. Semester 2(2018-19)

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CONTENT
(A)Intelligent Transportation System(ITS)

CHAPTER 1

Introduction To ITS, ATIS ATMS…………………………….……………………….5

CHAPTER 2

Operations of Transportation Network & Commercial Vehicle……………….…….23

CHAPTER 3

Exordium of Smart Vehicles & Smart Highways …………………………………….31

CHAPTER 4

Intro of Advance Trafic Control System, Incident Management & Automatic Vehicle………..46

CHAPTER 5

Preamble of Vehicle Positioning & Collision Warning System………………………………..52

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CHAPTER 6

9 Electronic Toll Collection & Road Pricing …………………………………..……………….58

CHAPTER 7

Prelude of Regional Strategic, Architecture & ITS safety & security ……………………..68

CHAPTER 8

Intro of Travel Demand Management & Buisness Models…………………………………..79

(B)High Performance Highway Construction Materials

CHAPTER 9

Use of Waste Material: Flyash, Slag , Recyaclable Waste, Other Waste Materials……..….83

CHAPTER 10

Modified Bitumenous materials & IS Requirements ……………………………………….87

CHAPTER 11

Modified Bitumen Emulsion & Multy Grade Bitumen ………………………………………105

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CHAPTER 12

Microsurfacing: Procedure, Testing…………………………………………………………….....113

CHAPTER 13

Superpave: Binder Specifications, Aggregates and Testing, Mixing, Gyratory Compactor………118

CHAPTER 14

High Performance Mixes: Stone Matrix Asphalt(SMA), Fibers, Mix Design…………131

CHAPTER 15

Porous Asphalt Mix, Fiber Reinforcement Concrete & High Performance Concrete ....145

CHAPTER 16

IS Requirements & Mineral Admixtures & it's Application………..............................158

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CHAPTER :-1

Introduction To ITS, ATIS ATMS

Q.1 Describe in detail the Advanced Traveler information systems.

Ans. Advanced Traveller Information Systems (ATIS) are systems that


provide information directly to the traveller. An important service will
be route guidance, where the driver isinformed of the best route to travel
in order to reach a particular destination, taking into account road
congestion conditions. In addition, it will be possible to receive other
useful information such as the location of nearby restaurants, parking
space availability, and other geographically relevant information.

Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS) provide to users


of transportation systems, travel-related information to assist decision
making on route choices, estimate travel times, and avoid congestion.
This can be enabled by providing different information using various
technologies such as:

 GPS enabled in-vehicle navigation systems.


 Dynamic road message signs for real time communication of
information on traffic congestions,bottlenecks, accidents and
alternate route information during road closures and maintenance.
 Website to provide a colour-coded network map showing
congestion levels on highways (a.k.a.congestion index). Showing
In Fig. 1.1
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Figure 1.1 : Examples of ATIS
ATIS in India :
The objective is to inform road-users of latest traffic updates and
better management of traffic. SMS, internet and radio have been
employed for updates. The update protocols in a few Indian cities are as
follows
a. Bangalore and Hyderabad
Internet (June 2008)This project provides a platform for the public
to check the real time traffic situation at important junctions and arterial
roads, through the net. Real time images of traffic at busy junctions are
available. It covers 40 busy traffic junctions and the informations are
updated every 15 seconds [62].
SMS(October 2009)To keep commuters informed about traffic
congestion and bottlenecks in real time, Bangalore Traffic Police have
made arrangements to send SMS. The facility is available free of cost to
all those who register for it. Everyday two SMS will be sent during

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morning and evening peak hours to the subscribers, indicating
congestion points and bottle necks. In addition, reasons and alternatives
will also be communicated. Additional messages will be sent whenever
there are man-made disruptions in traffic like agitations, serious
accidents etc.
b. Chennai
FM radiosTraffic updates are being provided on FM radio to convey
critical information such as obstruction and road damage due to rain.
c. Delhi
“The Traffic People‟ (April 2009)„TheTrafficPeople‟ provides real
time traffic updates to residents in the Delhi – NCR region. It gives
time-to-time information on traffic situations through websites. Latest
information on traffic jams, processions or rallies resulting in slow
vehicular movement and on any sort of diversion can be obtained from
the website. As of now it provides updates only during peak hours
during mornings and evenings, but will expand coverage as need arises.
They also share traffic updates with radio channels that makes it possible
to reach a broader audience. An SMS alert subscription costs about Rs.
99/- per month.
Real Time Traffic Information Available Online Shown In fig. 1.2

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Figure 1.2 : Real-time Traffic information available online

Q.2 Explain the application of ITS in public transportation system


with the example of Ahmedabad BRTS.

Ans. This group of service is concerned with improving the public


transportation systems and en- couraging their use. Fig.1.3 shows

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different public transportation facilities. This group is divided in four
services which are described as below:

Figure 1.3 : Different public transportation systems

Public Transportation Management :


This user service collects data through advanced communications
and information systems to improve the operations of vehicles and
facilities and to automate the planning and management functions of
public transit systems.
This offers three tasks:
1. To provide real-time computer analysis of vehicles and facilities to
improve transit op- erations and maintenance by monitoring the location
of transit vehicles, by identifying deviations from the schedule, and
offering potential solutions to dispatchers and operators.

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2. To maintain transportation schedules and to assure transfer
connections from vehicle to vehicle and between modes to facilitate
quick response to service delays .
3. To enhance security of transit personnel by providing access
management of transit ve- hicles.

En-Route Transit Information :


This service is intended to provide information on expected arrival
times of t vehicles, transfers, and connections to travellers after they
begin their trips using public transportation. This also provide real-time,
accurate transit service information on-board the vehicle, at transit
stations and bus stops to assist travellers in making decisions and modify
their trips underway.

Advanced Public Transportation Systems (APTS) applies state-of-


art transportation management and information technologies to public
transit systems to enhance efficiency of operation and improve safety. It
includes real-time passenger information systems, automatic vehicle
location systems, bus arrival notification systems, and systems providing
priority of passage to buses at signalized intersections (transit signal
priority)
Digital announcement of transit arrival Shown In Fig. 1.4

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Figure 1.4 :Digital announcement of transit arrival

Ahmedabad BRTS is a highly ambitious rapid transport system


developed by Gujarat Infrastructure Development Board (GIDB),
recognizing that no single mode would cater to the mobility needs of the
city and that „Bus‟ forms the most critical segment of the public
transport system in the Ahmadabad city. GIDB has thereby entrusted the
system design task to CEPT University. In August 2009, the
Ahmedabad, India, bus rapid transit system, termed “Janmarg,” or
people‟s way, began trial operations, becoming India‟s first fully-
featured BRT service with median stations, level boarding, and central
control. Janmarg has the potential to help revive the image of public
transport in Ahmedabad and in India. The enclosed stations of the BRT
system have become some of the finest quality public spaces in the city.
A part of first corridor connecting Pirana to R.T.O. was opened to public
on October 14, 2009 by Chief Minister Narendra Modi on December 3,
2009 [66].
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Q.3 Explain with example the application of ITS in Travel demand
management

Ans. This user service develop and implement strategies to reduce the
number of single occupancy vehicles (SOVs) while encouraging the use
of high occupancy vehicles (HOVs) and the use of more efficient travel
mode.

•The strategies adopted are:


1. Congestion pricing
2. Parking management and control
3. Mode change support
4. Telecommuting and alternate work schedule.

Identification and Availability of Parking PlacesITS linked online can be


used by a traveler in identifying places where he can park his vehicle in
a CBD prior to his trip (Figure – 1.5). It will be very helpful for travelers
in choosing a mode for a trip according to the availability of parking
places. The figure shows identified parking places in Bangalore city
which is available online.

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Figure 1.5 - : An Online Information Showing Parking Places Available
in Bangalore

Emissions Testing and Mitigation


The main objective of this service is to monitor and implement
strategies to divert traffic away from sensitive air quality areas, or
control access to such areas using advanced sensors. This also used to
identify vehicles emitting pollutants exceeding the standard values and
to inform drivers to enable them to take corrective action. This helps in
facilitating implementation and evaluation of various pollution control
strategies by authorities.

Highway Rail Intersection


This service is to provide improved control of highway and train
traffic to avoid or decrease the severity of collisions between trains and

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vehicles at highway-rail intersections. This also monitors the condition
of various HRI equipments.

Q.4 Discuss: How ITS is used for travel and traffic management?

Ans. Travel and traffic management :


The main objective of this group of services is to use real time
information on the status of the transportation system to improve its
efficiency and productivity and to mitigate the adverse environmental
impacts of the system. This group of user service is further divided in 10
user services. Most of these services share information with one another
in a highly integrated manner for the overall benefit of the road
transportation system. These services are described as below:

1.Pre trip information


This user service provides information to the travelers about the
transportation system before they begin their trips so that they can make
more informed decisions regarding their time of departure, the mode to
use and route to take to their destinations. The travelers can access this
information through computer or telephone systems at home or work
and at major public places. Pre travel information can be accessed
through mobile phones as shown in Different routes and respective
travel time durations indicated on VMS are shown in The information
include real time flow condition, real incidents and suggested alternate

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routes, scheduled road construction and maintenance tasks, transit
routes, schedules, fares, transfers, and parking facilities.

2.En-route driver information


This user service provides travel related information to the
travelers en route after they start their trips through variable message
signs (VMS), car radio, or portable communication devices. Fig.shows
the various congested and non congested routes shown on display
screen. VMSindicating different routes and travel time is shown in Fig.
This helps the travelers to better utilize the existing facility by changing
routes etc to avoid congestion. This also provides warning messages for
roadway signs such as stop signs, sharp curves, reduced speed
advisories, wet road condition flashed with in vehicle displays to the
travelers to improve the safety of operating a vehicle. The information
can be presented as voice output also.

3.Route guidance
This service provides information to the travellers with a suggested
route to reach a specified destination, along with simple instructions on
upcoming turns and other manoeuvres. This also provides travellers of
all modes the real-time information about the transportation system,
including traffic conditions, road closures, and the status and schedule of
transit systems. The benefits of this service are reduced delay and
drivers stress levels particularly in an unfamiliar area.

4.Ride matching and reservation

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This user service provide real-time ride matching information to
travellers in their homes, offices or other locations, and assists
transportation providers with vehicle assignments and
scheduling.Travellers give information to the service center and get
number of ride sharing options from which they can choose the best.

5.Traveler Services Information


This service provides a business directory of information on travel-
related services and facilities like the location, operating hours, and
availability of food, lodging, parking, auto repair, hos- pitals, gas
stations and police facilities. This also makes reservations for many of
these traveler services. The traveler services information are accessible
in the home, office or other public locations to help plan trips. These
services are available en-route also.

6.Traffic Control
This service collects the real time data from the transportation
system, processes it into usable information, and uses it to determine the
optimum assignment of right-of-way to vehicles and pedestrians. This
helps in improving the flow of traffic by giving preference to transit and
other high occupancy vehicles or by adjusting the signal timing to
current traffic conditions. The information collected by the Traffic
Control service is also disseminated for use by many other user services.

7.Incident Management

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This service aims to improve the incident management and
response capabilities of transporta- tion and public safety officials, the
towing and recovery industry, and others involved in incident response.
Advanced sensors (close circuit TV cameras), data processors and
communication technology ies are used to identify incidents quickly and
accurately and to implement responsewhich minimizes traffic congestion
and the effects of these incidents on the environment and the movement
of people and goods. the occurrence of incident and its detection by the
center and decision implemented responding to the incident on a
highway pertaining to incident management.

8.Emissions Testing and Mitigation


The main objective of this service is to monitor and implement
strategies to divert traffic away from sensitive air quality areas, or
control access to such areas using advanced sensors. This also used to
identify vehicles emitting pollutants exceeding the standard values and
to inform drivers to enable them to take corrective action. This helps in
facilitating implementation and evaluation of various pollution control
strategies by authorities.

9.Highway Rail Intersection


This service is to provide improved control of highway and train
traffic to avoid or decrease the severity of collisions between trains and
vehicles at highway-rail intersections. This also monitors the condition
of various HRI equipments.

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Q.5 Describe in detail the Advanced Traffic Management Systems
(ATMS)

Ans. Advanced Traffic Management Systems (ATMS) involve the use


of sophisticated technologies to manage the traffic on the transport
network. An important element of ATMS will be advanced traffic
control systems that will phase all the traffic lights in a particular area,
providing such functionality as a "green wave" to vehicles. ATMS will
also include other systems such as freeway ramp metering and include
management systems.

Advanced Traffic Management Systems (ATMS) integrates various sub-


systems (such as CCTV, vehicle detection, communications, variable
message systems, etc.) into a coherent single interface that provides real
time data on traffic status and predicts traffic conditions for more
efficient planning and operations. Dynamic traffic control systems,
freeway operations management systems, incident response systems etc.
respond in real time to changing conditions [Figure1.6 ]

Figure 1.6 : Examples of ATMS

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1.Freeway management systems
•Three primary ITS funtions make up freeway management systems:
monitoring and surveillance, control of freeway operations, and the
display or provision if information to mororists via dynamic massage
signs, highway advisory radio, in-vahicle navigation or information
systems
•Evaluation of freeway management system improvrments such as
safety, reduction in trvel time and delay, increase flows, and flow
improvements.

2.Incident management systems


•Incidents are defined as crashes, breakdowns, and other randome events
that occur on our highway system.
•Incident management systems contain components such as incident
detection, incident verification, response to the incidents, clearence of
the incidents, and traffic management at the incident locations.
•So, incident management systems are coordinated, preplaned, and real
time use of human resources to reduce the duration of incidents.

3.Transit management system


•Transit management systems are concerned with increaseing
operational efficiency of all transit modes and increasing rideship by
making the transit system more reliable.
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•Several transit agencies have equiped their vehicles with GPS to create
automatic vehicle location (AVL).

4.Arterial management systems


•An arterial management system is used to manage traffic by employing
varios detection and control device along arteial roadway.
•Detectors collect basic trffic condition data and adaptive control
systems can be used to coordinate traffic signal control across a
metropolitan area by adjsting the length of signal phases and cycle.
•Arterial management systems ahave contribute to reductions in red light
violations of 20-75 percent and reduction in fuel consumption be 2-13
percent in the studied areas.

5.Emergency management systems


•Emergency management systems are used by fire departments, police
departments, ambulence services, and freeway service patrols.
• Emergency vehicle management - This user service is to reduce the
time from the receipt of an emergency notification to the arrival of the
emergency vehicles at incident location thereby reducing the severity of
accident injuries.

6.Information management

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•This service is aimed to provide the functionality needed to store and
archive the huge amounts of data being collected on a continuous basis
by different ITS technologies.
•This user service is aimed to provide the functionality needed for
managing the fleets of maintenance vehicles, managing the roadway
with regards to construction and maintenance and safe roadway
operations.

7.Maintenance and construction management


8.Road weather management
•Weahter impacts on trnsportation are pervasive.

•The weather can cause many incidents espacially in the cold regions of
the country.

•The stretegy of anti-icing involves the use of chemical freeze point


depressants to prevent a bond from forming between pavement and
snow or ice.

•The study cocluded that the anti-icing program can reduce cost of
providing a defined level of service by 10-20 percent, while the snow
and ice control costs pre mile can be reduced up to 50 percent.

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ATMS In India :

Trial of advanced Traffic Management System (Tamil Nadu, Sep 2009)

This involved a trial run of the fully automated Traffic Regulatory


Management System (TRMS), involving usage of surveillance cameras
in the city of Chennai. This project involved installing sophisticated
cameras, wireless towers and poles, under the Rs. 3-crore-State
government- funded project. Automatic Number Plate Reader (ANPR)
cameras were installed in 28 out of 42 vantage points in the city, while
„Pan Tilt Zoom‟ (PTZ) cameras were deployed in 10 out of 12 busy
junctions identified. The traffic police also plan to install 40 CCTV
cameras at various junctions. This is to warn motorists who blatantly
violate rules and monitor traffic on arterial roads during peak hours.

Figure 1.7 : TRMS in Chennai

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CHAPTER :-2
Operations of TransportationNetwork & Commercial Vehicle

1. Explain the application of ITS in public transportation system with


the example of Ahmedabad BRTS.This group of service is concerned
with improving the public transportation systems and encouraging
their use.
Public Transportation Management
This user service collects data through advanced communications and
information systems to improve the operations of vehicles and facilities and
to automate the planning and management functions of public transit
systems. This offers three tasks:
1. To provide real-time computer analysis of vehicles and facilities to
improve transit operations and maintenance by monitoring the location of
transit vehicles, by identifying deviations from the schedule, and offering
potential solutions to dispatchers and operators.
2. To maintain transportation schedules and to assure transfer connections
from vehicle to vehicle and between modes to facilitate quick response to
service delays .
3. To enhance security of transit personnel by providing access management
of transit vehicles.
En-Route Transit Information

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This service is intended to provide information on expected arrival times of
t vehicles, transfers, and connections to travellers after they begin their trips
using public transportation. This also provide real-time, accurate transit
service information on-board the vehicle, at transit stations and bus stops to
assist travellers in making decisions and modify their trips underway.
Personalized Public Transit
The aim of this service is to offer public transport facility to travellers by
assigning or scheduling vehicles by
1. diverting flexibly routed transit vehicles.
2. assigning privately operated vehicles on demand which include small
buses, taxicabs, or other small, shared-ride vehicles.
Under this service, travellers provide information of their trip origin and
destination to service station. The centre then assigns the closest vehicle to
service the request and to inform the travellers regarding arrival of such
vehicles well in advance to reduce their anxiety.
Public Travel Security
This user service creates a secure environment for public transportation
operators and support staff and monitors the environment in transit
facilities, transit stations, parking lots, bus stops and on-board transit
vehicles and generates alarms (either automatically or manually) when
necessary.
It also provides security to the systems that monitor key infrastructure of
transit (rail track, bridges, tunnels, bus guide ways, etc.).
Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS) has emerged as a key solution to urban
transportation needs of today's world. Explosive growth in wireless
technologies and information technology has lead to the emergence of
Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) technology. ITS assisted BRTS is
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now being perceived globally as a emerging transportation solution and
research area. India today is one of the fastest growing economies of the
world. To sustain and promote its economic growth India has fast tracked
its infrastructure development including implementation of Bus Rapid
Transit System and Intelligent Transport System. This paper studies and
analyses the same with reference to Indore City Transport Services Ltd.
(ICTSL) in particular and other Indian cities as well. BRTS and ITS
implementation is on track. Indian citizens will soon enjoy ITS supported
world class BRTS experience. Comparative study of ITS and BRTS
implementation in major cities of the world is also carried out. State Road
Transport Corporations also are investing in ITS technology by way of
handheld ticketing machines, RFID tags and online ticket booking through
internet and android based smart phone applications. Also the bus fleet is
being fitted with GPS based AVL system for effective tracking and
monitoring of the intercity and interstate bus movement and predict its
arrival time at scheduled stoppages.
2. Describe the applications of ITS for commercial vehicle operations
and inter modal freight. The aim is to improve the efficiency and safety
of commercial vehicle operations. This involves
following services:
1. CV electronic clearance
2. Automated road side safety inspection
3. On-board safety monitoring administrative process
4. Hazardous material incident response
5. Freight Mobility
Commercial Vehicle Electronic Clearance

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This service allows enforcement personnel to electronically check safety
status, vehicle’s credentials, and size and weight data for the commercial
vehicles before they reach an inspection site.
The authorities send the illegal or potentially unsafe vehicles only for
inspection and bypass safe and legal carriers to travel without stopping for
compliance checks at weigh stations and other inspection sites.
Automated Roadside Safety Inspection
At inspection station the safety requirements are checked more quickly and
more accurately during a safety inspection using automated inspection
capabilities. Advanced equipments are used to check brake, steering and
suspension performance and also the driver’s performance pertaining to
driver alertness and fitness for duty.
On-board Safety Monitoring
This service monitors the driver, vehicle, and cargo and notify the driver,
carrier, and, also to the enforcement personnel, if an unsafe situation arises
during operation of the vehicle.
This is user service also assures freight container, trailer, and commercial
vehicle integrity by monitoring on-board sensors for a breach or tamper
event.
Commercial Vehicle Administrative Processes
This service allows carriers to purchase credentials such as fuel use taxes,
trip permits, over-weight permit, or hazardous material permits
automatically. The mileage and fuel reporting and auditing components are
provided to the carriers automatically which reduce significant amount of
time and paperwork.
Hazardous Materials Incident Response

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This user service provides immediate information regarding the types and
quantities of hazardous materials present at incident location to the
emergency personnel in order to facilitate a quick and appropriate response.
The emergency personnel are informed regarding shipment of any sensitive
hazardous materials so that timely action be taken in case of accidents.
Freight Mobility
This service provides information to the drivers, dispatchers, and inter-
modal transportation providers, enabling carriers to take advantage of real-
time traffic information, as well as vehicle and load location information, to
increase productivity.
3. What is the role of ITS in transportation network operations?
Travel and traffic management
The main objective of this group of services is to use real time information
on the status of the transportation system to improve its efficiency and
productivity and to mitigate the adverse environmental impacts of the
system. This group of user service is further divided in 10 user services.
Most of these services share information with one another in a highly
integrated manner for the overall benefit of the road transportation system.
These services are described as below:
Pre trip information
This user service provides information to the travellers about the
transportation system before they begin their trips so that they can make
more informed decisions regarding their time of departure, the mode to use
and route to take to their destinations. The travellers can accessthis
information through computer or telephone systems at home or work and at
major public places. Different routes and respective travel time durations
indicated on VMS.
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The information include real time flow condition, real incidents and
suggested alternate routes, scheduled road construction and maintenance
tasks, transit routes, schedules, fares, transfers, and parking facilities.
En-route driver information
This user service provides travel related information to the travellersen
route after they start their trips through variable message signs (VMS), car
radio, or portable communication devices. various congested and non
congested routes shown on display screen. VMS indicating different routes
and travel time is shown in Fig. 48:5. This helps the travellers to better
utilize the existing facility by changing routes etc. to avoid congestion. This
also provides warning messages for roadway signs such as stop signs, sharp
curves, reduced speed advisories, wet road condition flashed with in vehicle
displays to the travellers to improve the safety of operating a vehicle. The
information can be presented as voice output also.
Route guidance
This service provides information to the travellers with a suggested route to
reach a specified destination, along with simple instructions on upcoming
turns and other manoeuvres. This also provides travellers of all modes the
real-time information about the transportation system, including traffic
conditions, road closures, and the status and schedule of transit systems.
The benefits of this service are reduced delay and drivers stress levels
particularly in an unfamiliar area.
Ride matching and reservation
This user service provide real-time ride matching information to travellers
in their homes, offices or other locations, and assists transportation
providers with vehicle assignments and scheduling.
Travellers give information to the service centre and get number of ride
sharing options from which they can choose the best.
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Traveller Services Information
This service provides a business directory of information on travel-related
services and facilities like the location, operating hours, and availability of
food, lodging, parking, auto repair, hospitals, gas stations and police
facilities. This also makes reservations for many of these traveler services.
The traveller services information are accessible in the home, office or other
public locations to help plan trips. These services are available en-route
also.
Traffic Control
This service collects the real time data from the transportation system,
processes it into usable information, and uses it to determine the optimum
assignment of right-of-way to vehicles and pedestrians. This helps in
improving the flow of traffic by giving preference to transit and other high
occupancy vehicles or by adjusting the signal timing to current traffic
conditions. The information collected by the Traffic Control service is also
disseminated for use by many other user services.
Incident Management
This service aims to improve the incident management and response
capabilities of transporta-tion and public safety officials, the towing and
recovery industry, and others involved in incident response. Advanced
sensors (close circuit TV cameras), data processors and communication
technologies are used to identify incidents quickly and accurately and to
implement response which minimizes traffic congestion and the effects of
these incidents on the environment and the movement of people and goods.
by the centre and decision implemented responding to the incident on a
highway pertaining to incident management.
Travel Demand Management

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This user service develop and implement strategies to reduce the number of
single occupancy vehicles while encouraging the use of high occupancy
vehicles and the use of more efficient travel mode. The strategies adopted
are:
1. Congestion pricing
2. Parking management and control
3. Mode change support
4. Telecommuting and alternate work schedule.
Emissions Testing and Mitigation
The main objective of this service is to monitor and implement strategies to
divert traffic away from sensitive air quality areas, or control access to such
areas using advanced sensors. This also used to identify vehicles emitting
pollutants exceeding the standard values and to inform drivers to enable
them to take corrective action. This helps in facilitating implementation and
evaluation of various pollution control strategies by authorities.
Highway Rail Intersection
This service is to provide improved control of highway and train traffic to
avoid or decrease the severity of collisions between trains and vehicles at
highway-rail intersections. This also monitors the condition of various HRI
equipments.

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CHAPTER :-3
Exordium of Smart Vehicles & Smart Highways

Q 1.Write a note on Automated highways.

Abstract
The Automated Highway System (AHS) concept defines a new relationship
between vehicles and the highway infrastructure. AHS refers to a set of
designated lanes on a limited access roadway where specially equipped
vehicles are operated under completely automatic control. AHS uses vehicle
and highway control technologies that shift driving functions from the
driver/operator to the vehicle.
Throttle, steering, and braking are automatically controlled to provide safer
and more convenient travel. AHS also uses communication, sensor and
obstacle-detection technologies to recognize and react to external
infrastructure conditions. The vehicles and highway cooperate to coordinate
vehicle movement, avoid obstacles and improve traffic flow, improving
safety and reducing congestion. In sum, the AHS concept combines on-
board vehicle intelligence with a range of intelligent technologies installed
onto existing highway infrastructure and communication technologies that
connect vehicles to highway infrastructure.

INTRODUCTION
The idea of automated driving dates back to almost 50 years ago when
General Motors (GM) presented a vision of ―driverless‖ vehicles under
automated control at the 1939 World fairs in New York. In the
1950’s research by industrial organizations conceptualized
automated vehicles controlled by mechanical systems and radio controls.
After the first appearance of the computers in the 1960’s, researchers began
to consider the potential use of computers to provide lateral and longitudinal
control and traffic management. The fully automated highway concept was

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initially examined by GM with sponsorship from the US department of
Transportation (DOT) in the late1970’s. During these times, focus was laid
on automated vehicles on a highway as computers were not powerful
enough to consider a complete fully automated highway system.

Advances in the computing technologies, micro-electronics and sensors in


the 1980’s provoked commercial interest in the technologies that might
enhance driver capability and perception and both private and public
researchers examined partially automated products and services. Among
others, the University of California Partners in Advanced Transport and
Highways (PATH) has carried out significant research and development in
the field of highway automation since the 1980’s. As various transportation
technologies emerged that could assist driving on one hand and also traffic
efficiency on the other, interest in fully automated driving or integrated
auto-highway technologies grew once again.

With the passage of the 1991 Intermodal Surface Transport Efficiency Act
(ISTEA), efforts were on early prototype development and testing of fully
automated vehicles and highways. This act prompted the US DOT to
develop the National Automated Highway System Research Programme
(NAHSRP), whose goal was to develop specifications for a fully automated
highway system concept that would support and stimulate the improvement
of vehicle and highway technologies.

In 1994, the US Department of Transportation launched the National


Highway System Consortium (NAHSC). The consortium consisted of nine
major categories of organization including academia, federal, state, regional
and local government besides representatives from vehicle, highway,
electronics and communications industries. The consortium believed in
expanding the program’s expertise and resources, and maintained that the
collaborative approach among the stakeholders would be critical in building
the common interest that would be required in the early development and
deployment of fully automated highway systems. Research continues to this
day though it is largely sketchy owing to the withdrawal of the financial
support for the National Automated Highway Systems Research Programme

32 | P a g e
(NAHSRP) by the US Department of Transportation in the year 1997.

Many studies conducted by the National Automated Highway Systems


Consortium (NAHSC) continue in partial way with a couple of federal
programmes like the Intelligent Vehicle Initiative (IVI) with more focus on
a nearer-term horizon.

Major AHS Goals

The AHS program is designed to influence how and when vehicle-highway


automation will be introduced. AHS deployments will be tailored to meet
the needs of public, commercial, transit, and individual travellers in rural
and urban communities. The major goals are to:

1. Improve safety by significantly reducing:

Fatalities.

Personal injury.

Pain and suffering.

Anxiety and stress of driving.

2. Save money and optimize investment by:

Maximizing efficiency of the existing infrastructure investment.

Integrating other ITS services and architecture to achieve


smooth traffic flow.

Using available and near-term applied technology to avoid costs


of conventional highway build-out.

33 | P a g e
Developing affordable equipment, vehicles, infrastructure, operations,
maintenance, and user fees.

Closing the gap on predicted infrastructure needs.

Using public/private partnerships for shared risk; using the


National AHS Consortium as a global focal point to influence foreign
deployment efforts.

Reducing fuel consumption and costs, maintenance, wear-and-


tear, labor costs, insurance costs, and property damage.

3. Improve accessibility and mobility by:

Improving employee on-time performance, resulting in a more


effective work force.

Facilitating "just-in-time" deliveries.

Improving public transportation service, increasing customer


access, and expanding service levels, resulting in increased
revenue, reduced costs, and reduced accidents.

Achieving a smooth traffic flow, reducing delays, travel times,


travel time variability, and driver stress.

Making driving more accessible to less able drivers.

4. Improve environmental efficiencies by:

Reducing emissions per vehicle-mile travelled.

Providing a solid base for reliable, lower cost transit.

Providing an efficient base for electric-powered vehicles and


34 | P a g e
alternative fuel vehicles.

5. Create jobs by:

Providing a stronger national economy and increasing global


competitiveness.

Increasing jobs in research and development and in early ITS


deployment.

Facilitating technology transfer (e.g., from military to civilian


use).

Creating new U.S. automotive products and new technology-


based industry to compete in the international marketplace.

35 | P a g e
Methodology
As shown in figure 3.1, a driver electing to use such an automated highway
might first pass through a validation lane, similar to today's high-
occupancy-vehicle (HOV) or carpooling lanes. The system would then
determine if the car will function correctly in an automated mode, establish
its destination, and deduct any tolls from the driver's credit account.
Improperly operating vehicles would be diverted to manual lanes.

The driver would then steer into a merging area, and the car would be
guided through a gate onto an automated lane. An automatic control system
would coordinate the movement of newly entering and existing traffic.
Once travelling in automated mode, the driver could relax until the turnoff.
The reverse process would take the vehicle off the highway. At this point,
the system would need to check whether the driver could retake control,
then take appropriate action if the driver were asleep, sick, or even dead.

The alternative to this kind of dedicated lane system is a mixed traffic


system, in which automated and non-automated vehicles would share the
roadway. This approach requires more-extensive modifications to the
highway infrastructure, but would provide the biggest payoff in terms of
capacity increase.

In fact, a spectrum of approaches can be envisioned for highway automation


systems in which the degree of each vehicle's autonomy varies. On one end
of the range would be fully independent or "free-agent" vehicles with their
own proximity sensors that would enable vehicles to stop safely even if the
vehicle ahead were to apply the brakes suddenly. In the middle would be
vehicles that could adapt to various levels of cooperation with other
vehicles (platooning). At the other end would be systems that rely to a lesser
or greater degree on the highway infrastructure for automated support. In
general, however, most of the technology would be installed in the car.

The Five Concept Families

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Independent Vehicle Concept:

his concept puts a smart vehicle in the existing infrastructure. In-vehicle


technology lets the vehicle operate automatically with on-board sensors and
computers. The vehicle can use data from roadside systems but does not
depend on infrastructure support.

Cooperative Concept:

his concept lets smart vehicles communicate with each other, although not
with the infrastructure. With on-board radar, vision, and other sensors, these
AHS-equipped vehicles will be able to communicate with each other and
coordinate their driving operations, thereby achieving best throughput and
safety.

Infrastructure-Supported Concept:

smart infrastructure can greatly improve the quality of AHS services and
better integrate AHS with local transportation networks. This concept
envisions automated vehicles in dedicated lanes using global information
and two-way communication with the smart infrastructure to support
vehicle decision-making and operation.

Infrastructure-Assisted Concept:

In this concept, the automated roadside system provides inter-vehicle


coordination during entry, exit, merging, and emergencies. This concept
may provide the greatest throughput benefit; it also may require the greatest
civil infrastructure investment.

Adaptable Concept:

his concept acknowledges the fact that AHS implementation will vary by
locality. It envisions the development of a wide range of compatible
standards that leave as many of the specific architecture decisions,
37 | P a g e
solutions, and deployment progressions as possible to area stakeholders.

The Five Layer Theory


The physical layer comprises all the on-board vehicle controllers of the
physical components of a vehicle. These include the engine and
transmission, brake and steering control systems, as well as the different
lateral and longitudinal vehicle guidance and range sensors. The main
function of the physical layer is to decouple the longitudinal and lateral
vehicle guidance control and to approximately linearize the physical layer
dynamics.

The regulation layer is responsible for the longitudinal and lateral guidance
of the vehicle, and the execution of the manoeuvres ordered by the
coordination layer. The regulation layer must carry out two longitudinal
control tasks. The first task is that of a vehicle follower in a platoon and
consists in maintaining a prescribed constant spacing from the preceding
vehicle. The second task is that of a platoon leader or free agent and
consists in safely and efficiently executing a manoeuvre commanded by the
coordination layer.

The coordination layer is responsible for selecting the activity that the
vehicle should attempt or continue to execute, in order to realize its
currently assigned activity plan. It communicates and coordinates its actions
with its peers—the coordination layers of neighboujring vehicles—and
supervises and commands the regulation layer to execute or abort
manoeuvres. It also communicates with the link layer roadside control
system, from which it periodically receives an updated activity plan.

There is one link layer controller for each 0.5 to 5 km-long segment of the
highway, called a link. Its task is to control the traffic flow within the link
so as to attain its full capacity and minimize vehicle travel time and
undesirable transient phenomena, such as congestion. A link is itself
subdivided in sections, one per lane. A link receives and discharges traffic
flow from and to neighbouring links, as well as AHS entrances and exits.
The controller measures aggregated vehicle densities in each of the link’s

38 | P a g e
sections. These densities are specific to vehicle type, including origin and
destination, and whether the vehicle is a platoon leader, follower or is
changing lanes. It broadcasts commands in the form of a specific activity
plan for each vehicle type and section, to the vehicle coordination layer
controllers.

The link layer controller receives commands from the network layer in the
form of demands on the inlet traffic flows at the AHS entrances, and outlet
flow constraints at the AHS exits, as well as desired inlet-to-outlet traffic
flow split ratios, in case a vehicle can take more than one route to each the
same destination, while travelling in that highway link.

The task of the network layer is to control entering traffic and route traffic
flow within the network of highway links that constitute the AHS, in order
to optimize the capacity and average vehicle travel time of the AHS and
minimize transient congestion in any of its highway links.

POTENTIAL BENEFITS
Researchers have attempted to estimate benefits that might accrue from the
implementation of automated highway systems. Table 2 summarizes
potential benefits. Many of the benefits shown in the table are fairly
speculative; the systems they would depend upon are not yet in existence
and there is no clear evidence that the system can produce the following
benefits in reality.

It is anticipated that automated highway and related advanced vehicle


control and safety technologies would significantly reduce traffic
congestion and enhance safety in highway driving. This in turn would
potentially cut travel time, and therefore, driving would be more predictable
and reliable. The Mobility 2000 report, sponsored by the Texas
Transportation Institute, projected that collision prevention systems could
reduce accidents by 70 percent or 90 percent on fully automated highways.

Research focused on collision prevention systems has estimated possible


savings in a relatively short period of time. For example, collision

39 | P a g e
avoidance systems have been estimated to have the potential to reduce
annual loss of life on U.S. roads by 50 percent by 2020. In addition,
preliminary National Highway Traffic Safety Administration estimates
show that rear-ends, lane-change, and roadway-departure crash-avoidance
systems have the potential to reduce crashes by one-sixth, or about 1.2
million crashes a year.

CONCLUSION
Automated Highway Systems brings major transportation benefits in terms
of safety, efficiency, affordability and usability, and environment in order to
achieve its development goals.

A key feature of the control design architecture is the separation of the


various control functions into distinct layers with well-defined interfaces.
Each layer is then designed with its own model that is suited to the
functions for which it is responsible. The models at the various layers are
different not only in terms of their formal structure (ranging from
differential equations to state machines to static graphs), but also in the
entities that have a role in them.

The AHS is a complex large-scale control system, whose design required


advances in sensor, actuator, and communication technologies (not
discussed here) and in techniques of control system synthesis and analysis.
It is a measure of the advanced state of the art that these techniques have
reached a stage that they could be successfully used in the AHS project.

Though it has been said so, the reasons why many federal programs like the
National Automated Highway System Research Program (NAHSRP) failed
was that the program was trapped in technology-optimism. Several U.S.
DOT reports on AHS show that there are no technical and non-technical
showstoppers. However, legal, institutional, and societal challenges just as
critical as technical issues. Moreover, these institutional and societal issues
cannot be settled in one day, because they are much to do with people’s
perception, behavior, consensus and social changes based on those.

40 | P a g e
Q 2.What is Smart Highway? How will affect road safety?

Transport safety can be defined in a number of ways. Safe road


traffic is characterized by the absence of crashes, injuries and fatalities.
Because the loss of health is the most serious effect of crashes for
society and for the individual, It leads both to serious personal
suffering and to huge societal losses. Therefore, it is essential to
state at this early stage that loss of health is the main road safety
criterion.
The health consequences of road crashes may be influenced
by actions taken before the crash (active safety), during the crash
(passive safety), and post crash (rescue, treatment, rehabilitation).
Most of the crashes are due to human errors, mostly unintentional.
There are three basic ways to reduce the human errors: 1. 2. 3. ITS
Selection of road users (for example, licensing), Improving road users
(for example, information education, training, and enforcement),
Adaptation of road and vehicle engineering solutions (make it easier to
drive to walk in traffic). ITS have the potential to improve safety along
each one of the three mentioned dimensions.
It is possible and feasible now to influence and even control traffic
exposure. It will be possible to reduce the probability of crashes, to
prevent crashes. It will be possible to reduce the injury consequences of
crashes. Safety aspects of IT S The safety implications of Intelligent
Transport Systems are commonly classified into three areas

1. System Safety — covering safety problems from


41 | P a g e
hardware design and from software design with particular
focus on reliability, the propensity for malfunction and the
potential to go into a dangerous system mode.

2. Human Machine Interaction (HMI), that is interaction


between the user and the system. Main points are the design
of buttons and controls, screen size, means of dialogue between
the user and the system channel for information (auditory or
visual), and feedback to the user (auditory or visual).

3. Traffic Safety — this is the overall effect of system use


on the safety of the traffic system as a whole. It covers the
outcome of System Safety and HMI. More broadly, it also
covers the overall ways in which a particular system
might affect road user behavior so as to alter the interaction
between the driver, the vehicle, the road infrastructure and
other road users. In each of these areas, various procedures
and guidelines have been developed in an effort to ensure that
safety problems Are Minimised .

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Q 3.Write a short note on Driverless vehicles.

It is so useful for the humans when driving the car . By the Google
driver less can avoid the accidents on the roads and can reduce the traffic
time at the traffic signals can prevent the drinking driving on the roads
.The car itself can driver at night times also .At the same time so many
taxi drivers can lose their jobs .The driver less car's technologies
improves vehicles stability helps to minimize loss of control . Driver less
cars are designed to minimize accidents by addressing the main causes
of collisions:

• Driving error

• Distraction

• Drowsiness

No drivers’ licenses will be needed .Since people of all ages and


abilities can use these vehicles nu specific driver certifications are
needed "People do not need a license to sit on a train of bus" said Dr
Azim Eskandarian director of the Center for Intelligent Systems
Research. So there will not be any special requirements for drivers or
occupants to use the vehicle as a form of transportation.
Car - sharing programs will become more main stream .They’ll
take you to your destination and then be readied for another occupant
Since cars today are parked for more than 90 percent of their lifetime ,
shred car services will promote more continuous movement . garnermore
efficient operation and use less gas , " said Dr . Alberto Broggi . IEE
senior member .Infrastructure won ' t be prohibitive , Existing roads can
already handle the advent of autonomous vehicles . No major overhaul is
needed.

43 | P a g e
Broggi directed a project in 2010 that led two driverless cars to
complete an 8 000 - mile trip between Italy and Shanghai Stay farewell
to red lights and stop signs Once cars are driverless ,intersections will be
equipped with sensors , cameras and radar that controls traffic flow.

That will not only end collisions but promote fuel - efficient flow of
traffic .High - Occupancy Vehicle lanes might be replaced by Driverless
Car lanes ,which would not only. promote autonomous travel , but help
driverless cars travel both more safely and faster , reaching speeds of
perhaps 100 mph by 2040 .

ADVANTAGES & DIS ADVANTAGES.

1. APPLICATIONS

• The greater precision of an automatic system could improve


traffic flow.

• It would eliminate accidents caused by driver error.

• Increasing roadway capacity by reducing the distances between


cars,

• The current location of vehicle can be determined using global


positioning system ( G . P . S ).
• Dramatically increases highway capacity and reduce or
eliminate traffic jams.

• Time will be saved in the traffic.

• The car itself park at the parking area.


44 | P a g e
• No license will be needed for driver because it is self - driver ..

2. LIMITATIONS

If the vehicle is using internet which is have less security then from
the hackers point of view in some cases the vehicle can be switched off
on the road (in rare cases ) , Hacker can change the rout which is plotted
in the system ( in rare cases ) , In case of failure of main sensor " and
black up sensors the vehicle can create a chance of accident . The cost
of car is high .By coming Google driverless car into the market so many
taxi drivers can lose their jobs.

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CHAPTER :-4
Advance Trafic Control System, Incident Management & Automatic Vehicle

1. What do you understand by Adaptive Traffic Control System?


Write it’s benefits.
Ans. An ATCS usually includes algorithms that adjusts Cycle Length
, Splits, Offsets, Phase Sequence in order to Minimize Delays, Reduce
the number of stops, Decrease the Travel Time.
- Any adaptive traffic control system relies upon good detection of
the current conditions in real-time in order to allow a quick and
effective response to any changes in the current traffic situation.
Benefits of ATCS(Adaptive Traffic Control System)
- Improve performance by adjusting to real time traffic demand
- Adapt to unexpected traffic changes
- Increases signal timing lifespan
- Captures a rich data set

2.Describe briefly: Automatic Vehicle Identification and


Classification.
Ans. The VICS system for identification and classification of moving
vehicles on the road side from the videos is a great importance today.
- It is an active research area in Intelligent Transportation Systems
(ITS).
- Vehicle recognition has been an area of recent interest to the
Computer Vision community, no prior research study has
been used to build an on-road vehicle recognition.

1
- The main goal of our project is to implement an efficient method
for recognizing vehicles in Indian conditions. There are some
challenges in these conditions that makes vehicle recognition much
harder.
1. In India, most of the cases traffic system is non lane based.
2. Road conditions are more varied and traffic is unstructured.
3. Vehicles are parked frequently by the sides of the roads.
4. Within same vehicle class there are large variety’s and models.
These looks different in size and appearance. It is generally
observed in Indian vehicles like cars and Truck’s.
5. Shapes of the vehicles have a key role in recognition ,there is
high intra-class variance among Indian vehicles.

3.Describe Adaptive Traffic Control System with examples.


Ans. Famously used ATCS’ are Sydney Coordinated Adaptive
Traffic System (SCATS) and SCOOT.
1. SCATS
- SCATS has the largest number of worldwide installations –
Over 34,000 intersections under SCATS control and largest
number of adaptive signals operated in the U.S. The intersection
controller sends the information collected by detectors to a
central server, which automatically adjusts the traffic signal
green time to match the traffic flow.
- The central server periodically monitors network wide traffic
flow and adjusts all traffic signals in the network.
2. SCOOT
- SCOOT was originally designed to control dense urban
networks, such as large towns and cities in UK by the Transport
for London. There are over 2000 SCOOT systems worldwide
working in large congested cities, small towns and around
freeway interchanges.

2
- SCOOT continually calculates the required coordination pattern
for a group of signals in real time and immediately implements
the changes. Bus priority, traffic gating, incident detection, on-
line saturation occupancy measurement, and vehicle emissions
estimates are part of the features of SCOOT MC3 systems.
4.Describe Incident management in brief.
Ans. Traffic incident management is the process of coordinating the
resources of a number of different partner agencies and private sector
companies to detect, respond to, and clear traffic incidents as quickly
as possible to reduce the impacts of incidents on safety and
congestion, while protecting the safety of on-scene responders and the
traveling public.
- Traffic Incident Management Program focuses on responses efforts
that protect motorists and responders while minimizing the impact
on traffic flow. TIM efforts include detecting, verifying and
responding to incidents; clearing the incident scene; and restoring
traffic flow.
- When an accident occurs congestion quickly builds up and chances
of a secondary incident increases.The sooner incidents are detected,
the sooner safety people can respond to the incident and clear it from
the roads thereby allowing traffic lanes to re-open and traffic to
return to normal conditions.
- TIM assists with creating a safe work zone with proper signage and
equipment for emergency crews responding to an incident.

5.What are the objective of Incident management?


Ans. Traffic Incident Management Program focuses on responses
efforts that protect motorists and responders while minimizing the
impact on traffic flow.
Five measurable objectives of incident management are:

3
- Reducing the time for incident detection and verification
- Reducing response time (the time for response personnel and
equipment to arrive at the scene)
- Exercising proper and safe on-scene management of personnel and
equipment, while keeping as many lanes open to traffic as possible
- Reducing clearance time (the time required for the incident to be
removed from the roadway)
- Providing timely, accurate information to the public that enables
them to make informed choices

6.What are the challenges you face when you use Automatic
Vehicle Identification system?
Ans. Following are the challenges are being faced while using
Automatic Vehicle Identification.
- Vehicle recognition task deals with only images in outdoor or
natural lighting it is known to cause noise related problems.
- The other is typical geometry of vehicles. Vehicles chassis are
constructed in a significantly greater variety of geometries as
compared to other objects. There are number of dissimilarities in
vehicles like height, number of wheels, body shape and color.
- Objects in small size
- Model
- Clutter
- Poor quality images.

7.Write the applications of Automatic Vehicle Identification


system?

4
Ans. The traffic on the roads is increasing day by day. There is dire
need of developing an automation system that can effectively manage
and control the traffic on roads.
- Vehicle recognition process in Indian scenario has several
challenges. To address these challenges features of an individual
vehicle from different directions are to be considered.
Following are the applications of AVIS
- Electronic toll collection management.
- Identification of unauthorized vehicles on roads as a part of vehicle
surveillance and traffic data analysis.
- License plate localization.
- Computer assisted driving.
- Methods for reducing road accidents.
- surveillance

8.Write the objectives of the Adaptive Traffic Control System?


Ans. Following are the objectives for the Adaptive traffic control
system
- Main Objective is to Minimize Delays, Reduce the number of
stops, Decrease the Travel Time.
- Any adaptive traffic control system relies upon good detection of
the current conditions in real-time in order to allow a quick and
effective response to any changes in the current traffic situation.
- Balance phase utilization—fair distribution of green
- Minimize arrivals on red—improve progressed flow
- Minimize queue-time density—serve the most cars waiting the
longest
- Minimize combination of stops and delay—delay-offset
optimization

5
- Pedestrians, Emergency vehicles & RR, Transit vehicles, Light
Rail crossings, Traffic Gating, interface with adjacent systems
operations, and other realities

6
CHAPTER :-5

Preamble of Vehicle Positioning &Collision Warning System

1) What is smart Car and highway?

Ans:- the car is equipped with all the new electronic gadgets. It
helps the user to use service efficiently. Some of the features of
SMART CAR are:
• GPS and on-board communications

• Anti-collision sensors

A smart car must be able to sense, analyze, predict and react


to the road environment, which is the key feature of smart
cars. The car works with a central component that monitors
the roadway and the driver. It also evaluates of the potential
safety benefits. It addresses navigation, obstacle avoidance
and platooning problems. The car aims at expanding the time
horizon for acquiring safety relevant information and
improving precision, reliability and quality of driving. There
are some preventive safety technologies and in-vehicle
systems, which sense the potential danger. The Adaptive
Integrated Driver-vehicle Interface (AIDE) project tries to
maximize the efficiency and safety of advanced driver
assistance systems, while minimizing the workload and
distraction imposed by in-vehicle information systems. Almost
95% of theaccidents are due to human factors and in almost

7
three-quarters of the cases human behaviour is solely to
blame. Smart cars present promising potentials to assist
drivers in improving their situational awareness and reducing
errors. With cameras monitoring the driver’s gaze and activity,
smart cars attempt to keep the driver’s attention on the road
ahead. Physiological sensors can detect whether the driver is
in good condition. The actuators will execute specified control
on the car without the driver’s commands. The smart car will
adopt active measures such as stopping the car in case that the
driver is unable to act properly, or applying passiveprotection
to reduce possible harm in abrupt accidents, for example,
popping up airbags. As mentioned earlier SMART CAR alone
cannot operate in a system. Thus along with the SMART CAR,
the infrastructure should also be improved. The infrastructure
also should be well prepared for taking care of smart car. The
road equipment will communicate with the vehicle and provide
real time assistance to the user. Provision of Smart road along
with Smart car will complete the Smart features of any
facility. It may be possible that the highway forms a high
density platoon of vehicles moving bumper to bumper and this
platoon will move at a speed of 70 kmph or so. That road will
be equipped with some sensors may be along the pavements
and the decisions are left to the central unit. The road itself
will show some messages which can be easily read.

2) Explain Vehicle Positioning System.

Ans:-The major function of positioning systems can be divided


into two categories: self positioning and remote positioning. In

8
self-positioning, the objects themselves determine where they
are in remote positioning; a central operations system
determines the location of the vehicles. The GPS is an
example of a self-positioning system. Radar is an example of a
remote positioning system. Of course, an inherently self-
positioning system can function as a remote positioning system
if each object transmits its position to a central operations
centre using mobile communication links .This is an indirect
remote positioning system. Similarly, an inherently remote
Positioning system can function as a self-positioning system if
the central operations centre transmits the relevant location
information to each object via a mobile communication link.
This is an indirect self-positioning system. Some systems may
carry out the remote and self-positioning function at the same
time. Positioning systems can be divided into three basic
classes: signpost, wave-based, and dead reckoning
Positioning systems play a key role in transportation areas,
including the following:
In-vehicle navigation;

The collection of probe vehicle data to assist dynamic route


guidance;

Positioning systems are a key element of more efficient


computer-aided dispatch systems;

The use of radar for the purposes of collision avoidance;


Radar is used for automated cruise control

Automatic traffic control systems rely on positioning systems


such as loop detectors in order to monitor traffic flow;

9
Stolen vehicle recovery will be enhanced by systems that allow
police to track down the stolen car;

The efficacy of distress alarms will be greatly increased by the


use of positioning systems to identify the location of an
emergency;

Dynamic bus information systems that are able to predict the


arrival of buses should improve the service level of public
transport systems.

3) Types of vehicle Positioning System.

Ans:- Signpost Systems

 Conceptually, these are the simplest form of positioning


systems. They measure position byb virtue of the fact that
the vehicle is located close to a specific reference point, a
signpost. ThTh simplest example is a person recognizing
an identifiable landmark. Automated versionsa often
called proximity beacon systems. They work by the
reception of radio, light, or sosou waves. An example of
such a system is the New South Wales government's
Roads anan Traffic Authority's Automatic Network Travel
Time Measurement System (ANTTS).The toimportant
elementss of these automated systems are the vehicle-
mounted "tag" and thth roadside unit. There will
normally be a number of widely dispersed beacons,
allowing thth monitoring of the vehicle's trtrajector The
system can be self-positioning, in which case the vehicle
has a tag that picks up the signal from the beacon. This
signal will normally have some identification code so that

10
the vehicle knows to which beacon it is 'in proximity‟ .
The system can also be remote popositionin if the beacon
senses the presence of the tag on the vehicle. In this case,
the tag emits some form of identification code in order
that the system knows which vehicle is being
interrogated.
Wave-Based Systems
A wave-based system is one that uses the propagation
properties of waves to determineposition. An example is a
radar system that uses the far-field planar wave front and
the finite propagation time of electro-magnetic waves. A
wave-based positioning system will need oneor more
reference sites. The positions of vehicles are measured
relative to these sites. Each reference site may have a
transmitter or receiver, or both. Each vehicle may have a
transmitter, receiver, reflective elements, or some
combination of these. For example, in tht case of GPS,
each satellite is a reference site- there is a transmitter on
each satellite. A mobile vehicle will have a GPS receiver
that picks up the signals from the satellites and uses
time-of-arrival information to calculate position. In simple
radar system there is one reference site fitted with both a
transmitter and a receiver. The „targets‟ reflect the radio
energy back to the reference site.

Dead Reckoning (DR) Systems


 These are systems that rely on sensing the components of
the vehicle's acceleration or velocity. This information is
then integrated to determine the track of the vehicle.

11
Consider, for example, a compass and odometer system.
The odometer integrates the angular velocity of the
vehicle‟ s wheels in order to estimate the distance
travelled. The compass defines the direction of travel. The
combined information can be used to track the course of
the vehicle. Other sensor technologies used in DR systems
include gyroscopes and accelerometers.

4)Explain Automated Highway System.

Ans:- The automated highway system (AHS) is the most


demanding application of positioning systems. It requires
extremely accurate, highly reliable, continuous monitoring of
the vehicle location with respect to surrounding vehicles.
Ultimately, this application will support a large number of
users. It is not possible at this time to predict acceptable in-
vehicle costs. The positioning systems used for road following
andstation keeping will need to have accuracy of the order of
centimetres. There might also be a need for an absolute
position system with accuracy of the order of 5m. The coverage
will need to be both rural and metropolitan. Most of the
architectures being considered for the AHS envisage a
requirement to communicate with the roadway, so a two-way
communication system will be needed. It will be important to
maintain driver privacy in order to gain public acceptance of
this system.

None of the current single-mode positioning systems are


sufficiently capable for this application. A possible
implementation might include GPS, map-aided
laser/radar/sonar station keeping, magnetic sensors (to follow

12
studs in roadways), and vision (to detectpedestrians and other
unexpected obstacles).

13
CHAPTER :-6

Electronic Toll Collection & Road Pricing

1) Elucidate Types Of Toll Collection

There are two types of toll collection systems available. These are:
(i) Open Toll System, and (ii) Closed Toll System.
Open toll System
In an open toll system, not all patrons are charged a toll. In such a
system, the toll plaza is generally located at the edge of the urban
area, where a majority of long distance travelers are committed to
the facility, with a minimum likelihood of switching to the parallel
free route, or at the busiest section of the toll way [2]. Patrons are
identified by their category and pay a fixed toll for it. The local
traffic around the plaza either gets rebate or can use a service
lane. The general layout of an open toll collecting system is
highlighted in Fig. 6.1.

Figure 6.1: Open Toll System

Closed toll System


In a closed toll system, patrons pay the toll based on miles of
travel on the facility and category of vehicle. There are no free-
rides. In a closed toll system, plazas are located at all the entry
and exit points, with the patron receiving a ticket upon entering the

14
system. Upon exiting, patron surrenders the ticket to the collector
and is charged a prescribed fee based on category of vehicle and
distance travelled [2]. It has just two stops for the vehicles
whereas open system can have multiple stops. But closed system
is expensive to construct than open system. The general layout of
an open toll collecting system is highlighted in Fig. 6.2.

Figure 6.2: Closed Toll System

2) What Do You Understand By Toll Collection? Explicate


Method Of Toll Collection
Toll Collection System
As discussed earlier, there are three methods of toll collection.
Out of them, the manual method is the most time consuming
whereas the delays are minimum for electronic system. Following
measures are adopted for making the toll collection process a
faster one.

1. A minimum semi-automatic system for toll collection should


be adopted.
2. Collection of toll and recording of data would be made
through electronic equipment.
3. Intercom facility shall be provided between booths and the
office of the supervisors.
4. If any booth is closed for any reason, incoming traffic shall
be guided into the adjoining working booth with the help of
appropriate signs.

15
Methods of Toll Collection

There are three methods of toll collection available. These are: (i)
Manual, (ii) Automatic, and (ii) Electronic.
Manual Toll Collection
Manual toll collection is most widely used collection method in
India. It requires a toll collector or attendant. Based on the vehicle
classification, cash toll is received by the collector. The collector,
who also dispenses change, may accept and sell scrip, tickets,
coupons, making an entry of the vehicle in the system and issuing
receipt to the patron [2]. Due to manual intervention, the
processing time is highest.
Automatic Toll Collection
Automatic toll collection is based on the use of Automated Coin
Machine (ACM). These accept both coins and tokens issued by
the operating agency. Depending on the toll rate, the use of
automated coin or token collection instead of manual collection
reduces transaction and processing time as well as the operating
cost.
Electronic Toll Collection
Electronic Toll Collection (ETC) is a system that automatically
identifies a vehicle equipped with a valid encoded data tag or
transponder as it moves through a toll lane or checkpoint. The
ETC system then posts a debit or charge to a patron's account,
without the patron having to stop to pay the toll. ETC increases

16
the lane throughput because vehicles need not stop to pay the
toll.
1) What Do You Understand By Congestion Pricing, Evaluate In
Detail

Congestion pricing
Congestion pricing is a method of road user taxation, charging the
users of congested roads according to the time spent or distance
travelled on those roads. The principle behind congestion pricing
is that those who cause congestion or use road in congested
period should be charged, thus giving the road user the choice to
make a journey or not.
Economic principle behind congestion pricing
Journey costs include private journey cost, congestion cost,
environmental cost, and road maintenance cost. The benefit a
road user obtains from the journey is the price he prepared to pay
in order to make the journey. As the price gradually increases, a
point will be reached when the trip maker considers it not worth
performing or it is worth performing by other means. This is
known as the critical price. At a cost less than this critical price, he
enjoys a net benefit called as consumer surplus(es) and is given
by:

(1)

17
where, is the amount the consumer is prepared to pay, and
is the amount he actually pays. The basics of congestion pricing
involves demand function, private cost function as well as
marginal cost function. These are explained below.
Demand
Fig. 6.3 shows the general form of a demand curve. In the figure,
area QOSP indicates the absolute utility to trip maker and the
area SRP indicates the net benefit.

Figure 6.3: Demand Curve

Private cost
Total private cost of a trip, is given by:

(2)

where, is the component proportional to distance, is the


component proportional to speed, and is the speed of the

18
vehicle (km/h). In the congested region, the speed of the vehicle
can be expressed as,

(3)

where, is the flow in veh/hour, and e are constants.


Marginal cost
Marginal cost is the additional cost of adding one extra vehicle to
the traffic stream. It reduces speed and causes congestion and
results in increase in cost of overall journey. The total cost
incurred by all vehicles in one hour( ) is given by:

(4)

Marginal cost is obtained by differentiating the total cost with


respect to the flow( ) as shown in the following equations.

(5)

(6)

(7)

19
(8)

(9)

(10)

Note that c and q in the above derivation is obtained from


Equations 2 and 3 respectively. Therefore the marginal cost is
given as:

(11)

Fig. 6.4 shows the variation of marginal cost per flow as well as
private cost per flow.

20
Figure 6.4: Private cost/flow and cost and marginal curve

It is seen that the marginal cost will always be greater than the
private cost, the increase representing the congestion cost.
Equilibrium condition and Optimum condition
Superimposing the demand curve on the private cost/flow and
marginal cost/flow curves, the position as shown in Fig. 3 is
obtained. The intersection of the demand curve and the private
costs curve at point A represents the equilibrium condition,
obtained when travel decisions are based on private costs only.
The intersection of the demand curve and the marginal costs
curve at point B represents the optimum condition. At this point
the flow corresponds to the cost which is the marginal cost
as well as the value of the trip to the trip maker. The net benefit
under the two positions A and B are shown by the areas ACZ
and respectively. If the conditions are shifted from point A
to B, the net benefit due to change will be given by area
minus AXB. If the area is greater than arc AXB, the net
benefit will be positive. The shifting of conditions from point A to B
can be brought about by imposing a road pricing charge BY.
Under this scheme, the private vehicles continuing to use the
roads will on an average be worse off in the first place because
BY will always exceed the individual increase in benefits XY.

21
Figure 6.5: Relation between material cost, private cost and
demand curves.

22
CHAPTER :-7
Prelude of Regional Strategic, Architecture & ITS safety & security

1. Discuss: ITS applications in highway accident prevention.


There are many ITS technologies, applications, comparative
frameworks, for example, Automated guided vehicles (AVGs),
cooperative intelligent transport systems (CITS), Road hazard warning
and so forth, give guidance and preventing the vehicle users from road
accidents. These ITS technologies give us the total control of the
vehicles and gives the information about the surrounding environment
though the alert signals or the voice messages. The In-Vehicle Intelligent
Transport System will detect the speed breakers, steep curves, people
identification system in the zebra-crossing. When these are detected by
the ultrasonic sensor in the TIS system and the ultrasonic pulse signals
passed to the PIC microcontroller and from there later the signals and
intimated to the vehicle user via the voice messages.

 Congestion and Weather Warnings:


Traffic and weather information can be broadcast to vehicles for display
as text messages or information on maps. These systems are already in
service and enable drivers to take informed decisions not to drive in
conditions they would find difficult or dangerous.

 Route Guidance
Navigation systems are in service that guide a driver to a selected
destination, giving advance warning of junctions and necessary
manoeuvres such as lane changes. During the EDDIT Project (Oxiey et

23
al., 1995), one driver described a navigation system as “a co-driver who
knows the way”. Vocal instructions along with turn-by-turn visual
guidance reduce memory load and visual interference with the primary
driving task, and offer the most dramatic improvement and error
reduction of older drivers’ performance. These systems certainly reduce
driving stress and, by avoiding the need to make lane changes or turns
shortly before a junction, should reduce conflicts and accidents.

 Obstacle Detection
Systems already exist to detect obstacles behind and beside a vehicle
during low-speed manoeuvres such as parking. Prototypes of similar
systems can warn of vehicles in blind spots or converging during merges
and lane changes. These can warn the driver and prevent conflicts and
collisions.

 Night Vision Enhancement


Several systems are being developed to improve vision for drivers at
night. Some illuminate the roadway to the front of the vehicle with
radiation outside the visible spectrum (i.e., ultraviolet or infra-red
radiation) and use fluorescence to enhance visibility directly, or process
the radiation reflected back to a sensor array to generate images of
objects that would not be visible to the driver’s naked eye. Other
systems generate images from thermal energy emitters (particularly
living beings) in the environment. The detection range for pedestrians,
obstructions and curves in the road can be increased considerably. Some
of these systems are based on night-vision technology already in military
service. Some allow the driver to see objects directly through the
windshield, and others project a processed image onto a head-up display
(HUD) inside the windshield, through which the outside world can still
be seen (conformal imaging). However, older drivers may be
particularly vulnerable to cognitive capture, a * phenomenon whereby a

24
HUD preempts visual attention and prevents detection of critical outside
objects (Tufano, 1997).

 Intelligent Cruise Control and Lane Keeping, Assistance


Intelligent cruise control (ICC) is a system for controlling a vehicle’s
speed and distance behind a preceding vehicle. Versions that will soon
be commercially available control the vehicle’s speed to a pre-set value
while maintaining a safe headway between vehicles. Future variants will
tell the driver if the pre-set speed exceeds the local limit, and ask if the
driver wishes to comply. They may take control of accelerator and brake
to prevent rear-end collisions, if a dangerous situation is detected.
Further into the future, ICC systems may automatically limit the vehicle
speed to the local limit and reduce speed when approaching a bend, a
yield sign or red traffic signal. Local speed limits could be varied by
time of day or weather condition.

 Collision Warning and Avoidance


Intelligent cruise control can provide protection against rear-end
collisions. Obstacle detection systems to warn of conflicts while
merging or changing lanes, which elderly drivers find difficult, are likely
to be available within a few years. Elderly drivers are more likely than
average to be involved in collisions when turning across traffic or at
uncontrolled junctions. Trials with a gap-measuring system to help
drivers turn across traffic have given promising results (Oxley et al.,
1995), but any such system is many years from commercial
implementation. Systems to warn of dangerous situations in the more
complex case of general manoeuvres at uncontrolled junctions are likely
to be many years in the future.

 In-vehicle Signing
Systems will be developed eventually that display road signs inside the
vehicle and warn drivers of hazards or unusual conditions ahead. These
will need extensive monitoring of road conditions and many transmitters
to relay information from the road to the car. The investment in this

25
infrastructure is likely to delay the implementation of these systems.
Alternatively, details of road signs could be stored with the digital map
for the navigation system, for display at the appropriate time. In this case
the problem is keeping the data base updated. An autonomous system
could not display temporary signs such as “Diversion”, “Road works” or
“Flood”.

 Smart Occupant Protection Systems


Occupant protection systems such as seat belts and air bags are designed
to protect a large male occupant in the most severe survivable accident.
It is possible to imagine an occupant protection system that uses sensors
to measure occupant weight and sitting position, and a smart card to
defme occupant age, gender and other characteristics (as we11 as
automatically positioning seat, mirrors and steering wheel to suit the
individual). In a given crash, the system would then adjust the loads
applied to the occupant to be the lowest necessary to restrain them.
Restraint systems are already in service that pre-tension and lock seat
belts to minimize the movement of an occupant during a crash. Smart
restraint systems would extend development further.

2. Write short note on Collision Warning Systems.


Forward collision warning systems are an active safety feature that
warns drivers in the event of an imminent frontal collision. When the
FCW system-equipped vehicle comes too close to another vehicle in
front of it, a visual, audible, and/or tactile signal occurs to alert the
driver to the situation.
Some newer FCW systems also offer varying degrees of brake support.
If the system senses that the driver has not responded to the collision
warning, the safety system will apply light brake force to slow the
vehicle. Even newer systems can apply strong brake force if the driver
remains unresponsive. Brake application may not completely stop the

26
vehicle, but it can reduce the speed of the vehicle substantially, thereby
preventing a more forceful crash.
FCW systems are also referred to as “Pre-safe Braking”, “Collision
Warning with Auto-Brake”, “Pre-Crash Warning Systems”, “Collision
Mitigation Braking System”, “Predictive Forward Collision Warning”,
and other names. The function and capacities of these systems can vary
greatly, despite a common overall goal to prevent a forward collision

Fig.7.1Vehicle Collision Avoidance Warning System


FCW systems are useful whenever a driver is at risk of colliding with a
vehicle (or, depending on the type of system, a pedestrian or animal)
directly ahead. A variety of relatively common situations have the
potential to put drivers at risk for this type of collision:

27
 A line of cars ahead is stopped at a green light due to an obstacle in
the intersection, and you are driving too fast towards it.
 Cars are travelling too close to one another and not leaving a safe
distance between vehicles.
 The car ahead unexpectedly slows down to turn without signalling.
 The vehicle ahead decelerates rapidly for a pedestrian crossing the
road, but you do not immediately notice the braking.
There is a substantial number of ways that FCW systems work,
including variations in the method used to detect potential collisions and
the ways that the vehicle prepares itself to stop or prepares for a collision
after an alarm has been activated. Warning systems use radar, a laser, or
a camera to detect vehicles ahead, and each of these systems is briefly
described below.

 Radar systems work by emitting a radio wave from the hood of the
vehicle. Speed of travel and distance from other vehicles is
determined by monitoring changes in the Doppler Shift of the radio
wave1 after it bounces off something and returns to the point
where it started.
 Laser systems work by emitting an infrared laser beam from the
hood of the vehicle. When the beam hits another vehicle and
reflects back to its source, laser technology allows the distance
between the two vehicles to be measured. Using a simple
mathematical formula, the speed of your vehicle can then be
calculated. Based on these two pieces of information, the FCW
system determines the risk of frontal collision.
 Camera systems work differently than radar and laser methods.
Instead of relying on Doppler Shift readings or reflections, this
FCW system has a camera mounted on the front of the vehicle and

28
an electronic image-processor. The camera and image-processor
are used to determine the risk of frontal collision.

If the FCW system detects that the vehicle is at risk of a frontal collision,
there are various ways that it alerts the driver of the danger:

 Audible alerts include bells, ringing sounds, and warning alarms.


 Visual alerts include lights on the dashboard and simulated brake
lights on the windshield.
 Tactile alerts include feeling the seatbelt tighten against the body
and the car jerking as it slows down (in systems that apply the
brakes).

Some FCW systems offer extra brake support in the event that the driver
does not respond to the warnings. These systems often pre-charge the
brakes, so that if the driver does press the brake, the vehicle will be able
to take advantage of its full braking capabilities sooner. Some systems
also will apply light braking.
Even newer FCW systems may apply the brakes forcefully if there is no
response to warnings, in an attempt to prevent or mitigate the impending
collision. In addition, these newer systems may also tighten the seatbelt
(causing a tactile sensation) and pre-charge the airbags.

3. What is the role of Intelligent Transport System in road


safety?

29
 To improve effectiveness, efficiency and safety of the road
transportation system.
 To provide information
 To advise or control the actions of:
 Travellers
 Drivers
 Fleet Operators
 Network Managers
 Pothole detection
 Identification of congestion
 Delivering Environmental Benefits
 Capacity / Throughput
 Information Dissemination
 Enhancing Mobility and Convenience
 Collision Warning of the vehicles
 Real-time Traffic Information
 Route Guidance / Navigation Systems
 Roadside Weather Information Systems
 Congestion Prediction, And Congestion-ameliorating Strategies

4. Explain in detail ITS Architecture.


The ITS Architecture provides a common framework for planning,
defining, and integrating intelligent transportation systems. It specifies
how the different ITS components would interact with each other to help
solving transportation problems. It provides the transportation
professionals to address their needs with wide variety of options. It

30
identifies and describes various functions and assigns responsibilities to
various stake-holders of ITS. The ITS architecture should be common
and of specified standards throughout the state or region so that it can
address solution to several problems while interacting with various
agencies.
Interoperability - The ITS architecture should be such that the
information collected, function implemented or any equipment installed
be interoperable by various agencies in different state and regions.
Capable of sharing and exchanging information - The information by
traffic operations may be useful to the emergency services.
Resource sharing - regional communication towers constructed by
various private agencies are required to be shared by ITS operations.
It helps to ensure that the resulting ITS deployment:
 can be planned in a logical manner;
 integrates successfully with other systems;
 meets the desired performance levels;
 has the desired behaviour;
 is easy to manage;
 is easy to maintain;
 is easy to extend;
 satisfies the expectations of the users.
Elements of ITS Architecture:
1. Concept of operations
2. User service requirements

31
3. Logical architecture
4. Physical architecture
5. Equipment Packages
6. Market packages
1.Concept of operations:
 It identifies and describes who is going to perform what
functions.
 It describes roles and responsibilities of stakeholders in the
regional ITS operations by defining the functions of each
stakeholder.
2.User service requirements
 This element include what system is required to do to meet user
services.
3.Logical architecture
 It provides a detailed description of the system’s behavior that
focuses on the functional process involved and the information
flows of the system
 Functions to be performed
 Data that flow between functions and processes
4.Physical architecture
 It builds on the logical architecture foundation by defining the
physical subsystems and architecture flows.
 Defines the physical entities and their connection

32
CHAPTER :-8
Intro of Travel Demand Management &Buisness Models

1.How ITS is used for travel & traffic management?


Ans: ITS is the application of ICT in traffic and transport, and traffic
management is an instrument to achieve (policy) goals of a city.
Many traffic management measuresuse ICT and can therefore be
called ITS, but there are exceptions (e.g. one- way streets, static
access management).
Intelligent transport systems (ITS) are applications of advanced sensor,
computer electronics and communication technologies which, without
embodying intelligence as such, aim to provide innovative services
relating to different modes of transport and traffic management and
enable various users to be better informed and make safer, more
coordinated, and ‘smarter’ use of transport networks. ITS applications
include telematics and all types of communications in vehicles, between
vehicles (e.g. vehicle-to-vehicle), and between vehicles and fixed
locations (e.g. vehicle-to-infrastructure).
1. Demand and access management (including pricing);
2. Traffic management and control;
3. Travel and traffic information;
4. Driver assistance and cooperative systems;
5. Logistics and fleet management;
6. Safety and emergency systems.

33
Sub categories:
1.Road pricing
2.Lane Resticted
3.Public transport priority
4.parking information
5.travel & traffic information
As Intelligent transport system useful to easy accessibility for Travel
management.
2.Explain ITS & Its sustainability.
ITS&Sustainable Mobility y benefits but it also causes many problems.
It is It is increasingly 0 Our transportation system provides man
financially burdensome to house hold, government and business.
incfficient due to traffic congestion and dispersed land use. It is the
major cause of many accidents that leads to death and loss of property. It
contradicts environment and quality of e objective (it relies on non
renewable sources of energy that will become scare in future) Trayel de
The main rategies encouragi Despite significant improvement in fuel
efficiency and pollution reduction technologics s ravelers such as
catalytic convertors, the transportation sector continues to damage) In
addition to that it causes air pollution. Motor vehicle emission and
transportation infrastructure also damage ccosystem and deplete natural
resources .there may be global impact as well as the transportation
section is roughly responsible for 30 % of global greenhouse emission ,
service inc that is res which will consibrute uo global warming
'Concerned over these externalities are thetoughout impetus for efforts
tto create a more sustainable transportation systems and the

34
transportation planning process to be truly effective for present as well
as the future, should be more comprehensive, more sophisticated, more
environmentally friendly and

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPEMENT:
Before describing possible linkages between ITS and sustainable
communities, it i necessary to define sustainable development. The most
widely accepted notion o sustainability can be defined as "development
that meet the need of the present compromising the ability of future
generation to meet their own ne Despite it's promise as a measure of
progress and as amobility vision, the concept of sustainable develope of
space to efl Mode change sup r services previo ement center TMC
would ther elecommuting ar age in telecom som work during p without
rousesial dfiet o ledin nd i ment remains controversial difficult to define
and is particularly difficult to translate into practical action.

3.What is Travel Demand management?Explain it.

1.Trayel Demand Management Travel demand managcment The main


purpose of the travel demand management user service is to develop and
implement strategies aimed at reducing the number of single- occupancy
vehicle (Sovs),while encouraging the use of high-occupancy vehicles
(HOVs).The service also strives to provide gn adtiton ravelers who
would opt for a more efficent tavel mode with several mobilit ption .th
service includes the following strategies.

35
1) HOV facility management and control .the goal here is to operate
HOV facilities in a fashion that is responsive to current condition .for
example, occupancy requirements could be adjusted throughout the
day based on current traffic and congestion levels.
2) Con gestion pricing this involves adjusting tolls to encourage mode
change and reduce travel ample, tolls could be increased during peak
hours in urban areas around environmentally sensitive attraction in
rural areas.

3) Parking management and control. The idea here is to dynamically


manage the allocation and price of space to cffect a mode change to
HOVs.

4) Mode change supports this strategy is intended to support the ride


matching and reservation user services previously described the goal
here is for travelers to be able to call a trafic management center with
information about their destination and the desired time departure. The
TMC would then find a carpool willing to take additional rides.

5) Telecommuting and alternative work schedules the goal here is to


take ad ept of cularly advantage of recent vantage in telecommunication
technologies and alternative work schedules to avoid driving to from
work during peak periods.

36
CHAPTER :-9
Use of Waste Material: Flyash, Slag , Recyaclable Waste, Other
Waste Materials

Q.1. DEMYSTIFY SOURCE & POSSIBLE USAGE OFSOME


WEST MATERIAL IN ROAD CONSTRUCTION.

Industrial and domestic waste products provide a prospective


source of alternative materials.

 These materials are cheaply available.


 Also, their use in road construction provides an efficient
solution to the associated problems of pollution and disposal
of these wastes.

Table 9.1 presents a partial list of industrial waste materials that


can be used in road construction.

Table 9.1. Industrial waste product usage in road


construction (TFHRC 2004; Hamad et al., 2003; Hawkins et al.,
2003; Mroueh et al., 2002; Okagbue et al. , 1999; Sherwood
1995; Javed et al., 1994)

Waste Source Possible usage


product

Fly ash Thermal power Bulk fill, filler in bituminous mix,

37
station artificial aggregates

Blast Steel industry Base/ Sub-base material, Binder in


furnace slag soil stabilization (ground slag)

Construction Construction Base/ Sub-base material, bulk-fill,


and industry recycling
demolition
waste

Colliery Coal mining Bulk-fill


spoil

Spent oil Petrochemical Bulk-fill


shale industry

Foundry Foundry Bulk-fill, filler for concrete, crack-


sands industry relief layer

Mill tailings Mineral Granular base/sub-base,


processing aggregates in bituminous mix, bulk
industry fill

Cement kiln Cement Stabilization of base, binder in


dust industry bituminous mix

Used engine Automobile Air entraining of concrete


oil industry

Marble dust Marble industry Filler in bituminous mix

Waste tyres Automobile Rubber modfied bitumen, aggregate


industry

Glass waste Glass industry Glass-fibre reinforcement, bulk fill

Nonferrous Mineral Bulk-fill, aggregates in bituminous

38
slags processing mix
industry

China clay Bricks and tile Bulk-fill, aggregates in bituminous


industry mix

Q.1. SUMMARIZE ADV. DISADV. OF SOME WASTE


MATERIAL IN ROAD CONSTRUCTION
Table 9.2 Some Of the advantages and disadvantages of using
specific industrial wastes in road construction are as Follow.

Material Advantages Disadvantages


Fly ash Lightweight, used as Lack of homogeneity,
binder in stabilized presence of sulphates, slow
base/ sub-base due to strength development
pozzolanic properties
Metallic slag Higher skid resistance Unsuitable for concrete and
fill work beneath slabs.
- Steel slag Light weight (
phosphorus slag) May show inconsistent
- Nonferrous properties
slag
Construction More strength, can be May show inconsistent
and used as aggregates properties
granular base
demolition
waste
Blast Used in production of Ground water pollution due
furnace slag cement, granular fill to leachate formation, used

39
as unbound aggregates
Colliery - Combustion of unburnt coal,
spoil sulphate attack in case of
concrete roads
Spent oil - Burning of combustible
shale materials
Foundry Substitute for fine Presence of heavy metals in
sands aggregate in non ferrous foundry origin,
bituminous mixes less affinity to bitumen
Mill tailings Some are pozzolanic Presence of poisonous
in nature materials (e.g., cyanide from
gold extraction)
Cement kiln Hardens when Corrosion of metals (used in
dust exposed to moisture, concrete roads) in contact
can be used in soil because of significant alkali
stabilization percentage
Used engine Good air entertainer, Requires well organized
oil can be used in used oil collection system

concrete works
Rubber tires Enhances fatigue life Requires special techniques
for fine grinding and mixing
with bitumen, sometimes
segregation occurs

40
CHAPTER :-10

Modified Bitumenous materials&IS Requirements

Q.1. EXPLAIN BRIEFLY (1) PMB (2) EMB (3) NRMB (4) CRMB
(PMB)

The absence of efficient management of municipal


solid waste (MSW), with regards to used plastic
components, which have overwhelmed our major
cities and towns, is a growing challenge for
developing countries including Ghana. Another
challenge is the deformation of our roads due to
excessive traffic and binder quality used; thus, new
technologies need to be adopted to improve road
construction. This study examines the effect of
blending waste thermoplastic polymers, namely high
density polyethylene (HDPE) and polypropylene (PP)
in conventional AC-20 graded bitumen, at different
plastic compositions. The plastics were chopped and
blended with the bitumen ‘in-situ’, with a shear
mixer at a temperature range of 160 ºC-170 ºC.
Basic rheological parameters such as penetration,
ring and ball softening point and viscosity test were

41
employed to determine the resulting changes from
the base bitumen. FTIR spectroscopy was also
employed to study the chemical functionalities
present in the bitumen composite. Three prominent
peaks were identified in the spectrum of the
unmodified bitumen, occurring at the 3000-2850cm-
1 IR frequency range, typical of aliphatic –C-H
symmetrical and asymmetrical stretches in alkanes.
CH2 and CH3 bends were also observed at the
characteristic frequencies of 1465cm-1 and 1375cm-
1 respectively. A low intensity peak was observed
within the 2400 cm-1-2100cm-1 range, indicating
the presence of a very weak -C≡C- or -C≡N group
with an absorbance of precisely 0.12. The properties
of the unmodified bitumen were found to be
enhanced with the changes in the rheological
properties of the polymer modified bitumen (PMB).
The viscosity of unmodified bitumen was enhanced
with the addition of the polymers and thixotropic
effect was observed for both HDPE and PP at 60°C.
For all modified binders prepared, the penetration
values decrease as polymer ratio increases whilst,
softening temperature generally increases as
polymer ratio increases. The most compatible and
incompatible blends for HDPE were respectively
observed at 2% and 3% polymer loading. The most
enhanced, homogenous blend is achieved with PP at
3% polymer loading. The use of waste commodity
plastics in binder modification carries the advantage
of a cheap and effective means of enhancing
conventional binder performance and is an
alternative way to utilise plastic waste.

42
(EMB)

Bitumen emulsion is a liquid product in which


bitumen is suspended in a finely divided condition in
an aqueous medium and stabilised by suitable
material. Normally cationic type emulsions are used
in India. The bitumen content in the emulsion is
around 60% and the remaining is water. When the
emulsion isapplied on the road it breaks down
resulting in release of water and the mix starts to
set. The time of setting depends upon the grade of
bitumen. The viscosity of bituminous emulsions can
be measured as per IS: 8887-1995. Three types of
bituminous emulsions are available, which are Rapid
setting (RS), Medium setting (MS), and Slow setting
(SC). Bitumen emulsions are ideal binders for hill
road construction. Where heating of bitumen or
aggregates are difficult. Rapid setting emulsions are
used for surface dressing work. Medium setting
emulsions are preferred for premix jobs and patch
repairs work. Slow setting emulsions are preferred in
rainy season.

(NRMB)

Polymer modified bitumen is emerging as one of the


important construction materials for flexible
pavements. Use of polymers in
the construction of flexible pavement is gaining
importance because of the several reasons. The
polymer modified bitumen show

43
better properties for road construction and plastics
waste, otherwise considered to be a pollution
menace, can find its use in this
process and this can help solving the problem of
pollution.
Bitumen is a useful binder for road construction.
Different grades of bitumen like 30/40, 60/70 and
80/100 are available on the
basis of their penetration values. The steady increase
in high traffic intensity in terms of commercial
vehicles and the significant
variation in daily and seasonal temperature demand
improved road characteristics. Any improvement in
the property of the
binder is the needed.
The availability of the Natural Rubber (Latex) is
enormous, as the rubber is a product obtained from
Latex (e.g., mattresses,
gloves, swim caps, balloons) has become part of
daily life. If it is not recycled, its present disposal is
either by land filling or by
incineration. Both the processes have certain impact
on the environment.
Various studies are being carried out to improve the
quality of bitumen used in bituminous road
construction. One of the
results of such studies is to use polymer-modified
bitumen. Use of Natural Rubber (Latex) is the need
of the hour. The studies on
the thermal behaviour and binding property of the
Natural Rubber promoted a study on the preparation
of Natural Rubberbitumen blend and its properties to
find the suitability of the blend for road construction.

44
Natural rubber is an Elastomer that was originally
derived from milky latex found in the sap of some
plants. The purified form
of natural rubber is the chemical Polyisoprene, which
can also be produced synthetically. Natural rubber is
used extensively in
many applications and products, as is synthetic
rubber. Natural rubber is an ideal polymer for
dynamic or static engineering
applications. Natural rubber features:
Excellent dynamic properties with a low hysteresis
loss
Good low temperature properties
Strong bonding to metal parts
High resistance to tear and abrasion and ease of
processing

45
Fig 10.1 Natural rubber (balloons) used as additive

Natural Rubber properties


Natural rubber has been successfully used as an engineering material for
many years. The following range of properties shows just how versatile
of a material natural rubber has proven to be to engineers:
Natural rubber combines high tensile and tear strength with an
outstanding resistance to fatigue
Excellent green strength and tack — has the ability to stick to itself
and other materials, making bonded natural rubber products easier to
fabricate
Exhibits excellent dynamic properties with a low hysteresis which
leads to low heat generation
Adjustable hardness from very soft to very hard (ebonite)
Appearance and colour ranges from translucent (soft) to black (hard)
Compounded to meet nearly any mechanical requirement
The ability to be electrically insulating or fully conductive
Protect, insulate and sealing properties
Absorb vibration and silence noise
Available in any surface roughness and shape

(CRMB)

HINCOL CRMB is based on unique technology that enables


homogeneity, stability and consistent properties of binder throughout
the supply chain. To achieve this, special stabilising additives are used
and a special manufacturing process is adopted and the result is a high
performance bituminous binder with unique properties that are
consistent

Hincol Crumb Rubber Modified Bitumen is designed to maximise


resistance to permanent deformation and reduce fatigue of asphalt

46
mixtures that are used in the most demanding locations.

The careful selection of additives greatly enhances binder


performance, improving elasticity, reducing temperature susceptibility
and improving adhesion. Our product range is particularly suited to
heavy traffic locations such as highways, main roads, airfields,
roundabouts and bus lanes. Typically we’ve developed products for a
combination of the following needs:
 Superior Elastic Modulus of Hincol CRMB helps control deformation
under high pavement temperature and heavy loading conditions.
 Increases the fatigue life of pavement under repeated heavy loading
conditions.
 Helps in reduction of maintenance cost and is more cost effective on a
life cycle cost basis.
 for use in thin surfacing and stone mastic asphalt (SMA) mixes;
 for use in drainage (porous) asphalt applications;
 for asphalt mixtures designed for high resistance to permanent
deformation and high flexibility

Q.2. WHAT IS CRMB? WHAT ARE IS IT’S TYPE? WRITE


ADVANTAGES & APPLICATION OF CRMB

CRM is a mixture of bitumen and modified bitumen rubber is intrusive.


The viscosity modifier rubber used asphalt binder and temperature
resistance as well as resistance against brittle at low temperatures
increases. CRMB has good adhesion to mineral mass, and thereby
reduce brittleness and deformity.

Types of CRMB & Recommendation for specific use:


 CRMB 60: recommended for hot climate areas.
 CRMB 55: recommended for moderate climate areas.

47
 CRMB 50: recommended for cold climate areas

Advantages
 Lower susceptibility to daily & seasonal temperature variations
 Higher resistance to deformation at elevated pavement temperature
 Better edge resistance properties
 Better adhesion between aggregate & binder ensure longer life,
strength & stability
 Higher fatigue life of mixes due to high elastic recovery
 Delay of cracking & reflective cracking
 Overall improved performance in extreme climate conditions & under
heavy traffic condition
 Better water resistance
 Prevents rutting
 Resistance to creep & higher indirect tensile strengthen surface
course

48
Applications
CRMB can be used for wearing courses at heavy trafficked roads, busy
intersections, bridge decks and roundabouts for increased life of the
surfacing.

 Reducing traffic noise


 Bus by lane
 Water proofing concrete structure
 Sand asphalt
 Heaving traffic lane
 Slopes, roundabouts, junctions
 Industrial and multimodal platforms
 Providing high skid resistance (thin overlay chip seal)
 Porous asphalt and acoustic thin overlay
 In Stress Absorbing Membrane Interlayer (SAMI)
 For high rainfall regions
 Airport runways and parking apron
 Parking place of buses and trucks

Q.3. Explain the difference between Penetration grade


& viscous grade bitumen. Which one is currently
considered for pavement design? Why?

Penetration Grading of Bitumen

The American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) D 04 carried


out bitumen grading at a temperature of 25 degree Celsius for the
testing of the road and pavement materials in 1903.

49
The penetration test involves penetration of a needle that is
loaded by 100g, into a bitumen sample maintained at a
temperature of 25-degree Celsius in a water bath for a period of 5
seconds. The penetration value is measured in millimeters.

1 penetration unit = 0.1mm.

The greater the penetration value, the softer the bitumen become.
The ASTM standard D 946 gives 5 penetration grades for the
bitumen binders. They are:

1. Hardest Bitumen Grade 40 –50


2. 60 –70
3. 85-100
4. 120-150
5. Softest Bitumen Grade 200-300
The penetration grading system is 100 years old bitumen grading
method. In India, before 2006, the most widely used grade of
bitumen was 60 to 70. For the construction of low volume roads
and to perform spraying, penetration value from 80 to 100 was
used.

The disadvantages of penetration grading of bitumen


are:

 The method of penetration grading is not a fundamental


test. It makes use of empirical tests.
 For polymer modified bitumen, this method cannot be
employed
 At higher and lower temperatures during service,
similitude at 25 degree Celsius affects the performance. As

50
shown in below figure, three bitumen binders with 60 to 70
penetration grade is plotted against stiffness values.

Fig 10.2
Fig.4: Graph representing relationship between stiffness
and temperature of three binders A, B and C with
penetration grade 60 -70

The three binders A, B, and C have same stiffness vale of 65 at 25


degree Celsius, but different values at higher and lower
temperatures. Hence the bitumen C is subjected to rutting under
higher service temperature, as its stiffness is low at higher
temperatures.

 To guide the contractors for asphalt mixing and to know


the temperature of compaction, no bitumen viscosity is
available.
 The temperature susceptibility of the binders is not

controlled by the penetration grading. The temperature


susceptibility is the slope of temperature v/s stiffness line.
Steep slope curve represents high temperature susceptible
binders, which are not appreciated. This is because, at high
temperatures, they are very soft and low temperatures they
are stiff.
Viscosity Grading of Bitumen

51
In the 1970s, US introduced the method of viscosity grading at 60
degree Celsius. This was to ensure a solution for construction
problems and to have high temperature performance. These were
tender mixes that must undergo mix pushing and shoving under
the roller, without which it cannot be rolled properly.

Prior to 1970s, the US construction used 60 to 70 penetration


grade that shows variation towards rutting action. They showed
lower viscosity at 135 degree Celsius. This caused tender mix
problems during the construction process.

The viscosity test, unlike penetration grading, is a fundamental


test carried out at 60 degree Celsius. This temperature is the
maximum temperature to which the road pavement is subjected
to at summer. The measurement is in terms of Poise.

In India, the equipment for testing the viscosity at 60 and 135


degrees are available. They are very simple to handle with. In the
US, Six Asphalt Cement (AC) viscosity grades were specified. They
are,

52
In the US, Bitumen is mentioned as asphalt cement or asphalt.
The grades with lower viscosity i.e. AC-2.5 and AC-5 were used for
cold service temperatures; areas like Canada. In Northern tier
states, AC-10 was used. Mostly in the US, AC-2- was used.

Only five grades excluding AC-30 was initially determined. These


have a mean viscosity that will double from grade to grade. This

53
resulted in no overlap in viscosity range. But the problem of AC-
20 to be too soft and AC-40 to be too hard, that was faced by
countries Florida, Georgia, and Alabama made AC-30 to be
incorporated and hence six grades.

The figure below shows the AC-30 bitumen viscosity grade which
is equivalent to VG-30 in India.

Fig 10.4
Fig.5: Graph representing temperature and stiffness (in
terms of viscosity) relationship of AC-30 (VG-30)
Bitumen

Advantages of Viscosity Grading of Bitumen

The advantages of viscosity grading system are:

1. Same rutting performance is given by the binders of same


viscosity grade, unlike the case of penetration grades.
2. The viscosity grading system retains minimum
performance in terms of fatigue cracking. This will enable
acceptable performance. This is for an average yearly
temperature of 25 degrees.

54
3. The potential on tender mixes can be minimized with the
minimum specified values of kinematic viscosity at a
temperature of 135 degrees Celsius.
4. The maximum allowable temperature susceptibility can be
established by specifying the minimum value of
penetration at 25 degrees and the kinematic viscosity at 135
degrees.
5. For a wide variety of temperatures, the viscosity binders
were employed. A temperature of 60 degrees for rutting, 25
degrees for raveling or fatigue problems or 135 degrees for
construction activity.
6. The suppliers can provide the users with accurate asphalt
mixing and temperature values for construction. This is
possible because of the measurement of viscosity at two
temperatures.

Q.4. Write test procedure for Viscosity test and


softening test for bitumen with sketch.

Softening point test


Softening point denotes the temperature at which
the bitumen attains a particular degree of
softening under the specifications of test. The test
is conducted by using Ring and Ball apparatus. A
brass ring containing test sample of bitumen is
suspended in liquid like water or glycerin at a given
temperature. A steel ball is placed upon the

55
bitumen sample and the liquid medium is heated
at a rate of 5 C per minute. Temperature is noted
when the softened bitumen touches the metal
plate which is at a specified distance
below.Generally, higher softening point indicates
lower temperature susceptibility and is preferred in
hot climates. Figure 4.3 shows Softening Point test
setup.

Figure 10.5: Softening Point Test Setup

Viscosity test
Viscosity denotes the fluid property of bituminous
material and it is a measure of resistance to flow. At the
application temperature, this characteristic greatly
influences the strength of resulting paving mixes. Low or
high viscosity during compaction or mixing has been

56
observed to result in lower stability values. At high
viscosity, it resist the compactive effort and thereby
resulting mix is heterogeneous, hence low stability
values. And at low viscosity instead of providing a
uniform film over aggregates, it will lubricate
theaggregate particles. Orifice type viscometers are used
to indirectly find the viscosity of liquid binders like
cutbacks and emulsions. The viscosity expressed in
seconds is the time taken by the 50 ml bitumen material
to pass through the orifice of a cup, under standard test
conditions and specified temperature. Viscosity of a
cutback can be measured with either 4.0 mm orifice at
25 C or 10 mm orifice at 25 or 40 C.

Fig 10.6 Viscosity Tes

57
CHAPTER :-11

Modified Bitumen Emulsion & Multy Grade Bitumen

Q1. What is CRMB? What are its types? Write its advantages and
applications.

 Crumb Rubber Modified Bitumen (CRMB) is hydrocarbon binder


obtained through physical and chemical interaction of crumb
rubber (produced by recycling of used tyres) with bitumen and
some specific additives.
 CRMB is suitable for pavements submitted to all sorts of weather
conditions, highways, traffic denser roads, junctions, heavy duty
and high traffic sea port roads etc. It is a durable and economical
solution for new construction and maintenance of wearing courses.
 The Flextal range of CRMB offers binders which are stable and
easy to handle with enhanced performances.
 This product when applied on the roads makes them require very
low maintenance and marginally decreases their chances of
developing potholes, shoving and other problems. This product
also improves the driving of the vehicles and decreases the risk of
accidents on the roads.
Types of CRMB:

 CRMB 60: Recommended for hot climate areas


 CRMB 55: Recommended for moderate climate areas
 CRMB 50: Recommended for cold climate areas
Advantages of CRMB:
 Lower susceptibility to daily and seasonal temperature variations.

58
 Higher resistance to deformation and wear and tear at elevated
temperatures.
 Better adhesion between aggregate and binder.
 Increase in fatigue life.
 Delay in cracking & reflective cracking.
 Prevents rutting.
 Better water resistance
Recommendations for Specific Use:

 Mixing / Coating: 170 - 185°C


 Laying: 150° - 170°C
 Beginning of Compaction: over 140°C
 End of Compaction: 110° - 120°C

Q2. Explain briefly: PMB, EMB, NRMB, CRMB.

1. PMB: Polymer modified bitumen (PMB) is one of the specially


designed and engineered bitumen grades that is used in making
pavement, roads for heavy duty traffic and home roofing solutions
to withstand extreme weather conditions. PMB is a normal
bitumen with added polymer, which gives it extra strength, high
cohesiveness and resistance to fatigue, stripping and deformations,
making it a favorable material for infrastructure.

2. NRMB: Natural Rubber Modified Bitumen (NRMB) is one of the


most commonly used modified bitumen in Kerala, which is
produced by adding latex or rubber powder to the ordinary bitumen
at specific conditions. The NRMB mix is showing excellent rut

59
resistance. The fatigue life increases with the increase in resilient
modulus and decreases with the increase in the % air void and
initial strain. The overall performance of NRMB mix is better
compared with that of the ordinary bituminous mix

3. CRMB: Crumb Rubber Modified Bitumen (CRMB) is


hydrocarbon binder obtained through physical and chemical
interaction of crumb rubber (produced by recycling of used tyres)
with bitumen and some specific additives. CRMB is suitable for
pavements submitted to all sorts of weather conditions, highways,
traffic denser roads, junctions, heavy duty and high traffic sea port
roads etc. It is a durable and economical solution for new
construction and maintenance of wearing courses.

4. EMB: Elastomer Modified Bitumen is a liquid applied


polyurethane modified bituminous elastomeric membrane coating.
EMB when applied on a surface, gives a continuous monolithic
film which is rubbery and elastic in nature. The film is self-curing
and cures by reaction with atmospheric moisture. It does not only
improve the resistance to rutting at high temperatures, but also
increases the resistance to cracking at low temperatures and
cracking due to fatigue. Therefore, EMB is the most widely used
type of modified bitumen in the world.

Q3. Write a note on Modified Bitumen Emulsion.


POLYMER MODIFIED BITUMEN EMULSIONS(PMBE)

60
 Bitumen emulsions are by far the most commonly used binder in
cold paving technologies, allowing numerous applications such as
tack coats, micro surfacing and chip seals.
 One way to improve the use of cold technologies under high traffic
loads is through the use of high-performance binders such as
polymer modified bitumen emulsions (PMBEs). In fact, the micro
surfacing applied on highways are always based on PMBE.
Similarly, chip seals under high traffic loads are also based on
PMBE.
 Polymer modified bitumen emulsions (PMBEs) are a special class
of bituminous emulsions.
 There are several ways to prepare PMBEs. One possibility is to
emulsify a PMB; another is to add a latex to a bitumen emulsion,
either prior to the colloid mill or after.
 In all cases, the resulting PMBE shows improved rheological
properties of the residue after breaking. Their design and
manufacture differ in several ways from those of unmodified
emulsions.
 In particular, emulsions of PMB are harder to manufacture than
unmodified bitumen emulsions. However, PMBEs are
characterized in the same way as unmodified emulsions.
 PMBEs have been successfully used for several decades in the
road industry. They represent a class of high - performance binders
whose preferred application is in the form of chip seals and as
micro surfacing for heavily trafficked pavements.
ADVANTAGES:

 Enhances life of periodical maintenance and overlays by about 1.5


times as compared to conventional Bitumen.
 Lower susceptibility to temperature variations.
 Higher resistance to deformation wear and tear.

61
 Low glass transition temperature which gives excellent
performance properties of pavement at low temperatures.
 Stiffer blend reduces rutting and stability at high temperatures.
 Improves abrasion resistance of pavement.
 Improves Fatigue resistance.
 Reduces Oxidation and aging resistance.
 Reduces structural thickness of pavement.
 Provides better adhesion between different aggregates.
 Delay cracking and reflective cracking.
LATEX MODIFIED BITUMEN EMULSION

 To improve mechanical and physical properties of the emulsions,


they are modified with various polymers. Such practice is
becoming more and more demanded in the road construction
industry, since regular bitumen emulsions do not always comply
with the ever - increasing modern requirements. The process of
modification is in essence combining of bitumen emulsion with
synthetic polymer additives.
 One of the most widely used and efficient modifications are latex
polymers. Latex is a natural or synthetic dispersion of rubber
particles in water. In a water bitumen emulsion, latex improves the
strength and elasticity of the material. As a rule, latex polymers are
combined with water phase and are emulsified with bitumen
directly during preparation of the bitumen-latex emulsion. Latex
can also be used to modify bitumen directly, or can be injected into
a prepared bitumen emulsion as an independently mixed emulsion.
 Latex polymers can be cationic, anionic or nonionic types, which
depends on the charge of the particles. Compatibility of latex and
emulsion can be taken into consideration, as water dispersion of
the polymer must comply with emulsifier parameters.
 The advantage of using bitumen-latex emulsions is the
improvement of several parameters: road durability is increased,

62
temperature range is expanded, layer formation time decreases,
high elasticity and strain resistance is ensured. For better adhesion
of layers, experts recommend injection of special adhesion
additives into the latex-bitumen emulsions.
 Apart from road construction industry, bitumen latex emulsions are
widely used as waterproofing materials, protecting structures from
water and its destructive effects. The so called “liquid rubber” is a
unique waterproofing material based on bitumen-latex emulsion
with no solvents. Liquid rubber ensures high parameters in
essential areas: stability and durability, ease of transportation,
elasticity, high efficiency and safety.

Q.4 What are anti-stripping agents for asphalt?

 Anti-stripping agents are the chemical compounds, which


renders minimumstripping (breaking) of bonds between the
aggregate surface and the bitumen. Thestripping is attributed to
water which gets between the bitumen film and the aggregate
surface.

Q.5 Why anti-stripping additives are necessary in bituminous


paving mixes?

 The loss of bond between aggregates and asphalt binder that


generally begins at the bottom of the HMA layer and progresses
upward is known to be stripping of pavement.
 Stripping has been existent since the advent of paving
technology. It causes functional weakening of pavements
leading to costly repairs.
 Antistripping Agents are chemicals, whose primary function is
to increase the adhesion between the binder and aggregate.

63
 The main goal of anti-stripping additives, is to increase the
strength and durability of the adhesion between aggregate and
bituminous binders.
 Better adhesion between aggregates and bitumen can be ensured
through the usage of anti-stripping agents.
 Perfect adhesion between the binder and the stone elements
prevents water from filtering between the two materials, causing
premature aging of the bituminous mixture and leading to the
formation of instabilities that decrease the pavement’s
performances.

Q.6 Explain briefly:


(i) STONE MATRIX ASPHALT(SMA):

 Stone matrix asphalt (SMA) is a gap-graded HMA (Figure 1) that


is designed to maximize deformation (rutting) resistance
and durability by using a structural basis of stone-on-stone contact.
 SMA has a high coarse aggregate content that interlocks to form a
stone skeleton that resists permanent deformation. The stone
skeleton is filled with a mastic of bitumen and filler to
which fibres are added to provide adequate stability of bitumen and
to prevent drainage of binder during transport and placement.

(ii) Multi-grade bitumen:


 Multi-grade bitumen is a chemically modified bitumen that has
the properties of a hard paving grade bitumen at high service
temperatures coupled with the properties of a soft paving

64
grade bitumen at low temperatures (i.e. it has properties that
span multiple grades).

(iii) Polymer concrete:

 Polymer concrete is an aggregate mixture that uses some type of


epoxy binder to cure and harden into place. A polyester, vinyl
ester, or normal epoxy mixture is often used, but polymer
concrete can be made with many kinds of polymer resins that
allow the concrete to be poured or troweled and then hardened.

Q.7 What are the characteristics of Multi-grade bitumen?


 It is a bitumen with a positive penetration index.
 Is a less pavement temperature sensitive binder
 Has a higher modulus at elevated temperatures.
 Is less brittle in the cold
 In many cases performs like a PMB without the addition of
polymers
 Subsequently it has no elastic recovery

65
CHAPTER :-12

MICROSURFACING: PROCEDURE & TESTING

Q.1) What is micro-surfacing? Describe briefly its application locations with advantages?

Sol:- Microsurfacing is a protective seal coat which extends the life of pavement.
It is a thin, tough layer of asphalt emulsion blended with finely crushed stone for
traction. This is a cost-effective method to renew the road surface and seal minor
cracks and other irregularities

 Micro-surfacing Advantages

Beyond extending pavement life for a lower cost, here are five other key
benefits of micro-surfacing.

 Improves Safety
As pavements wear down over time, they become slick, especially around
curves. The aggregate mix in micro-surfacing restores surface quality and
improves skid resistance helping to dramatically reduce accident rates.

 Corrects Rutting Issues


Micro-surfacing can also be used to fill wheel-path ruts. A special rut-fill box
is used to fill one rut at a time, up to about two inches in depth. This is a cost-
effective alternative to expensive pavement milling and hot mix inlay.

 Seals and Reduces Pavement Oxidation


Asphalt oxidation causes major changes to binder properties and is a major
contributor to age-related pavement failure such as fatigue cracking. The additional
3/8" surface provided by micro-surfacing adds a new, protective layer to the
pavement.

66
 Quick Construction
One hour after the micro-surfacing treatment has been applied, it's ready for traffic
and gives the appearance of an all-new surface.

 Installation Anytime
Day or night, micro-surfacing is a process that can be performed on high, medium
or low volume roadways without causing extensive construction delays.

 Longitudinal joint sealer


The weakest section of the pavement is the longitudinal construction joint between
traffic lanes. Micro-surfacing prevents moisture from causing expansion, helping
prevent costly milling repairs.

Q.2) Where do you suggest ‘Micro surfacing’? Explain the micro


surfacing process of mixing and laying system?

Sol :- Micro surfacing is suggested where these is required:

 Correction of Minor Surface Profile Irregularities


 Rut Filling
 Higher Durability
 Ability to be Placed at Night or in Cooler Temperatures
MIX DESIGN
The performance of a micro-surfacing depends on the quality of the
materials and how they interact during cure and after cure. The mix
design procedure looks at the various phases of this process, which
include:

67
• Mixing: Will the components mix together and form true, free
flowing slurry?
• Breaking and Curing: Will the emulsion break in a controlled way
on the aggregate, coat the aggregate, and form good films on the
aggregate? Will the emulsion build up cohesion to a level that will
resist abrasion due to traffic?
• Performance: Will the micro-surfacing resist traffic-induced
stresses?
The steps in micro-surfacing design include:
• Prescreening of Materials
• Job Mix Design
• Final Testing

 Prescreening

Prescreening involves testing the physical properties of the raw


materials. The emulsion type is selected based on job
requirements and is checked against the requirements laid out in
the specifications (Table 9-1). The aggregate is checked against
specifications (Tables 9-2 and 9-3) and a simple mixing test is
performed to assess compatibility with the emulsion. When
both of these steps are satisfied, the job mix formula can be
developed.

 Job Mix Design Mixing Proportions

The International Slurry Surfacing Association (ISSA) test


method detailed in Technical Bulletin 102 is normally used to
determine the approximate proportions of the slurry mix

68
components (ISSA, 1990). In this test which is typically
conducted by the testing lab, a matrix of mix recipes are made
up and the manual mixing time is recorded for each mixture. A
minimum time is required to ensure that the mixture will be
able to mix without breaking in the slurry machine. At this
stage, phenomena such as foaming and coating are visually
assessed. Also at this stage, the water content and additive
content can be determined to produce a quality mixture.

 Cohesion Build-up
Once the emulsion content is determined, three mixes are then
made, one at the selected emulsion percentage from above, one
at -2% of the selected emulsion content and one at +2% of the
selected emulsion content. This allows a bracketing of the
desired mix proportions. The ISSA test method TB 139 (ISSA,
1990) is used to determine the cohesion build-up in a slurry
mixture. This test may be performed at the expected field
temperatures to provide the most accurate estimate of the
treatment’s characteristics. Table 9-4 lists mix requirements for
micro-surfacing
 Abrasion Resistance (Wet Track Abrasion Test – WTAT)
Mixes are made at three emulsion contents, optimum, optimum
+2%, and -2% of optimum. These mixes are then cured in
circular molds for 16 hours at 140°F (60°C). The samples are
then soaked for either 1 hour or 6 days, depending on the
abrasion test (TB 100) (ISSA, 1990) and the material. Slurry
design requires a 1-hour soaking while micro-surfacing requires
1-hour and 6-day soaking periods. After soaking, a standard

69
rubber hose is ground over the surface of the sample (while still
submerged) for a set period of time. The wear loss is then
calculated

 Final Testing

Once the job mix components have been selected, the mix is
tested to determine its properties and ensure compliance with
the specifications listed in Table 9-4. If the mix conforms to the
specifications, the emulsion content and aggregate grading is
reported as the job mix formula. Field adjustments may be
made to the job mix formula to accommodate climatic variables
during application. As a result of the mix design process,
adjustments are limited to the amount of additives (cement and
retardant) and water content required to ensure a good
homogeneous mix at the time of application.

70
CHAPTER :-13

SUPERPAVE: BINDER SPECIFICATONS, AGGREGATES AND


TESTINGS, MIXING, GYRATORY COMPACTOR

Q.1) What is super pavement? Explain in detail

Ans.1) “Super pave” is an overarching term for the results of


the asphalt research portion of the 1987 – 1993 Strategic Highway
Research Program (SHRP). Super pave consists of (1) an asphalt binder
specification, (2) an HMA mix design method and (3) HMA tests and
performance prediction models. Each one of these components is
referred to by the term “Super pave”. This section provides a brief
overview and background of Super pave.

 Concrete and structures. This area consists of research in the areas


of mix design and assessing, protecting and rehabilitating concrete
pavements and structures.
 Highway operations. This area consists of pavement preservation,
work zone safety and snow and ice control research.
 Pavement performance. This area consists of the Long Term
Pavement Performance Program (LTPP), a 20-year study of over
2,000 test sections of in-service U.S. and Canadian pavements to
improve guidelines for building and maintaining pavements.

Q.2) Write an explanatory note on Super Pavement concept.

Ans.2) The SHRP asphalt research program, the largest SHRP program at
$53 million (FHWA, 1998[1]), had three primary objectives (NECEPT,
2001[3]):
 Investigate why some pavements perform well, while others do not.

71
 Develop tests and specifications for materials that will out-perform
and outlast the pavements being constructed today.
 Work with highway agencies and industry to have the new
specifications put to use.
The final product of this research program is a new system referred to as
“Super pave”, which stands for SuperiorPerforming Asphalt Pavements.
Super pave, in its final form consists of three basic components:
1. An asphalt binder specification. This is the PG asphalt binder
specification.
2. A design and analysis system based on the volumetric properties
of the asphalt mix. This is the Super pave mix design method.
3. Mix analysis tests and performance prediction models. This area
is not yet complete. Test development and evaluation is ongoing as
of 2001.
Each one of these components required new specifications and
performance standards as well as new testing methods and devices. As of
late 2001, most states (48) have adopted or will adopt the Super pave PG
asphalt binder specification and 39 states either have adopted or will adopt
the Super pave mix design method

Q.3) Explain super pave with respect to :


i) Material selection and its specification.
ii) Gyratory compactor for compaction of mix.

Ans.3) i)Aggregate Selection

Super pave specifies aggregate in two ways. First, it places restrictions


on aggregate gradation by means of broad control points. Second, it
places “consensus requirements” on coarse and fine aggregate
angularity, flat and elongated particles, and clay content. Other

72
aggregate criteria, which the Asphalt Institute (2001[2]) calls “source
properties” (because they are considered to be source specific) such
as L.A. abrasion, soundness and water absorption are used in Super pave
but since they were not modified by Super pave they are not discussed
here.

Gradation and Size

Aggregate gradation influences such key HMA parameters as (read


about these parameters here) stiffness, stability, durability, permeability,
workability, fatigue resistance, frictional resistance and resistance to
moisture damage (Roberts et al., 1996[1]). Additionally, the maximum
aggregate sizecan be influential in compaction and lift thickness
determination.
Gradation Specifications
Superpave mix design specifies aggregate gradation control points,
through which aggregate gradations must pass. These control points are
very general and are a starting point for a job mix formula.
Aggregate Blending
It is rare to obtain a desired aggregate gradation from a single aggregate
stockpile. Therefore, super pave mix designs usually draw upon several
different aggregate stockpiles and blend them together in a ratio that will
produce an acceptable final blended gradation. It is quite common to
find a super pave mix design that uses 3 or 4 different aggregate
stockpiles.

73
74
Figure 13.2. Gyratory compactor.

Figure 13.3. Superpave gyratory compactor sample


(left) vs. Hveem/Marshall compactor sample (right).

ii.) The Superpave gyratory compactor establishes three


different gyration numbers:
1. Ninitial. The number of gyrations used as a measure of mixture
compactability during construction. Mixes that compact too
quickly (air voids at Ninitial are too low) may be tenderduring
construction and unstable when subjected to traffic. Often, this is a
good indication of aggregate quality – HMA with excess natural
sand will frequently fail the Ninitialrequirement. A mixture designed
for greater than or equal to 3 million ESALs with 4 percent air
voids at Ndesign should have at least 11 percent air voids at Ninitial.
2. Ndesign. This is the design number of gyrations required to produce
a sample with the same density as that expected in the field after
the indicated amount of traffic. A mix with 4 percent air voids at
Ndesign is desired in mix design.

75
3. Nmax. The number of gyrations required to produce a laboratory
density that should never be exceeded in the field. If the air voids
at Nmax are too low, then the field mixture may compact too much
under traffic resulting in excessively low air voids and
potential rutting. The air void content at Nmax should never be
below 2 percent air voids.
Typically, samples are compacted to Ndesign to establish the optimum
asphalt binder content and then additional samples are compacted to
Nmax as a check. Previously, samples were compacted to N max and then
Ninitial and Ndesign were back calculated. Table 6 lists the specified number
of gyrations for Ninitial, Ndesign and Nmax while Table 7 shows the required
densities as a percentage of theoretical maximum density (TMD) for
Ninitial, Ndesign and Nmax. Note that traffic loading numbers are based
on the anticipated traffic level on the design lane over a 20-year
period regardless of actual roadway design life (AASHTO, 2001[4]).

20-yr Traffic Loading Number of Gyrations


(in millions of
ESALs)
Ninitial Ndesign Nmax

Less than 0.3 6 50 75

0.3 to 7 75 115

3 to 8 (7) 100 (75) 160 (115)

76
10 to 8 100 160
Ta
ble
≥ 30 9 125 205 6.
Nu
mb
* When the estimated 20-year design traffic loading is between 3 er
and initial = 7, Ndesign = 75 and Nmax = 115. of
Gy
rations for Ninitial, Ndesign and Nmax (from AASHTO, 2001[4])
Table 13.2. Required Densities for Ninitial, Ndesign and Nmax (from
AASHTO, 2001[4])

20-yr Traffic Required Density (as a percentage of


Loading TMD)
(in millions of
ESALs)
Ninitial Ndesign Nmax

Less than 0.3 ≤ 91.5 96.0 ≤ 98.0

0.3 to ≤ 90.5

3 to ≤ 89.0

10 to

77
≥ 30

The standard gyratory compactor sample preparation procedure is:


 AASHTO TP4: Preparing and Determining the Density of Hot-
Mix Asphalt (HMA) Specimens by Means of the Superpave
Gyratory Compactor

Q.4) What is Super pave? Explain steps for mix design of super pave.

Ans.4) The Super pave mix design method. The Super pave system
ties asphalt binder and aggregate selection into the mix design process,
and considers traffic and climate as well. A gyratory compactor has
replaced the compaction devices from the Haveem and Marshall
procedures and the compaction effort in mix design is tied to expected
traffic.

Superpave Procedure
The Superpave mix design method consists of 7 basic steps:
1. Aggregate selection.
2. Asphalt binder selection.
3. Sample preparation (including compaction).
4. Performance Tests.
5. Density and voids calculations.
6. Optimum asphalt binder content selection.
7. Moisture susceptibility evaluation.

Aggregate Selection
Superpave specifies aggregate in two ways. First, it places restrictions
on aggregate gradation by means of broad control points. Second, it

78
places “consensus requirements” on coarse and fine aggregate angularity,
flat and elongated particles, and clay content. Other aggregate criteria,
which the Asphalt Institute (2001[2]) calls “source properties” (because
they are considered to be source specific) such as L.A.
abrasion, soundness and water absorption are used in Superpave but since
they were not modified by Superpave they are not discussed here.
Gradation and Size
Aggregate gradation influences such key HMA parameters as (read about
these parameters here) stiffness, stability, durability, permeability,
workability, fatigue resistance, frictional resistance and resistance to
moisture damage (Roberts et al., 1996[1]). Additionally, the maximum
aggregate sizecan be influential in compaction and lift thickness
determination.
Gradation Specifications
Superpave mix design specifies aggregate gradation control points,
through which aggregate gradations must pass. These control points are
very general and are a starting point for a job mix formula.
Aggregate Blending
It is rare to obtain a desired aggregate gradation from a single aggregate
stockpile. Therefore, Superpave mix designs usually draw upon several
different aggregate stockpiles and blend them together in a ratio that will
produce an acceptable final blended gradation. It is quite common to find
a Superpave mix design that uses 3 or 4 different aggregate stockpiles

Q.5) Write a short note on “Gyratory Compactor”

Ans.5) The Superpave gyratory compactor establishes three


different gyration numbers:
1. Ninitial. The number of gyrations used as a measure of mixture
compactability during construction. Mixes that compact too
quickly (air voids at Ninitial are too low) may be tenderduring
construction and unstable when subjected to traffic. Often,

79
this is a good indication of aggregate quality – HMA with
excess natural sand will frequently fail the Ninitialrequirement.
A mixture designed for greater than or equal to 3 million
ESALs with 4 percent air voids at Ndesign should have at least
11 percent air voids at Ninitial.
2. Ndesign. This is the design number of gyrations required to
produce a sample with the same density as that expected in
the field after the indicated amount of traffic. A mix with 4
percent air voids at Ndesign is desired in mix design.
3. Nmax. The number of gyrations required to produce a
laboratory density that should never be exceeded in the field.
If the air voids at Nmax are too low, then the field mixture may
compact too much under traffic resulting in excessively low
air voids and potential rutting. The air void content at
Nmax should never be below 2 percent air voids.
Typically, samples are compacted to Ndesign to establish the
optimum asphalt binder content and then additional samples are
compacted to Nmax as a check. Previously, samples were compacted
to Nmax and then Ninitial and Ndesign were back calculated. Table 6
lists the specified number of gyrations for Ninitial, Ndesign and
Nmax while Table 7 shows the required densities as a percentage of
theoretical maximum density (TMD) for Ninitial, Ndesign and
Nmax. Note that traffic loading numbers are based on the
anticipated traffic level on the design lane over a 20-year
period regardless of actual roadway design life (AASHTO,
2001[4]).

Table 13.3 Number of Gyrations for Ninitial, Ndesign and


Nmax (from AASHTO, 2001[4])
20-yr Traffic Loading Number of Gyrations
(in millions of ESALs)
Ninitial Ndesign Nmax

80
Less than 0.3 6 50 75

0.3 to 7 75 115

3 to 8 (7) 100 (75) 160 (115)

10 to 8 100 160

≥ 30 9 125 205

* When the estimated 20-year design traffic loading is between 3


and initial = 7, Ndesign = 75 and Nmax = 115.

Table 13.4. Required Densities for Ninitial, Ndesign and Nmax (from
AASHTO, 2001[4])
The standard gyratory compactor sample preparation procedure is:
 AASHTO TP4: Preparing and Determining the Density of
Hot-Mix Asphalt (HMA) Specimens by Means of the
Superpave Gyratory Compactor

81
20-yr Traffic Required Density (as a percentage of
Loading TMD)
(in millions of
ESALs) Ninitial Ndesign Nmax

Less than 0.3 ≤ 91.5 96.0 ≤ 98.0

0.3 to ≤ 90.5

3 to ≤ 89.0

10 to

≥ 30

Figure 13.4 Gyratory compactor

82
Figure 13.5. Superpave gyratory compactor sample (left) vs. Hveem/Marshall compactor sample
(right).

83
CHAPTER :-14

HIGH PERFORMANCE MIXES:STONE MATRIX ASPHALT (SMA)


,FIBERS, MIX DESIGN

Q: 1Explain stone matrix asphalt.


Ans: Stone Matrix Asphalt (SMA) is a gap graded hot mix which
contains high amount of coarse aggregate and binder contents. The
higher amount of coarse aggregate provides better stone-on-stone
contact between the coarse aggregate particles, while the higher amount
of binder content in the bitumen mortar adds to the durability of mix and
sustains heavy breaking and thermal stresses.
It was found in the laboratory that SMA mixtures gave better resistance
to permanent deformation (Rutting) and skid resistance. Two trial
sections of SMA have been laid in Delhi by Central Road Research
Institute (CRRI), New Delhi. Two types of cellulose fiber in the form of
pellets were used as stabilizing additives in the laying of test sections.
Production of SMA mixture is similar to standard hot mix asphalt
(HMA). Two types of hot mix plant i.e. drum and batch mix plant were
used for production of SMA mixture.
 Advantages of Stone Matrix Asphalt:
 High stability against permanent deformation
 High wear resistance
 Slow aging and durability to premature cracking of the
asphalt
 Good low temperature performance
 Longer service life
 Higher asphalt content

84
 Premium materials and additives
 Better long life behaviors

Q: 2 Explain different types of fibers?


Ans: Coconut fiber:
Coconut fiber is a natural fiber derived from the mesocarp tissue or
husk of the coconut fruit. It is also termed as ‘Golden Fiber’ due to its
color. The individual coconut fiber cells are narrow and hollow, with
thick walls made up of cellulose. These fibers are pale when immature
but later they become hardened and yellowed as a layer of lignin gets
deposited on it. Brown fibers are stronger as they contain more lignin
than cellulose, but they are less flexible. Coconut fibers are made up of
small threads, each less than 1.3 mm long and 10 to 20 micrometers in
diameter. This fiber is relatively water proof and is the only natural fiber
resistant to damage by salt water.

Fig.14.1 Coconut fiber

85
TABLE:14.1 Physical properties of coconut fiber
Property Value
Ultimate Length 0.6 mm
Diameter/Width 16 micron
Single Fiber Length 6 to 8 inches
Density 1.4 gm/cc
Tenacity 10gm/tex
Breaking Elongation 30%
Moisture regain at 65% RH 10.50%
Swelling in water 5% in diameter
Air filled porosity Up to 70%
Water holding capacity Up to 30%
Electrical Conductivity <1.5 mS/cm
pH 5.8-6.4

TABLE:14.2 Chemical properties (Composition) of


coconut fiber
Property Value
Water soluble 5.25%
Pectin and related compounds 3.30%
Hemi-Cellulose 0.25%
Cellulose 43.44%
Lignin 45.84%
Ash 2.22%

86
 Jute Fiber:
Jute is a long, soft, shiny vegetable fiber that can be spun into
coarse, strong threads. It is produced from plants in the genus
Corchorus, family Malvaceae.
Jute is one of the cheapest natural fibers and is second only to
cotton in amount produced and variety of uses. Jute fibers are composed
primarily of the plant materials cellulose (major component of plant
fiber) and lignin (major components wood fiber). It is thus a lingo-
cellulosic fiber that is partially a textile fiber and partially wood. It falls
into the best fiber category along with knead, industrial hemp, flax
(linen). Ramie, etc. the industrial term for jute fiber is raw jute. The
fibers are off-white to brown, and 1-4 meters (3-12 feet) long.
Jute is one of the strongest natural fibers. The long staple fiber has
high tensile strength and low extensibility. Its lustre determines quality;
the more it shines, the better the quality. It also has some heat and fiber
resistance. The biodegradable features of jute are becoming increasingly
important.

Fig.14.2 Jute Fiber

87
Production:
Jute is a rain-fed crop with little need for fertilizer or pesticides. The
production is concentrated in Bangladesh, India, China, and Thailand.
The jute fiber comes from the stem and ribbon of the jute plant. The
fibers are first extracted by resting. The retting process consists of
bonding jute stems together and immersing them in low, running water.
There are two types of retting; stem and ribbon. After the retting
process, stripping begins. In the stripping process, non-fibrous matter is
scraped off, then the workers dig in and grab the fibers from within the
jute stem.
TABLE:14.3 Physical Properties of Jute Fiber
Property Value
Ultimate Jute Length 1.5 to 4mm
Ultimate Diameter of Jute 0.015 to 0.002mm
Jute fiber Length 150 to 300 cm (5 to 12 feet)
Jute color Jute fiber can be White, Yellow,
Brown or Grey
Strength of Jute 3.5 to 5 g /Den
Specific Gravity 1.48
Moisture Regain of Jute 13.75%
Elasticity Breaking Extension 12.8% and
Elastic Recovery very low
Resiliency Bad
Dimensional Stability of Jute Good on average

TABLE:14.4 Chemical properties of Jute fibers


Property Value
Cellulose >65%

88
Hemi-cellulose >22.5%
Lignin >11%
Fat and Wax >0.3%
Water Soluble Material >1.2%

 Glass Fiber:

 Glass Fiber reinforced Concrete (GFRC):

GFRC has been successfully used since the last 25 years for
concrete reinforcement, in addition to steel. GFRC is being
manufactured into big panels with a simple configuration or into
intricate shapes by using special techniques. Originally, GFRC
components were anchored directly with the buildings by the use of
metal studs. It was revealed that GFRC shifts considerably due to which
the direct anchors are being replaced by slip anchors. Several structures
use GFRC for dissimilar facing like ceramic tiles, bricks, and
architectural purpose.
GFRC is composed of concrete, reinforced with glass fibers to
produce a thin, lightweight, yet strong material. The material offered
several benefits to architects and designers:

 GFRC has superior fire retardant properties.


 GFRC offers a variety of shapes (similar to what terra cotta, carved
stone or precast concrete offer, but at a much reduced weight.)
 GFRC is light weight.
 GFRC can replicate terra cotta, granite, limestone, cast stone or
other hard to use material.

89
Advantages of GFRC:

 Light weight: While GFRC is not higher or lower density than


normal concrete, it can be used in much thinner panels. This allows
GFRC facade panels to be lighter and easier to multiple than
facades made from conventional concrete. This lighter weight also
makes reinforced concrete panels cheaper and easier to transport
and install.
 Strength: Despite their relatively light weight, GFRC panels are
very strong. They provide better performance than unreinforced
precast concrete. According to the Concrete Countertop Institute,
these panels are designed to deal with seismic and wind loads and
flex rather than break.
 Ease of work:GFRC is internally reinforced with glass fibers and
does not require rebar or other internal reinforcement. This makes
molding or spraying the material relatively easy. This material also
doesn’t crack easily, so workers can cured GFRC without worry of
chipping, cracking or breaking.
 Environmental impact: The concretenetwork claims that GFRC is
more environmentally friendly than conventional concrete. Cement
production requires burning immense amounts of fossil fuel,
giving it a significant environmental footprint. GFRC uses much
less cement than ordinary concrete, since so much of it is made up
of glass fibers. These glass fibers often come from recycled
sources. This material is also very long-lasting. According to the
Concrete Network, correctly manufactured GFRC can outlast
conventional concrete and cast stone.

Q: 3 Describe fiber reinforced concrete.


Ans: Fiber reinforced concrete:

90
Materials are classified according to the type of fiber incorporated,
which are: type I, steel fiber reinforced concrete that contains stainless,
alloy, or carbon steel fibers; Type II, glass fiber reinforced concrete that
contains alkali-resistant glass fibers; Type III, synthetic fiber reinforced
concrete that contains synthetic fibers; Type IV, natural fiber reinforced
concrete that contains cellulose fibers. The fiber reinforced concrete
shall be furnish either by batch mixing or continuous mixing, and shall
be free of fiber balls when delivered to the point designated by the
purchaser.
FRC is concrete containing fibrous material which increases its
structural integrity. It contains short discrete fibers that are uniformly
distributed and randomly oriented. Fibers include steel fibers, synthetic
fibers and natural fibers.
Why fiber reinforced concrete is used?
Portland cement concrete is believed to be a comparatively brittle
substance. When unreinforced concrete is exposed to tensile stresses, it
is likely to facture and fail. Since the beginning of the nineteenth
century, studies were conducted to reinforce concrete by using steel.
After reinforcement of concrete by steel, it becomes a composite group
in which the steel endures the tensile strength of the composite system.
Research has revealed that the strength of concrete may be improved
tremendously by the addition of fiber reinforcing. Since the stretching
ability under load of reinforcing fiber is greater than concrete, initially
the composite system will function as un-reinforced concrete. However,
with additional loading the fiber reinforcing will be activated, to hold the
concrete mix together.
Characteristics of FRC:
The characteristics of FRC depends upon the:

91
 Type of fiber utilized
 Volume proportion of the fiber
 Ratio of length of the fiber
 Diameter of the fiber
 Dispersal, direction and construction of fibers
The condition will improve the mechanical proportion including
toughness, ductility, tensile strength, and shear resistance and loading
limit of the fiber reinforced concrete.

Q: 4 Explain SMA mix design by Marshall stability method.


Ans: Marshall Stability test is conducted on compacted cylindrical
specimens of bituminous mix of diameter 101.6 mm and thickness 63.5
mm. the load is applied perpendicular to the axis of the cylindrical
specimen through a testing head consisting of a pair of cylindrical
segments, at a constant rate of deformation of 51 mm per minute at the
standard test temperature of 60ºC.
The Marshall Stability of the bituminous mix specimen is defined
as a maximum load carrying in kg at the standard test temperature of
60ºC when load is applied under specified test conditions. The ‘Flow
Value’ is the total deformation that the Marshall test specimen under-
goes at the minimum load, expressed in mm units.

 Procedure for mix design:

a) Specified grading of the nix is selected from the recommended


gradation for the particular type of pavement layer.

92
b)Representative sample of aggregates of different sizes proposed to
be used in the project are collected from the site of the hot mix
plant or crusher.
c) Sieve analysis is carried out on the samples of the aggregates
collected and the proportion in which they should be mixed to
obtain desired gradation is determined.
d)The specific gravity of the coarse and fine aggregates and the
bituminous binder used are determined.
e) Adequate quality of the aggregates and mineral filler are collected
and mixed in the desired proportion as (c) above.
f) Five to six bitumen contents to be used in the trial mixes are
selected so as to cover at least two values each below and above
the probable/estimated value of optimum binder content (which
depends on the gradation of the aggregates selected and the fines
content).
g)Marshall Stability test specimens are prepared by compacting in the
mould with specified number of blows, using different percentages
of bitumen content (with at least three test specimens at each
bitumen content).
h)The weight and mean dimensions or volume are determined for
each specimen
i) The values of percentage air voids (Vv), voids in mineral
aggregates (VMA) and the voids filled with bitumen (VFB) are
calculated for each test specimen and the mean of these for
specimens prepared using different content are tabulated.
j) Marshall stability test is conducted on each specimen and the mean
of Marshall stability value (after applying the correction factor if
any) and floe value for specimens prepared using different binder
contents are tabulated.
k)Graphs are plotted with bitumen content on the X-axis and (i)
density (ii) Marshall stability (iii) flow value (iv) air voids (v) VFB
and (vi) VMA on the Y-axis (as shown in fig.)

93
l) Individual values of optimum bitumen contents are obtained
considering (i) maximum density (ii) maximum stability (iii) mid-
range of recommended flow value (iv) mid-range of recommended
voids content.
m)Considering the different values of optimum bitumen contents
determined as above, a suitable design bitumen content is selected
within the range of optimum values mentioned. Corresponding to
the selected value of design bitumen content, the values of
Marshall Stability, flow, and air voids in the mix are noted from
the graphs and are checked to find if they fulfil the specified mix
design criteria.
n)If required, another value of design binder content may be tried the
same set of test values and graphs. If all the specified design
criteria could not be fulfilled with the selected gradation of

94
aggregates, the mix design tests may be repeated after altering the
gradation of different aggregates.
o)The proportion of mixing different aggregates, filler and bitumen
are specified by weight or by volume for implementation during
construction as the job mix formula.

 Basic properties of compacted bituminous mix:


 Bulk volume of the compacted specimen = V
 Solid/void-less volume all the material aggregate and filler = Vm
 Volume of voids in minerals aggregates VMA = V-Vm
 Total volume of bituminous binder in the mix =Vb
 Part volume of the binder absorbed by the aggregates = Vba
 Rest of binder filled in part of the voids in mineral aggregates =
Vbf
 Therefore Vb = (Vba + Vbf)
 Volume of air voids in the mix, Vv = V-(Vm+Vbf)
 Volume of voids filled with bitumen, VFb = (VMA-Vv)
 Void-less volume of the paving mix = (V-Vv)

 Density and specific gravity:


 The bulk density of the compacted specimen of bituminous
mix = W/V (g/cm3)
Let the apparent specific gravity values of the different aggregates
be:
Coarse aggregates = G1
Fine aggregates = G2
Filler = G3
Bituminous binder = G4

95
The theoretical specific gravity value of the bituminous mix
specimen, Gt is given by:
100
Gt = W1 W2 W3 W4
+ + +
G1 G2 G3 G4

Here,
W1 = percentage by weight of coarse aggregate in total mix
W2 = percent by weight of fine aggregate
W3 = percent by weight of filler
W4 = percent by weight of bituminous in total mix

 Voids Analysis:
100(𝐺𝑡−𝐺𝑏)
Vv(%) =
𝐺𝑡
𝑊4
Vb= Gb×
𝐺4

VMA (%) = Vv + Vb
100𝑉𝑏
VFB (%) =
𝑉𝑀𝐴

Hence,

96
Vv = air voids in the mix%
Vb= volume of bitumen
Gb = specific gravity of bitumen
VMA = voids in mineral aggregates, %
VFB = voids filled with bitumen, %

97
CHAPTER :-15

Porous Asphalt Mix, Fiber Reinforcement


Concrete & High Performance Concrete

1. What is High-Performance Concrete?


Concrete is the most often used building material in the world.
Look at any roadway, tunnel, dam, parking lot, parking deck, or
skyscraper. Any improvement in the engineering of concrete
benefits us all. Improvements can include cost, strength,
durability, or ease of application. And as the material evolves, our
buildings and roads become safer.

According to the American Concrete Institute (ACI), “high-


performance concrete (HPC) is concrete meeting special
combinations of performance and uniformity requirements that
cannot always be achieved routinely using conventional
constituents and normal mixing, placing and curing practices.”
High-performance concrete is not a single type of concrete, but
rather, any number of concretes engineered to possess certain
properties suitable for a particular construction application.

HPC is more durable than standard concrete, and if necessary,


stronger. HPC is usually more expensive than traditional concrete,
not only because of the ingredients used, but also due to the
special mixing, placing, and curing methods for the HPC to
perform to its design specifications.

HPC includes many of the same materials as conventional


concrete, but the proportions are different, based on the
requirements of the project. Some of the ingredients added are
flash (from coal burning), ground blast furnace slag (from steel

98
manufacturing), micro silica fume (from reducing quartz in an
electric furnace), claimed clay, claimed shale, super plasticizers,
corrosion inhibitors, shrinkage reducers, and polymer/latex
modifiers.

If a project requires high-strength concrete, it will have a strength


of 8,000 psi (pounds per square inch) or 55MPa. The value of
8,000 psi was chosen to define high-strength concrete because it
requires special care when producing it. Extensive testing is
conducted to demonstrate a specific HPC performs as expected
before a construction project can begin.

Fig15.1

99
2. Advantages of High Performance Concrete
1.Reduction in member size, resulting in increase in plinth area/useable
area and direct savings in the concrete volume saved.

2.Reduction in the self-weight and super-imposed DL with the


accompanying saving due to smaller foundations.

3.Reduction in form-work area and cost with the accompanying


reduction in shoring and stripping time due to high early-age gain in
strength.

4.Construction of High –rise buildings with the accompanying savings


in real estate costs in congested areas.

5.Longer spans and fewer beams for the same magnitude of loading.

6.Reduced axial shortening of compression supporting members.

7.Reduction in the number of supports and the supporting foundations


due to the increase in spans.

8.Reduction in the thickness of floor slabs and supporting beam sections


which are a major component of the weight and cost of the majority of
structures.

9.Superior long term service performance under static, dynamic and


fatigue loading.

10.Low creep and shrinkage. 11.Greater stiffness as a result of a higher


modulus Ec.

12.Higher resistance to freezing and thawing, chemical attack, and


significantly improved long-term durability and crack propagation.

13.Reduced maintenance and repairs.

14.Smaller depreciation as a fixed cost.

100
3. What are the advantages and disadvantages of Stone Mastic
Asphalt?
ADVANTAGES
· 20-30% increase in pavement life over conventional pavements
· Good aggregate interlock
· Low permeability
· Improve in skid resistance due to the high percentage of fractured
aggregate to motoring public
Particularly on wet pavement.
· Surface texture characteristic may reduce sound from the tyre and
pavement contact as well as
Water spray and glare.
· Strength and stiffness derived from binder and aggregate
structure
· Relatively high binder contents provide good Durability
· Durability (longer in-service life) of SMA should be equal to, or
greater than, DGA and
Significantly greater than OGA.
· It provides a textured, durable and rut resistant wearing course.
· Surface texture characteristics are similar to OGA, so noise
generated is lower than DGA but
Slightly higher than OGA.
· It can be produced and compacted with the same plant and
equipment as for normal hot mix
DGA using procedural modifications.
· SMA can be used on heavily trafficked roads where good
deformation resistance is required.
· Surfacing may reduce reflective cracking from underlying
cracked pavements due to its flexible
Mastic.
· At the end of its service life it is 100% recyclable.

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DISADVANTAGES
· SMA mix requires higher mixing temperature.
· Potential construction problem with SMA mixtures are drainage
and bleeding.
· Storage and placement temperatures cannot be lowered to control
drainage and bleeding
problem due to the difficulty in obtaining the required compacted.
· Increased material cost associated with high bitumen and filler
content.
· Increased mixing time and time taken to add extra filler may
result in reduced productivity.
· Possible delays in openings (the road) as SMA should be cooled
to 40°c to prevent early
flushing of the binder to the surface.
· Needs more carefully monitoring the composition at the mixing
plant.
· Moisture seeping from the SMA surface for long periods after
rain.
· White fines on the surface of the pavements.
· Premature rutting
· Stripping of asphalt layers below the SMA surfacing.

4. What is porous asphalt? Explain its merits and demerits.


AdvantagesandDisadvantages
PA offers safety and environmental advantages over more
conventional pavement
wearing course materials such as HRA. These include:
• rapid drainage of surface water
• reduction of traffic noise
• reduction of spray and the improvement of skid resistance in wet
weather
• reduction of road surface glare from oncoming headlights
• improved fuel consumption due to the smooth ride qualities of
the negatively
textured surface

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• reduction in tyre wear due to reduced rolling resistance.
However, there are some disadvantages. These include:
• reduced pavement strength. This leads to having to provide more
support in the
structural layers of the pavement. The reduced strength can also
limit the
application of the material to areas not susceptible to high stresses
which could
lead to aggregate fretting
• reduced pavement life in comparison with other materials due to
the increased
likelihood of binder oxidation caused by the voided nature of the
material
• possible clogging of pores and drainage paths while under
construction and also
during the service life of the road
• the need for more salting during winter as snow and frost linger
longer on PA
• increased construction costs due to the increased sensitivity of the
material to
temperature and adverse weather conditions
• increased maintenance costs incurred by many of the above
factors and the fact that
methods of repairing the pavement would be more complex than
with other more
traditional materials.

5. Where and how do you apply Fly ash in highway construction?


List its
Advantage

HIGHWAYAPPLICATIONS
FLYASH IN PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE
Overview. Fly ash is used in concrete admixtures to enhance the
performance of concrete. Portland cement contains about 65

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percent lime. Some of this lime becomes free and available
during the hydration process. When fly ash is present with free
lime, it reacts chemically to form additional cementations
materials, improving many of the properties of the concrete.
Benefits. The many benefits of incorporating fly ash into a PCC
have been demonstrated through extensive research and countless
highway and bridge construction projects. Benefits to concrete
vary depending on the type of fly ash, proportion used, other mix
ingredients, mixing procedure, field conditions and placement.
Some of the benefits of fly ash in concrete:
➤Higher ultimate strength
➤ Improved workability
➤ Reduced bleeding
➤ Reduced heat of hydration
➤ Reduced permeability
➤ Increased resistance to sulfate attack
➤ Increased resistance to alkali-silica reactivity (ASR)
➤ Lowered costs
➤ Reduced shrinkage
FLY ASH IN STABILIZED BASE COURSE
Overview. Fly ash and lime can be combined with aggregate to
produce a quality stabilized base course. These road bases are
referred to as pozzolanic-stabilized mixtures (PSMs). Typical fly
ash contents may vary from 12 to 14 percent with corresponding
lime contents of three to five percent. Portland cement may also
be used in lieu of lime to increase early age strengths. The
resulting material is produced, placed, and looks like cement-
stabilized aggregate base
Benefits. PSM bases have advantages over other base materials:
➤ Use of locally available materials
➤Provides a strong, durable mixture
➤ Lower costs
➤Autogenous healing

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➤ Increased energy efficiency
➤ Suitable for using recycled base materials
➤Can be placed with conventional equipment
Cautions. PSM bases require attention to:
➤ Seasonal limitations
➤ Traffic loading before complete curing
➤ Proper sealing and protection with asphalt or other surface
treatment is required to improve skid resistance
Chapter 4 provides a more thorough discussion of stabilized base
course.

FLY ASH IN FLOWABLE FILL

Overview. Flowable fill is a mixture of coal fly ash, water, and


portland cement that flows like a liquid, sets up like a solid, is self-
leveling, and requires no compaction or vibration to achieve
maximum density. In addition to these benefits, a properly
designedflowable fill may be excavated later. For some mixes, an
optional filler material such as sand, bottom ash, or quarry fines, is
added. Flowable fill is also referred to as controlled low-strength
material, flowable mortar, or controlled density fill. It is designed
to function in the place of conventional backfill materials such as
soil, sand, or gravel and to alleviate problems and restrictions
generally associated with the placement of these materials.
The benefits of using flow able fill include:
➤ Allows placement in any weather, even under freezing
conditions
➤ Achieves 100 percent density with no comp active effort
➤ Fills around/under structures inaccessible to conventional fill
placement techniques
➤ Increases soil-bearing capacities
➤Prevents post-fill settlement problems
➤ Increases the speed and ease of backfilling operations

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➤ Decreases the variability in the density of the backfilled
materials
➤ Improves safety at the job site and reduces labour costs
➤ Decreases excavation costs
➤ Allows easy excavation later when properly designed
Cautions. When using flow able fill, care must be taken to:
➤ Anchor lighter weight pipes to prevent floating
➤ Provide confinement before initial set of the material
➤ Evaluate corrosion of metal pipe at interface of soil
Chapter 5 includes a detailed discussion of flow able fill
Applications.
FLY ASH IN STRUCTURAL FILLS/EMBANKMENTS
Overview. Fly ash can be used as a borrow material to construct
Fills and embankments. When fly ash is compacted in lifts, a
Structural fill is constructed that is capable of supporting highway
buildings or other structures. Fly ash has been used in the
Construction of structural fills/embankments that range from small
fills for road shoulders to large fills for interstate highway
Embankments.
Benefits. When used in structural fills and embankments, fly ash
Offers several advantages over soil and rock:
➤ Cost-effective where available in bulk quantities
➤ Eliminates the need to purchase, permit, and operate a
Borrow pit
➤can be placed over low bearing strength soils
➤ Ease of handling and compaction reduce construction time
and equipment costs
Cautions. Be aware that:
➤ State or local environmental regulations may require
Consideration of the potential impacts to ground water at
Adjoining properties
➤requires dust control and erosion prevention measures
Chapter 6 provides additional information.

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FLY ASH IN SOIL IMPROVEMENT
Overview. Fly ash is an effective agent for chemical and/or
Mechanical stabilization of soils. Soil density, water content,
plasticity, and strength performance of soils. Typical applications
Include: soil stabilization, soil drying, and control of shrink-swell.
Benefits. Fly ash provides the following benefits when used to
Improve soil conditions:
➤ Eliminates need for expensive borrow materials
➤ Expedites construction by improving excessively wet or
Unstable subgrade
➤by improving subgrade conditions, promotes cost savings
through reduction in the required pavement thickness
➤Can reduce or eliminate the need for more expensive natural
Aggregates in the pavement cross-section
Cautions. The most important considerations for soil
Improvement projects are:
➤The rate of the hydration reaction upon exposure to water
➤ Soil moisture content at the time of compaction
➤ Fly ash with a sulphate content greater than 10 percent may
cause soils to expand more than desired
➤ In many cases, leaching tests may be required by local and
state agencies
Soil improvement is discussed more thoroughly in Chapter 7.
FLY ASH IN ASPHALT PAVEMENTS
Overview. Fly ash can be used as mineral filler in HMA paving
Applications. Mineral fillers increase the stiffness of the asphalt
mortar matrix, improving the rutting resistance of pavements, and
The durability of the mix.
Benefits. Fly ash will typically meet mineral filler specifications
for gradation, organic impurities, and plasticity. The benefits of
fly ash include:
➤ Reduced potential for asphalt stripping due to hydrophobic
Properties of fly ash

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➤ Lime in some fly ashes may also reduce stripping
➤ May afford a lower cost than other mineral fillers
Chapter 8 has additional information.
FLY ASH IN GROUTS FOR PAVEMENT SUBSEALING
Overview. Grouts are proportioned mixtures of fly ash, water,
And other materials used to fill voids under a pavement system
Without raising the slabs (subsealing), or to raise and support
Concrete pavements at specified grade tolerances by drilling and
Injecting the grout under specified areas of the pavement.
Benefits. Fly ash grouts can:
➤be used to correct undermining without removing overlying
Pavement
➤be accomplished quickly with minimum disturbance to
Traffic
➤ Develop high ultimate strength
Cautions. Fly ash grouts:
➤ Require curing period before extremely heavy loading
because of low early strength
➤require confinement of the grout mixture under pavement

6. What is meant by High Performance Highway Construction


Materials? Where and how do you apply Fly ash in highway
construction?

O1. Cementations Materials.

a. Performance-specified cements.
b. Next-generation sustainable cements.
c. Eco-friendly cements.
d. Energetically modified cement.

2. Concrete Materials.
a. Engineered cement composites (ECCs).

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b. Titanium dioxide–modified concrete.
c. Pervious concrete.
d. Self-consolidating concrete.
e. Sulphur concrete.
f. Autoclaved aerated concrete.
g. Geopolymer concrete.
h. Hydrophobic concrete.
i. Ductile concrete.

3. Asphalt Binder Materials.

a. Sulfur-extended asphalt.
b. Bio-derived asphalt binders.
c. High modified asphalt binders.

4. AC Materials.

a. Warm asphalt mixtures.


b. Perpetual asphalt pavement systems.
c. Porous asphalt pavement.
d. Recycled asphalt shingles
.
7. Metallic and Polymer Materials.

a. Vitreous ceramic coatings for reinforcing steel.


b. Fibber-reinforced polymer bars for CRCPs.
c. Fibber-reinforced polymer dowel bars.
d. Zinc-clad dowel bars.
e. Micro composite steel for dowels and tie bars.

8. Aggregate Materials.

a. Synthetic aggregates.
b. Manufactured aggregate using captured CO2.
c. Materials that allow internal concrete curing

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CHAPTER :-16

IS Requirements & Mineral Admixtures & it's Application

Q.1What are the types of admixtures? Briefly explain their


functions in High Performance Concrete.

Concrete admixtures are of different types and they are as follows:

1. Water Reducing Admixtures


2. Retarding Admixtures
3. Accelerating Admixtures
4. Air entraining concrete admixture
5. Pozzolanic Admixtures
6. Damp-proofing Admixtures
7. Gas forming Admixtures
8. Air detraining Admixtures
9. Alkali Aggregate Expansion Inhibiting Admixtures
10. Anti-washout Admixtures
11. Grouting Admixtures
12. Corrosion Inhibiting Admixtures
13. Bonding Admixtures

Functions of admixtures in High Performance Concrete-


Concrete additives have various functions depending on what the
contractor wants to achieve. There are two main types of concrete
additives which are chemical and mineral.

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Chemical additives reduce the cost of construction, modify properties of
hardened concrete, ensure quality of concrete during
mixing/transporting/placing/curing, and overcome certain emergencies
during concrete operations.
Mineral additives make mixtures more economical, reduce permeability,
increase strength, and influence other concrete properties. Mineral
admixtures affect the nature of the hardened concrete through hydraulic
or pozzolanic activity. Pozzolanas are cementitious materials and
include natural pozzolanas (such as the volcanic ash used in Roman
concrete), fly ash and silica fume. They can be used with Portland
cement, or blended cement either individually or in combinations.

Additives are generally classified according to the function that each


performs. These are:
Water reducing
These are used to reduce the quantity of mixing water required to
produce concrete of a certain slump, reduce water-cement ratio, reduce
cement content, or increase slump. They are used extensively on larger
projects where reinforcing steel requires high workability. Also used in
precast and on site where the large water reduction provides very high
early strength and improved durability. Water reducing additives usually
reduce the required water content for a concrete mixture by about 5 to 10
percent.
Accelerating additives
These are used to speed the rate of early hydration of the cement.
Accelerating admixtures are especially useful for modifying the
properties of concrete in cold weather. Calcium chloride (CaCl2) is the

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chemical most commonly used in accelerating admixtures, especially for
non-reinforced concrete.
Air-Entrainment
Air-entraining admixtures are used to purposely introduce and stabilize
microscopic air bubbles in concrete. Based on special surfactants, these
admixtures cause tiny air bubbles < 0.3mm in diameter to stabilize
within the cement paste. This air helps to prevent the concrete from
cracking and scaling as a result of frost action. Air also increases
cohesion in the mix, reducing bleed water and segregation of the
aggregate before the concrete can set.
Shrinkage reducing
Shrinkage-reducing admixtures have potential uses in bridge decks,
critical floor slabs, and buildings where cracks and curling must be
minimized for durability or aesthetic reasons. Concrete shrinks, mainly
due to loss of excess water. This causes internal stresses that lead to
cracking or curling, especially in slabs. These admixtures reduce the
shrinkage stress.
Corrosion-Inhibiting
Corrosion inhibitors are used in concrete for parking structures, marine
structures, and bridges where chloride salts are present. The chlorides
can cause corrosion of steel reinforcement in concrete. These admixtures
work for many years after the concrete has set, increasing the corrosion
resistance of reinforcing steel to reduce the risk of rusting steel causing
the concrete to crack and scale.
Super plasticizers

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They are based on Sulphonated Naphthalene or Melamine formaldehyde
condensates, Vinyl polymers or Polycarboxylate Ethers. These
admixtures give a much higher performance than the normal plasticizers.
They are also known as plasticizers or high-range water reducers
(HRWR), reduce water content by 12 to 30 percent and can be added to
concrete with a low-to-normal slump and water-cement ratio to make
high-slump flowing concrete. Flowing concrete is a highly fluid but
workable concrete that can be placed with little or no vibration or
compaction. The effect of Super plasticizers lasts only 30 to 60 minutes,
depending on the brand and dosage rate, and is followed by a rapid loss
in workability. As a result of the slump loss, Super plasticizers are
usually added to concrete at the jobsite.
Precautions in Use of Concrete Additives-
Following simple precautions should be considered by the concrete
engineer when using the additives: firstly, one should confirm the
quality with relevant codes of practice to ensure that they are aware of
the side effects of the additives and whether they are beneficial or
harmful, the concentration of the active ingredient of the additives
amongst other precautions.
The engineer should also make sure that the negative effects is not more
that acceptable limits; they are to also follow the manufacturer’s
instructions regarding the dosage and also conduct the relevant tests to
make sure that the desired effects are being obtained under the job-site
conditions. Finally, they are to make sure that the batching of the
additives is accurate and there is no overdosing particularly in case of
very sensitive additives.
Concrete additives are used under different situations. They may be used
when properties cannot be made by varying the composition of basic

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material in a mixture, to produce desired effects that are economical, and
also to make concrete that is of poor quality better.

Q.2 Differentiate between High-strength concrete and High


performance concrete.
High-strength concrete is typically recognized as concrete with a 28-day
cylinder compressive strength greater than 6000 psi or 42 Mpa. More
generally, concrete with a uniaxial compressive strength greater than
that typically obtained in a given geographical region is considered high-
strength, although the preceding values are widely recognized. Strengths
of up to 20,000 psi (140 Mpa) have been used in different applications.
High-strength concrete can resist loads that normal-strength concrete
cannot.
Manufacture of high-strength concrete involves making optimal use of
the basic ingredients that constitute normal-strength concrete. Producers
of high-strength concrete know what factors affect compressive strength
and know how to manipulate those factors to achieve the required
strength.
In addition to selecting a high-quality portland cement, producers
optimize aggregates, and then optimize the combination of materials by
varying the proportions of cement, water, aggregates, and admixtures.

High-performance concrete is defined as the concrete meeting special


combinations of performance and uniformity requirements that cannot
always be achieved routinely when using conventional constituents and
normal mixing, placing and curing practices. A high-performance
concrete is something which demands much higher performance from
concrete as compared to performance expected from routine concrete.

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In practice, the high-performance concrete is obtained by careful
selection of raw materials (including chemical/mineral admixtures) &
appropriate mix design to achieve the desired performance objectives.
Most high-performance concretes have a high cementitious content and
a water-cementitious material ratio of 0.40 or less.

Q.3What are the requirements of High Performance Concrete?


Requirements of High Performance Concrete-

1. Controlled placing and curing of high performance concrete yields


High performance
o Good quality of paste
o Low W/C ratio
o Optimal cement content and cementitious material
o Sound aggregate, grading and vibration
o Low air content
o High strength
2. Controlled material quality control of high performance concrete
yields Resistance to wear and deterioration
o Low W/C ratio
o Proper curing
o Dense, homogenous concrete
o High strength
o Wear resisting aggregate

115
o Good surface texture
3. Controlled proportions of high performance concrete yields
Resistance to weathering and chemicals
o Appropriate cement type
o Low W/C ratio
o Proper curing
o Alkali-resistant aggregate
o Suitable admixture
o Use of super-plasticizers, fly-ash, polymers or silica fume as admixtures
o Air entrainment
4. Controlled handling of high performance concrete yields Economy
o Large maximum aggregate size
o Efficient grading
o Minimum slump
o Minimum cement content
o Optimal automated plant operation
o Admixtures and entrained air
o Quality assurance and control
5. Appropriate cement type: low C3A, MgO, free lime, low Na2O and
K2O.

116
Q.4 What are the advantages of High Performance Concrete?
The following are the major advantages that can be accomplished-

1. Reduction in member size, resulting in increase in plinth area/useable


area and direct savings in the concrete volume saved.

2. Reduction in the self-weight and super-imposed DL with the


accompanying saving due to smaller foundations.

3. Reduction in form-work area and cost with the accompanying


reduction in shoring and stripping time due to high early-age gain in
strength.

4. Construction of High –rise buildings with the accompanying savings


in real estate costs in congested areas.

5. Longer spans and fewer beams for the same magnitude of loading.

6. Reduced axial shortening of compression supporting members.

7. Reduction in the number of supports and the supporting foundations


due to the increase in spans.

8. Reduction in the thickness of floor slabs and supporting beam sections


which are a major component of the weight and cost of the majority of
structures.

9. Superior long term service performance under static, dynamic and


fatigue loading.

10. Low creep and shrinkage and greater stiffness.

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Q.5What are the applications of High Performance Concrete?
Major applications of high performance concrete have been in the areas
of pavements, long-span bridges and high-rise buildings. In prestressed
concrete bridges, concrete should have not only high strength, but
reduced shrinkage and creep.
The foremost use of high performance concrete is in high rise buildings,
where advantages like reduction in dead loads and reduced sizes of the
columns which gives more rentable space can be employed.
High performance concrete is being increasingly used for highway
pavements due to the potential economic benefit that can be derived
from the early strength gain of high performance concrete, its reduced
permeability; increased wear of abrasion resistance to steel studded fires
and improved freeze-thaw durability.
The use of high performance concrete in bridges would result in smaller
loss pre-stress and consequently larger permissible stress and smaller
cross-section being achieved, i.e. it would enable the standard pre-
stressed concrete girders to span longer distances or to carry heavier
loads. In addition, enhanced durability allow extended service life of the
structure.
The use of High Performance concrete in hydropower structures results
into lesser repairs and increased durability. A few of its components viz.
glacis of Spillway, Diversion Tunnel, Head Race Tunnel, Silt Flushing
Tunnel, Tail race Tunnels etc. are required to be coated with High
Performance Concrete so that their performance in handling high
velocities of water and huge quantities of silt is enhanced.

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