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 Stands for acket nteret opher. PING is used for connectivity checking of any
network or any host or device of any or other networks.

   
         
   
 
Router works at network layer for providing routing services between or among several
networks.

 
   
 
Transport layer of OSI model.

 
    
 
   
By using command.

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A gateway acts a door for the packet to reach the µoutside¶ of the internal network.

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Router, switch, bridge and hub are network devices. Yet there are some differences among them.
The main differences are:

„   #A layer 3 device, can work on physical, data and network layer.
„  # A layer 2 device, can work on data link layer
„ =  #A layer 2 device, can work on data link layer.
„  # A layer 1device, just a multi-port repeater and works on physical layer

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Œ-127 is the range of class A address.

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„ IP of Class C: 193.1.1.1
„ chy this is a class C address: Class C addresses have the range of 192 - 223

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ub.

  # Remember, hub is the device that can work only into the physical layer of OSI model. But
switch, router can also be used instead of a hub. So, all the answers hub, switch or router are all
correct.

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A router can divide the broadcast domain and collision domain. But a switch can only divide the
collision domain. Router can communicate among different networks where as the switch can
not communicate different networks.

      


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„ ub operates at only physical layer of OSI model.
„ No, it's not so wise to use hub for a huge network.
„ ubs can't divide the broadcast domain or the collision domain. So, if we use hubs then
there creates huge broadcast domain. chen there are huge broadcast, the network gets
problem time to time. So, it's not wise to use hubs to support a huge network.

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There are seven layers of OSI model. The layers are:

1. Application layer
2. Presentation layer
3. Session layer
4. Transport layer
5. Network layer
-. Data link layer
7. Physical layer

  # You can remember the seven layer model by a simple sentence. aO   

a OO . See, the starting of each word forms the layer.

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Router can easily divide the broadcast domain and collision domain. So, to communicate among
several networks, routers are used.

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Data Link layer.

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Switch and router

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OSI revers for  
 !        ( It is an abstract model for
layered communications and computer network protocol design. There are seven layers of OSI
model which, from top to bottom, are the Application, Presentation, Session, Transport,
Network, Data-Link, and Physical Layers.

OSI model also referred as


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Frame

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„ r%# Connection oriented protocol, acknowledged one, Point to point communication.
„ ,*#Connection less protocol, unreliable, less traffic

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„ DNS port no: 53
„ Telnet port no: 23
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„ SMPT port no: 25
„ POP3 port no: 11Œ

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„ Functionality of network layer: Path determination and logical addressing
„ Data unit of network layer: Packet

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Physical layer, data link layer and network layer are treated as "Media Layers".

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Deadlock is a situation when two or more processes are waiting indefinitely for an event that can
be caused by only one of the waiting processes. The implementation of a semaphore with a
waiting queue may result in this situation.

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„ Router can limit the collision domain and broadcast domain


„ Router can function both on LAN & cAN.
„ Different media & architectures can be connected among themselves through router.
„ Router can determine best path/route for data to reach
„ the destination.
„ Router can filter the broadcasts.
„ For communicating different networks, routers must be used.

*  #

„ Router is more expensive than any other networking devices like ub, Bridge & Switch.
„ Router only work with routable protocols.
„ Routing updates consume some bandwidth.
„ Increase latency due to greater degree of packet
„ filtering.
„ Routers function as software based and so it's slower compared to switch.
(        = %
„ For Class B: 172.1-.Œ.Œ ± 172.31.255.255
„ For Class C: 192.1- .Œ.Œ ± 192.1- .255.255

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24Œ.Œ.Œ.Œ 255.255.255.255

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255.255.255.Œ

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Subnet mask is required to divide a large network into several small networks.

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„ DNS: Domain Name System
„ FTP: File Transfer Protocol

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ARP refers to Address Resolution Protocol. ARP is a computer networking protocol for
determining a network host's link layer or hardware address when only its Internet Layer (IP) or
Network Layer address is known.

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TCP is reliable and UDP is an unreliable service.

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DCP works by four-steps: (1) IP request, (2) IP offer (3) IP selection and (d)
Acknowledgement.

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POP stands for Post Office Protocol. This is used to describe how e-mail clients interact with
mail servers. The POP3 Server is a type of mail server used for incoming mail. POP is only used
to receive messages.
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-
 
Layer 2 switch is based on MAC addresses which operates on Data Link Layer of OSI mode.
And Layer 3 switching is based on network topology table populated and works on Network
layer.

% % # !  !!  !


„ # Address Resolution Protocol
„ *# Domain Name System
„ /r# File Transfer Protocol
„ rr# ypertext Transfer Protocol
„ # Internet Protocol
„ r# Network News Transfer Protocol
„ -: Post Office Protocol 3
„ # Point-to-Point Protocol
„ (# Short Message Peer-to-Peer
„ (r# Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
„ r%# Transmission Control Protocol
„ ,*# User Datagram Protocol

% % #

OSI reference model has seven layers:

„ Application layer
„ Presentation layer
„ Session layer
„ Transport layer
„ Network layer
„ Data link layer
„ Physical layer

% % #
  

„ Application layer: Network process to application
„ Presentation layer: Data representation and encryption
„ Session layer: Interhost communication
„ Transport layer: End-to-end connections and reliability
„ Network layer: Path determination and logical addressing
„ Data link layer: Physical addressing
„ Physical layer: Media, signal and binary transmission
% % #r%1    ! 
TCP/IP reference model has four layers:

„ Application
„ Transport
„ Internet
„ Network Access

% % #*, 



„ Application layer...........Data
„ Presentation layer.........Data
„ Session layer.................Data
„ Transport layer..............Segment
„ Network layer................Packet
„ Data link layer...............Frame
„ Physical layer................Bit

% % #*    ! 


     

„ FTP -------- 2Œ,21


„ SS -------- 22
„ telnet -------- 23
„ SMTP -------- 25
„ DNS -------- 53
„ DCP -------- -7,-
„ TFTP -------- -9
„ TTP -------- Œ
„ POP3 -------- 11Œ
„ NNTP -------- 119
„ NTP -------- 123
„ IMAP4 -------- 143
„ LDAP -------- 3 9
„ TTPS -------- 443
„ IMAPS -------- 993
„ RADIUS-------- 1 12
„ AIM -------- 519Œ



% % #    
Every computer in the Internet has an IP address. There are five types of IP address. In the
following table, you will find all the classes of IP address and the class name:

%  /   

„ A Œ.Œ.Œ.Œ 127.255.255.255
„ B 12 .Œ.Œ.Œ 191.255.255.255
„ C 192.Œ.Œ.Œ 223.255.255.255
„ D 224.Œ.Œ.Œ 239.255.255.255
„ E 24Œ.Œ.Œ.Œ 255.255.255.255

%  #*    !


In the following section, you will see the default subnet mask of each class:

„ For Class A: 255.Œ.Œ.Œ


„ For Class B: 255.255.Œ.Œ
„ For Class C: 255.255.255.Œ

% % #    


Public IP address is not so much. That's why the concept of private IP arises. In the following,
you will find all the private IP address ranges of all classes.

„ For Class A: 1Œ.Œ.Œ.Œ ± 1Œ.255.255.255


„ For Class B: 172.1-.Œ.Œ ± 172.31.255.255
„ For Class C: 192.1- .Œ.Œ ± 192.1- .255.255

% % # 


 ! 

„  
# The upper four layers are known as ost layers. The layers of host layers
includes : Application layer, Presentation layer, Session layer and Transport layer.
„ ( 
# The lower three layers are known as Media layers. The layers of media
layers are : Network layer, Data link layer and Physical layer.
„ %% 2  
„ Last Updated on Sunday, 9 March 2ŒŒ Œ1:Œ4 critten by admin Thursday, 17 January
2ŒŒ Œ4:54
„ Multiple Choice questions:
„ 23c      %%  
„ A. 1Œ.1Œ.14.11
„ B. 135.23.112.57
„ C. 191.2ŒŒ.199.199
„ D. 2Œ4.-7.11 .54
„ Correct Answer: D.

Explanation:
IP addresses are written using decimal numbers separated by decimal points. This is
called dotted decimal notation of expressing IP addresses.
„ 2'4    356'--7'56   ! ) !
 
     
„ A. 12- hosts and 51Œ subnets
„ B. 12 subnets and 512 hosts
„ C. 51Œ hosts and 12- subnets
„ D. 512 subnets and 12 hosts
„ %   #º
„ ´  #
„ Class B network has the form N.N.., the default subnet mask is 1- bits long.
There is additional 7 bits to the default subnet mask. The total number of bits in
subnet are 1-7 = 23.
This leaves us with 32-23 =9 bits for assigning to hosts.
7 bits of subnet mask corresponds to (2^7-2)=12 -2 = 12- subnets.
9 bits belonging to host addresses correspond to (2^9-2)=512-2 = 51Πhosts.
„ 2-r  
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        8  '9
„ A. Logical Link Control
„ B. Data Link Control
„ C. Media Access Control
„ D. Physical Layer Control
„ Correct answer: A,C
„ 27(    #
„ A. Repeaters 1. Data Link Layer
„ B. Bridges 2. Network Layer
„ C. Routers 3. Physical Layer
„ Select the best combination:
„ A. A ²>2, B²>3, C²>1
„ B. A²>3, B²->1, C²->2
„ C. A²>3,B²±>2, C²->1
„ D. A²->1, B²->2, C²->3
„ Correct answer: B
„ 25c         
   8  '9
„ A. NFS
„ B. SQL
„ C. JPG
„ D. MIDI
„ Correct answer: A,B
„ 26(      
  * *! 
„ DoD Model <---------> ISO OSI Model
„ A. Process/Application
„ 1. Application
„ B. ost-to-ost 2. Presentation
„ C. Internet 3. Session
„ D. Network Access 4. Transport
„ 5. Network
„ -. Data Link
„ 7. Physical
„ º    
„ A. A->12; B->34; C->5; D->-7
„ B. A->123; B->4; C->5; D->-7
„ C. A->123; B->4; C->5-; D->7
„ D. A->123; B->45; C->-; D->7
„ Correct answer: B
„ 2)c   !!       ºisco router
„    
„ A. add banner
„ B. banner motd #
„ C. motd banner #
„ D. add banner #
„ Correct answer: B
„ 2:c     !    
„ A. 1ŒŒ
„ B. 12Œ
„ C. Œ
„ D. 2ŒŒ
Correct answer: B
„ 2;r % %
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8  -9
„ A. Store-and-Forward
„ B. FragmentFree
„ C. InstaSwitch
„ D. FastForward
„ Correct answer: A,B,D
„ 23<c     =+
„ A. VLAN technology uses VLAN switches (layer 2) which is a substitute for routing
technology which uses routers.
„ B. A VLAN has same collision 2omain
„ C. A VLAN has same broadcast domain
„ D. VLANs are less secure with respect to simple switch or ub networks.
„ Correct answer: C
„ 2334 internet work
„    
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   >?! 
„ A. It means ³Source Route Bridge´
„ B. It means ³ost´
„ C. It means ³Switch´
„ D. It means ³Static´
„ Correct answer: C
„ 23'4   
    
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„ A. Sh ip protocol
„ B. sh int sŒ
„ C. sh ip interface
„ D. sh processes
„ Correct answer: B
„ 23-4   :<''! 
  
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„ A. Ethernet_II
„ B. Œ2.2
„ C. SAP
„ D. SNAP
„ 
  º
„ 237c  @3
   A 
„ A. permit this host
„ B. deny this host
„ C. permit only this subnet
„ D. any host or any network
„ Correct answer: D
„ 235c   !!  0    
 !  3:567<< 
   <
„ A. access-list 25 permit 1 5.-4.Œ.Œ 255.255.Œ.Œ
int sΠ; ip access-list 25 out
„ B. access-list 25 permit 1 5.-4.Œ.Œ 255.255.Œ.Œ
int sΠ; ip access-group 25 out
„ C. access-list 25 permit 1 5.-4.Œ.Œ Œ.Œ.255.255
int sΠ; ip access-list 25 in
„ D. access-list 25 permit 1 5.-4.Œ.Œ Œ.Œ.255.255
int sΠ; ip access-group 25 in
„ º 
 
„ 236c               * 8  '9
„ A. T
„ B. U
„ C. V
„ D. X
„ º 
  
„ 23)c    =+r     8  '9
„ A. VTP is statically configured and no built in intelligence is available.
„ B. VTP provides intelligence for configuring switches across the network.
„ C. VTP is not designed to distribute information across the switch fabric.
„ D. VTP is designed to distribute information across the switch fabric.
„ º 
  
„ 23:c       !   c !  
1c
 8   
9
„ A. Demarc
„ B. DSU/CSU
„ C.  o2em
„ D. CPE
„ º 
   º 
„ 23;c               !! 
   
 %    8  '9
„ A. CTRLF1
„ B. The Down Arrow
„ C. The Up Arrow
„ D. CTRL  P
„ º 
 º 
„ 2'<c   =+ 8%     9
„ A. The VLAN is configured by a TFTP server.
„ B. It automatically notify a new network user.
„ C. The administrator assigns VLAN by port.
„ D. Static VLAN are more appropriate when the switch fabric becomes more complex.
„ º 
 º

 



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