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CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION TO CONTROL SYSTEMS

Semester 2014/2015-I
By: DR. DWI PEBRIANTI

BEE3313 DP - credit to YAW, NH, NMAG & MSR


Syllabus
2

1.1 • Introduction

1.2 • Control Terminology

1.3 • Basic Components of a


control system

1.4 • Closed-loop control versus


open-loop control
DP - credit to YAW, NH, NMAG & MSR
Lesson Outcomes
3

1. Identify the Control Terminology


2. Describe the basic features and configurations of a
control system
3. Explain the similarities and differences between
closed-loop control and open-loop control

DP - credit to YAW, NH, NMAG & MSR


1.1 Introduction
4

Student activity 1: Brainstorming

In 1 minutes, discuss with your partner what a “Control


System” is all about ?

DP - credit to YAW, NH, NMAG & MSR


Introduction..Cont.
5
System?
Disturbance?
Open loop/Closed loop?
Controlled variable?

Steering a car on a curve road

A control system is an interconnection of components


forming a system configuration that would provide a
desired output in response to input signals.
DP - credit to YAW, NH, NMAG & MSR
1.2 Control Terminology
6
 Controlled variable: The controlled variable is the quantity or condition that is
measured and controlled

 Manipulated variable: The manipulated variable is the quantity or condition


that is varied by the controller so as to affect variable value of the controlled
variable.

 Plants: A plant is a piece of equipment perhaps just a set of machine parts


functioning together, to perform a particular operation.

 Process: A process is to be a natural, progressively continuing operation or


development marked by a series of gradual changes that succeed one another in
relatively fixed way and lead toward a particular result

 Actuator: A device that converts an electrical control signal into mechanical


motion.
DP - credit to YAW, NH, NMAG & MSR
1.2 Control Terminology…Cont.
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 System: A system is combination of components that act together and perform a certain
objective. A system is not limited to physical ones. The concept of the system can be applied
to abstract, dynamic phenomena such as those encountered in economics. The word system
should be therefore, be interpreted to imply physical, biological, and economic.

 Disturbance: A disturbance is a signal that tends to adversely affect the value of the out
signal. If the disturbance is generated within the system is called internal, while an external
disturbance is generated outside the system and is an input to the systems.

 Open-loop(Non-feedback) system: An open-loop system utilizes an actuating device to


control the process directly without using feedback

 Feedback control/closed-loop system: A closed-loop system uses a measurement of the


output and feedback of this signal to compare it with the desired output (reference or
command).
DP - credit to YAW, NH, NMAG & MSR
1.2 Control Terminology…Cont.
8

Disturbance

Manipulated Controlled
quantities Process quantities

DP - credit to YAW, NH, NMAG & MSR


Example of Control System
9

YAW- credit to NH, NMAG & MSR


Home Heating System
1.3 Basic Components of a Control System
10

 Block Diagram

OBJECTIVES RESULTS
INPUT, R OUTPUT, Y
CONTROL SYSTEM

Basic components of a control system

DP - credit to YAW, NH, NMAG & MSR


1.4 Closed-loop control versus open-loop control
11

Open-loop Control
Without feedback !!

Reference Controller Actuating Controlled variable,


input, R signal, C signal, U output, Y
CONTROLLER ACTUATOR PLANT

Block diagram of an open-loop control system


DP - credit to YAW, NH, NMAG & MSR
Example of Open Loop Control System
12

Flow Rate Manual Control


1.4 Closed-loop control versus open-loop
control…cont.
13 Closed Loop Control System
Desired is compared with a measurement
of the actual in order to measure error.

Difference between the desired input and


actual output is equal to the error.
Reference Error
input, R signal, E output, Y
CONTROLLER ACTUATOR PLANT
+

- C U G

Block diagram of an
closed-loop control
SENSOR
system
Feedback H

This measurement is obtained by measurement using a sensor

DP - credit to YAW, NH, NMAG & MSR


14

Block Diagram for steering a car on a curve road


DP - credit to YAW, NH, NMAG & MSR
Washing machine
15

Open loop / Closed Loop?

Why

DP - credit to YAW, NH, NMAG & MSR


Microwave Oven
16

Open Loop

Close Loop
Liquid Storage Tank

17
Cooling System

18

DP - credit to YAW, NH, NMAG & MSR


Toaster
19

DP - credit to YAW, NH, NMAG & MSR


Sample Past Year Question
20
SEM1213I
Sterilization of Fresh Fruit Bunch in the pressure sterilizer is
important processes in a Palm Oil Mill. These sterilizing processes
is done by sterilizing the fruit brunches under steam pressure. The
cooking times of the fruit brunch within 3 bar pressure or 45 psi
for 60-90 minutes is controlled by controlling the opening/closing
of control valve. During the cooking process, the fruit will become
soft and the enzymes that produce Free Fatty Acids (FFA) are
deactivated. Thus, this process is controlled by the feed forward
controller and a differential pressure sensor is used to sense the
actual pressure so that the system can maintain the 3 bar
pressure. Figure 1.1 illustrates the sterilizer system.
Construct a functional block diagram for a closed-loop system
that controls the pressure of the sterilizer system. Clearly state the
input, output, controller, plant and etc.
Sample Past Year Question
SEM1213I
21

Steam
Control valve

Pressure
PT
Transmitter

Waste
Sterilizer
Liquid

Pump
Figure 1.1: The sterilizer system

DP - credit to YAW, NH, NMAG & MSR


Answer
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Pressure + Valve opening Steam Plant Actual Pressure


set point mechanism Flow Sterilizer
3 bar - rate

Pressure
Transmitter

Input : Pressure set point  3 bar


Output : Actual pressure
Plant : sterilizer
Controller : valve opening mechanism
Control input : manipulated variable : steam flow rate
DP - credit to YAW, NH, NMAG & MSR
Example : Test 1, Q1, 2013/2014 Sem 1
23

 Segway personal transporter (PT), Figure 1, is a two wheeled


vehicle in which the human operator stand vertically on the platform.
As the driver leans left, right, forward or backward, a set of
sensitive gyroscopic sensors sense the desired input. These signals
are fed to a computer that amplifies them and commands the motors
to propel the vehicle in the desired direction. One very important
feature of the PT is its safety: the system will maintain its vertical
position within a specified angle despite the road disturbance, such
as uphills and downhills or even if the operator over – leans in any
direction. Draw a functional block diagram of the PT system that
keeps the system in a vertical position. Indicate the input and output
signals, intermediate signals and the main subsystems.

[10M]
[CO1, PO1, C2]
Example : Test 1, Q1, 2013/2014 Sem 1
24
Answer :
25

Disturbance : uphill / downhill

Reference +
Attitude : +
Segway Real
Amplifier Motor Attitude
Vertical + PT
position -

Gyroscopic
sensor

Input : Reference attitude (Vertical position)


Output : Actual attitude
Plant : Segway Personal Transporter
Controller : computer / amplifier
Control input : manipulated variable : angle of attitude
Control System
26 Type of system Advantages Disadvantages

1. Open-loop control system 1. Simple construction and ease of 1. The system response very sensitive to
maintenance. external disturbance and internal
2. Less expensive than a corresponding variations in system parameters.
closed-loop control system 2. Recalibration is necessary from time to
3. There is no stability problem time in order to maintain the
4. Convenient when output is hard to required quality in the output
measure or measuring the output
precisely is economically not
feasible.

2. Closed-loop control system 1. Makes the system response 1. Risk instability


relatively insensitive to external 2. Complexity in analysis and
disturbance and internal variations in implementation and expensive
system parameters.
2. Possible to use relatively inaccurate
and inexpensive components to
obtain the accurate control of a given
plant.
3. Better control of transient & steady-
state response
4. Increased accuracy
-Increased ability to reproduce output
with varied input.

DP - credit to YAW, NH, NMAG & MSR


End of Chapter 1
27

1. Q & A

2. Outcomes :
– Identify the Control Terminology
– Describe the Basic features and configurations of a
control system
– Explain the similarities and differences between
closed-loop control and open-loop control

DP - credit to YAW, NH, NMAG & MSR