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PRACTICAL TRAINING REPORT

TAKEN AT

“Raghav Automobile Components (P) Ltd.”

Session 2015-19
Submitted in Partial Fulfillment for the Award Of
BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
In
Mechanical Engineering

Internal Supervisor: External Supervisor:


Mr. Kapoor Chand Mr. Ashok Tyagi
Submitted By:
Tarun Raghav
4156042
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

KIIT College of Engineering, Gurgaon


(Affiliated to MDU, Rohtak, Approved by AICTE, New Delhi)

KIIT Campus, Gurgaon-Sohna Road, Maruti Kunj, Gurgaon-122102 (Haryana)

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CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that Mr. TARUN RAGHAV B.Tech.


(Mechanical Engineering) Roll No. 4156042. has completed /
partially completed his Industrial Training during the academic year
2015-2019 as partial fulfillment of the B.Tech. (Mechanical
Engineering) course.

H.O.D. PRINCIPAL

DATE CANDIDATE SIGN.

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DECLARATION

I hereby declare that the project work entitled “Inspecting the


manufacturing of different kinds of automobile components” is an
authentic record of my own work carried out at RAC as per requirements of
internship semester for the award of degree of B.Tech. Mechanical
Engineering, KIIT College Of Engineering Gurugram, under the guidance of
Mr. ASHOK TYAGI, during 01th FEB 2019 to 1st JULY 2019.

Signature of Student

Report to certify that the above statement made by the candidate is correct
and of the best of my / our knowledge

Signature of the Supervisor

Signature of HOD

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Industrial training is an indispensable part of any engineering curriculum. It


provides the students an opportunity to gain experience about the practical
applications of their knowledge.

My training at Raghav Automobile Components (P) Ltd. has been very


fulfilling. I am sure that the hands-on experience I have gained here will go a
long way towards making me a competent engineer.

I would like to convey my sincere gratitude to Mr. Ashok Tyagi, my project


guides who trusted me and gave me responsible project work and provided
me with timely and proper guidance whenever required. This provided me
experience in not only the technical and practical aspects of the industry but
also in human relations, teamwork and also provided great insights into the
actual working of an industry. Without their efforts this training would not
have been as great a learning experience as it has been.

I take this opportunity to also thank the staff of tool room who offered their
unconditional support and advice during my training.
Tarun Raghav

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PREFACE

Practical knowledge means the visualization of the knowledge, which we


read in our books. For this, we perform experiments and get observations.
Practical knowledge is very important in every field. One must be familiar
with the problems related to that field so that he may solve them and become
a successful person. After achieving education, an engineer has to enter
professional life. Accordingly, he has to serve an industry, may be public or
private sector or self-own. For the efficient work in the field, he must be well
aware of the practical knowledge as well as theoretical knowledge. To be a
good engineer, one must be aware of the industrial environment and must
know about management, working in such an industry, labor problems etc.,
so that he can tackle them successfully. Due to all the above reasons and to
bridge the gap between theory and practical, our engineering curriculum
provides a practical training. During this period, a student works in the
industry and gets all type of experience and knowledge about the working
and maintenance of various types of machinery. I have undergone my six
month training at Raghav Auto. Comp. Pvt. Ltd. This report is based on the
knowledge, which I acquired during my training period at the plant.

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CONTENTS

1. INTRODUCTION
2. RAC - An Overview
3. WORK FLOW DIAGRAM
4. RAW MATERIAL GRADING
5. TOOL AND DIE SHOP
6. METALLURGICAL LAB
7. BILLET YARD
 Processes involved in Billet Yard
 Process Flow Chart in Billet Yard
8. FORGE SHOP
 Processes involved in Forge Shop
 Process Flow Chart in Forge Shop
9. HEAT TREATMENT
 Heat Treatment Techniques
 Heat Treatment Processes
 Heat Treatment Process Flowchart
10. END CONTROL
 End Control Checks
11. DISPATCH

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12. CONCLUSION

1. INTRODUCTION

Registered in 2014 , Raghav Automobile Components (P) Ltd. has made a name for
itself in the list of top manufacturer and suppliers of automobile components in India.
Raghav Automobile Components (P) Ltd. is listed in Trade India's list of verified
sellers offering supreme quality. Our forging business supplies precision-forged
and machined parts for engine and transmissions to two-wheeler, besides also
manufacturing four-cylinder crankshafts for commercial vehicles and
stationary engines. We also supply key products for two-wheeler, three-
wheeler and four-wheeler, including crank pins, connecting rods, flanges,
ring gears, crankshafts, camshafts, knuckles, front axle beams and hydraulic
components to leading OEMs, tier-one suppliers in India and for export to
Europe. The manufacturing capabilities of forging include hot, warm and
cold forging, heat treatment, post heat treatment machining and soft
machining. The division has a crankshaft facility to cater to the commercial
vehicle segment. The manufacturing capabilities of the crankshaft facility
include forging and testing, and the engineering capabilities include design
and drafting, simulation, post processor tool path as well as product design.
Since then, it has grown rapidly and emerged as a front runner in the global
automotive component industry with a worldwide presence across North

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America, Europe, and Asia. Raghav's manufacturing capabilities include Iron
and Aluminum Castings, Forgings & Complex Machining. Raghav Auto
manufactures components such as connecting rod assemblies, flywheel ring
gears and assembly, steering knuckles, suspension and steering arms, CV
joints, crankshaft assemblies and torque links. The firm supplies Automobiles
components, two wheeler parts, four wheeler parts, router, bushes, brake shoe, clutch
plates within preset time limit. It is backed by in–house design and development
facilities engaged in developing new product and processes. Raghav Group is
a leading international manufacturer of automotive components and
assemblies with production facilities located strategically across Rajasthan.
The Group's extensive manufacturing capabilities encompass Sub assemblies,
Iron, Gravity & Aluminium Castings, Forgings, Complex Machining & Ring
Gears Flywheel Assembly.

2. Raghav Auto. Comp. Pvt Ltd. - An Overview

The Raghav Group, headquartered in Khushkera, Rajasthan. is one of the


largest integrated component manufacturers in India. It has also become one
of the world’s largest global forging and integrated machining companies.
The Group has operations across Forging, Iron and Aluminium Casting,
Machining and Sub-Assemblies. It has world-class facilities across India. The
Raghav Group is comprised of corporate entities Raghav Auto, Raghav Engg.

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Works and other subsidiaries and associates. With the infrastructure and
technology platform developed over 22 years, the Group is well positioned in
the Indian Auto and Non-Auto component markets.

Different divisions of the company are:


 Raghav Centre of Excellence (RCE)
 Raghav Forging Division (RFD)
 Raghav Iron Casting Division (RICD)
 Raghav Automotive Machining Division (RAMD)
 Raghav Ring Gear Division (RRGD)

Product range of the company includes: Raghav product portfolio consists of


an extensive range of components for 2–3 wheelers, Cars, Tractors, LCV,
HCV and Stationary engines. The major categories of components
manufactured are,  Connecting Rod Assemblies  Flywheel Ring Gears
and Assembly  Steering Knuckles  Suspension and Steering Arms  CV
joints  Crankshaft Assemblies  Torque Links. Clientele:  Ashok Leyland
Limited  Aston Martin  Bajaj Auto Limited  BMW  Briggs & Stratton
 CNH Global  CNH New Holland  Cummins  CYT  Dana Italia 
Davis Industries  Defence  Delco Machining  Eicher Motors Limited 
Escorts  Fairfield  Fiat India  Ford  General Motors  GE
Transportation  GWK Ltd  Hero Honda.

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3. WORK FLOW DIAGRAM

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4. RAW MATERIAL GRADING

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5. TOOL AND DIE SHOP

In the Tool and Die shop, the Die on which the forged material is shaped
is made. Here, the raw material comes in the form of metallic cylinders which
are then machined into the form of hollow cavities. These hollow cavities are
then used for forging the billets. Usually a pair of Dies has a lifespan of
10000 cycles but it varies from type of forge material. The Dies are made
with highly sophisticated CNC (Computerised numerical control) lathe and
VMC (Vertical milling control) machines. CNC machine can work in vertical
direction i.e. (x-z plane). VMC machine can work in vertical, horizontal
directions i.e. (x-y-z plane). M codes and G codes are used for the smooth
and automatic working of these machines. Traditional Milling, Drilling and
Lathe machines are also utilised for machining the dies for rough machining
works. There are a series of internal checks n the Tool and Die shop which
requires expertise. These dies are made with high surface finish and
dimensional accuracy.

6. METALLURGICAL LAB

In this department a large number of tests are done to test the job and the
dies obtained at various stages of the manufacturing process.

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6.1 Metallurgical microscope
Metallurgical microscope is the optical microscope, differing from
other microscopes in the method of the specimen illumination. Since
metals are opaque substances they must be illuminated by frontal
lighting, therefore the source of light is located within the microscope

tube. This is achieved by plain glass reflector, installed in the tube. The
optical scheme of metallurgical microscope is shown in the picture. The
image quality and its resolving power are mainly determined by the
quality of the objective. The objective magnification depends on its
focal length (the shorter focal length, the higher magnification). The
eyepiece is the lens nearest the eye. The image is magnified by eyepiece

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in x6, x8 or x10. The total magnification of the microscope may be
calculated by the formula:

M = L*E/ F

where, L = Distance from back of objective to eyepiece;


F - Focal length of the objective;
E- Magnifying power of the eyepiece.

The common magnification of metallurgical microscope is in the


range x50 – x1000.

6.2 Brinell Hardness Test


The Brinell method applies a predetermined test load (F) to a
carbide ball of fixed diameter (D) which is held for a predetermined
time period and then removed. The resulting impression is measured
across at least two diameters – usually at right angles to each other and
these result averaged (d). A chart is then used to convert the averaged
diameter measurement to a Brinell hardness number. Test forces range
from 500 to 3000 kgf.

Test Method Illustration


D = Ball diameter

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d = impression diameter
F = load
HB = Brinell result.

6.3 Rockwell hardness test


The Rockwell method measures the permanent depth of indentation
produced by a force/load on an indenter. First, a preliminary test force
(commonly referred to as preload or minor load) is applied to a sample
using a diamond indenter. This load represents the zero or reference
position that breaks through the surface to reduce the effects of surface
finish. After the preload, an additional load, call the major load, is
applied to reach the total required test load. This force is held for a
predetermined amount of time (dwell time) to allow for elastic recovery.
This major load is then released and the final position is measured
against the position derived from the preload, the indentation depth
variance between the preload value and major load value. This distance
is converted to a hardness number.

6.4 Eddy current test


In this check the cracks present inside the material of the face of
job is checked. A current is passed and detected. If the sensors detect
any slight irregularity in composition or cracks then the job is rejected.

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6.5 Jominy apparatus
This apparatus is used for determining the Harden-ability of steel
by an experiment called Quench Test. This provides information about
the Harden-ability characteristics of different alloying element.

6.6 Muffle furnace test


A muffle furnace is a furnace with an externally heated chamber,
the walls of which radiantly heat the contents of the chamber, so that the
material being heated has no contact with the flame. Muffle furnaces
are most often utilized in laboratories as a compact means of creating
extremely high-temperature atmospheres. They are employed to test the
characteristics of materials at extremely high and accurate temperatures.
A muffle furnace is also known as a retort furnace.

7. BILLET YARD

7.1 Processes involved in billet yard


● Raw material is supplied in the form of rods of diameters
according to demand.
● Heat code and color coding is done.

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● EOT Cranes are used for handling of these pipes due to their
weight and size.
● The rods are then loaded to the billet shearing machine (MANYO
LBS450).
● The combination of hydraulic, conveyer and electronic sensors
provide a steady rate of input to the shearing machine which is termed
as Loader mechanism.
● The rod is held by die. Die is held by Die clamp and packing.
● The machine applies a 450 kg/mm2 pressure on the rod with help
of blade.
● The part of rod that is obtained is termed as Billet. It of cylindrical
shape.
● The billet yard also contains an End pieces area where the
diameter and length of billet is reduced with the help of lathe machine
and lathe cutting machine.

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7.2 Process Flow Chart in Billet Yard

8.FORGE SHOP

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In forge shop of Raghav Auto Ltd., Forging is done to transform raw cut
billets into required shape according to the die used.
 In the Forge Shop of Raghav Auto Ltd., for the forging operation,
there are 6 Crank press forging machines and 3 screw press forging
machines.
 Hot, press forging is done on the billets to shape them as
requirement.
 The crank presses (HANOUL HNFG-1350) apply 1000 ton force on
the red hot billet.
 The crank press runs on the principle of clutch-plate brake
mechanism.
 Power is developed in the press due pressurized air.
 To provide pressurize air to the presses a number compressors are
employed.
 There are 3 screw presses (Vaccari) which apply a pressure of 730
tonnes.
 They work on the principle of power screw mechanism.

8.1 Processes involved in forge shop

8.1.1 Billet loading

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In this process, the raw cut billets are transferred from billet shop
in gaskets to be loaded in the induction heater. The loading mechanism
consists of conveyor mechanism and electronic sensors for better
control and automatic functioning.

8.1.2 Induction Heating


In this process, the billets are passed into an industrial induction
heater which heats the billet at above 1100 C usually 1200 C, which
recrystallizes the metal for easy forging to commence. The induction
heater uses magnetic flux to heat the metal between the coils.

8.1.3 Forging
In this process, the upper die is clamped to the hammer and the
lower die remains stationary. The red-hot billet is vertically positioned
and hammer blow forces it to acquire the shape of the dies. Extra metal
is forced out from the exposed face.

8.1.4 Trimming
Trimming is a process in which the extra metal projecting out of the
curved surface of the sides termed as ‘flash’ is removed with the help of
a trimming press. It is similar to forging machine, but much less force s
applied on the top face. In this the required material is forced vertically
downward and the flash remains clamped on the vices.

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8.1.5 Flash removal
In this, the ‘flash’ is obtained and transported to the scrap yard with
the help of gaskets.

8.2 Process Flow Chart in Forge Shop

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9. HEAT TREATMENT

Heat treating is a group of industrial and metalworking processes used to


alter the physical, properties of a material.
Heat treatment involves the use of heating or chilling, normally to extr-
eme temperatures, to achieve a desired result such as hardening or softening
of a material. Heat treatment techniques include annealing, case hardening,
precipitation strengthening, tempering and quenching.
Metallic materials consist of a microstructure of small crystals called
"grains" or crystallites. The nature of the grains (i.e. grain size and
composition) is one of the most effective factors that can determine the
overall mechanical behaviour of the metal. Heat treatment provides an
efficient way to manipulate the properties of the metal by controlling the rate
of diffusion and the rate of cooling within the microstructure. Heat treating is
often used to alter the mechanical properties of a metallic alloy, manipulating
properties such as the hardness, strength, toughness, ductility, and elasticity.

9.1 Heat Treatment Techniques

9.1.1 Annealing

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Annealing consists of heating a metal to a specific temperature and
then cooling at a rate that will produce a refined micro-structure. The
rate of cooling is generally slow.
In ferrous alloys, annealing is usually accomplished by heating the
metal beyond the upper critical temperature and then cooling very
slowly, resulting in the formation of pearlite. In both pure metals and
many alloys that cannot be heat treated, annealing is used to remove the
hardness caused by cold working. The metal is heated to a temperature
where re-crystallization can occur, thereby repairing the defects caused
by plastic deformation.
Ferrous alloys are usually either "full annealed" or "process
annealed." Full annealing requires very slow cooling rates, in order to
form coarse pearlite. In process annealing, the cooling rate may be
faster; up to, and including normalizing. The main goal of process
annealing is to produce a uniform micro-structure.

9.1.2 Normalizing
Normalizing is a technique used to provide uniformity in grain size
and composition throughout an alloy. The term is often used for ferrous
alloys that have been austenitized and then cooled in open air.
Normalizing not only produces pearlite, but also sometimes martensite,
which gives harder and stronger steel, but with less ductility for the
same composition than full annealing.

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9.1.3 Aging
Some metals are classified as precipitation hardening metals. When
a precipitation hardening alloy is quenched, its alloying elements will
be trapped in solution, resulting in a soft metal. Aging a "solutionized"
metal will allow the alloying elements to diffuse through the
microstructure and form intermetallic particles. These intermetallic
particles will nucleate and fall out of solution and act as a reinforcing
phase, thereby increasing the strength of the alloy. Alloys may age
"naturally" meaning that the precipitates form at room temperature, or
they may age "artificially" when precipitates only form at elevated
temperatures.

9.1.4 Quenching
Quenching is a process of cooling a metal at a rapid rate. This is
most often done to produce a martensite transformation. In ferrous
alloys, this will often produce a harder metal, while non- ferrous alloys
will usually become softer than normal. To harden by quenching, a
metal (usually steel or cast iron) must be heated above the upper critical
temperature and then quickly cooled. Cooling is done with Liquids, due
to their better thermal conductivity, such as oil. Upon being rapidly

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cooled, a portion of austenite (dependent on alloy composition) will
transform to martensite, a hard, brittle crystalline structure.

9.1.5 Tempering
Untempered martensite steel, while very hard, is too brittle to be
useful for most applications. A method for alleviating this problem is
called tempering.
Tempering consists of heating steel below the lower critical
temperature, (often from 400 to 1105 ˚F or 205 to 595 ˚C, depending on
the desired results), to impart some toughness. Flame hardening Flame
hardening is used to harden only a portion of a metal. Unlike
differential hardening, where the entire piece is heated and then cooled
at different rates, in flame hardening, only a portion of the metal is
heated before quenching. Case hardening Case hardening is a thermo-
chemical diffusion process in which an alloying element, most
commonly carbon or nitrogen, diffuses into the surface of a monolithic
metal. The resulting interstitial solid solution is harder than the base
material, which improves wear resistance without sacrificing toughness.

9.2 Heat treatment processes

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Heat treatment of the forged material obtained from forge shop is done
in a furnace.
The temperature of furnace ranges from 880 C to 1100 C according to
the requirement.
The Burner fuels used in the furnace maybe Diesel, LDO or Gas.
Usually the temperature required for hardening process is 870 to 900
C.
Temperature required for tempering process is 580 C.
The forged jobs are loaded in a gasket and put inside the furnace with
the help of pulley mechanism.
The doors are the shut using a combination of sliding mechanism and
electronic sensors to provide a sealed environment for heat treatment.
The gasket is obtained from the other end of the furnace.
At any point of time there are 6-8 gaskets within the furnace.
These gaskets are slowly moving towards the other end of the furnace
due to rolling mechanism in the furnace.
The time required for the total process for one gasket is 10 minutes.
After this, oil quenching is done.
The obtained treated job is handled with the help of stretcher and is
either sent for further heat treatment or to End Control for final
inspection.
The oil becomes hot after the heated metal is immersed in it.

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To prevent overheating of oil, a Plate Type Heat Exchanger (PHE) is
employed which circulates cold oil in the quenching bucket.
The PHE is itself cooled with the help of Natural circulation wet type
cooling towers.

9.3 Heat treatment Process Flowchart

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10. END CONTROL

End Control is the department in which the final quality checks and
finishing of the product is done.
In End Control, there are various processes.
 Shot Blasting
 Cold Coining or Knuckle press
 Visual Check
 Total Parameter Check
 Eddy Current Check
 Ultrasonic Check
 Magnetic Crack Detection

10.1 End Control Checks


10.1.1 Shot Blasting

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In shot blasting, steel shots are passed in a shot blasting machine
through small holes in a rotating, hollow, rubber-lined surface. The heat
treated material has a rough surface due to accumulation of oxide layer.
To remove this oxide layer, the metals are loaded in the shot blasting
machine and the abrasive action of the spherical steel shots remove the
oxide layer. The oxide layer is the sucked in through an ash handling
pump and is disposed off as dust.

10.1.2 Cold Coining


It is a process through which the flatness and Total Indicated
Runout of the job is altered by applying a hammer blow to the face of
the crankshaft. The machine used in this process is called knuckle press.

10.1.3 Total parameter check


In this the dimensions of the material are checked and compared
with the standard values. It also checks the phenomenon of under-height
of job and improper trimming.

10.1.4 Visual check


Visual check encompasses a large number of checks for various
defects like Pitting, Stem underfilling, Boss underfilling, Shoulder
underfilling, Die marks, Corner underfilling, Top Flange underfilling,
Rib underfilling, Dent Fitting etc.

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10.1.5 Eddy current check
In this check the cracks present inside the material of the face of
job is checked. A current is passed and detected. If the sensors detect
any slight irregularity in composition or cracks then the job is rejected.

10.1.6 Ultrasonic Check


In this check the vertical internal cracks present in the stem of job
is checked. An X-ray is passed through a probe positioned at the bottom
face of the stem and penetrating x-rays detect the number of cracks. If
the sensors detect any slight irregularity in composition or cracks then
the job is rejected.

10.1.7 Magnetic Crack Detection


In this the microscopic cracks present on the surface of the job is
determined and checked and if the job is found faulty then it is rejected.
For this a magnetic flux is passed and sensors detect the overall flux
produced.

11. DISPATCH

After all the checks are performed in the End Control, the finished
product is oiled and loaded into gaskets for transporting to the customers.

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Oiling is done on the product to prevent corrosion to the metal surface.
Schematic Diagram of Sample crankshaft’s face:

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12. CONCLUSION

As an undergraduate I would like to say that this training program is an


excellent opportunity for us to get to the ground level and experience the
things that we would have never gained through going straight into a job.
The main objective of the industrial training is to provide an opportunity
to undergraduates to identify, observe and practice how engineering is
applicable in the real industry. It is not only to get experience on technical
practices but also to observe management practices and to interact with
fellow workers. It is easy to work with sophisticated machines, but not with
people. The only chance that an undergraduate has to have this experience is
the industrial training period. I feel I got the maximum out of that experience.
Also I learnt the way of work in an organization, the importance of being
punctual, the importance of maximum commitment, and the importance of
team spirit. In my opinion, I have gained lots of knowledge and experience
needed to be successful in a great engineering challenge, as in my opinion,
Engineering is after all a Challenge, and not a Job.

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