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Environmental Hazards

Biological, Chemical, Nuclear

Risk and evaluation of hazards

Types of pollution: Air, Water and Land Pollution

Pollution sources, effects and mitigation

Water quality management

Solid waste management

Climate disruption and

Ozone depletion.

Air Pollution

99.9% of air lies below stratopause Density of air is high in Troposphere

99.9% of air lies

below stratopause

Density of air is high

in Troposphere

Air

Air is the clear gaseous environment in which living organisms

live and breathe. It has an indefinite shape and volume. It has no colour and smell. The weight of air creates atmospheric

pressure.

Animals live by aerobic respiration and need to breathe the oxygen in the air. In human body, lungs put oxygen into the

blood and send back carbon dioxide to the air.

Density of air at sea level is about 1.2 kg/m 3 (calculated from the temperature, pressure and humidity)

According to the American National Centre for Atmospheric

Research, the total mean mass of atmosphere is 5.148 × 10 18 kg

Composition of Dry Air

Composition of Dry Air

Air Pollution

Air pollutant is a substance (chemicals, particulate matter or microorganism) in the air at concentrations high enough to

harm plants, animals, and materials such as buildings, or to alter

ecosystem. It includes solid particles, liquid droplets or gases.

Even a small change in the air compositions can have a

significant adverse effect on the climate, ecosystem and living

organisms on the earth.

Almost any chemical in the atmosphere can become a pollutant if it occurs in a high enough concentration

Air pollutants are found throughout the entire global system as

the atmosphere envelops the entire globe.

Air pollution can occur naturally, from sources like volcanoes and fires, or anthropogenic, from sources such as automobiles and factories.

Two types (or categories) of air pollutants

Primary pollutants Those emitted directly into the air from the identifiable sources

Secondary pollutants Those that form as a result of a

chemical reaction between primary pollutants or of primary

pollutant with a natural component of the environment

Human inputs of air pollutants come from mobile sources (such as cars) and stationary sources

Human inputs of air pollutants come from mobile sources (such as cars) and stationary sources (such as industries).

Some primary air pollutants react with one another and with other chemicals in the air to form secondary air pollutants

Particulate matter can be natural or anthropogenic. It ranges considerably in size and can absorb

Particulate matter can be natural or anthropogenic.

It ranges considerably in size and can absorb or scatter light.

Mount Saint Helens eruption Washington, USA on 18 th May 1980
Mount Saint Helens eruption
Washington, USA on 18 th May
1980

Indoor Air Pollution

The biggest pollution threat to poor people is indoor air pollution, caused by burning of wood, charcoal or dung in open fires or poorly designed stoves to heat and cook their food.

Cigarette smoking is another air pollution.

Often people work in poorly ventilated and highly polluted areas

Common sources for Indoor air pollutants includes, pests, air fresheners, cooking, smoking, housekeeping, bathrooms, and pets.

sources for Indoor air pollutants includes, pests, air fresheners, cooking, smoking, housekeeping, bathrooms, and pets.

Indoor Air Pollutants

Indoor Air Pollutants

Air Pollutants

The natural sources of air pollutants include dust particles, forest fires, volcanic eruptions and sea spray.

Pollutants from human activity such as burning oil, coal and

natural gas are the ones that cause more harm into the troposphere.

Major

Nitrogen, Oxides of carbon, Ozone, Chlorofluoro carbons,

sulphide,

Particulate Materials like dust, smoke, fog, smog, Fly ash,

air

pollutants

include

Oxides

of

sulphur,

Oxides

of

Hydrocarbons,

Hydrogen

fluoride,

Hydrogen

soot, fumes, natural particulates like pollens.

Effect of Air Pollution

Human Health:

Irritation of respiratory tract, eyes, nose, throat

Cadmium particles cause cardio vascular diseases, kidney and

liver damage

Nickel particles cause respiratory damage

Mercury affects central nervous system, kidney and brain

Radioactive substance affect future generations

On Animals: Bronchitis, Lack of appetite in pet animals

On Plants: Spraying pesticides, organic manure affect growth of plants

Destroy chlorophyll formation, disturb photosynthesis

SO 2 decreases chlorophyll content

NO 2 causes permanent leaf fall

Ozone causes damages to the leaves (dead area on leaf)

On Materials: Corrosion and abrasion of materials (Acid rain)

On Climate: Global warming and Depletion of Ozone layer

Major Air Pollutants

Major Anthropogenic outdoor air pollutants include

Carbon dioxide: One of the greenhouse gas pollutant. CO 2 is a natural component of the atmosphere, essential for plant life

and given off by the human respiratory system.

Carbon Monoxide: A gas that comes from the burning of fossil fuels, mostly in cars. Emissions are higher when engines are not tuned properly, and when fuel is not completely burned.

Carbon monoxide bonds to haemoglobin thereby interfering with oxygen transport in the bloodstream.

Causes headaches in humans at low concentrations and can

cause death with prolonged exposure at high concentration

Major Air Pollutants

Sulphur dioxide: Combustion of fuels that contain sulphur, including coal, oil and gasoline is the source

It is respiratory irritant, It can aggravate asthma and other respiratory ailments. Contributes to Acid rain

Nitrogen oxides: All combustion in the atmosphere including fossil fuel combustion, wood and other biomass burning is the source

It is respiratory irritant. Increases the susceptibility to respiratory infection. Precursor for ozone. Leads to the formation of photochemical smog. Converts to nitric acid in atmosphere that is harmful to aquatic life and vegetation

Major Air Pollutants

Particulate Matter: Combustion of coal, oil, diesel and biofuels. Agriculture, road construction and other activities that mobilize

soil, soot and dust are the sources

Can aggravate the respiratory and cardiovascular disease and reduce lung function. May lead to the premature death

Lead: It is the Gasoline additive.

Impairs central nervous system. At low concentrations, can have measurable effects on learning and ability to concentrate.

Ozone: Secondary pollutant formed by the combination of sunlight, water, oxygen, volatile organic compounds and NOx.

Reduces lung function and aggravates respiratory symptoms

Control of Air Pollution

Planting more trees

Reducing vehicle exhausts by using modern automobiles

Using less polluting fuels

Removal of particulate matter using electrostatic precipitator,

cyclone filter etc.

Suitable chemical methods applied to remove hydrocarbons

Industrial area should be cited far away from residential area

Use of tall chimneys reduces concentration of air pollutants at ground level

Activated carbon, charcoal, zeolite and pulverized lime stone can be used to remove polluting gases by absorption method

Control of Sulphur and Nitrogen Oxide Pollutants

Sulphur dioxide can be removed from coal exhaust during combustion by fluidized bed combustion

The granulated coal is burned in close proximity to calcium carbonate

The heated calcium carbonate absorbs SO 2 and produces calcium sulphate

Nitrogen oxides are produced in all combustion processes

Hotter burning conditions and the presence of oxygen allow more

nitrogen oxide to be generated per unit fuel burned.

In order to reduce nitrogen oxide emission, burn temperatures must be reduced and the amount of oxygen must be controlled

Optimum temperature, air and oxygen are necessary for efficient

process and to minimize carbon monoxide production

Electrostatic Precipitator

Electrostatic Precipitator

Electrostatic Precipitator (to filter Particulate Matter)

Electrostatic Precipitator (to filter Particulate Matter) Particles of dirty air are given a negative charge. This

Particles of dirty air are given a negative charge. This cause them to

be attracted to a positively charged plate, where they are held. Periodically, they are removed from the plate and disposed

Baghouse filter (to filter Particulate Matter)

Baghouse filter (to filter Particulate Matter)
Baghouse filter (to filter Particulate Matter)
Baghouse filter (to filter Particulate Matter)

Scrubber filter (to filter Particulate Matter)

Scrubber filter (to filter Particulate Matter)
Scrubber filter (to filter Particulate Matter)

Water Pollution

Water

Water (H 2 O) is a transparent , colourless, odourless and tasteless chemical that is the main constituent of earth’s streams, lakes and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.

Water covers 71% of earth’s surface.

Water is vital for all known forms of life

Safe drinking water is essential to humans and other living organisms even though it provides no calories or organic nutrients.

Water is an excellent solvent for a wide variety of chemical

substances. It is widely used for drinking, cooking, bathing,

washing, agricultural purposes, industrial processes etc.

Water Pollution

Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies (streams, lakes, rivers, oceans and groundwater) with substances produced through human activities and that negatively affect living organisms.

Any change or modification in the physical, chemical and

biological properties of water that will make it unsuitable for designated use in its natural state is water pollution

Sources of Water Pollution

Water pollution sources are classified into two categories

Point source: The specific sites near water, which directly

discharge effluents into them, like Industries, power plants, underground coal mines, offshore oil wells. The pollution comes

from a single location

Non-point source: The discharge from non-point source is not

at any particular site, rather these sources are scattered, which

individually or collectively pollute water. Surface run-off from

agricultural fields, overflowing drains, rain water sweeping roads and fields, atmospheric deposition. Water pollution occurs not from one single source but from many different scattered sources

Point and Non-Point Sources of Water Pollution

Point and Non-Point Sources of Water Pollution

Major Sources of Water Pollution

Agricultural activities

Industrial facilities

Housing/domestic activities

Surface water pollution

Groundwater pollution

Marine pollution

Groundwater Pollution

A greater threat to humans than more visible surface water pollution. Extremely difficult to clean the contaminated groundwater. So, prevention is the more effective way.

The sources of groundwater pollution include pesticides, herbicides, chemical fertilizers and petroleum products on the land surface that can percolate down into the earth and become part of the groundwater system

Leaking from underground storage tanks (of petroleum products) are also another major source

Septic tanks that leak or overflow, Unlined landfills that allows precipitation to seep through, carrying pollutants with it into the ground, Industrial wastewater lagoons that are not maintained.

Groundwater Pollution

Groundwater Pollution
Surface Water Pollution
Surface Water Pollution
Thermal Pollution
Thermal Pollution
Thermal Pollution
Thermal Pollution
Thermal Pollution

Major Water Pollutants

Pathogens: Disease causing virus, bacteria and other parasitic

organisms. Waste water, especially the domestic sewage

contain many pathogenic organisms. Water borne disease like cholera, typhoid, jaundice etc., are spread by water contaminated with sewage

Oxygen-demanding wastes: Deplete the dissolved oxygen need by aquatic species. The sewage, animal feedlots, food processing facilities, paper mills are the sources

Plant Nutrients: Different nitrates and phosphates originated from sewage water, animal wastes and inorganic fertilizers causes excessive growth of algae and other species.

Major Water Pollutants

Organic (and Inorganic) chemicals: Chemicals such as oil,

gasoline, plastics, pesticides, fertilizers and cleaning solvents (and

Acids, bases, salts, metallic compounds like lead arsenic and selenium) produced by industries, farms, households, mining sites add toxins to aquatic systems.

Sediments: Excessive amounts of suspended soil particles like

sand, silt and clay originated from erosion of agricultural lands, forests soils exposed by water logging, degraded stream banks

eventually settle out and accumulate in the bottom of the water

body.

Thermal: Release of hot water from electric power and industrial

plants make some species like fishes vulnerable to diseases

Marine Pollution

Oil Spillages: Much quantity of oil is released from the smaller day-to-day and less visible activities on land. These include normal operation of offshore wells, washing oil tankers, loading and unloading of oil tankers at ports, leaks from oil pipelines,

refineries and storage tanks.

80% of marine pollution comes from land.

Air pollution is also contributing factor by carrying off pesticides

or dirt into the ocean.

Direct discharges of urban sewage and industrial waste , Land runoff and dumping of garbage into the water bodies are some

more examples

Oil Spill

Oil Spill

Oil Spill
Oil Spill
Oil Spill

Effects of Water Pollution

Eutrophication: Household waste containing excess nitrogen and

phosphorus which encourage the growth of algae on river

surfaces. The algae covered water surface will not allow sunlight to penetrate and reach the aquatic plants beneath the water surface, causing them to die as photosynthesis cannot occur. As

a result, aquatic and marine animals that depend on these plants for food will be affected.

Bioaccumulation: Increase in concentration of a pollutant from

the environment to the first organism in a food chain

Biological magnification: The concentration of pollutants increases at increase levels in the food chain

Severe eutrophication has covered this lake near the Chinese city of Haozhou with algae

Severe eutrophication has covered this lake near the Chinese

city of Haozhou with algae

Biological magnification : The concentration of pollutants increases at increase levels in the food chain

Biological magnification: The concentration of pollutants increases at increase levels in the food chain

Soil Pollution

Soil Pollution

Soil is a thin layer of organic and inorganic materials that covers

the earth’s rocky surface. Soil is composed of particles of

broken rock that have been altered by chemical and mechanical process including weathering and erosion.

Soil pollution is the change in physical, chemical and biological

conditions of the soil through human’s intervention resulting in degradation in quality

Soil pollution is the build-up in soils of persistent toxic compounds, chemicals, salts, radioactive material, or disease causing agents, which have adverse effect on plant growth and animal health.

Causes of Soil Pollution

Discharge of industrial wastes into soil

Percolation of contaminated water into the soil

Rupture of underground storage tanks

Excess application of pesticides or fertilizers

Solid waste and landfill seepage

Deforestation and soil erosion

Causes of Soil Pollution

Industrial Waste: Discharge of large quantities of toxic, flammable, non-biodegradable substances on land results in soil pollution

Agricultural

Waste:

Wastes

chemical

fertilizers,

pesticides,

herbicides

Domestic and Urban Waste: It includes wastes such as food

wastes, paper, glass, plastic materials, waste water.

 

Radioactive Wastes: Nuclear power plants, Nuclear testing and explosions add variable amount of radioactive materials

Most common chemicals in Soil Pollutants

Hydrocarbons

Heavy metals

Pesticides

Solvents

Agricultural Soil Pollution

Plants on which we depend for food are under attack from insects, fungi, bacteria, viruses and other species and must compete with weeds for nutrients.

To kill unwanted population living in or on their crops, farmers

use pesticides and herbicides.

remnants of such

pesticides used on pests may get absorbed by the

soil particles and

The

contaminate root crops grown in that soil

of such pesticides used on pests may get absorbed by the soil particles and The contaminate
Solid Waste!

Solid Waste!

Industrial Soil Pollution

Large quantity of solid wastes like unused and rejected chemicals

(including sludge, press mud, saw dust, bottles, plastic materials,

drugs) unwanted industrial wastes generated during manufacturing processes are dumped over on the surface of soil by almost all industries with different degree.

during manufacturing processes are dumped over on the surface of soil by almost all industries with
during manufacturing processes are dumped over on the surface of soil by almost all industries with

Domestic and Urban Soil Pollution

Urban activities generate large quantities of city wastes

including several biodegradable materials like vegetables, animal

wastes, papers, wooded materials etc., and many non-

biodegradable materials like plastic bags, plastic bottles, glass bottles etc.

wooded materials etc., and many non- biodegradable materials like plastic bags, plastic bottles, glass bottles etc.
wooded materials etc., and many non- biodegradable materials like plastic bags, plastic bottles, glass bottles etc.

Effect of Soil Pollution

Reduction of soil fertility, nitrogen fixation, larger loss of soil and

imbalanced nutrients, reduced crop yield

Dangerous chemical entering groundwater,

release of pollutant

gases, increased salinity and reduced vegetation

Clogging of drains, pollution of drinking water resources, foul smell

Pollution runoff into rivers affects the aquatic life

Corrosion of foundation and pipelines

Methods to minimize

Reducing

chemical

fertilizer

and

pesticide use

Recycling is another way to reduce and

control soil pollution. Recycling paper,

plastics and other materials reduce the volume of refuse in landfills.

Reusing of materials

 
plastics and other materials reduce the volume of refuse in landfills. • Reusing of materials  
plastics and other materials reduce the volume of refuse in landfills. • Reusing of materials  

Ozone depletion

Ozone

Ozone is a form of oxygen, made up of 3 oxygen atoms (O 3 ).

Ozone is human made pollutant in troposphere

Similar to some of the other pollutants in the troposphere, ozone also can harm respiratory systems in animals and damage a number of structures in plants.

Stratospheric ozone acts as a protective shield against

radiation from the

sun

a number of structures in plants. • Stratospheric ozone acts as a protective shield against radiation

Benefits of Stratospheric Ozone

Ozone blocks Ultraviolet (UV) radiation.

There are different forms of UV energy. The shorter the

wavelength, the more energetic the radiation and hence the

more damaging it can be if it reaches the earth

UV-A , UV-B and UV-C Radiations

energetic the radiation and hence the more damaging it can be if it reaches the earth

Benefits of Stratospheric Ozone

UV-A passes through the atmosphere without being absorbed and contributes to skin cancer

UV-B

significant damage to the tissues and DNA of living organisms.

However, the protective layer of ozone in the stratosphere

and

UV-C

have

enough

energy

to

cause

potentially

and UV-C have enough energy to cause potentially absorbs more than 95% of incoming UV-B and

absorbs more than 95% of

incoming UV-B and UV-C, allowing life to exist on land

Formation and Breakdown of Stratospheric Ozone

Stratospheric ozone forms and breaks down naturally in a closed-loop cycle

UV-C radiation breaks the bond, that holds the oxygen molecule together, leaving two free oxygen atoms

The free oxygen atoms react

with oxygen molecule to form

ozone

free oxygen atoms react with oxygen molecule to form ozone • Ozone is broken down into

Ozone is broken down into oxygen molecule when it absorbs both UV-C and UV-B light. This free oxygen again may react with O 2 to form ozone. Thus ozone is formed and broken down in a cycle.

Anthropogenic Contribution to Ozone Destruction

Certain chemical catalysts can break down ozone, the most important one is chlorine.

Major source of chlorine in stratosphere is a class of anthropogenic compounds known as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs).

CFCs are the family of organic compounds whose properties make

them ideal for use in refrigeration and air conditioning, as propellant in aerosol cans to deliver ingredients such as deodorant and insect repellent, and as blowing agents to inject air

into foam products like Styrofoam cups and foam insulation.

CFCs does not degrade, dissolve in water or undergo any significant chemical change, but slowly circulates in the atmosphere.

However, in presence of UV radiation in stratosphere, the chlorine bond in CFC breaks

Chemistry of Ozone Depletion

UV radiation hits CFC molecule and chlorine atom breaks away.

Chlorine atom hits the ozone molecule and takes

one oxygen atom to

create chlorine

monoxide, leaves one

molecule of oxygen.

create chlorine monoxide , leaves one molecule of oxygen. • Oxygen atom hits chlorine monoxide molecule

Oxygen atom hits chlorine monoxide molecule and forms oxygen

molecule and chlorine atom and this chlorine atom repeats the depletion process.

Depletion of Ozone Layer

The stratospheric ozone in Antarctica had been decreasing

each year, from 1979.

It had also been observed that, in the Antarctica, ozone

depletion was seasonal: each year depletion occurred from

August through November.

The depletion caused an area of severely reduced ozone concentrations over most of Antarctica, called as Ozone hole

Decreased stratospheric ozone has increased the amount of UV-B radiation that reaches the earth’s surface

Ozone “Hole” over Antarctica

•

Ozone “hole” is not a hole at all.

Ozone is spread thinly throughout stratosphere

in low quantities.

Ozone “hole” actually means

the region where the ozone is

much diluted.

Total Ozone from July to December

Total Ozone from July to December July October August November S e p t e m

July

Total Ozone from July to December July October August November S e p t e m

October

Total Ozone from July to December July October August November S e p t e m

August

Total Ozone from July to December July October August November S e p t e m

November

Total Ozone from July to December July October August November S e p t e m

September

Total Ozone from July to December July October August November S e p t e m

December

Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSC)

During Antarctic winter, strong circular winds form that blow around the whole continent (Polar vortex), and special clouds form which concentrates the pollutants that break down the ozone

the whole continent (Polar vortex), and special clouds form which concentrates the pollutants that break down
the whole continent (Polar vortex), and special clouds form which concentrates the pollutants that break down
the whole continent (Polar vortex), and special clouds form which concentrates the pollutants that break down
the whole continent (Polar vortex), and special clouds form which concentrates the pollutants that break down

Health Consequences of Ozone Depletion

Skin cancers, Sunburn, eye disorders, cataracts

Premature aging of the skin

Immune system damage

DNA mutation of existing disease bacteria and virus

Phytoplanktons are sensitive to ozone depletion. Ozone depletion will result in decrease in their population thereby affecting the population of zooplankton, fish, marine animals.

Yield of vital crops like corn, rice, soybean, wheat will decrease.

Degradation of paints, plastics and other polymer materials will result in economic loss due to the effects of ozone

depletion.

An International agreement designed to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the production of

An International agreement designed to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the production of numerous substances that are responsible for ozone

Ozone layer depletion

Montreal Protocol

Perhaps the single most successful international agreement to date has been the Montreal Protocol Kofi Annan

to date has been the Montreal Protocol – Kofi Annan 15 t h Dec, 2018; by
to date has been the Montreal Protocol – Kofi Annan 15 t h Dec, 2018; by

15 th Dec, 2018; by NASA

Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)

Hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC)

Hydrofluorocarbon (HFC)

Hydrofluorocarbon (HFC): A

greenhouse gas; way more than

CO 2

Hydrofluoroolefin (HFO) has a

very low global warming potential

(GWP)

To get back the ozone concentration as it was in 1980, will take up to end of this century

Global Warming

Global Climate Change

Weather and Climate are not the same.

Weather consists of short-term changes in atmospheric

variables such as temperature, precipitation, wind and pressure

in a given area over a period of hours or days.

Climate is determined by the average weather conditions of the earth or of a particular area especially temperature and

precipitation, over a long period of time ranging from decades

and centuries to thousands of years.

World Meteorological Organization, considers minimum 3 decades to measure and understand the climate

Global Climate Change

There is a growing controversy over atmospheric warming and its projected effect on the earth’s climate, largely because not everyone understands the difference between weather and climate.

During any period of 30 or more years, in a given area of planet, there will often be hot years, cooler years, wet years and drier years, as weather fluctuates from day too day and year to year.

For example, A large volcanic eruption can lead to warmer or

cooler average global weather for 1 to 3 years.

Before we make any meaningful statements about climate

change, we need to see at least for 30 years or ideally 60 or

more.

Temperature change & Average temperature

Temperature change & Average temperature
Temperature change & Average temperature
Temperature change & Average temperature
Temperature change & Average temperature

Climate Change is Not New

Climate change is not unusual, but very complex.

Various factors, such as sun’s output of energy, impacts by

meteorites, even the slight change in the earth’s orbit around the sun, alters the earth’s climate.

Earth’s climate is also affected by global air circulation patterns,

global ice cover that reflects incoming solar energy that keeps atmosphere cool, varying concentrations of different gases that make up the atmosphere.

Average temperature and precipitation are the two main factors affect global, regional and local climates, but temperature is the key variable the climate scientists watch.

Solar Radiation & Greenhouse Gases make our Planet Warm

The Physical and Biogeochemical systems that regulate temperature at the surface of earth (such as concentration of

gases, distribution of clouds, atmospheric currents and ocean

currents) are essential to life on planet

The solar radiation emitted by sun will be absorbed by the earth

and becomes warm. Then the earth emits the radiation back

toward the atmosphere.

The radiation emitted by sun and by earth are different

Sun emits high energy, mostly ultraviolet and visible radiation.

Earth emits the energy as infrared radiation, which we can feel it being emitted from warm surfaces.

Greenhouse Effect

Differences in the types of radiation emitted by the sun and earth, in combination with the greenhouse effect causes the plant to

warm

The

greenhouse

greenhouse

effect

gets

its

name

from

the

gardener’s

Actual greenhouses warmed by the sun involves glass windows

holding in heat, whereas the processes by which earth is warmed involves greenhouse gases radiating infrared energy back to earth

Gardener’s Greenhouse Made up of Glass windows Earth’s Greenhouse Made up of Greenhouse Gases

Gardener’s

Greenhouse

Made up of Glass windows

Earth’s

Greenhouse

Made up of Greenhouse Gases

Gardener’s Greenhouse Made up of Glass windows Earth’s Greenhouse Made up of Greenhouse Gases

Greenhouse Effect

Greenhouse Gases

Certain gases in the atmosphere can absorb infrared radiation emitted by the surface of earth and radiate much of it back toward the earth’s surface. These gases are known as

Greenhouse gases.

The most common gases in the atmosphere, N 2 and O 2 (99% of

atmosphere) do not absorb IR radiation and are not greenhouse

gases.

Water vapour in the atmosphere absorbs more IR radiation than any other gas, but it do not persist as long as other greenhouse gases.

Other important greenhouse gases are Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), Methane (CH 4 ), Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) and Ozone (O 3 ).

Greenhouse Gases

All these gases are part of atmosphere for millions of years and contributing in maintaining earth warm.

CFCs are anthropogenic greenhouse gases.

In absence of greenhouse gases, earth’s average temperature would be -18 o C, instead of current average temperature 14 o C.

The contribution of each gas to global warming depends on its global warming potential.

The global warming potential estimates how much a molecule of

any compound can contribute to global warming over a period of

100 years relative to a molecule of CO 2 .

Global warming potential is estimated from the amount of infrared

energy absorption and how long a molecule of the gas can persist

in the atmosphere.

Global Warming Potential

Global Warming Potential
Global Warming Potential
Global Warming Potential

Sources of Greenhouse Gases

Natural sources of greenhouse gases include volcanic eruptions,

decomposition,

evapotranspiration.

digestion,

denitrification,

evaporation

and

Volcanic eruptions can add a significant amount of carbon dioxide. Other gases and large quantity of ash are also play a significant role in short-term climatic change. Large quantity of ash particles

reflect the incoming solar radiation and thereby cools the earth’s

surface.

Methane is liberated during decomposition of dead organic matter in absence of oxygen.

Nitrification involves the conversion of nitrates into nitrous oxide, in the low-oxygen environments of wet soils and bottom of wet-lands.

Water vapour is produced when liquid water from land and water

bodies evaporates and by evapotraspiration process of plants.

Sources of Greenhouse Gases

Anthropogenic sources of greenhouse gases are burning of fossil fuels, agriculture, deforestation, landfills and industrial production of chemicals.

gases are burning of fossil fuels, agriculture, deforestation, landfills and industrial production of chemicals.

Impact of Global Warming

Rising Temperature

Melting of poles

Increased sea level

Changes in water supply

Damage to habitats

Loss of biodiversity

Floods and Droughts

Kyoto Protocol

International agreement adopted in Kyoto, Japan on 11 th December 1997, lined to the United Nations framework

convention that aims at reduction of greenhouse gases, to cut the emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons, sulphur hexafluoride.

BP Disaster: Gulf of Mexico

BP Disaster: Gulf of Mexico
Rapa Nui
Rapa Nui

it is a striking example of the dependence of human societies on their

environment and of the consequences of irreversibly damaging that environment .

Pacific Trash Vortex

Pacific Trash Vortex

Pacific Trash Vortex

Pacific Trash Vortex
Pacific Trash Vortex

Aral Sea: A Man-made Disaster

Aral Sea: A Man-made Disaster

Aral Sea: A Man-Made Disaster

Aral Sea: A Man-Made Disaster
Aral Sea: A Man-Made Disaster

The Great Barrier Reef

The Great Barrier Reef

The Great Barrier Reef

The Great Barrier Reef

Chernobyl Disaster

Chernobyl Disaster
Chernobyl Disaster
Chernobyl Disaster