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PVT Short Course for Cairo University

SPE Student Chapter

Ahmed Muaz
Khalda Petroleum Company
April 23, 2011
Contents
• Why Study PVT?
• Objectives of PVT Analysis
• Types of Reservoir Fluids
• Differentiation Between the Different Types
of
 Reservoir Fluids
• Fluid Sampling
• Laboratory Experiments
• PVT Reports

Why Study PVT?

Gas

Sep.
Oil Stock
Tank
Transport
Diff. Flow Regime
Objectives of PVT Analysis
Need to understand PVT analysis for:

• Determination of reservoir fluid type

• Knowledge of physical properties of reservoir fluids

• Match an EOS to the measured data

• Creation of PVT models

• Ultimate recoveries of different components

• Amounts and composition of liquids left behind

• Determination of well stream composition



Objectives of PVT Analysis – Cont.

• Completion design

• Separator/NGL plant specifications

• Product values Vs. time

• Prediction compositional gradient


The Five Reservoir Fluids

Black Volatile Retrograde Wet Dry


Oil Oil Gas Gas Gas
Reservoir Fluid Type Identification

• Analyzing a representative sample in the lab

• Production data
1.Initial GOR
2.API
3.Oil color
4.C7+


Black Oil

• An initial GOR, 1750 SCF/STB or less

• A 45 API initial stock tank oil gravity or less

• A dark color of stock tank oil

• C7+ > 20 mole %

• Initial Bo of 2 res bbl/STB or less


Black Oil Phase Diagram
T h e in itia l re se rvo ir
co n d itio n s ( P &T ) a re
m u ch lo w e r th a n
th e critica l
co n d itio n s
T h e h e a vy m o le cu le s
co n ce n tra tio n is
h ig h
Volatile Oil

• An initial GOR, 1750 SCF/STB or greater

• A 51.2 API initial stock tank oil gravity

• A “medium orange” stock tank oil color

• C7+ concentration between 19 and 22 mole %

• Bo 2.0 res bbl/STB or greater


Volatile Oil Phase Diagram
• The initial reservoir
conditions (P&T)
are close to the
critical conditions

• Have fewer heavy


molecules than
black oil



Retrograde Gas Condensate

• An initial GOR > 3200 SCF/STB

• API > 45 initial stock tank oil gravity

• A light stock tank oil color

• C7+ concentration <12.5 mole %


Retrograde Gas Phase Diagram

• The initial reservoir


conditions (P&T) are
higher than the
critical conditions

• Have fewer heavy


molecules than
volatile oils

• The overall
composition of the
reservoir fluid
becomes heavier as
the lighter gas is
produced and the
heavier condensate
remains behind

Wet Gas

• An initial GOR > 15,000 SCF/STB

• API up to 70 initial stock tank oil gravity

• Water white of tank oil color

• C7+ concentration <4 mole %


Wet Gas Phase Diagram

• Reservoir Pressure path

Temperature above
in reservoir

Cricondentherm
1

(pressure path not


enter phase
envelope)

ne
li
Wet gas

nt
Pressure

oi

wp
De
• The reservoir fluid is
gas throughout the Critical
% Liquid

life of the reservoir point

t
2

ne in
li epo
• The separator
l

30
bb

25

5
Bu

1
condition is two Separator

phases

Temperature

• Gravity of stock tank


liquid same as
retrograde gas
Dry Gas

• An initial GOR > 1000,000 SCF/STB

• Almost no liquid

• C7+ concentration < 0.7 mole %


Dry Gas Phase Diagram

• Primarily methane and Pressure path


in reservoir

some intermediates 1

• The reservoir fluid is


gas throughout the
life of the reservoir

e
• No liquids formed

l in
Dry gas

nt
poi
Pressure
either in reservoir or

De w
at surface % Liquid

• 2

• 50

1
Separator

Temperature
Reservoir Fluids Phase Diagram
Window
OIL
GAS

Black Oil Volatile Critical Critical Gas Wet


Oil Oil Gas C

Cricondenbar Critical Point


B
Bubbl e
Point Dew Point
Loci Loci
Pressure

Retrograde
Region
Cricondenterm

A Two Phase Region C

Temperature
C7+ & GOR for Reservoir Fluids
Reservoir Fluid Types
Classification
Composition of Reservoir Fluids
Differences Between Black and
Volatile Oil
 Black Oil
• The evolved gas is a dry gas.

• The solution gases remain gas phase in the


reservoir, tubulars and separator.

• As reservoir pressure decreases, the gas leaving


solution, becomes richer in intermediate
components.

• API gradually decreases during the reservoir life.


Phase Diagram of Black Oil and
Associated Gas
Production Processes for a Black
Oil
Differences Between Black and
Volatile Oil
 Volatile Oil
• The evolved gas is a retrograde gas.

• The evolved retrograde gases release a large


amount of. condensate at surface conditions.

• Often over one half of the stock tank liquid produced


during the reservoir’s life.

• API steadily increases with time.


Phase Diagram of Volatile Oil and
Associated Gas
Production Processes for a Volatile
Oil
Analysis and Prediction Tool

 Black Oil Mbal


• Assume free gas in the reservoir remains gas in the
separator
• Treat a multi component black oil mixture as a two-
component mixture: gas and oil

 Volatile Oil Mbal


• Treat mixture as a multi-component mixture
• Total composition of the production stream is known

Effect of Using Black Oil Mbal for
Volatile Oil
Differentiation between Volatile and
Retrograde
A G O R o f 3 2 0 0
S C F / S T B is a g o o d
cu t- o ff

A va lu e o f 1 2 . 5 m o le
% of C7 + is a
u se fu l d ivid in g lin e
Differences between Volatile Oil
and Retrograde Gas
 Retrograde Gas
• GOR increases with time as condensate dropout
• API increases with time
• Compositional Mbal should be used in reservoir
calculations
• Conventional gas Mbal can be used above dew point
• Also, it can be used below dew point if two phase Z-
factors are used

Differences between Retrograde
and Wet Gas
A n in itia l G O R o f
1 5 ,0 0 0 S C F/S T B
ca n b e a cu to ff

A va lu e o f 4 m o le %
o r le ss ca n b e
u se fu l d ivid in g lin e

Field and Laboratory Identification
of
Reservoir Fluids
Reservoir Fluid Sampling
 Open Hole Sampling:
• RFT, small sample volume and often contaminated
• MDT, allows controlled drawdown and multiple
sample chambers
• Optical MDT, allows to identify the type of fluid
being sampled

 Cased Hole Sampling:


• Surface Sampling
• Subsurface Sampling

Surface & Subsurface Sampling
Well Conditioning during Sampling

• Small perforation is preferable


• Limiting drawdown
• Large tubing diameter in case of high rates
• Better well cleaning
• Stable production
• No liquid slugging
• Small amount of produced fluid prior to sampling


Laboratory Tests
• Primary tests

• Routine laboratory tests

• Special laboratory PVT tests


Primary Tests

• API

• Gas specific gravity

• Separator gas composition

• GOR
Routine Laboratory Tests

• Constant-Composition Expansion - CCE

• Differential Liberation

• Constant-Volume Depletion – CVD

• Separator Test


Constant Composition Expansion -
CCE Test
 The test is conducted for the purposes of
determining:
• Saturation pressure (bubble-point or dew-point
pressure)

• Isothermal compressibility coefficients of the single-


phase fluid in excess of saturation pressure

• Compressibility factors of the gas phase

• Total hydrocarbon volume as a function of pressure


CCE Test Procedures
pb

Vt Liquid Vt Liquid
Liquid Liquid
Liquid
Liquid Gas
Vt
Vt Gas
Vt
Liquid
Hg Hg Hg
Liquid
Hg
Hg

First Second Third Fourth


Step Step Step Step
CCE Test Data
Differential Liberation Test

 The experimental data obtained from the test


include:
• Amount of gas in solution as a function of pressure

• The shrinkage in the oil volume as a function of


pressure

• Properties of the evolved gas including the


composition of the liberated gas, the gas
compressibility factor, and the gas specific gravity

• Density of the remaining oil as a function of


pressure
Differential Liberation Expansion Test
Procedures

Gas Gas
pb

Vo Liquid Gas Vo Liquid


Vo Liquid Gas

Liquid Liquid
Hg Hg Hg
Hg Hg

First step
Differential Liberation Test Data
Separator Test Procedures
scf
pb Rsb =
STB
Gas
Gas
scf
Liquid
scf

resbbl

Separator
Stock
tank
Hg
Hg Liquid

STB

Liquid

resbbl
Bob =
STB
Separator Test Data
CVD Test Procedures
Constant Volume Depletion – CVD
Test
PVT Reports
Thank You