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First published 2013
Reprinted 2014
Printed in Italy by L.E.G.O. S.p.A.
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KJiacca), H K Me:>KgyHapogHhIM KeM6p11g:>KcK11M 3K3aMeHaM Cambridge English: Key, Preliminary, First
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(KOHTpOJibHO-H3MepHTeJibHbie MaTepHaJibI), COOTBeTCTBYIO~l1X HbIHeIIIHeMy cpopMaTy 3K3aMeHa:
Diagnostic Test H Exam Practice Paper. BMecTe c TeM, npegJiaraeMbie MaTepHaJihI Hau;eJieHhI Ha pa3a11T11e
Ef3 H He ycTapeIOT nocJie aaegeHHSI ycTHOH qacTH H nepexoga K o6SI3aTeJihHOMY 3K3aMeHy no HHOCTpaHHhIM
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t.IeTbrpe nepabre rJiaBhI noco611S1 cooTBeTCTBYIOT qeThrpeM pa3geJiaM Ef3 B era HhIHeIIIHeM cpopMaTe:
«Ayg11poaaH11e», «qTeH11e», «fpaMMaTHKa H JieKCHKa», «IlHChMO». Ka:>KgaSI 113 3Tl1X maa OTKpbrnaeTCSI
nogpo6HhIM on11caH11eM cooTBeTcTay10~ero pa3geJia KHM Ef3 11 ganee noBTOpSieT CTPYKTYPY 3Toro
pa3geJia, T.e. cogep)KHT TPH qaCTl1 (units), Ka:>KgaSI 113 KOTOpbIX nOCBSI~eHa OTgeJihHOMY T11ny 3agaHl1H B
paMKax gaHHoro pa3geJia Ef3. B CHJIY CJIO:>KHOCTH gJISI yqa~11xcS1 3agaHHH pa3geJia «IlHChMO» Ef3, maaa
Writing TaK:>Ke BKJIJOqaeT TPH qacTH, XOTSI B pa3geJie Ef3 gaeTCSI TOJihKO gaa 3agaH11S1.

YHl1KaJihHOH qepTOH gaHHoro noco6HSI SIBJISieTcSI BKJIJOqeH11e maahI Speaking no nogroToBKe K ycTHOH
qacT11 3K3aMeHa. XoTSI Ha MOMeHT Han11caHHS1 KHl1rH He onpegeJieH 6ygy~11t:i cpopMaT 3Toro pa3geJia B Er3, •
noHSITHO, KaKHe yMeH11S1 6ygyT B HeM npoaepSIThCSI. Hx cpopM11poaaH11e 06ecneq11aaeTcS1 MaTep11anaMH 11
3agaHHSIMl1 rnaBhI Speaking. IIocJie aaegeHHSI ycTHOH qacT11 Ef3 no aHrJIHHCKOMY SI3hIKY gonoJIHl1TeJihHhre
MaTep11anhr B cpopMaTe 3K3aMeHa 6ygyT gocTynHhI noJib30BaTeJISIM a OHJiaHHOBOM pe:>K11Me. Ayg11ocpaHJihI
K 3agaHl1SIM no ayg11poBaHl1IO TaIOKe HaXOASITCSI B 6ecnJiaTHOM gocTyne OHJiaHH.

Exam Success - 3TO He npocTo c6opH11K TeCTOBhIX 3agaH11H c KJIJOqaM11. 3To KH11ra, npegJiaraIO~aSI
6oraTbIH ayTeHTl1qHbIH MaTep11an, OTBeqaJO~HH no CBOeMy TeMaT11qecKOMY cogep:>KaHHIO HHTepecaM
coapeMeHHhIX nogpoCTKOB. 3To 06yqa10~ee noco611e, n0Mora10~ee npeogoJieTh MHorne TPYAHOCTl1
OBJiageH11S1 aHm11t:icK11M SI3hIKOM. 5.l3hIKOBhie TPYAHOCTl1 pa3HhIX ypoaHeH no pa3HhIM acneKTaM
pa3bSICHSIIOTCSI B py6p11Ke Get it right! B py6p11Ke What to do nogpo6Ho 06bS1CHS110TCS1 nogxoghr K
Bb!IlOJIHeHl1IO pa3JIHqHbIX 3agaHl1H, B03MO)KHhie CJIO:>KHOCTl1 11 nyTH HX npeogoJieHl1SI.

3
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MaTep11anb1 KeM6p11g)l(CKoro yqe6Horo Kopnyca (Cambridge Learner Corpus), MHoroMHJIJIHOHHOM 6a3bl
gaHHblX, COCTaBJieHHOM Ha OCHOBe 3K3aMeHaQHOHHblX pa60T CTygeHTOB, cgaBaBIIJHX KeM6pH)J;)l(CKHe
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onpegensrIOTCSI c11cTeMHbIMH pa3JIHl.J:HSIMH pyccKoro 11 aHrJIHMCKoro Sl3bIKOB. TaKHM o6pa3oM, gaBasr
ccbIJIKY Ha Cambridge Learner Corpus 11 cooTBeTCTBYIO~He peKoMeHgaQHH B py6p11Ke Corpus Note,
aBTOpbl noco611sr noMOfalOT 113yqa10~HM aHfJIHMCKHM Sl3b!K H36e)l(aTb B03MO)l(HbIX ourn6oK.

Exam Success MO)l(eT ycneurno 11cnoJib30BaTbCSI KaK gonoJIHHTeJibHoe yqe6Hoe noco611e Ha ypoKax
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noMO~bIO 11 yqa~eMycsr, 11 Yl.J:HTeJIIO.

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fOTOBHOCTH yqa~HXCSI K 3K3aMeHy.

B 3aKJIIOl.J:eHHe xol.J:eTcsr no)l(eJiaTb BCeM ycnexa - Ha 3K3aMeHe 11 B )l(H3HH!

I wish you success - with 'Exam Success'!


Map11sr Bep6HQKasr,

npocpeccop, )J;OKTOp QJMJIOJIOrHl.J:eCKHX HayK,


3aB. Kacpegpoft JieKCHKOrpacpHH H TeOpHH nepeBoga
cpaKyJihTeTa HHOCTpaHHbIX Sl3b!KOB H perHOHOBegeHHSI
MfY HMeHH M.B. JloMoHocoBa
PyK0Bog11TeJib <l>egepanbHOM KOM11cc1111 pa3pa6oTl.J:HKOB Kl1M Ef3 no HHOCTpaHHbIM Sl3bIKaM

4
Exam Success
for the Russian State Exam

CONTENTS

Diagnostic Test ............................. _...... .................................... .............................. ............................ ................. 7

Chapter 1 Listening 19
Unit 1 Matching ......................................................................................................................... 20
Unit 2 Three-option answers . ................................. .................................................................. ................ 35
Unit 3 Multiple choice .............................................................................................................................................. 48

Chapter 2 Reading 59
Unit 4 Matching ...........................-...............- .......................-................................................................................. 60
Unit 5 Gapped text .............. ................................................................................................................................. 75
Unit 6 Multiple choice ................................................................................... ........................................... .......... 90

Chapter 3 Grammar and Vocabulary 105


Unit 7 Correct forms ................. -............................. ......................................................................................... 106
Unit 8 Word building .......................................... __________ .................... _____ ............. ___ ....... ..... ..... . 118
Unit 9 Multiple choice doze ...... ................................... .................................................................................. 131

Chapter 4 Writing 145


Unit 10 Letters: format, organisation and style .............................................................. ___ 146
Unit 11 Essays: ideas, structure and body paragraphs .................................................... 158
Unit12 Essay structure, style and punctuation ................................................................. 172

Chapter 5 Speaking 189


Unit 13 Basic speaking skills ........ ... . . .. ..................... ......... .................................................................... 190
Unit 14 Monologue (individual long turn) .. _______ . -··· 194
Unit 15 Dialogue (two-way discussion) ......................................................_..............- ... 204

Appendices .. _____________ ......... _ .... .... -----------------·------.. ---·----- 214


Practice Test ....... ..................... ............................. .. ......... ___________ ........ ... ........ ... ... ..... ... ......... . .................. 226
Student B Speaking exercises ............... .................................................................................... ....................................... 238
Answer key ................. __ ............................... ........ .... ........................................................ __ ..... .... ...................... ....... ......... 242

5
Diagnostic Test
3K3aMeHaQHOHHaSI pa6oTa no aHrJIHMCKOMY Sl3bIKY COCTOHT H3 'leTbipex pa3geJIOB,
BKJIIO'lalOI.QHX 46 3agaHHM.

Pa3gen 1 («Ayg11poBaHHe») BKJII011aeT 15 3agaHHM, 113 KOTOpbIX nepsoe - Ha


ycTaHOBJieHHe COOTBeTCTBl1SI 11 14 3agaHl1M c BbI6opoM O):\HOfO npaBHJibHOfO
OTBeTa 113 Tpex npegJIO)J(eHHbIX. PeKoMeHgyeMoe speMSI Ha BbinOJIHeH11e
pa3gena 1 - 30 M11HyT.

Pa3gen 2 («qTeH11e») BKJII011aeT 9 3agaH11n, 113 KOTOpbIX 2 3agaH11S1 Ha ycTaHOBJieH11e


COOTBeTCTBHSI 11 7 3agaHl1M c BbI6opoM OAHOro npaBl1JibHOro OTBeTa 113
11eTb1pex npegJio)J(eHHbIX. PeKoMeHgyeMoe speMSI Ha BbmonHeH11e pa3gena
2-30 MHHyT.

Pa3gen 3 («rpaMMaT11Ka 11 neKc11Ka») BKJII011aeT 20 3agaH11n, 113 KOTOpbIX 13 3agaH11n


c KpaTKl1M OTBeTOM 11 7 3agaHl1M c BbI6opoM O):\HOfO npaBl1JibHOro OTBeTa 113
11eTbipex npegJIO)J(eHHbIX. Ilp11 BbinOJIHeHl1H 3a):\aHHM c KpaTKHM OTBeTOM
Bbl AOJI)J(Hbl caMOCTOS!TeJibHO 3an11caTb OTBeT B COOTBeTCTBYIOIQeM MeCTe
pa6oTbI. PeKoMeHgyeMoe speMSI Ha BbmonHeH11e pa3gena 3 - 40 M11HyT. Ilo
OKOH'laHl1H BbinOJIHeHHSI 3agaHl1M K~oro 113 3THX pa3geJIOB He 3a6brnanTe
nepeHOCl1Tb CBOl1 OTBeTbl B 6JiaHK OTBeTOB NQ 1.

Pa3gen 4 («Il11cbMO») cocT011T 113 gsyx 3agaH11n 11 npegcTasnsieT co6ou He6onhIIIYIO


n11CbMeHHYIO pa6oTy (Han11caHwe n1111Horo n11CbMa 11 nHCbMeHHoro
BbICKa3bIBaH11si c 3JieMeHTaM11 paccy)J(geH11si). PeKoMeHgyeMoe speMSI Ha
BbinOJIHeH11e 3TOro pa3gena pa60Tbl - 80 Ml1HyT. qepHOBbie noMeTKl1 MoryT
geJiaTbCSI npSIMO Ha Jil1CTe c 3a):\aHl1SIMl1 11Jil1 MO)J(HO 11CilOJib30BaTb OT):\eJibHbIM
11epHOBl1K. JI106b1e qepHOBbie noMeTKl1 (11epHOBHK) He nposepSIIOTCSI 11 He
OQeH11Ba10TCS1. OQeHKe nogJie)J(HT TOJibKO sapwaHT OTBeTa, 3aHeceHHbIM B
6naHK oTBeToB NQ 2!

06IQee BpeMSI nposegeHl1SI 3K3aMeHa - 180 Ml1HyT.


PeKOMeHgyeTCSI BbinOJIHS!Tb 3agaHl1SI B TOM nopsigKe, B KOTOpOM OHH gaHbl.
IlocTapanTeCb BbinOJIHl1Tb KaK MO)J(HO 60JibIIIe 3agaHl1M 11 Ha6paTb Ha1160JibIIIee
KOJil1'1eCTBO 6anJIOB.

/KeJiaeM ycnexa!

Diagnostic Test 7
Pa3JJ;eJI 1. AyJJ;npoeauue

fjt02) j Bl Bbl ycnblIIIHTe 6 BblCKa3bIBaHHM. YcTaHOBHTe cooTBeTCTBHe Me)K)l;y BblCKa3bIBaHHHMH Ka)K)l;oro


rosopHill,ero A-F H yTBep:>K,a;eHHHMH, ,a;aHHblMH B cnHcKe 1-7. lilcnoJib3YMTe Ka)l(.a;oe yTBep)l(,a;eHHe,
o603HaqeHHOe COOTBeTCTBYIOill,eM QHcppoti, TOJibKO OJJ;HH pa3. B 3aJJ;aHHH eCTb OJJ;HO JIHWHee
yTeep}KJJ;enue. Bbl ycJiblIIIHTe 3an11cb p;Ba)K)l;bI. 3aHeCHTe csoH OTBeTbl B Ta6n11Qy.

My grandmother let me do whatever I wanted.

2 Both parents are ready to support me in difficult times.

3 My grandmother is a good example of family problems.

4 Both parents have had difficult times .



5 My relationship with my parents has improved.

6 You shouldn't compare feelings towards different family members.

7 My most important relationship is with my grandmother.

foeop.aw;uit: A B c D E F
Y rnep}KJJ;enue

8i@ IBb1 ycnblIIIHTe .a;11anor. Onpe,a;eJIHTe, KaKHe H3 np11se,a;eHHb1x yTBep)l(,a;eHHM Al-A7 cooTBeTCTBYIOT
co.a;ep)l(aHHIO TeKcTa (1- True), KaKHe He cooTBeTCTBYIOT (2 - False) H o qeM B TeKcTe He CKa3aHo, TO
eCTb Ha OCHOBaHHH TeKCTa HeJib3H ,a;aTb HH nOJIO)l(HTeJibHblM, HH OTpHQaTeJibHblM OTBeT (3 - Not stated).
06se,a;HTe HOMep Bb16paHHoro BaMH sapHaHTa OTBeTa. Bbl ycJiblIIIHTe 3anHcb ,!l;Ba)l(,!J;bl.

A1 Nigel is looking for his shower cap.

1) True 2) False 3) Not stated

A2 Nigel wants Selina to lie to Katy.

1) True 2) False 3) Not stated

A3 Selina knows what a triathlon is.

1) True 2) False 3) Not stated

A4 Selina is skeptical about the value of triathlons.

1) True 2) False 3) Not stated

AS Nigel's exams will be easy.

1) True 2) False 3) Not stated

A6 Selina prefers individual sports.

1) True 2) False 3) Not stated

A7 Nigel has fun at the swimming pool.

1) True 2) False 3) Not stated

8 Diagnostic Test
~ Bb1 ycJiblllIMTe MHTepBbIO. B 3a,n;attm1x A8-A14 06se,n;11Te QHcppy 1, 2 MJIM 3, cooTBeTCTByIOrn;y10
Bb16paHHOMY BaMM sap11aHTY OTBeTa. Bbl ycJiblllIMTe 3arr11cb .n;sa:>K,D;bl.

AB Ray gives a list of competitions he enters to show that


1) his work is very varied.

2) he has a very demanding job.

3) anyone could do a job like this.

A9 How did Ray become a professional competition winner?

1) It started from a childhood hobby.

2) A specific prize inspired-him.

3) He was frustrated with his job at the time.

A10 How did Ray win the computer?

1) by skill

2) by mistake

3) by chance

A11 Ray's holiday in Kenya is an example of

1) a typical prize.

2) a useful prize.

3) a memorable prize.

A12 In what way is technology changing the world of competitions?

1) It is giving more people the chance to win.

2) It is discouraging professionals like Ray from taking part.

3) It is reducing the element of luck.

A13 Why does Ray tell the anecdote about chocolate cookies?

1) to warn that competitions can be dangerous

2) to say that sometimes his prizes can cause problems

3) to criticise companies who set competitions in an irresponsible way

A14 What can you say overall about Ray and his job?

1) He is naturally materialistic and is attracted by the easy winnings.

2) He finds his job rewarding but doesn't take it too seriously.

3) He is proud of what he does and wants to show that it is a real profession.

Diagnostic Test 9
Pa1.a.eJI 2. qTeuue

B2 YcTaHOBMTe cooTBeTCTBMe Me)l{):ly 3aronosKaM111-811 TeKcTaMM A-G. 3aHec11Te cso11 oTBeTbI B Ta6nmi;y.
Mcnonh3yti:Te Ka)l{):IYI-O r.i;mppy TOJILKO o.a.uu pa1. B 1a.a.auuu o.a.uu 1aroJioeoK JIHWHHH.

1 Resistance to change 5 Changes in social trends


2 Innovation in action 6 Changing roles

3 Changing your routine 7 A first time for everything

4 A change for the better 8 Managing change

A The arrival of a new baby is always a marvellous thing but the change can be disruptive and even
stressful, espl:cially for first-time parents. It is difficult to cope with the sleepless nights and constant
demands of a newborn so it is important to organise your day differently to accommodate for these
circumstances. For example, afternoon naps can help parents catch up on much-needed sleep.

B Have you ever thought about doing a parachute jump? Join our two-day parachuting course and by
the end you won't be able to resist the challenge. Parachuting is fun, safe and once you know the routine,
you'll feel really confident about stepping out of that plane. Everyone can manage it and it can really
change your attitude to adventure sports.

C Change is an inevitable part of the business cycle and it is crucia l to plan and deal with it properly.
At first, the organisation needs to accept the change in circumstances, whether for the better or not.
The next steps depend on the extent of the change, in other words, if it is something routine and of low
impact, or something with wide implications for the business.

D The first time I saw Sheffield park, I was shocked because it was a mess and it obviously hadn't been
looked after in years. When I came back to the park five years later, it looked much neater and I had a
nice walk around. Parks are not very trendy these days, they probably never have been, but they are an
important part of a town and should be well managed.

E Popular music seems to be running out of ideas. A recent trend is to take hits as far back as the 50s
and 60s and re-release them with the lyrics changed. For many, there is something sacrilegious in seeing
classics such as the Beatles' All you need is love downloadable as I met her online. The melody is the same
but the words and sense are completely different, completely distorting the original song.

F This innovative executive programme gives professionals from different fields the opportunity to
exchange positions for a limited period and gain a completely new insight into the business world. To
give a recent example, Paula Wright, sales manager in a pharmaceuticals firm, spent three months as
a consultant in an accountancy company. Her feedback and comments can be found on the website at
the top of this brochure.

G The first time that talking pictures were shown in cinemas was the 1920s with movies like The Jazz
Singer. These films were expensive to make, and the actual content was often little improvement on silent
movies, but they quickly caught movie-goers' imagination. Talking pictures soon became trendy, in no
small part thanks to technological advances which meant that dialogue sequences could be longer.

A B c D E F G

10 Diagnostic Test
B3 I1po'IHTai1Te TeKcT H 3anoJIHHTe nponycKH A-F qacT~MH npe.n;JIO)l(eHHH, o6o3Hal.JeHHhIMH QmppaMH 1-7. Oµ;ua
H3 '13CTeH 8CDHCKe1-7 JIHWHHH. 3atteCHTe QHcpphl, o603Hal.JaIO~He COOTBeTCTBYIO~He l.JaCTH npe.n;JIO)l(eHHH, B
Ta6JIHQy.

Ermac
For such an important historical figure, little is known about the personal details of Ermac Timofeyevich.
Not even his date of birth has been established, A . We do know
that he was a Cossack who as a youth made a living as a pirate and rogue soldier.

After the Russian conquest of Kazan in the middle of the sixteenth century, expansion into Siberia
became possible and a small band of Cossack fighters, led by Ermac, started their perilous journey in the
autumn of 1582. The size of their task is demonstrated by the fact B_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

The forces against Ermac, commanded by the Mongol Kuchum Khan and largely consisting of
Tatars, were based in Qashliq, and the battle there came to be known as the key moment in the
conquest of Siberia. Ermac managed to win, largely through superiority in modern weapons, but
C it proved difficult to consolidate the victory.

A long period of cat and mouse play took place centred around Qashliq but Kuchum was
a crafty opponent and he eventually had Ermac killed in an ambush. Legend has it
D in heavy armour. The news of Ermac's death demoralised the
Russians and they abandoned Qashliq to the Tatar defenders, who quickly resumed control.

The true legacy of Ermac was arguably economic rather than military. Stories of the amazing land,
rich in furs and natural resources, E , reached Russian merchants
and started a steady stream of trade and settlement. Mongol/Tatar control gradually weakened and
while Qashliq was not retaken, a new town, Tobolsk, was founded a mere twenty kilometres away.

Certainly, Russian policy towards Siberia changed after Ermac. The Russians realised that the land
was ethnically very diverse, F . As for Ermac himself, he became
known as the archetypal pioneer and adventurer who took a leap into the unknown to change the
history and geography of Russia.

1 because of the problem of supplying an army so far away


2 that they did not have a single horse with them

3 which he had opened up

4 so it was relatively easy literally to divide and conquer


5 what was so full of promise and potential

6 which increases his mystique and romantic appeal

7 that Ermac drowned trying to swim across a river

A B c D E F

Diagnostic Test 11
IIpollHTathe TeKCT w BhmOJIHHTe 3agaum1 A15-A21. B Ka:>KAOM 3agau1111 o6BegwTe QHcppy 1, 2, 3 HJIH 4,
COOTBeTCTBYIOIQYIO Bbi6paHHOMY BaMH BapwaHTY OTBeTa.

Mason
Mason realised something was wrong as soon as he came into the house. Call it instinct, a hunch,
whatever you like, but he had been around long enough to sense that element of the unknown and
danger which added up to trouble. He didn't expect to come across this in his own place - his home
had always seemed a refuge from work - but here it was and he had to be on his guard. Shaking off
the tiredness that came at the end of a long day, he forced himself to be extra alert and face whatever
was coming.

The living room seemed normal, exactly as he left it - a mess - and he was just crossing to the bedroom
when he saw,it in the corner of his eagle eye. A letter, white and neatly folded. The letter was lying on the
table in the corner. It was a wonder he saw it amongst all the other stuff there. Mason knew better than
to touch the letter and destroy what fingerprints might be on it so he gingerly prised it open with a pencil.
The message was stark and simple: 'Don't bother looking for her'.

Quickly but thoroughly Mason searched the rest of the house. Of course, she wouldn't be there but his
trained mind knew that the first hours after a crime were absolutely vital and couldn't be wasted. There
were no tell-tale signs of a struggle, nothing to suggest anything unusual and in fact the house seemed
chillingly normal, as if his wife had just stepped out for another pint of milk. Her things were untouched,
nothing had been taken, not even the rather valuable pearls in the jewellery box right on top of the
dressing table.

Mason sat down for a moment, his mind a whirl. His wife had gone and all he had was a five-word
message to go on. It wasn't much. The first question was who could have done it and then what the
motive could be. In his line of work there was a long line of rogues who might be interested in hurting
him. He remembered Neil Hunter, who he had put in prison for five years for stealing artwork from a
gallery; Janet Kersey, who had just come out of an asylum after poisoning her neighbour with a cupcake;
Trevor Timms, who he had imprisoned for setting on fire a bakery. There were others too, all with a
personal grudge against him and equally likely to want to settle scores.

His mind went back to the letter. The handwriting was very careful and deliberate, as if someone was
trying to disguise it. The paper itself was taken, not torn, from a proper notepad, the kind you can buy at
any stationer's. Clearly, the note had not been written in a hurry and whoever had done it had had plenty
of time. It could have been done on the spot, it could have been done elsewhere. The strange thing was
why they had left the note in the first place, why not just let him find out his wife was missing himself?
Possibly it was to taunt him, turn the screw as it were, which increased the likelihood that this was a
crime with a very personal motivation.

It was time to get some help and Mason was reaching for the mobile in his back pocket when it rang
of its own accord. 'Number unknown' read the display so the hair on the back of his neck bristled as he
accepted the call. They knew he had found the note. Mason kept silent, heart pounding, waiting for the
caller to speak first and reveal as much as possible. The silence was agony but then the voice came. It
was his wife. 'Tony, it's me. I'm not hurt. They say that if you do everything they want, I can come back.'
She spoke clearly and calmly, as if reading from a prepared script. Again, Mason kept silent but this time
it was much more of a struggle. A pause and then another, rougher, voice came on the line. 'We'll be in
touch.' The phone went dead.

12 Diagnostic Test
A15 Which adjective best describes how Mason felt A19 What is the connection between the three
when he opened the door? criminals mentioned?

1) shocked 1) They all might like to take revenge on Mason.

2) exhausted 2) They have all been sent to prison by Mason.

3) cautious 3) They are the only people capable of taking


revenge on Mason.
4) annoyed
4) They have all committed terrible acts of violence.

A16 The message in the letter means


A20 Mason could tell from the letter that the writer
1) don't worry about where she could be hiding
1) was in a hurry when he wrote it
2) she could be hiding anywhere
2) had written it at the house
3) it will be difficult to find her
3) had forgotten to hide it
4) you will never find her
4) didn't want his writing to be recognised

A17 Why did Mason search the house?


A21 Why didn't Mason speak immediately when he
1) to try and find his wife answered the phone?

2) to look for evidence 1) It was a tactic to get more evidence

3) to see what had been stolen 2) He knew it was going to be his wife

4) to check if his intuition was right 3) The number of the incoming call was unknown

4) He felt very nervous and worried

A18 In the fourth paragraph 'to go on' means:


1) to read several times

2) to explain everything

3) to have as a clue

4) to remind him of his wife

Diagnostic Test 13
Pa1i:.en 3. rpaMM3THKa H JieKCHKa

IIpo•ut:TaHTe rrp1rne.r:1eHHb1e HIUKe TeKCThI. IIpeo6pa3yJ:iTe, ecmi: tteo6xo.r:1HMO, cnosa, HarreqaTaHHhle JarnaBHhIMH
6yKBaMH B KOH~e CTpOK, o603Ha'leHHblX HOMepaMH B4-B10, TaK, 'IT06bI OHH rpaMMaTH'leCKH COOTBeTCTBOBaJIH
co.r:1ep:>1<:aHHIO TeKCTOB. 3arroJIHHTe rrporrycKH IIOJiy'leHHblMH CJIOBaMH. KIDKJJ,b!H rrporrycK COOTBeTCTByeT OT,[leJibHOMY
Ja,[laHHIO H3 rpyrrrrhI B4-B10.

A DRIVING LESSON
As soon as I was 17 I was desperate to learn to drive. It seemed sensible at the time but in
B4 retrospect it ... .. .. . a mistake to ask my father to teach me to drive. As soon as BE
I got in the car, he started criticising me for slamming the car door.

BS Arwway, we ... off slowly down the road, my father keeping a close eye on SET
my progress. Everything was fine until I saw my old friend Doug.

B6 Doug and I .. .... . ........ ................. each other for ages, we're really close, so I had to give him KNOW
a wave. My hand left the wheel, the car went to the left and ... into a tree. That was the end
of my lessons with Dad.

THE MOSCOW METRO


Wherever you go in Moscow there are always a lot of people. However, in the morning and
B7 evening rush hours, the .................................... place in Moscow is the Metro. It carries an BUSY
estimated three million passengers a day.

Most of these passengers have little time to admire the architectural marvels of the metro
BB and this is a shame. If one ..................................................... the opportunity, there is so much to savour HAVE
in almost every station.

B9 When the Metro ......................................... ........ in the 1930s, the concept was of something both DESIGN
functional and beautiful, famously described as 'palaces for the people'. The result is clear
for everyone to see.

B10 So when you are next rushing from one station to the next, stop and ask ..................... .... ....... .............. YOU
if you really can't find the time to enjoy one of the best features of the Russian capital.

14 Diagnostic Test
IJpoqHTaJi!Te IIpHBegeHHbIH HH)l(e TeKCT. 06pa3yHTe OT CJIOB, HarreqaTaHHbIX 3arJiaBHbIMH oyKBaMH B KOHJJ;e
CTpOK, 0003HaqeHHblX HOMepaMH Bll-B16, OAHOKopeHHbie CJIOBa TaK, qTOObl OHM rpaMMan1qecKH H JieKcHqecKH
cooTBeTCTBOBaJIH cogep)l(aHHIO TeKcTa. 3arroJIHHTe rrporrycKH rroJiyqeHHbIMH cJioBaMH. Ka)l(gbIH rrporrycK
cooTBeTCTByeT oTgeJibHOMY 3agaHHIO H3 rpyrrrrhI Bll-B16.

EUROVISION
B11 Love it or hate it, the Eurovision song contest is one of the most popular ___ __ .. ................ .... .... .. ENTERTAIN
programmes on television, and now the Internet.

From its humble beginnings in 1956, Eurovision has become not just a European but a real
B12 ....... ....... ... . . --· -·-. phenomenon with viewing figures of over 100 million. NATION

Almost any song can appear on the show, and winners have come from genres as different
as folk and heavy metal, but there are restrictions on the length of the song and .it must have
B13 lyrics, not ______ ... _______ ... ____________________ in English. NECESSARY

Eurovision has launched the careers of some big names, such as ABBA and Celine Dion, but
B14 most acts are relatively _________________ -- ···-··--····- ... ___ and they are forgotten almost as soon as the KNOWN
programme has ended.

Russia has won Eurovision once when Dima Bilan sang Believe me in 2008. This success
B15 made Bilan a ..... .................................. in his home country. CELEBRATE

Eurovision has its critics - some say that the glamour and glitz have replaced the music - but
B16 such is the appeal of the event that it would be very difficult to ______________ .. ______ .. _________ ......... it from MOVE
the television schedule.

Diagnostic Test 15
Ilpot.IHTaHTe TeKCT c nponycKaMH, o603Hat.IeHHbIMH HOMepaMH A22-A28. 3TH HOMepa COOTBeTCTBYIDT 3aAaHHj{M
A22-A28, B KOTOpbIX npeACTaBJieHbI B03MO)l(Hbie sapHaHTbI OTBeTOB. 06BeAHTe HOMep Bb16paHHoro BaMH sapHaHTa
OTBeTa.

Penny Lane
I used to have a friend called Penny Lane, you know like the Beatles' song. Mr and Mrs Lane must
have had a really strange sense of humour or maybe they just weren't A22 fans of the
Beatles - anyway their daughter Penny was always being made fun of. Kids can be so cruel.

One day she must have got sick of it because she suddenly announced she would A23 _ _ _ __
a trip to Penny Lane. That got us all laughing - Penny Lane in Penny Lane! - so we decided to go too and
make her dream come true. I'd never been to Liverpool before and I was quite excited myself.

Anyway, we tvent by coach to Liverpool, playing word games to A24 time on the boring
journey. It was obviously Penny's lucky day because she won every time. When we arrived, we got a taxi
from the station. Penny had a real thrill A25 the taxi driver to go to Penny Lane. The
driver didn't seem surprised at all to go there - I guess he does this journey pretty often.

It wasn't a long way and, suddenly, we had arrived. The taxi pulled A26 next to
a street sign proudly announcing Penny Lane. There was no way we were going to miss this golden
A27 . Of course, we had to take a photo of Penny and we weren't the only ones as there
were lots of tourists doing the same. Then, completely spontaneously, we all started singing Penny Lane.
A28 a day! Penny, and the rest of us, will always remember it.

A22 1) great 2) large 3) strong 4) major

A23 1) do 2) take 3) go 4) ride

A24 1) waste 2) spend 3) kill 4) take

A25 1) talking 2) speaking 3) saying 4) telling

A26 1) to 2) by 3) up 4) in

A27 1) possibility 2) opportunity 3) chance 4) luck

A28 1) What 2) How 3) Such 4) So

16 Diagnostic Test
Pa3,11;eJI 4. IlucLMO

,Il;JISI oTBeTOB Ha 3aAaHirn Cl 11 C2 ucnoJib3YHTe 6JiaHK OTBeToB NI! 2. qepHOBbie noMeTKM MoryT AeJiaTbCSI npS1MO Ha
JIMCTe c 3aAaHMSIMM MJIM MO)l(HO ucnoJib30BaTb OTAeJibHhIH 11epHOBMK. Ilpu BhIIlOJIHeHMM 3aAaHMH Cl 11 C2 oco6oe
BHMMaHMe o6paTMTe Ha TO, 'ITO Baum OTBeTbl 6YAYT OQeHirnaTbCSI TOJibKO no 3ailMCSIM, CAeJiaHHblM B 6JiaHKe OTBeTOB
.N'2 2. HuKaKue 3an11c1111epHOBMKa He 6yAyT y1111TbIBaThCS1sKcnepTOM.06paTMTe BHMMaHue TaK)l(e Ha Heo6xOAMMOCTh
co6JIIOAeHMSI yKa3aHHoro o6beMa TeKcTa. TeKCThI HeAOCTaTO'IHOro o6beMa, a TaK)l(e 11acTh TeKcTa, npeBhIIIIaIOI.QaSI
Tpe6yeMbIH o6beM, He OQeHMBaIOTCSI. 3anMUIMTe cHa11ana HOMep 3aAaHMSI (Cl, C2), a 3aTeM oTBeT Ha Hero. Ecnu
OAHOH cTopoHhI 6naHKa HeAOCTaTO'IHO, Bbl MO)l(eTe ucnoJib30BaTb ero ApyryID CTopoHy.

Cl You have received a letter from your English-speaking pen-friend Joanna, who writes:
In your last letter you mentioned your 'dacha'. What exactly is a dacha? How do you spend your time there? Can you
go there all year round or just in summer?
We've now got a dog called Rex.

Write a letter to Joanna.

In your letter

- answer her questions

- ask 3 questions about her dog

Write 100-140 words.

Remember the rules of letter writing.

C2 Comment on the following statement.

Some people think that at school children should be able to choose which subjects to study.
What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?

Write 200-250 words.

Use the following plan:

- make an introduction (state the problem)

- express your personal opinion and give 2-3 reasons for your opinion

- express an opposing opinion and give 1-2 reasons for this opposing opinion

- explain why you don't agree with the opposing opinion

- make a conclusion restating your position

Diagnostic Test 17
Pa1,!1,eJI 1. Pa1,!1,eJI 2. Pa3,!1,eJI 3. rpaMM3THK3
Ay,!1,nposauue qTeHHe HJieKCHKa
.M 3agaHMSI 0TBeT .M3agaHMSI OTBeT N2 3agatt11si 0TBeT
Al AlS A22
A2 A16 A23
A3 A17 A24
A4 AlB A2S
AS A19 A26
A6 A20 A27
A7 A21 A2B
AB
A9
'
AlO
All
A12
A13
A14

Ay,!1,npoeaune
Bl
qTeHHe
B2
B3
fpaMMaTHKa H JieKCHKa *
B4
BS
B6
B7
BB
B9
BlO
Bll
B12
B13
B14
BlS
B16

* Han11catt11e oTBeToB (6e3 npo6eJioB 11 3HaKoB npemrnatt11si) cooTBeTcTByeT


MHCTPYK~1111 <l>LI;T no 3anoJIHett1110 6JiattKa OTBeToB N2 1.

18 Diagnostic Test
Listening
The Listening chapter has three units to match the
structure of RSE Listening (Pa3):1eJI 1. Ayi:111poaam1e): Each unit is divided into two sections:

~!• Improving your understanding

teaches general listening skills which you'll need for all


parts of the Listening.
~Exam pradice
applies these skills to the RSE format. In this section
you'll get help and practice in tackling each of the three
parts of the Listening.

Exam Overview Part 1. Listening comprehension Recommended time 30 minutes


------

The Listening has three parts:


Part1 Matching what 6 speakers say to 7 Focus on listening for the gist 1 mark for each extract matched
statements (one statement is extra) or main idea correctly (total 6 marks)
1 question, 6 matches
Part2 Choosing between three-option Focus on identifying if the given statement 1 mark per question
answers: TRUE, FALSE, NOT is true or false according to the audio text (total 7 marks)
STATED, 7 questions or if there is no information on it
Part3 Choosing one of the three options Focus on understanding specific information 1 mark per question
in multiple choice questions, in the interview, including situations when (total 7 marks)
7 questions the speaker changes his/her mind
Total: 15 questions 20 marks

19
Matching
Information
In Part 1 of the listening test, you'll hear six short extracts, and they will all be related in some way. The speakers
will all be speaking about aspects of the same subject, e.g. travel, or about similar experiences. In the task, there
are seven summary statements on the same topic. You have to match what each of the six speakers says to one
of the seven statements (there is always one extra). You hear the whole of the recording twice.

Here is the task as it is given in the exam paper:

Bbl ycJiblIIIHTe I1IeCTb BblCKa3bIBaHHH. YcTaHOBHTe cooTBeTCTBHe Me)J(,!l.y BblCKa3bIBaHH~MH Ka)J(,!l.oro


' u

roaop~I.Qero A-F H yTaep)J(,!1.eHH~MH, gaHHblMH e crrttcKe 1-7. HcnoJib3YHTe Ka)J(,!1.0e yTBep)J(,!1.eHHe, o6o3Hat.JeHttoe
cooTBeTCTBYIOI.QeH QHcppow, TOJibKO OAHH pa3. B 33A3HHH ecTL OAHO nnwuee yTeep>KAenne. Bbl ycJiblIIIHTe
3aIIHCb ,!l.Ba)J(,!1.bl. 3aHeCHTe CBOH OTBeTbl B Ta6JIHQy.

Section A Improving your understanding

Introductory exercise
~ You will hear six people speaking. Match each speaker A-F to the statements 1-7. Use the statements
only once. There is an extra statement which you don't need to use.

It was not what we expected. 5 It was a very convenient location .

2 A change from the usual holiday. 6 I had a holiday romance.

3 It was a dream come true. 7 This holiday was a pleasant surprise.

4 The beach is best.

Speaker A B c D E F
Statement

Listening for the most important words


..,.. Aim of Exercise A1: to listen for stressed words which carry information; to build up complete sentences
from the stressed words

M Exercise A1
When you're listening it's not necessary to hear and
understand every word that's spoken . Your ears need to
focus on the words that are stressed, that is, the words
that come across most strongly. These words carry the
main parts of the message. If you can hear these, you
should have a good idea of what the piece is about.

1 Before you listen, describe the photo and discuss


what a holiday in a small village in the hills is like.
20 Unit1
2 ~ You will hear Zoe talking about her last family holiday. But you'll only hear the important
words in each sentence - the rest has disappeared! Listen and write down the words and phrases
you hear for each sentence .

Sentence 1: ...... ..... re..11.~4..... ... ........ ..hPl!.fi?.fJ... ···- ... . eu:n!Jlf. v.i.ll.~Bf! ....
Sentence 2:

Sentence 3:

Sentence 4:

Sentence 5:

Sentence 6:

Sentence 7:

3 Look at the words you've written down and guess what Zoe was saying. Remember, she was
describing her last family holiday. Build the rest of the sentence around the words.

Sentence 1: We ..re..11.~~-- a .. .h.P.!!.fi?fJ... in a .... ~m.~'1..v.iJf~gtl... in the .. hiflf!?.. about ....~P. mfn1,1.~~.'..4.rlv.e.. .. from the ..t?.Q~~:k . .

4 ~ Now listen to the full recording of what Zoe said and check it against what you have
written down.

IJIJ> Aim of Exercise A2: to listen for stressed words in order to complete a paragraph

'I Exercise A2
1 Look at what Zoe says next about her holiday. The stressed words have been removed so it's
impossible to understand what she says: the stressed words are all 'content' words - nouns,
verbs, adjectives - and they carry the meaning of what she's saying.

2 8IQID Listen to the recording once without stopping it. Then listen again and fill in the gaps.
You'll need to stop the recording to give yourself time to write.

When either (0) John or (1L .... were not on (2) we

(3) ····· .................... . and (4) the (5) . Then we'd all

(6) for (7) . The (8) there was (9) ·····~ ~····- ~~~- ~ , '
especially the (10) . And the (11). couldn't believe their

(12) with the (13) . They came in (14) with

(15) of (16) .................... , and little (17). in, and on the

(18) we were there, the ice creams came (19) with

(20) _ . That was the (21) of the (22) two

weeks for (23L ... ..-... , I can tell you !

Matching Unit 1 21
.., Aim Qf Exercise A3: to listen for stressed words in order to help you answer general
comprehension questions

II Exercise A3
Before you listen, discuss what kinds of 'must-know' courses people can be made to attend.

~ You will hear a man talking about a course he went on. Listen once without stopping the
recording. Remember to focus on hearing the stressed words to get a general idea of what he's
talking about. Then read Questions 1 - 5 below. Listen again and notice how the stressed words
give you the answers to the questions.

1 Who wanted him to go on the course?


2 Why?

3 What parts of the course did he enjoy?
4 How long was the course?
5 What positive result did the course have for him?

From your general understanding of the extract, answer these questions.

6 What kind of course was it?

7 How would you describe his feelings about the course - before, during and after?

Tip: Getting ideas before you listen


In real life (not classroom or exam life) you listen when you want to know something, e.g. from the
TV news, having a conversation with a friend, on the telephone, and so on. You know what the topic
is, and if you're not interested, you can choose not to listen.

In a listening test, you have to listen to whatever the examiner has chosen. So you must use any
information you're given - the instructions, the questions, etc. - to start you thinking. In this way,
when the recording starts playing you'll be prepared .

.., Aim of Exercise A4: to think about what you are going to hear before you hear it

II Exercise A4
1 Before you listen, look at the following words.

excursion overbooked sorry refund

1 Where or in what situation might you hear these words?

2 Who would you expect to hear using them?

2 fIUO) Listen and answer the following questions.

3 What is the problem?

4 How was the matter settled?

22 Unit1
~Aim of Exercise AS: to listen for the ways in which the same things are expressed differently

I I Exercise AS
1 Before you listen, discuss how people's appearances can change over time.

2 fITID Two friends went to a party last night where they met some people they hadn't seen for a long time. You
will hear part of their conversation in which the friends talk about Robert and Paula, and how they have changed.

Listen to the conversation and identify Robert and Paula now from the photos below. There are two extra
photos which you do not need to use.

3 • 1.11 ) Listen again and find the equivalents of the following statements .
0 Robert is not as fat as he used to be. .(RQkert ..ha.ffe.) ~llm.mc.d_d.Qw.n_a. l?ft, .... -............~ .........._............
1 Robert doesn't wear his hair long any more.

2 Robert has lost some hair on his head. a) ...... - ..........- ...............- ......................................................................................................

b) ............................................................................................. - .............................................

3 Robert still wears an earring.

4 Paula looks much better than she did as a young girl.

5 Paula was wearing very big earrings at the party.

6 Paula was a skinny young girl.

Matching Unit 1 23
Identifying and using the context
.,. Aim of Exercise A6: to understand the context from which a listening extract is taken - who's talking, to whom,
what they're speaking about and why, how they're feeling, etc.

Iii Exercise A6
1 ffi12) You will hear 12 extracts A·L. Stop the recording after each one and match it to one of the descriptions
in the table below. The first extract has been done for you.

Description Extract
general conversation

weather forecast
I
lecture or talk

interview

telephone conversation

news bulletin

telephone information line

extract from film/book/play

public announcement A

advertisement

tour commentary

speech

2 fjU3) Now you will hear 6 of the extracts again. Listen carefully and match each extract to one of the
statements 1-7. Use each statement once only. There is one extra statement you don't need to use.
Write your answers in the table.

1 A n international conference on environmental issues has just taken place in the capital of Greece.
2 A nyone longs for them at any moment throughout the day.

3 He attracted everyone's attention while he was making his way to Anna.

4 Her parents allowed her to become what she had always wanted to.
5 Here is an announcement of the next thing coming.
6 Incredible as it may seem, there wasn't anything at the very beginning of the universe.
7 The group can see the famous tall building on their left.

c F H J K L

24 Unit1
Aim of Exercise A7: to understand the circumstances
lill> Extract E
surrounding the extracts 1 Who is the speaker talking to?

II Exercise A7 2 What is he going to do?

You will hear the 12 extracts from Exercise A6 again.


You know what kind of extracts these are. Now you Extract F
are going to concentrate on:
Where might you have heard this?
• who is talking and who is listening
2 How does Gino feel about his walk to Anna's table?
• where the 'talking' takes place
• what might have led up to this happening
• the feelings being expressed Extract G
• the relationship between the speakers
1 Who might be interested in this?

~ Listen to the extracts again. Stop the 2 What are the key information words for an
recording after each one and answer the following interested listener?
questions in note form. The first extract has been
done for you.
Extract H
Extract A
1 What impression/mood does the speaker want
1 Where did this take place? to give?
in a 5hopldepartment 5tore

2 What words/phrases did you hear that helped Extract I


you decide? 1 What has led up to the speaker's words?
'office: 'cu5tomer 5ervice5 department:
2 How does the speaker make a (small) joke?
'5ec;ond floor'

Extract J
Extract B
1 Who might be listening to this speaker?
1 Where did this conversation take place?

2 What phrase gave you the answer?


Extract K
3 What is the probable relationship between
1 Who is speaking?
the speakers?
2 Who answered his question?
4 How do you know this?

Extract L
Extract C
1 What detail might Milton Davies give?
1 How well do you think the speakers know
each other?

2 What impression do you have of the second


speaker's character, and why do you think this?

Extract D

1 Why did the listener call this number?

Matching Unit 1 25
.,.. Aim of Exercise AB: to understand the speaker's mood

11\1 Exercise AS
eTI!) You will hear eight different extracts. Stop the recording after each one and answer the
following questions. The first extract has been done for you.

1 What is the extract about?

2 How does the person feel? Choose one of the adjectives below.

excited pleased annoyed sorry disappointed surprised nervous worried

3 What words did (s)he say that gave you this impression?

Extract A Extract E

1 .. t.b~. ~p~a(<~r.·a .first. h~U<?.o~r..flJeb.t .................-.. 1 ................,............................................... " .....................................

2 .. ~X(;i°t.'ld ..... .........................................................................................-.... 2


3 . '.f.'.m..r~ally..fpQ(<ine. farw.{Jrd 't.PJt...' .............. . 3

Extract B Extract F

1 ................................................................. - ................ -.................._.................. 1 ......................................... ' ................................................ _..........-....................

2 .....................................................................- ......- ............................................ . 2 .................-...................................................................................... ....._ ""'"


3 ............................... ,,_ ........... _...... _......................................................... 3 ....................................... ................. , ....................................................................

Extract C Extract G

1 .........................................._..,.... _............................................. ............................. 1

2 .................................................................................................................. . 2
3 3 .............................................. ................................................................................

Extract D Extract H

1 ............ ... ......... ....... .............. 1 ....................................................... - ............................ """""" """'""

2 ........................................................ 2 ' . .. .......... . ... """"" "'""" ................ """ ..........................-


3 .. ........................................................-....- ....... . 3 "" ...... ····- ............. .... .... ..... .... - ......... "" ...... ................................ '

26 Unit1
.,.. Aim of Exercise A9: to identify who says what and make notes about what you hear

§I Exercise A9
1 Before you listen, discuss the following question: How can insects be champions?

2 fiU5) You will hear an extract entitled 'Who would win the insect Olympics?'. This tells you about
the physical strengths of three insects, and imagines what sports they would do well in if they were
Olympic athletes.

Listen and complete the table below.

Rhinoceros beetle Cockroach Cat flea

Olympic sport weightlifting

Whattheinsectdoes

Why it does it to get to its new 'home'

3 fiU5) Listen to the extract again. This time, match each insect to one of the statements 1-4. Use each
statement only once. There is one extra statement you don't need to use. Write your answers in the table.
I

They are unable to keep the record speed up for a long time.

2 This activity can be dangerous.

3 They all come from the African variety.

4 They are so strong that they can lift hundreds of times their own weight.

Rhinoceros beetle Cockroach Cat flea

Matching Unit 1 27
..,. Aim of Exercise A10: to write notes about a more complicated extract

II ExerciseA10
1 Before you listen, discuss how people might choose which cookbook to buy.

Cookery

2 filID You will hear two friends discussing fish cookbooks. In this extract the information about
each book is not given separately; it is mixed up, not presented book by book.

Listen to the conversation, twice if necessary, and make notes in the table below about what each
book offers. Use the following checklist.

price what it contains what it doesn't contain photos organisation opinion

Tasty Fish Something Fishy Worldwide Fish

£15.99
tote; of colour picturee;

3 Now use your notes to help you answer the questions below. Don't try this until you've made the notes!

Which book (or books):

doesn't have recipes for spicy fish?

2 does one of the speakers like and the other dislike?

3 has good photos in it?

4 is the most expensive?

5 does the woman decide to buy?

28 Unit1
4 fI:1ill Read the statements below and underline the key words. Listen to the conversation again
and match the statements 1-11 to the correct book title. You can use one statement for more than
one book! There is one extra statement which you don't need to use. Write your answers in the
table below.

It is easy to find the recipe you need.

2 It's not going to be easy to find Thai recipes in it.

3 The book doesn't have many illustrations.


4 The book gives a lot of interesting reading material.
5 The book has probably got some spicy fish recipes.
6 The book has only traditional fish recipes.
7 The book is organised by the names of fish.
8 The book is organised by the national cuisine.
9 The book is organised by the season when they catch different fish.
10 There is a good index in the book.

11 With so many colour pictures, you can be sure what the dish you are cooking should look like.

Tasty Fish Something Fishy Worldwide Fish

Suggested approach for Part 1 of the Listening Test

1 Read and listen to the instructions carefully. You should be clear about what the general
context is - what the six speakers have in common. You should also be clear what question
you are going to answer: simple (What job does each speaker do? Which of the opinions
does each speaker express?) or more complex (What did each person think was the best
thing about...?).

2 Read the seven statements. Highlight or underline the details that you have to listen for.
3 As you listen the first time, note for each speaker anything which will help to fix them in your
mind (age, gender) and any words/phrases that correspond to what you're listening for.

4 Remember that the extracts may contain distracting information so you should listen to the
whole piece before you make a decision. Don't decide too quickly. The word 'but' may be the
most important word in the recording!

Matching Unit 1 29
Section B Exam pradice
To prepare for the exam, you need practice to help you remember what each speaker says and to use the second
listening for checking (one wrong answer can affect the others).

Ill> Aim of Exercise B1: to identify clues for choosing the correct opinions and to notice what can lead to the
wrong choice

II Exercise 81
1 fl@ You will hear five speakers talking about films they have seen. Each speaker expresses an opinion
about his or her chosen film. Match the speakers A-E with their opinions 1-5.

1 The scenery was wonderful. Speaker A ............ ---··-···..



2 The star was excellent. Speaker B ·····-······················

3 The action was really exciting. Speaker C ······-·······--····

4 The story was very moving. Speaker D .. .... _...................


5 The acting was very good. Speaker E ~-····-····················

2 fI};!D Listen again and write down the words and phrases you hear which give clues to your answers.

Speaker A:

Speaker B:

Speaker C:

Speaker D:

Speaker E:

30 Unit1
3 e::TID You will hear the same five speakers again. This time, listen for some information that could lead you to
make a wrong choice. If some words or phrases you hear relate to one of the other choices, these pieces of
distracting information can sometimes lead you to make the wrong choice. The first speaker has been done for you.

Speaker A:
.. Dir,in't. thin.k .mYt;;.h._Qfth.('J .f?'f;Qry (t;;hPit;;f'J 4:.mentiPn6 etpry)
. dt;;f;Qr~. 4i4. their.. ke~t (t;;l:u2ft;;f;._ Q. merrt:iQr!.~-~.qt;in9).. _ _
Speaker B:

Speaker C:

Speaker D:

Speaker E:

..,. Aim of Exercise 82: to identify the specific problem being discussed

I! Exercise 82
~ You will hear five people speaking about a problem they had on holiday. Match each speaker A~ E with
the reason for their problem 1-6. Use each reason in the list only once. There is an extra reason which you don't
need to use. Listen to the recording twice. Write your answers in the table.

1 a crime 4 the weather

2 a disco 5 an accident

3 an illness 6 the hotel

Speaker A B c D E
Reason

Matching Unit 1 31
.,.. Aim of Exercise 83: to practise an exam-style question with only five speakers

Exercise 83

~ You will hear five people


speaking about flying on business
trips. Match each speaker A-E
with the statements 1-6. Use each
statement only once. There is an
extra statement which you don't
need to use. Listen to the recording
twice. Write your answers in the table.

I'm afraid of flying.

2 I sleep to pass the time.

3 I fly so much I now love it.

4 I have special routines before the flight.

5 I sometimes don't know where I am.

6 I don't like to be ready too soon.

Speaker A B c D E
Statement

.,.. Aim of Exercises 84-88: to practise exam-style questions

Exercise 84

Bbl ycJihIIIIHTe 6 BhICKa3bIBaHHH. YcTaHOBHTe cooTBeTCTBHe Me)!():ly BhICKa3bIBaHHHMH Ka)l(goro roaop.HI.Qero


fiIIB A-F H yTBep)l(geHHHMH, gaHHhIMH B cnHCKe 1-7.11cnoJib3YHTe Ka)l(goe yTaep)l(geHHe, o6o3Hat.Jettttoe
cooTBeTCTBYIOI.QeH QHcppoM:, TOJibKO o,i:i;uu pa3. B 3a,11;auuu eCTb o,i:i;uo Jiumuee yTeep)l{,!J;enue. 3attecHTe
CBOH OTBeTbl B Ta6JIHQy.

1 This is a useless activity.

2 There needs to be more respect for us.

3 It isn't the right place.

4 People's inaccuracy can be annoying.

5 What is a cause of conflict in our family.

6 You can't correct bad taste.

7 I don't have enough patience.

foeop.sm~uu A B c D E F
YTBep)l{,11;euue

32 Unit1
B Exercise BS
BhI ycJihIIIIl1Te6 BhICKa3hIBaH11n. YcTaHoB11Te cooTBeTCTB11e Me)K,[ly BhICKa3hIBaHM.SIMl1 Ka)K,[IOro roaopsn.Qero
A-F 11 yTaep)K,[leH11SIM11, ,1:1aHHhIM11 B crr11cKe 1-7. 11crroJih3YMTe Ka)K,[loe yTaep)K,[leH11e, o6o3HalleHHoe
cooTBeTCTBYIOI.Qen Q11cppou, TOJILKO O,IJ;HH pa1. B 1a,IJ;anuu ecTL o,IJ;uo nuwuee yTeepJK,IJ;enue. 3aHec11Te
CBOl1 OTBeThl B Ta6JI11Qy.

1 I have to make a difficult decision.

2 Making money is the priority.


3 I have very high motivation.

4 This would be a logical step.


5 I will wait and see.
6 I am under pressure from my family.

7 I know that it's highly unlikely.

foeopsn~uit I A B c D E F
YTsep>KAenue

I' Exercise 86
BhI ycnh1II111Te 6 BhICKa3hIBaH11n. YcTaHoB11Te cooTBeTCTB11e Me)K,[ly BhICKa3hIBaH11SIM11 Ka)K,[loro roaopsiI.Qero
A-F 11 yTBep)K,[leH11SIM11, ,1:1aHHhIM11Bcrr11cKe1-7.11crroJih3YMTe Ka)K,[loe yTBep)K,[leH11e, o6o3HalleHHOe
cooTBeTCTBYIOI.Qen Q11cppou, TOJILKO O,IJ;HH pa1. B 3a,IJ;anuu ecTL O,IJ;HO nuwuee yTeepJK,IJ;enue. 3aHec11Te
CBOl1 OTBeThl B Ta6n11Qy.

1 I am a satisfied parent.
2 We are able to have our dinner party.

3 I was able to get ready for work as usual thanks to the shop.

4 It is just like back home.


5 A dangerous situation is avoided.
6 I'm always surprised so many people are here.

7 That's how I fit shopping into my work schedule.

foeop.H~HH A B c D E F
YTBepJK,IJ;euue

Matching Unit 1 33
I.I Exercise 87
fjTuJ 6 BbICKa3bIBaHHM. YcTaHOBHTe cooTBeTCTBHe Me)K,o:y BbICKa3bIBaHH.slMH Ka)K,D;oro rosop.s1I.IJ;ero
Bbl ycJibIIIIHTe
A-F H yTBep)K,o:eHH.slMH, ,o:aHHbIMH B cnttcKe 1-7. HcnoJib3YMTe Ka)K,O:Oe yTBep)K,D;ettwe, o6o3Hat.IeHHoe
cooTseTCTBYIOI.IJ;e:ii Qmppo:ii, TOJJLKO o,o:nu pa3. B 3a,o:aunn ecTi. o,o:uo JJHmuee yTBepJK,o:eune. 3attecwTe
CBOH OTBeTbl B Ta6JIHQy.

This place is indescribable.

2 This is an outside museum .

3 It is rather disappointing.

4 It offers hands-on experience.

5 You never have any trouble seeing exhibits.

6 The whole family can have fun here.

7 This is my favourite museum.

foeopsnqnii A B c D E F
YTBepJK,o:eune

IJ Exercise 88
flili) Bbl ycJibIIIIHTe 6 BbICKa3bIBaHHH. YcTaHOBHTe cooTseTCTBHe Me)K,o:y BbICKa3b!BaHH.slMH Ka)K,O:Oro rosop.s1I.IJ;ero
A-F H yTBep)K,O:eHH.slMH, ,o:aHHbIMH s cnttcKe 1-7. HcnoJib3YHTe Ka)K,o:oe yTBep:>K,o:ettwe, o6o3Hat.Iettttoe
cooTBeTCTsy10I.IJ;eH: QmppoH:, Toni.Ko o,o:nu pa3. B 3a,o:aunn ecTi. o,o:uo nnwuee yTeepJK,o:eune. 3attecwTe
CBOH OTBeTbl B TaOJIHQy.

1 My neighbours are difficult.

2 I am considering moving house.

3 I deserve to be where I am.

4 The way of life here is quite hard.

5 The problem is living in a flat.

6 I am worried about money.

7 I'm satisfied with where I live.

foeopsnquii A B c D E F
YTeepJK,o:euue

34 Unit1
Three-option answers
Information
In Part 2 of the listening test, you'll hear one long extract. There are seven questions which you must answer by
choosing between three-option answers (True or False or Not stated). The recording will be played twice. The
questions follow the order of the information in the recording.

Here is the task as it is given in the exam paper:


Bbl ycJibIIImTe ):111anor. Onpe):leJI11Te, KaK11e 113 np11Be):leHHblX yTBep)l{):leH11ti Al-A7 cooTBeTCTBYJOT co):lep)l{aH1110
TeKCTa (1- True), KaK11e He COOTBeTCTBYIOT (2 - False) 11 0 qeM B TeKCTe He CKa3aHO, TO eCTb Ha OCHOBaHl111 TeKCTa
HeJib3SI AaTb Hl1 noJIO)l{11TeJibHb1ti, Hl1 OTp11QaTeJibHb1ti OTBeT (3 - Not stated). 06ee):l11Te HOMep Bb16paHHoro BaM11
eap11aHTa oTBeTa. Bbl ycJiblllll1Te 3an11cb ABa)l{):lbI.

~ You will hear the beginning


of a dialogue between two schoolgirls
about a disco. Of the three statements
A1-A3, one corresponds to what
they say, one doesn't, and one gives
information that isn't given in the
recording. Which statement can be
marked as True, which as False, and
which as Not stated? Circle the number
of the answer you have chosen.

A1 Both girls went to the club disco


last Saturday.

1 True 2 False 3 Not stated

A2 The school band sings songs whose


words have been written by one of
the students.

1 True 2 False 3 Not stated

A3 Everyone admired the way Julie


danced at the disco.

1 True 2 False 3 Not stated

Three-option answers Unit 2 35


..,. Aim of Exercise Al: to practise using clues to help you Two-option answers
understand the context, relationships, references, etc. as
..,. Aim of Exercise A2: to practise justifying a True/False
you did in Unit 1, but this time with a longer extract
answer
IJ Exercise A1
Before you listen, read the questions below.
82.03) You will hear a conversation between two
1 Where does the conversation take place? What people about an electricity bill they've just received.
'clues' led you to this conclusion? Some of the statements 1-6 below contain information
which was given in the recording (shown as True) but
others do not (shown as False). What did you hear which
2 What are the two people doing? led to the True/False answers?

.. ' ...... ·········~ ....... ·····-·-···-········-···· ....... _. ································


What to do:
3 Who's the man talking about when he says • Read statements 1-6 below together with their
'She didn't seem too pleased about that, did she?' answers.
• Listen to the extract once to make sure you agree
with the True/False answers.
4 What does the man mean when he says 'three • Listen again, stop the recording at the right moment
went past'? and write what you heard to justify the True/False
answer.

5 What did the woman buy last week? 0 The weather has been warm during the
last three months. False

6 Why does the man say 'as usual'? ..'i't.~~- k~tm. p.r.~:ty . c;,old~........ ...... ......... . ...................
1 They've needed the heating a lot. True

7 What can you guess about the person who arrives


in the car?
2 Their electricity bill is bigger than last year's. True

8 What impression do you have of the woman's


character? 3 He's going to pay the bill immediately. False

9 What impression do you have of the man's 4 Electricity prices are higher than last year. True
character?

5 She is surprised at the size of the bill. False


8202) Listen to the conversation between Kathy and
Philip once, without stopping the recording. See if you
can now answer any of the above questions. Listen
again, stopping the recording where you need to, and
write down your answers.

36 Unit2
~Aim of Exercise A3: to develop the skill of identifying
true and false statements for a shorter conversation

a Exercise A3
82.04) You will hear a conversation between two
people who are talking about a newspaper article.
Decide whether statements A1-A4 are True or False.
Circle the number of the answer you have chosen.

A1 Mr Flowers left £84,000 when he died.


1 True 2 False

A2 The man does not approve of what Mr Flowers did.


1 True 2 False
A3 Mr Flowers had four children.

1 True 2 False
A4 The woman is annoyed about this report.

1 True 2 False

~Aim of Exercise A4: to look at how distracting


information can make you choose a wrong answer

II Exercise A4
~ You will hear part of a radio programme about A3 Mr Teacher doesn't enjoy making any decisions.
the amount of money some people earn for the jobs they 1 True 2 False
do. Decide whether statements A1-A9 are True or False.
Circle the number of the answer you have chosen. A4 Mr Johnson thinks the difference between the two
salaries is too big.
What to do: 1 True 2 False
• Listen to the extract. Try and answer some of the
AS Mr Johnson doesn't think Mr Teacher has a
questions as you're listening. Circle 1 (True) or 2
responsible job.
(False).
1 True 2 False
• Of the statements A1-A9, six should be False, three
should be True. Look at your answers to adjust them A6 They both have to work at weekends.
to these numbers. 1 True 2 False
• Think about what can make a statement false (look
at the notes in the box on page 38). A7 Mr Teacher worked for BritElectric when he was at
• Listen again. What is it that makes six of the college.
statements false? 1 True 2 False

A8 Mr Teacher's lifestyle is the same as it was.


A1 Mr Teacher doesn't know how much he earns.
1 True 2 False
1 True 2 False
A9 They are both satisfied with the amount they're paid.
A2 Some people have already lost their jobs at
1 True 2 False
BritElectric.
1 True 2 False
Three-option answers Unit 2 37
Things to look for which may mean the answer is false

• The tense or time reference is wrong.


• The statement is saying something which you might assume but which is not actually mentioned
in the discussion.
• The statement contains information which is mentioned in the discussion but in connection with
another situation or person.
• A phrase begins with a negative, such as 'It's not as if ... ', 'It doesn't necessarily mean .. .'.

Get it right! f~
.~
Russian learners often make mistakes using negative structures.

1 There.can't be two parts of a phrase showing negation, so instead of the INCORRECT ~'Ve didn't
have little time learners should use We had little time OR We didn't have any time OR We didn't have
enough time. Other examples:
I won't see you until you don't graduate graduate.

No person in his/her teens wouldn't prefer would prefer an extra lesson to a good game.

2 To better understand questions that you hear, you need to remember that Can't you help ... ?
and Don't you help ... ? sound like a reprimand rather than a suggestion or request and are
NOT equivalents to Russian questions with negation Bbl He MoJKeme noMo'tb ... ? and Bbl He
noMozaeme ... ?.English equivalents for these Russian questions have no negation : Can you help ... ?
Do you help ...?
3 It's useful to remember idioms for which the Russian equivalent contains double negation:
I can't help laughing. He couldn't help doing it over and over.
IJll. see Unit 5, ex A4

Three-option answers
.,.. Aim of Exercise AS: to practise identifying who is expressing what (three speakers in a conversation)

~ You will hear a conversation between a shop assistant and two customers, Tom and Carol. Decide whether
statements A1-A4 are True or False. Circle the number of the answer you have chosen.

A1 Who feels embarrassed?

1 shop assistant 2 Tom 3 Carol

A2 Who has left the receipt at home?

1 shop assistant 2 Tom 3 Carol

A3 Who doesn't accept the refusal?

1 shop assistant 2 Tom 3 Carol

A4 Who wants the manager to come?

1 shop assistant 2 Tom 3 Carol

38 Unit2
Aim of Exercise A6: to decide which feeling or opinion
IJJ> Aim of Exercise A7: to practise identifying what the
IJJ>

is expressed by which speaker speakers are referring to

II Exercise A6
~ You will hear a conversation between three
people talking about a picture in an exhibition. Look
at Questions 1-9 in the table below. Listen to the
conversation and tick (ti) whether it is Jack, Sarah and/
or Maria who expresses each fact or opinion. It may be.
A1 The charge for accommodation is not included
one, two or all three of them. Listen to the conversation
in the price.
as many times as you need. Pay attention when the
speakers use each other's names so that you know who 1 Goya Academy 2 Iberia International
is who. It may also help if you make your own notes as 3 Martinez School
you're listening, under the name of each speaker.
A2 A colleague recommended this school.
Who: Jack Sarah Maria 1 Goya Academy 2 Iberia International
1 has seen the picture? 3 Martinez School
ti
A3 The brochure is well illustrated.
2 advises their friend to
1 Goya Academy 2 Iberia International
see it?
3 Martinez School
3 sympathises with the A4 This school offers the most intensive programme.
families' situation?
1 Goya Academy 2 Iberia International
4 feels it shouldn't be on 3 Martinez School
display?
AS It is near the centre of town.
5 didn't think it was very
good? 1 Goya Academy 2 Iberia International
3 Martinez School
6 was moved by the
picture? A6 Accommodation is guaranteed close to the school.

1 Goya Academy 2 Iberia International


7 thinks the artist had a
3 Martinez School
selfish motive?
A7 It's unsuitable because of the age of the students.
8 suggests the artist's
motive may have been 1 Goya Academy 2 Iberia International
good? 3 Martinez School
9 changes their mind
about going to see it?

Your additional notes

Three-option answers Unit 2 39


.,.. Aim of Exercises AB and A9: to develop the skill of identifying whether or not some specific information has been
stated in the conversation

IJ Exercise AS
1 1)2.09) You will hear part of a radio programme in which Frank, a policeman, talks about his forthcoming
retirement. For Questions 1-7, decide whether the information is stated or not, and write T for True or F for False
in the boxes provided.

Frank is retiring before he has to. D


2 He disapproves of the new technology in the office. D
3 Frank is not against DNA testing. D
4 Gettiri1g respect from the public is now more difficult. D
5 He believes that women will soon make up 50% of the force. D
6 The first thing Frank wants is a holiday. D
7 He thinks Jessie would like him to do night security work. D
2 1)2.09) Listen again. For each of the seven statements A1-A7 decide which are supported by the text
(1-True), which are not supported (2 - False) and which are not mentioned in the text and cannot either be
proved or disproved from the information given (3 - Not stated). Circle the number of the answer you have
chosen. Listen to the recording twice.

Al Frank was happy to be given a chance of early retirement.


1 True 2 False 3 Not stated
A2 Frank objects to having to master new technologies at work.

1 True 2 False 3 Not stated

A3 Frank finds DNA testing and other forensic methods fascinating.

1 True 2 False 3 Not stated

A4 Frank tried to study DNA testing methods in criminology.

1 True 2 False 3 Not stated


AS Frank mentions changes for the better and the worse in a policeman's work.
1 True 2 False 3 Not stated
A6 Frank thinks work in the police is difficult for women.

1 True 2 False 3 Not stated

A7 Frank will be happy to find a security job working shifts when he retires.

1 True 2 False 3 Not stated

40 Unit2
P Exercise A9
1 fiI!Q) Listen to the dialogue and decide which information is true for each speaker.

Who: Nigel Selina


1 looks different?

2 plays music?

3 has a friend called Mike?

4 asks about the other person's parents?

5 is going to France?

6 speaks bad French?

7 is meeting a friend?

8 brings the conversation to an end?

2 fiI!Q) Listen again. Decide which of the statements A1-A7 are supported by the text (1-True), which are
not supported (2 - False) and which are not mentioned in the text and cannot be either proved or disproved
from the information given (3 - Not stated). Circle the number of the answer you have chosen. Listen to the
recording twice. Read the statements A1-A7 before you listen.

A1 Selina used to have longer hair.


1 True 2 False 3 Not stated
Suggested approach for Part 2 of the Listening Test
A2 Nigel is a member of a band. 1 Read the statements - you have on average 20
1 True 2 False 3 Not stated seconds to do this.

A3 Nigel's parents have just built a summer cottage. 2 Underline any key words to help you focus on what
to listen for.
1 True 2 False 3 Not stated
3 If any of the statements are connected with
A4 Nigel is going to the cottage next weekend. feelings/opinions, think about how these might be
1 True 2 False 3 Not stated expressed.

AS Selina speaks French well. 4 Be careful with negatives in the statements.

1 True 2 False 3 Not stated 5 Listen and begin answering. Don't expec;t to be
able to answer everything during the first listening.
A6 Nigel has visited Nice.
6 Remember that answers should be based on
1 True 2 False 3 Not stated information in the text, not what you personally
A7 Selina is waiting for somebody. think or know.

1 True 2 False 3 Not stated 7 Be particularly careful with Not stated answers -
information about this is just not in the text.

8 Listen again and finish answering.


9 Check your answers - have you answered every
question?

Three-option answers Unit 2 41


.,.. Aim of Exercises B1-B3: to think about
what you're going to hear before you hear it

I! Exercise 81
You will hear part of a talk about
domestic cats. Before you listen, read
the following statements about cats
and decide whether they are True or
False. If you don't know, guess.

A1 Most ca~ owners don't know that


their pets can do many more things
than they have seen them do.

1 True 2 False 3 Not stated

A2 The initial motivation for cats to


start living near people was to
provide more safety in their lives.

1 True 2 False 3 Not stated

A3 Cats in Ancient Egypt were treated


very well.

1 True 2 False 3 Not stated

A4 Cats express themselves most through the use of their tai l.

1 True 2 False 3 Not stated

AS Before a fight, cats swing their tail in order to threaten their enemy.
1 True 2 False 3 Not stated
A6 When another cat comes into their territory, they try to protect their home against it.

1 True 2 False 3 Not stated


A7 A cat purrs as a way of saying, 'I'm happy.'

1 True 2 False 3 Not stated

flI!D Now listen to the monologue. Which of the statements A1·A7 above are True, False or Not stated?
Circle the number of the answer you have chosen.

42 Unit2
II Exercise 82
You will hear part of a dialogue with Barbara Currie, who is talking about her work as a dentist. In the
exam, it's important to read the questions carefully before you start listening, so that you have some
idea in your mind of what to listen for.

What to do:
• Read Questions Al-A7 in each part below. For practice only, try to think whether
these statements reflect what Barbara Currie is going to say (1 - True), or they
don't (2 - False), or it was not a part of their dialogue (3 - Not stated).
• Now listen to the interview and see how close your predictions were.

~ Decide which of the statements A1-A7 correspond to what you have heard (1 - True), which
don't correspond (2 - False), and what has not been stated in the text (3 - Not stated). Circle the
number of the answer you have chosen. Listen to the recording twice.

Al Barbara was quite young when she developed an interest in dentistry.


1 True 2 False 3 Not stated

A2 Barbara was happy to get rid of her gold tooth when she was 17.

1 True 2 False 3 Not stated

A3 She now wears her gold tooth on a chain to advertise new techniques in dentistry.
1 True 2 False 3 Not stated

A4 At school and university, she chose to study sciences.

1 True 2 False 3 Not stated


AS She studied to become a dentist for 15 years.

1 True 2 False 3 Not stated

A6 The number of women dentists is increasing these days.

1 True 2 False 3 Not stated

A7 The number of women dentists with their own businesses


has increased.

1 True 2 False 3 Not stated

Three-option answers Unit 2 43


.,.. Aim of Exercises B4-B9: to practise questions similar
to those given in Part 2 Listening
• 2.13 ) Now you will hear the second part of the
dialogue with Barbara Currie. II Exercise 84
Decide which of the statements A1-A7 correspond to
what you have heard (1 - True), which don't correspond fl@ Bbl ycnhmrnTe Attanor. OnpegeJIHTe, KaKHe
Al-A7
113 np11aegeHHb1x yTaep)l(geHHli
(2 - False), and what has not been stated in the text cooTBeTCTBYIOT cogep)l(aHHIO TeKcTa (1 - True),
(3 - Not stated). Circle the number of the answer you KaKtte He cooTBeTCTBYIOT (2 - False) H o '-leM
have chosen. Listen to the recording twice. B TeKCTe He CKa3aHO, TO eCTb Ha OCHOBaHHH
TeKCTa HeJib3j! gaTb HH noJIO)l(HTeJibHbIH,
A1 Some of Jack's relatives don't like going to the dentist.
HH oTpHQaTeJibHbili oTBeT (3 - Not stated).
1 True 2 False 3 Not stated 06aegHTe HOMep Bb16paHHoro BaMH aapHaHTa
OTBeTa.
' frightened patients are NOT treated
A2 Some very
during their first visit. A1 The best way to get to know Oldcaster is to read
about the town's history.
1 True 2 False 3 Not stated
1 True 2 False 3 Not stated
A3 Dentists create a relaxing atmosphere by using
music, TV and video games. A2 The guide on the open-top bus tour speaks four
other languages.
1 True 2 False 3 Not stated
1 True 2 False 3 Not stated
A4 Dentists do not offer magazines in their surgeries
any more. A3 Local painters exhibit their art in the Central Art
Gallery.
1 True 2 False 3 Not stated
1 True· 2 False 3 Not stated
AS Barbara finds the sound of the drill annoying.
A4 You can see an old bottle factory at the City
1 True 2 False 3 Not stated
Museum.
A6 Introduction of new technology has decreased the
1 True 2 False 3 Not stated
use of the drill.
AS You can swim at the pool from seven in the morning
1 True 2 False 3 Not stated
till eight in the evening.
A7 One of Barbara's hopes for the future is to be able to
1 True 2 False 3 Not stated
modernise her practice.
A6 The local football team are playing a game on
1 True 2 False 3 Not stated
Saturday afternoon.

1 True 2 False 3 Not stated

A7 £10 tickets for the football match have sold out.

1 True 2 False 3 Not stated

44 Unit2
I! Exercise BS mExercise 86
Bbl ycJiblllIMTe ,[\Manor. Onpe,[leJIMTe, KaKMe Bbl ycJiblllIMTe AMaJior. Onpe,[leJIMTe, KaK11e
M3 npMBe,(leHHblX yTBep))(.J:1eHm1 Al-A7 113 np11se,J:1eHHb1x yTBep))(.J:leH11I1 Al-A7
COOTBeTCTBYIOT CO,[lep)J(aHMIO TeKCTa (1 - True), cooTBeTCTBYIOT co,(lep)J(aHMIO TeKcTa (1 - True),
KaKMe He cooTBeTcTByIOT (2 - False) Mo qeM KaKMe He cooTBeTCTBYIOT (2 - False) 11 o qeM
B TeKCTe He CKa3aHO, TO eCTb Ha OCHOBaHMM B TeKCTe He CKa3aHO, TO eCTb Ha OCHOBaHMM
TeKCTa HeJib3SI ,(laTb HM IlOJIO)J(MTeJibHblH, TeKCTa HeJib3SI ,(laTb HM IlOJIO)J(MTeJibHblH,
HM OTpMQaTeJibHblH OTBeT (3 - Not stated). HM oTpMQaTeJibHblH oTBeT (3 - Not stated).
06Be.J:IMTe HOMep Bb16paHHoro BaMM sap1mHTa 06Be,[IMTe HOMep Bb16paHHoro BaMM sapMaHTa
OTBeTa. OTBeTa. Bbl ycJiblllIMTe 3anMcb .J:IBa))(.J:lbI.

A1 The caller is enquiring about what the theatre has on


the following week.

1 True 2 False 3 Not stated

A2 The caller can easily get tickets to see a Shakespeare


play at the weekend.

1 True 2 False 3 Not stated

A3 The assistant says Romeo and Juliet has had good


reviews.

1 True 2 False 3 Not stated

A4 The caller likes Macbeth better than Romeo and


Juliet.

1 True 2 False 3 Not stated


A1 Everyone calls the trainer Jim.
AS Some groups of viewers can have cheaper tickets for
1 True 2 False 3 Not stated
the theatre.
A2 Sandy's main motivation is to change her routine.
1 True 2 False 3 Not stated
1 True 2 False 3 Not stated
- A6 The caller will be seeing Romeo and Juliet the
following Thursday. A3 It takes a long time to get fit.

1 True 2 False 3 Not stated 1 True 2 False 3 Not stated

A7 Lydia isn't expecting the tickets to be so expensive. A4 People at the tennis club supported Sandy.

1 True 2 False 3 Not stated 1 True 2 False 3 Not stated

AS Jim suggests swimming because it is good for


flexibility.

1 True 2 False 3 Not stated

A6 Weight training is useful for sprinters.

1 True 2 False 3 Not stated

A7 Jim recommends that Sandy uses her own bike.

1 True 2 False 3 Not stated

Three-option answers Unit 2 45


l.t Exercise 87
e217) IBbl ycnbmmTe i:111anor. Orrpei:1en11Te, KaK11e 113 rrp11sei:1eHHblX yTsep)l():leH11:H Al-A7
cooTBeTCTBYIOT coi:1ep)l(aH11IO TeKcTa (1- True), KaK11e He cooTBeTCTBYIOT (2 - False) 11 o
qeM B TeKCTe He CKa3aHO, TO eCTb Ha OCHOBaHl111 TeKCTa HeJib3SI ):laTb Hl1 IIOJI0)1(11TeJibHblM, Hl1
0Tp11QaTeJibHblM oTBeT (3 - Not stated). 06sei:111Te HOMep Bb16paHHoro BaM11 sap11aHTa OTBeTa.

Al Maria's parents are paying for her accommodation. AS Maria takes it in turns with her roommate to cook at
the hostel.
1 True 2 False 3 Not stated
1 True 2 False 3 Not stated
A2 Maria is paying a lot each month for electricity.
A6 Maria goes to the cinema on average twice a month.
1 True 2 False 3 Not stated
1 True 2 False 3 Not stated
A3 Maria d!3esn't eat in cafes and restaurants because
they are too far away from where she lives. A7 Maria buys all her clothes online.

1 True 2 False 3 Not stated 1 True 2 False 3 Not stated

A4 Maria is sometimes too busy to cook.

1 True 2 False 3 Not stated

• Exercise BS
~ I Bbl ycnb1Il111Te i:111anor. Orrpei:1en11Te, KaK11e 113 rrp11sei:1eHHblX yTBep)l():leH11:H Al-A7
cooTBeTCTBYIOT coi:1ep)l(aH11IO TeKcTa (1 - True), KaK11e He cooTBeTCTBYIOT (2 - False) 11 o
qeM B TeKCTe He CKa3aHO, TO eCTb Ha OCHOBaHl111 TeKCTa HeJib3SI ):laTb Hl1 IIOJI0)1(11TeJibHblM, Hl1
OTp11QaTeJibHblM oTBeT (3 - Not stated). 06sei:111Te HOMep Bb16paHHOro BaM11 sap11aHTa OTBeTa.

Al Two friends are deciding which country to visit. AS They might do mountain biking on the last day of
the holiday.
1 True 2 False 3 Not stated
1 True 2 False 3 Not stated
A2 The trip should cost no more than 1600 pounds
in total. A6 They mention four things they can do if the weather
is not good.
1 True 2 False 3 Not stated
1 True 2 False 3 Not stated
A3 Camping is not popular in Ljubljana.
A7 Rick is going to book the trip on line.
1 True 2 False 3 Not stated
1 True 2 False 3 Not stated
A4 Lake Bled is quiet in summer.

1 True 2 False 3 Not stated

46 Unit2
p Exercise 89

Bbl ycnhillll1Te ):111arror. Onpe):len11Te, KaK11e 113 np11Be):leHHbIX yTBep:>KAeH11tt Al-A7 cooTBeTCTBYJOT co):lep)J(aH11JO
TeKCTa (1 - True), Ka1<11e He COOTBeTCTBYJOT (2 - False) 11 0 '-!eM B TeKCTe He CKa3aHO, TO eCTb Ha OCHOBaHl111
TeKCTa Henb3SI ]:\aTb Hl1 nonO)J(l1TenbHbIH, Hl1 OTp11QaTenbHbIH OTBeT (3- Not stated). 06Be):\11Te HOMep
Bb16paHHoro BaM11 sap11aHTa oTBeTa.

A1 Rachel hadn't planned to walk home.


1 True 2 False 3 Not stated
A2 Rachel also came home late after Sam's birthday party.
1 True 2 False 3 Not stated

A3 Rachel's father goes to bed early.


1 True 2 False 3 Not stated
A4 Rachel is a fan of the Spice Boys.

1 True 2 False 3 Not stated

AS Rachel's father advises Rachel not to tell her mother.


1 True 2 False 3 Not stated

A6 Rachel thinks her dad's attitude is typical of fathers.


1 True 2 False 3 Not stated

A7 Rachel's father may let Rachel go to the concert.

1 True 2 False 3 Not stated

Three-option answers Unit 2 47


Multiple choice
Information
In Part 3 of the listening test, you will hear an interview lasting from two to three m inutes. There are seven
questions presented on the worksheet and three alternative answers, only one of which is correct. The recording
will be played twice. The questions follow the order of the information in the recording. You need to listen for
'clues' which will enable you to work out who is talking, what the speakers are talking about and how they feel.

Here is the task as it is given in the exam paper:


I

Bbl ycnhmmTe 1rnTepBbIO. B 3aAamrnx A8-A14 06BeA11Te Qmppy 1, 2 111111 3, cooTBeTCTBYIOl.QYIO Bb16paHHOMY BaM11
eap11aHTY OTBeTa. Bbl ycnbillIHTe 3an11cb ABa)l(AbI.

81Q!) You will hear a woman talking about her job. What does she do? Choose the best answer, 1, 2 or 3.
1 She works in a hospital. 2 She teaches children . 3 She does the same as her parents .

.,.. Aim of Exercise A1: to focus on different kinds of questions

fl Exercise A1
fji02) You will hear people talking in five Extract 3
different situations. Listen and answer the Focus on Who ... ?
questions.
Listen to this hotel manager talking.
Extract 1
1 Who is the manager talking to?
Focus on When ... ? ·
2 Who should show the guests to their rooms?
You hear this conversation outside the cinema.
3 Who can guests ask about the leisure facilities?
0 When did Mark arrive? At 7.00.
Extract 4
1 When does the film start?
Focus on Where ... ?
2 When did Sarah arrive?
Listen to this woman giving instructions to her babysitter.
Extract 2
1 Where can Lisa find a telephone number for emergencies?
Focus on What ... ?
2 Where is the baby's special drink?
You overhear a man talking on his mobile phone.
3 Where is the drink Lisa prefers?
1 What is the reason for his call?
2 What does he want his wife to do? Extract 5
Focus on How ... ?
3 What does he intend to do in about 50
minutes? Listen to these two colleagues talking at work.

4 What is he wearing? 1 How will the company save money?


2 How will the necessary decisions be made?

48 Unit3
3 How do the speakers feel about the future?
.,.. Aim of Exercise A2: to understand why a particular .,.. Aim of Exercise A3: to understand why two other
answer is right options qre wrong and predicting what to listen for

I' Exercise A2 r Exercise A3


~ You will hear five short recordings. Before each, fj3:o4) You will hear three short recordings of people
there is one question about the main point. The correct talking. Listen and answer the questions.
answer is given. Listen to each extract and say why you
What to do:
think the answer is right.
• Read the question and think about what you need
What to do: to listen for. Underline the key word(s).
• Read the question and answer. • Listen once, covering the three possible answers.
• Listen once and note down the things you heard • Think about your answer in your own words.
which gave you the answer. • Look at the three possible answers.
• Listen again. • Listen again and choose the best answer.
• Decide what made the other two choices wrong,
Extract 1 according to what you heard.
You overhear two people talking about a report while
Extract 1
waiting for the bus.
What is the report about? What does the woman want the man to do?
Answer: poor standards in reading and maths A watch a sports programme
What did you hear that led to this answer? B repair the video
One in 6ix adult6 aan't read or do 6imple adding up. C record a wildlife programme
C 16 right: she want6 him to reaord 'Animal6 of the
Extract 2
Ande6' 60 6he aan wauh the foot,,all live.
You hear a man talking on the phone. A i6 wrong: 6he want6 to wauh the sport6 programme.
What does he want the other person to do? 13 i6 wrong: there'6 nothing wrong with the video - it'6
Answer: He wants them to sell his spare ticket. the remote aontrol that need6 new "atterie6.
What did you hear that led to this answer?
Extract 2
Extract 3
Where is the conversation taking place?
You hear someone talking about a shopping expedition.
A at a gym
What did she buy?
Answer: nothing B in a bank
What did you hear that led to this answer? (two things) C on the street

Extract 4 Extract 3
You hear a woman talking on the phone. What's the conference about?
What's the woman's job? A book publishing
Answer: a police officer
B history
What did you hear that led to this answer? (two things)
C unidentified flying objects
Extract 5
You hear two people discussing a play during the interval. Extract 4
What's the woman's opinion of the play? Why doesn't the woman want to apologise?
Answer: She finds the story quite depressing. A She wasn't to blame.
What did you hear that led to this answer? (two things) B She has never liked him.
C She'll never see him again.

Multiple choice Unit 3 49


.,.. Aim of Exercise A4: to practise prediction based on key words

I! Exercise A4
~ You will hear people talking in eight different situations. For Questions A-H, choose the best answer,
1, 2, or 3. Before listening, look at the question and the three answers and try to predict what you may hear.

A While visiting a fitness club, you hear this man talking. E You hear two people discussing the menu in a
Chinese restaurant.
What is his main reason for joining the club?
Which dish are they going to have?
to get fit
fish
2 the running machine
2 duck
3 for social reasons
3 beef
B Listen to these people talking about a book.
F A woman is talking on the phone to a friend.
What kind of book are they discussing?
How does she feel about losing her job?
1 a love story
1 pleased
2 a thriller
2 depressed
3 a science book
3 sorry
C You are listening to a radio phone-in programme.
G A man is talking on the phone about a medical
Why has the woman called?
problem.
to criticise the famous
Who is he talking to?
2 to put forward a different point of view
1 a friend
3 to sympathise with photographers
2 his boss
D You hear part of a radio programme about jeans. 3 a doctor

What did this man want his mother to do?


H You hear a man trying to persuade his friend to
1 make his jeans narrower come to the cinema.

2 make his jeans wider Why isn't she coming to the cinema tonight?

3 stop quarrelling with him 1 She is too busy.

2 She hasn't got any money.


3 She doesn't like the cinema.

50 Unit3
..,. Aim of Exercise AS: to practise making a choice when the speaker changes his/her mind in the course of
the conversation

II Exercise AS
fj3:o6) You will hear part of a radio programme in which two people are talking about a competition.
For Questions A·I, choose the best answer, 1, 2, or 3 to complete the notes.

What to do:
• Listen once, and answer what you can.
• Be careful! The speakers change their mind or contradict themselves sometimes, so the first piece of
information you hear is not necessarily the right answer. Which questions does this particularly affect?
• Listen again.

A Name of the competition: D Answers to the questions are G The most difficult question of
given ... of the Evening Chronicle. all was number
1 People and Faces
1 on the back page 1 6.
2 People and Places
2 on the front page 2 7.
3 People and Dresses
3 in the usual place 3 10.
B The winner had ... correct
answer(s). E The correct answer to Question H Name of the next competition:
3 of the competition is:
1 Plays and Players
1 She was a scientist.
2 9 2 Heroes and Villains
2 She was a celebrity.
3 10 3 Past and Present
3 She was a waitress .
c The first prize is worth £100 Entries should be in
F The question about the
in any of 30 shops. by June 30th.
cathedral was number
2 in one local shop. 2 by 1st July.
4.
3 in all 30 shops. 3 on July 15th.
2 5.

3 6.

Multiple choice Unit 3 51


.,.. Aim of Exercise A6: to listen for specific details in short recordings (dates, names and numbers)

19 Exercise A6
fl1Qt) You will hear four short recorded messages. For Questions A1·11, choose the best answer, 1, 2, or 3.

What to do:
• Read the question(s).
• Be clear what you are going to listen for.
• Read the numbers out loud.
• Listen to the recorded messages, and choose the correct answer.
• Listen again.

Extract 1 Extract 3 Extract 4

Al Old number: 012 7978 AS Date of move: A9 John Bellino exhibition:


.. ..... ..... ............................ of May
New number is 1 October 3rd
1 from 3rd to 13th
2 October 13th
1 0123 7978 2 from 3rd to 30th
3 October 30th
2 7 0123 7978 3 from 13th to 30th
A6 New telephone number:
3 0123 77978
.... -- A10 Alexandra Bruton exhibition:

Extract 2 1 23457
1 from 16th to 26th
A2 Office open ...... _ ....... ........... on 2 32547
week days 2 from 17th to 26th
3 23547
1 from 9 to 5.30 3 from 16th to 27th
A7 New address: ............................
2 from 10 to 5.30
A11 Sculpture seminar:
1 50, Leisure Lane
3 from 10to12
2 15, Leisure Lane
1 at 6.15 on Friday 12th
A3 Office open ...... _...... ..... .. .. .. ....... on
3 50, Leicester Lane
Saturdays 2 at 6.15 on Friday 20th
1 from 9 to 5.30 A8 Postcode: .....................-....-...... 3 at 6.50 on Friday 20th

2 from 10 to 5.30 1 AG43GY

3 from 10to12 2 AJ4 3GY Tip:


3 AJ4 3JY Check that you know how the
A4 For London trains ring
alphabet is spoken in English -
.. . .... ..... .... ...
particularly the following letters:
··~

1 0208 03964118 A, E, I, U, G, J, V, W, H, K, Q, Y, Z.
For numbers, the main listening
2 0207 0396418
problem is probably hearing the
3 0207 03964118 difference between fifteen and
fifty, for example.

52 Unit3
.,.. Aim of Exercise A7: to answer questions similar to those given in the exam but for shorter texts rather than for
longer conversations

fliQID You will hear part of a radio talk about inventions. For Questions A1-A10, choose the appropriate answer
and circle number 1, 2, or 3.

SOME USEFUL INVENTIONS

The wire coat hanger

A1 The company was already making wire frames for


1 lights 2 lampshades 3 shades

A2 Before, the employees had to put their coats .................... .


1 in wardrobes 2 on hangers 3 on the floor

A3 Albert Parkhouse made ........................ ·····-······· ... money from the idea.
1 no 2 lots of 3 some

Rubber tyres
A4 Rubber tyres were first invented by ................................
1 John Dunlop 2 John Dunlap's son 3 A London engineer

AS The reason they failed was because of -····· ................................... of rubber


back then.
1 the quality 2 the cost 3 availability
Suggested approach for Part 3
A6 John Dunlop added ........................... ·····-········· to his tyres.
of the Listening Test
1 air 2 rubber 3 soft stuff
1 Quickly read the first
question.
An aid for night drivers
2 Mark (underline or highlight)
A7 The idea came from seeing ........... .. ················-·· ..... while driving at night.
the important words.
1 fog 2 headlights 3 a cat's eyes
3 Focus on what YQU have to
AB The lens in his invention has .......... ...... ······- ............... behind it. listen for - What? Who? etc.
1 a mirror 2 a rubber pad 3 an iron case 4 Don't think too much about
the 1, 2, 3 choices yet.
A9 It took Percy Shaw a .......... ..... ............ to develop the idea to the level
when he could patent it. 5 Listen once, keeping the
Wh ...? in your head.
1 day 2 year 3 night
6 Answer in your mind, and
A10 His invention brought him check the 1, 2, 3 choices.
1 riches and 2 expenses and 3 wealth and fame. 7 Listen again to confirm your
knowledge publicity choice.

Multiple choice Unit3 53


to practise Part 3 of the RSE
II Exercise 82
II Exercise 81 81!Q) j Bb1 ycJibillll1Te 11HTepBbJO. B 3a.n;aH11six A8-A14
06ae.n;11Te ~mppy 1, 2 11Jll1 3, COOTBeTCTBYIOil\YIO
I
~ Bbl ycJibillll1Te 11HTepBbJO. B 3a.n;aH11six A8-A14
Bbr6paHHOMY BaM11 aap11aHTY OTBeTa.

06ae.n;11Te ~mppy 1, 2 11Jll1 3, COOTBeTCTBYIOil\YIO AB Why was Mr Blackburn outside so late?


BbI6paHHOMY BaM11 aap11aHTY oTBeTa.
1 He was looking for his dog.
AB What is Janice's job? 2 He felt excited and needed to calm down.
1 She's a famous actress. 3 This was his usual routine.
2 She W(i)rks in a cafe.
A9 How is Mr Blackburn sure he didn't see a plane?
3 She plays small roles in films.
1 It had silver flashing lights.
A9 What does Janice say about her role as a waitress? 2 It was flying close to the ground.
1 Being a waitress is not easy. 3 It flew in like a ghost.
2 Her job is difficult to do well.
A10 What was strange about how the spaceship landed?
3 She has a talent for restaurant work.
1 It made no noise.
A10 How did Janice start her career? 2 It landed very close to Mr Blackburn.
1 She attended acting courses. 3 It landed in the canal.
2 She looked for acting work in Russia .
A11 How did Mr Blackburn know the two figures weren't
3 She found a useful contact.
human?
A11 Which of these is the worst thing about her job? 1 They had no faces.
2 They walked strangely.
1 It can take up a lot of time.
3 They had gold-coloured clothes.
2 Directors can be demanding.
3 She has to live on a tight budget.
A12 Why shouldn't we trust Mr Blackburn when he
describes their language?
A12 Why did Janice do the hockey match scene?
1 He was too frightened to notice anything.
1 She used to play hockey at school.
2 He doesn't know any languages well.
2 She wanted to work with children.
~as more :worried about Rex.
3 She didn't have much work.

A13 What happened to Janice in this film?


A13 W~heZrRose of the alien's question?
1 To make f.A r Blqckburn frightened.
1 She hit another player.
2 To show that they understood English.
2 She got injured.
3 It is not clear.
3 Her team won the hockey match.

A14 How does Mr Blackburn feel about what happened


A14 Why doesn't Janice want to have a main role?
tG Rex?
1 She doesn't like conflict.
1 confused
2 She doesn't want to be like Julia Roberts.
2 angry
3 She would prefer to be a teacher.
3 worried

54 Unit3
mExercise 83 I I Exercise 84
fII!!) Bb1 ycJiblIIIHTe 3anHcb. B 3agaHHS1X A8-A14 fI3J2) Bbl ycJiblIIIHTe 3anHCb. B 3agaHHS1X A8-A14
06BeAHTe QHcppy 1, 2 HJIH 3, COOTBeTCTBYIO~YIO o6segHTe QHcppy 1, 2 HJIH 3, COOTBeTCTBYIO~YIO
Bb16paHHOMY BaMH sapHaHTY OTBeTa. sb16paHHOMY BaMH aapHaHTY oTBeTa.

AS When was the main gate built? AS What makes Linda upset with her neighbours?
1 1017 1 their children
2 later than 1070 2 their lifestyle
3 earlier than 1070 3 their appearance

A9 What was the main courtyard for? A9 What does the radio presenter suggest to Linda?
1 playing football 1 to get to know her neighbours better
2 shopping 2 to go round to their house for a cup of tea
3 different things 3 to tell them what she thinks of them

A10 Why is the Tower called the Tower of Tears? A10 What woke Simon up?
1 The Lady of the Castle is buried there. 1 the car losing control
2 The Tower is very dangerous. 2 his alarm clock
3 The Lady of the Castle used to cry over her 3 the feeling of falling
husband's death there.
A11 Why is Vera closing her shop?
A11 Where can you eat bear pie? 1 for economic reasons
1 in the kitchens 2 to move out of town
2 in the dining room 3 because it's been a hard job
3 at home
A12 What is the radio presenter's response to Vera?
A12 What happened to the dining room? 1 Vera needs to get more customers.
1 It was destroyed by a fire. 2 Vera is not being realistic.
2 It was bombed in the war. 3 Vera should consider internet sales.
3 It was rebuilt several times.
A13 How does Vera defend small shops?
A13 What were the living quarters of the Castle used for? 1 They are businesses too.
1 The Lord's guests stayed there. 2 They haye more regular customers.
2 The Lord'S'family lived there. 3 They provide a unique service.
3 All those working in the Castle lived there.
A14 What does CF.iris feel about his relationship wi
A14 What ean you see in the bed~om? Karen?
1 a portrait 1 jealousy
2 original furniture 2 regret
3 central heating 3 misunderstanding
IJ Exercise BS II Exercise 86
~ I Bbl ycJiblllrnTe MHTepBbIO. B 3a):laHMSIXA8-A14 e@ IBbl ycJiblIIIMTe MHTepBbIO. B 3a):laHMSIX A8-A14
o6Be):IMTe Qmppy 1, 2 MJIM 3, COOTBeTCTBYIOI.QYIO o6Be):IMTe QHcppy 1, 2 MJIM 3, COOTBeTCTBYIOI.QYIO
Bb16paHHOMY BaMM aap11aHTy OTBeTa. BbI6paHHOMY BaMM aap11aHTY oTBeTa.

AB Why did Greg travel without any money? AB What type of work is Mr Murphy being
1 It seemed original. interviewed for?
2 He had tried lots of other kinds of travel. 1 work in a garage
3 He is quite poor. 2 work in a bank
3 work in a school
A9 How did Greg feel about his plan?
1 deterrIJined A9 How are people similar to cars according to
2 doubtful Mr Murphy?
3 desperate 1 They are completely hopeless.
2 They need care and attention.
A10 What does Greg say about the Internet? 3 They are like cars because they like cars.
1 It helped him plan his journey.
2 It is always unreliable. A10 What does the Porsche story say about Mr Murphy?
3 The advice it offers is too simple. 1 He is an expert in his profession.
2 He is patient.
A11 What does Greg's Laos experience show? 3 He doesn't like difficult people.
1 Laos is more developed than people think.
2 Poor people can be very generous. A11 How does Mr Murphy imagine his working day?
3 Travelling can be dangerous. 1 long and difficult
2 long but easy
A12 Which of these jobs did Greg NOT do on the boat? 3 short and easy
1 carrying loads of cargo
2 massaging passengers' backs A12 Who made Mr Murphy leave school?
3 looking after kids 1 nobody - he left himself
2 his maths teacher
A13 How did Greg get free medical care? 3 the head teacher
1 He had insurance.
2 He made a deal with the doctor. A13 How does Mr Murphy feel towards his maths
3 He didn't pay the bill. teacher now?
1 guilty
A14 What does the presenter's last question suggest? 2 thankful
1 The future is quite uncertain for Greg. 3 angry
2 It would be better for Greg to take it easy for a
while. A14 What plans does Mr Murphy have?
3 This was the greatest experience of Greg's life. 1 to get promotion
2 to improve life in the garage
3 to introduce major changes to the bank

56 Unit3
II Exercise 87 IJ Exercise 88
~ Bbl ycJibllllHTe HHTepBbJO. B 3a.QaHHSIX A8-A14 fj3j6) Bbl ycJibllllHTe HHTepBbJO. B 3agaHHSIX A8-A14
o6Be):\HTe QHcppy 1, 2 HJIH 3, COOTBeTCTBYIOJl\YIO o6Be):\HTe QHcppy 1, 2 HJIH 3, COOTBeTCTBYIOJl\YIO
Bb16paHHOMY BaMH sapttaHTY oTBeTa. Bb16paHHOMY BaMH BapHaHTY OTBeTa.

AB Why doesn't Charlotte have breakfast when she AB Why did Helen leave the film early?
wakes up? 1 She wasn't enjoying it.
1 She doesn't have enough time. 2 She didn't need to see the end.
2 She prefers tea. 3 She had to get her bus.
3 It is too early for her.
A9 What did Spencer like most?
A9 What does Charlotte say about getting up early? 1 the action scenes
1 It means she can't meet friends. 2 the Jackie Chan character
2 It is just part of her routine. 3 the special effects
3 It's easy to do.
A10 What does Nina think about the actor who
A10 How many homes does she collect rubbish from? plays Bond?
1 315 1 His performance is satisfactory.
2 350 2 He shouldn't have taken the role.
3 318 3 He was the only good actor in the film.

A11 What does the old lady do? A11 What does Nina criticise?
1 She steals bins. 1 the space scenes
2 She always has a lot of extra rubbish. 2 the story
3 She has her bin inside. 3 how much the film cost.

A12 What did the young woman assume about her ring? A12 How, according to Brendan, does the new film
1 It was lost forever. compare to the recent ones?
2 It was in the bin. 1 The actor playing Bond is better.
3 It had been stolen. 2 There is less action.
3 It is funnier.
A13 What evidence does Mr Simpson have?
1 none A13 What is Kate's opinion?
2 All of the cats never came back. 1 This is an average James Bond film.
3 Most of the cats were last seen at number 7. 2 This is the worst James Bond film.
3 This is the best James Bond film.
A14 What point is Charlotte making at the end?
1 People get pleasure from throwing out rubbish. A14 Why does Karl think James Bond films should
2 Refuse collectors are very honest. continue?
3 People throw out perfectly good items. They encourage people to be ambitious.
2 They allow people to escape their everyday lives.
3 They can be enjoyed at the cinema.

Multiple choice Unit 3 57


II Exercise 89
I
~ BhI ycnhillIHTe HHTepBhIO. B 3a.n;aHm1x A8-A14 o6se.n;uTe QHcppy 1, 2 unu 3,
COOTBeTCTBYIOl.QYIO BbI6paHHOMY BaMH BapHaHTY OTBeTa.

AB Why is Elvis telling his story? A12 What has Elvis been doing for some of these years?
1 He wants people to know the truth. 1 hiding in his old home
2 He needs to tell it before he forgets it. 2 travelling around the world
3 He has good memories of those times. 3 making movies

A9 What would happen when Elvis tried to buy A13 What does Elvis say about his old house?
something? 1 It was where he hid.
1 The seller wouldn't accept his money. 2 It has improved.
2 Elvis had to sign his autograph. 3 It looks strange.
3 The seller would overcharge Elvis.
A14 Why has Elvis returned?
A10 Why was it easy for Elvis to trick people? 1 for personal reasons
1 No one knew his secret. 2 He misses performing.
2 Everyone knew about his poor health. 3 He wants to thank his loyal fans.
3 People would believe anything they heard
about Elvis.

A11 What emotion did Elvis experience the next day?


1 shame
2 happiness
3 nostalgia

58 Unit3
Reading
The Reading chapter has three units to match the
structure of RSE Reading (Pa3gen 2. qTem1e): Each unit is divided into two sections:

· Reading and understanding


teaches general reading skills which you will need for all
parts of the Reading.
• : Exam practice
applies these skills to the RSE format. In this section you
will get help and practice in tackling each of the three
parts of the Reading.

Exam Overview Part 2. Reading Recommended time 30 minutes

The Reading has three parts:


Part1 Matching 8 titles to 7 Focus on reading for gist and the 1 mark for each text matched
mini-texts (1 title is extra) main idea correctly (total 7 marks)
Part2 Inserting 7 clauses into 6 gaps Focus on text structure and 1 mark for each gap filled
in a text (1 clause is extra) complex sentences correctly (total 6 marks)
Part3 7 multiple choice questions Focus on reading for detail 1 mark per question
about a text and working out the meanings (total 7 marks)
of words and the narrator's
position from the context
Total: 20 questions 20 marks

59
Matching
Information
In Part 1 of the Reading test, you will read seven mini texts. You are given eight titles which you must match to
each mini text.
• There is one extra title that you do not use.
• The heading must be the one that best covers the main topic, so you need to make sure that the heading you
have chosen fits the meaning of the whole mini text, and doesn't just simply use some of the same words.
Here is tlile task as it is given in the exam paper:
YcTaHOBHTe cooTBeTCTB11e Me)l{AY 3aroJIOBKaM11l-811 TeKcTaM11 A-G. 3aHec11Te cao11 OTBeTbI B Ta6JI11Qy.
11cnoJih3Yi1Te Ka)l{AYIO Q11cppy TOJILKO OAHH pa3. B JaAanuu OAHH JaronoaoK nurnuuu.

Section A Reading and understanding

Tip:
When you're reading a text without the help of a dictionary and there is a word which you don't know:
• look at the parts of speech and the functions of the words in the sentence
• look at the context of the word in the sentence and the text

Introductory exercise
What function does the word have in the sentence - what work is it doing? Is it a noun, an adjective, a verb
or an adverb?

Identify the nouns, adjectives, verb and adverb in this sentence:

Daniel quickly put the old sepia photograph in the drawer.

Iii> Aim of Exercises A1-A4: to practise identifying different sorts of nouns, adjectives, verbs and adverbs

II Exercise A1
1 Put each of these nouns into two correct columns in the table below. First decide if you can or can't see each one
and then decide if you can or can't count each one. The first three nouns have been done for you as examples.

1, ,,..,...,,...,. e 1 1it-- .. e"' ~ .. ,.,,.,;,.,.,.ee problem firefighter furniture finger plastic


love family flower water cow blackbird back factory beef advice
pencil wool musician idealism steel beetle oxygen

Can see Can't see Can count Can't count

luggage happlne66 6uitca6e(6) luggage


6uitca6e happine66

60 Unit4
2 Now put each noun into one of the categories below. The first one has been done for you as an example.

Collective word luggage Person Thing Animal/Insect/Bird Plant Abstract idea


Part of person Building Liquid/Gas Other material Food

• Exercise A2
Put the adjectives below into one of these different categories. The first one has been done for you as an example.

Age/Time new Colour Material 'Positive' Shape/Size Origin 'Negative'

tteW round attractive green generous Siberian glass careless long stupid
last dark lovely little square wooden exciting elderly impatient clever satisfied
destructive silk cream Greek former oval priceless wide unimaginative

I! Exercise A3
Tip:
Verbs can work:

• with a direct object Masha cut the bread .


• without a direct object Please sit down.
• with or without a direct object Can you sing this song?
I can't sing very well.

Put each of these verbs into one correct column in the table below. If you're not sure, try adding 'it' after the verb
and decide if it sounds right. The first three verbs have been done for you as examples.

et:lt s-it sffig know smile hit sleep carry fly find
eat laugh read ring discuss surprise lie talk

I cut it - Sound6 OK, 60 'cut' take6 a direct object.


1
I 6it it - Ooe6n't 6ound right, 60 6it' doe6n't take a direct object.

Usually with direct object Usually without direct object With or without direct object

cut eit 6lng


II Exercise A4
Put the adverbs below into one of these different groups. The first three have been done for you as examples.

How? tidily tidtty forvvards efteft away late carefully backwards slowly soon

Where? forward6 here well fast recently yesterday outside badly finally upstairs
When? often

Matching Unit 4 61
..,. Aim of Exercises AS-A7: to decide the function of
words in sentences
II Exercise A6
Look at how the word sprill is being used in the
Iii Exercise AS sentences below. (Sprill is not a real English word.) First,
decide what work (noun, adjective, etc.) sprill is doing in
Sometimes a familiar word can be used in an unfamiliar
each sentence. Remember:
way. For example, you might know what an 'arm' is, but
do you know what an 'arms salesman' does or what 'to • the or a tell you that it is a noun
arm the rebels' means? • she, him, etc. indicate a person
• -s could be a verb or a plural noun
Look at these sentences, and decide whether the words
• -ed or -ing could be a verb, an adjective or a participle
in green are working as nouns, verbs or adjectives. The
• -/y is probably an adverb
first one has been done for you as an example.
Then write two real words that you could put in its place.
0 Who is ge:iing to head the government enquiry?
verb 0 I'm glad to see you looking so sprill today.
It must be a positive adjective because of 'I'm glad'.
1 You can buy souvenir walking sticks in the village
You could put 'happy' or 'well' in its place.
shop.
1 Scientists used to visit the island in large numbers to
2 A lot of factory workers will probably lose their jobs.
study the many unusual kinds of sprills living there.
3 As a child Tanya had so many dislikes that I never
2 The children were sprilling in the playground.
knew what to give her to eat.
3 I met a very friendly sprill on the train to Cambridge,
4 I love that bit in the film where Kevin hands the
and we had a nice chat.
teacher a dead rat.
4 It was such a sprilling film that it kept us all on the
5 When Camilla left him to return to Finland, Spencer
edge of our seats.
felt very lonely.
5 Marianne began to talk sprillily about her visit to
6 Sarah has been appointed chair of the education
Ana pa.
committee.
6 I sprill Tom every time I see him.
7 If we're going there on Saturday, we'd better book
first. 7 Sprill is cheap and easy to get to for holidays.

8 Clive originally met his wife in a shoe shop. 8 Dr Dalmore is a very sprill man with a long nose and
short legs.
9 Although it was very cold, we stood on the platform
as the waiting room was so dirty. 9 We enjoyed visiting the local sprill yesterday.

10 Empty buildings could be used to house homeless 10 Everybody is capable of sprill.


people.
11 Oh dear! What's that? Sprill?
11 Do you remember the days when you had to wind
12 Unfortunately, it was written very sprillily and
watches every day?
nobody could understand it.
12 There's some building work going on in our office, so
13 Sprill should be at work, shouldn't he? What's he
it's very noisy.
doing here?
13 Who'll captain the team, with Arshavin injured?
14 If you have a sprill about our service, please write to
14 Unless you have been there, you can't really picture the Managing Director.
the Grand Canyon.
15 Simon spends every Saturday night alone at home,
sprilling.

62 Unit4
P Exercise A7
In each of the following sentences one word has been missed out. Decide what kind of word should fill the gap in
each case, and then write two words which could logically go in the space.

0 I hate ... peoplek;.u.f;rt.a.men:r. who speak impolitely to me. noun - plural - person: people, ouetomere

Shaun was ............ ,.. along the street, singing happily.

2 Irina opened the door very

3 Pass me that ........-...... ... . . . ... . ..... , please.

4 Chris is not a person with much ....... ......... _ .. .. . in his life.

5 It was an absolutely ... ·-· ........................ ......... day, one which I just want to forget.

6 I don't really like ..................... .......................... much; my stories never seem to interest her.

7 The floor was covered in ................................................... . I wondered whose job it would be to clear it up.

8 They entertained us ........................................ ......... all evening, and we went home in a good mood.

9 Oksana ran out of the house, ................. ...... _ ...................... _.

10 The forest was full of ...... .. .... ............. ............ , which ran away when we approached.

11 More and more of them arrived, until by 4 o'clock there was a large -· . _ .......................... of them in front of us.

IJI>- Aim of Exercises A8-A9: to work out the meaning of unknown words from the context

The words before and after an unknown word can help you to discover its meaning.
You probably do not know these words:

grip steer puncture pursuers

However, in the context of the story below, it is easy to guess the meanings.

I gripped the wheel as hard as I could with both hands, and tried to
steer the car in the direction of the farm. But it was no use: we kept
going to the left, and I knew we must have a puncture in one of the
front tyres. We would have to stop and change the wheel, which
would give our pursuers enough time to get nearer to us.

Grip must be a verb meaning hold - what else can you do with both hands to the wheel in a car?

Steer must be what you do to make a car go in a certain direction.

A puncture makes a car difficult to steer, and means you have to change a wheel: it must be what
happens when a hole in a tyre causes the air to escape.

If pursuers got nearer to them when they stopped, the word must mean people who follow somebody.

Matching Unit 4 63
p Exercise AS
1 The story below describes a childhood memory of an exciting ride at a funfair. Read the text once and look at
the words in italics. If you don't know the meaning of a word, remember to ask yourself:

• what kind of word is it? (what is its function?)


• what other information (before or after) can help you decide its meaning?

1 We paid our money at the ticket office, and got in a


little blue cabin heavily decorated with shining brass and
uphol~tered in deep red, soft material: we were the only
ones in a cabin made to take six people. As we waited
5 to start, I tried to make myself comfortable on the seats,
but they were so high and vast that I could only sit on the
edge with my legs dangling and my hands tightly clutching
the brass safety rail in front: I felt very small. The operator
pulled an oily lever and the little cabin, after a sudden
10 jerk, slowly began to climb the noisy ratchet railway to
the top. We passed huge, wobbling wheels, and lots of other machinery, which was making a terrible din.
I peeped over the side of the cabin - the whole town seemed to be gathered in the square below, watching
our ascent. As we crawled higher and higher, my spirits sank lower and lower. Below us, some seagulls were
flying about among the struts of the structure: after that, I did not dare look over the edge of the cabin again.

2 Look at the items below, and in each case decide which of the four choices given is closest in meaning
to the word in the passage. Circle the correct answer. The first one has been done for you.

0 brass (line 2) A cloth B wood C paper @metal

vast (line 6) A small B hard c big D soft

2 dangling (line 7) A running B hanging C walking D standing

3 clutching (line 7) A touching B holding C feeling D tasting

4 rail (line 8) A door B net C exit D bar

5 lever (line 9) A machine B wheel C button D handle

6 jerk (line 10) A movement B cry C explosion D light

7 wobbling (line 11) A moving B speeding C breaking D stopping

8 din (line 11) A product B movement C thing D noise

9 peeped (line 12) A fell B went C looked D spoke

10 crawled (line 13) A moved B fell C started D wanted

11 struts (line 14) A people B legs C feelings D water

3 Are there any other words in the passage you don't know? If there are, use the context to help you
decide their meaning.

64 Unit4
P Exercise A9
1 Read the passage below once, without stopping to think about the words you don't know, and answer
these questions.

About wha t time of the day or night was it?

2 Why were the two people in the forest?

3 How did they feel about the world of nature at the end of their expedition?

2 Now read the passage again, and write a short explanation for the words in italics without using
a dictionary. The first one has been done for you.

a badger b kneel c shriek d scurrying e sett f mournfully g soggy


h dense i tripped j mud k poked I tottered m haven n thoroughly

badger: must be a noun ('the'), and probably an animal ('It'); it eeeme to be active at night, lives in the woods,
le quite ehy, and ie rare enough for people to go out epeaially to eee; it hae a blaak and white head.

3 If there are any other words that you don't know, use the context to help you decide their meaning.

Badger watching
1 The badger moved slowly out from the trees into
the open ground. From where we lay, I could see
its black and white head clearly in the moonlight.
Unfortunately, my friend chose that moment to
S kneel on a very sharp piece of wood, and his shriek of
pain immediately sent the badger scurrying back to Suggested approach for Part 1 of the
the safety of its sett. Simon looked at me mournfully. Reading Test
I tried hard to give the impression that I didn't mind 1 Read the eight headings so you know what
what had happened, but probably failed. to look for.
10 'I don't suppose it'll come back now,' he said
2 Read all the texts quickly to see if there is
unhappily. 'We might as well give up and go home.'
an easy match.
So we walked quietly back through the forest. It had
started to rain, the ground under us was getting 3 Do an easy one first, then continue to
'
match, doing the ones you are certain
more soggy by the minute, and to cap it all the moon
15 was suddenly covered by such dense cloud that it of first. Remember to look for a 'match'
between different ways of saying the same
became impossible to see the way. Simon tripped
thing, and check that your choice reflects
over a fallen tree and fell flat on his face in some
the main idea of the paragraph.
mud, which did not improve his appearance, and I
nearly had my eye poked out by a low branch. By 4 Cross them off the list as you do them.
20 the time we tottered back to the haven of our hotel, Remember, there is an extra one that
we were both so thoroughly fed up with the world of doesn't fit.
nature that not even the thought of our fishing trip 5 Keep track of the time - do not allow
later that morning could cheer us up. yourself more than ten minutes for this part.

Matching Unit 4 65
Section B Exam practice
~Aim of Exercise 81: to practise a shorter version of the real matching task

II. Exercise 81
Match the headings 1-8 to the sentences A-G and write them in the table below. There is one heading which you
don't need to use.

1 Not everyone is a fan 5 Wrong stereotypes


2 Tourist attractions 6 Problems ahead

3 The price of beauty 7 Not just a nice face


4 Healthy options 8 A continuing popularity

A The British have a reputation for being cold and reserved, but in fact it is easy to strike up a conversation with
strangers on the bus or train.

B So much money is needed to buy top players for football teams that the sport is going to face serious financial
difficulties in the years to come.

C Teenage Russian girls are spending up to half of their money on cosmetics and are prepared to use the
equivalent of a week's pocket money to buy a lipstick.

D Many Russians aren't looking forward to the 2018 World Cup, especially those people who couldn't care less
about football.

E In spite of its high prices and security issues, London remains the number one destination for Russians visiting
Britain.

F The good news for health and fitness fans is that there are lots of clubs and gyms to choose from, some
offering very economical membership rates.

G It is the dream of many teenagers to become a film star, but while good looks give you an advantage, much
more is needed to get to the top.

A B c D E F G

66 Unit4
..,.. Aim of Exercises 82-84: to practise identifying and Check that you have chosen the correct answer by
summarising the main idea of a paragraph looking at the bottom of this page. The other two
choices only relate to part of the paragraph, not the
II Exercise 82 overall topic.

Read the following paragraph from an article about 2 Which one of these three headings is most suitable
money. for the paragraph? Again, look for something that
summarises the whole paragraph.

A Ways of paying

8 Virginian currency

C Coins and notes

Banknotes and coins are now used throughout the Now do the same with a different paragraph - this time
the subject is supermarkets. Read the paragraph first,
world as money, but this was not always the case.
then ask yourself what is the main information and what is
In 1642 the General Assembly of Virginia in the example, illustration or supporting information.
USA passed a law stating that tobacco was to be
the only accepted currency. Tobacco was the basis Most supermarket customers do not use shopping
of Virginian currency for over 100 years, and in lists, but know what they intend to buy when they
other parts of the world such things as dogs' teeth, enter the store, and also where to find it. What the
tigers' tongues, tea, shells and stones have all been supermarket manager wants, however, is for them
used to pay for goods and services. to buy things they didn't know they needed. One
successful way of achieving this is to change the
In order to find the general theme of the paragraph, positions of items from time to time, moving slower-
ask yourself:
selling products to places where shoppers expect to
What is the paragraph about? find the basic things they want.
Money, which U6ed to be in different form6.

What else is included?


3 Which one of these three sentences best
Example6 ofthing6 that were u6ed a6 money-
summarises what you have read?
tobacco, etc.
A Shopping lists are often not needed in
Now answer the following questions. supermarkets.

1 Which one of these three sentences best 8 Some items in supermarkets sell mo ~e slowly
summarises what you have read? Remember that than others.
the sentence should summarise the general theme,
C Supermarkets sell more by moving the position
not the details.
of goods.
A There was a law about tobacco in Virginia.

8 Many different things have been used as money. 4 Which one of these three headings best summarises
what you have read?
C Tobacco was once a valuable product.
A Some basic needs

8 Spend more than you intend

'fl s1 Luori.sano 011aMsuo a41 C No more shopping lists

Matching Unit 4 67
II Exercise 83
Read this article about a vet (an animal doctor) who uses homeopathic medicine on his 'patients'. (Homeopathy
is an alternative method to traditional Western medical treatment.) Then look at the pairs of summary sentences
below and tick [II] which of the two sentences is best as a summary for each paragraph. Remember, the summary
sentence will use different words from those in the text to express the point.

A Homeopathic Vet
1 Ian Baker is a vet who not only treats animals in 4 When he first advertised his homeopathic remedies,
the usual way, but also uses alternative remedies like the local people were slow to come to him, but over the
homeopathy on his patients. Although there are only 13 last few years there has been a big rise in the popularity
qualified alternative vets in Britain, the number of self- of alternative medicine for humans. This has encouraged
taught practitioners such as Mr Baker is increasing rapidly. pet owners to consider the same kind of treatment for
their animals. So Ian Baker's list of patients has steadily
2 Mr Baker, who works in Wales, decided to apply the
increased. He now treats some 250 dogs, cats and
principles of homeopathy to animals after he was treated
farm animals, including cows and horses, each week for
by a homeopathic doctor. 'When I began working, I
everything from broken hips to psychological disorders.
became dissatisfied with certain conventional treatments
and I started thinking about my own experiences of 5 Ian Baker also uses acupuncture (sticking the ends of
alternative medicine. If homeopathic medicine had worked needles into bodies at particular places to stimulate the
for me, I thought, surely it would work for animals too. nerve impulses) and laser treatment. He insists that the
animals are not frightened by these methods. The only
3 I started using three or four homeopathic remedies I
people who sometimes express doubts are the owners.
learnt from a book and the results were very encouraging.
People come to him with their sick animals and when he
Now I have almost 1,000 different treatments. Many of
mentions one of his alternative treatments they realise
them I use to treat myself.' He admits that he does not
they are being asked to pay for something they do not
know why the remedies he uses work, only that they do.
'I am not a clinician and, frankly, it does not bother me that understand. 'Most people are pleasantly surprised at the
I don't know. The whys and the hows remain a mystery. results,' says Mr Baker.
All I know is, it works.'

Summary sentences

1: A Ian Baker is one of a growing number of alternative vets. II Now look at headings for the same text and
B Britain has only 13 qualified alternative vets. choose which one of each pair is appropriate.
Remember, the heading should summarise
2: A He was treated by his own doctor with homeopathic methods.
the paragraph.
B He adapted his own experiences to his treatment of animals.
1: A Qualified vets
3: A He has a large number of remedies.
B A different kind of vet II
B The results are more important to him than the reasons.
2: A How it all began
4: A After a slow start, his business is doing well.
B How to treat animals
B Farm animals are now among his animal patients.
3: A How it works
5: A The owners of animals have to pay for the treatment.
B Success he can't explain
B Results are often better than the owners expect.
4: A Farm animals are treated
B Growth of alternative treatments

5: A Animals don't mind


B Owners unsure at first

68 Unit4
II Exercise 84
Read the article about noise and answer the questions. The questions focus on the main point of each paragraph.

0 What's the topic of this paragraph? A Unwanted noise is


unwanted noie;e everywhere - and getting
worse. It can make people
1 Name two facts about this topic. ill with migraines, stomach
upsets, skin problems and
can even lead to terrible things,
including murder. It is a public
health problem which is not
going to go away.
2 What's the most important piece B Our ears act as our warning
of information about our ears? signals. They are designed to tell us about danger, and they never turn
off. Even in sleep, if someone calls your name, your brain will register
the sound. So unwanted noise is like a continuous alarm that never
lets us relax.
3 What kind of noise can ru in people's C If it comes from neighbours, you will feel angry and probably
home lives? trapped. People who don't complain about noisy neighbours are likely
to get depressed, while those who do make their feelings known are
often accused of being neurotic. Most people, however, do not end up
murdering their neighbours; they simply move away.
4 Which sentence in this paragraph is D Long-term exposure to loud noise (levels above 90 decibels which
the most important? is the equivalent of being in a noisy factory) can lead to hearing loss.
But certain sounds are attention-grabbing, regardless of decibel level,
and it is these sounds that are the most difficult to shut out.
5 Why is the human voice a very E Research is being done on the effect of background noise on
distracting sound? people's ability to concentrate, and it has been found that the
most distracting noises are those which vary a lot in rhythm,
frequency and speed. In fact, the human voice is one of the most
distracting sounds.
6 How does a third person make F The sound of two people talking can reduce concentration by
a difference? 30%, but if a third person joins in, producing a more constant babble
of noise, the reduction in concentration is less. For this reason, people
often work better in a big, crowded office than in one which they share
with just one or two others.
7 What's the purpose of piped music? G Another background noise which some people find irritating is so-
called 'piped music' - the music used by supermarkets and airports,
8 Why doesn't it work? for example, which is supposed to put people into a dreamy state of
mind. A recent survey found that 80% of people do not notice the
music in the background and the other 20% hated it. As a result,
one of London's airports has dropped it.
9 What are therapy, pain relief H But other kinds of music are used as therapy to help people relax,
and increased IQ examples of? and pain clinics sometimes use it to relieve pain. Other types of music
make people feel active and full of energy. American scientists recently
claimed that listening to Mozart can increase your IQ by 15 points.
The message from all this is that when we can choose the sounds we
hear, then all is well; it is unwanted noise that can lead to disaster.

Matching Unit 4 69
Now look at the following headings and choose the most suitable one for each paragraph of
the text about noise pollution. Write the numbers in the table below.

1 Always on duty 5 Voices break concentration


2 Three are better than two 6 Noise from next door
3 A threat to health 7 Sounds you can't ignore
4 Various benefits 8 Pointless music

A B c D E F G H

.,,. Aim of Exercise BS: to practise identifying the main point of paragraphs

II Exercise BS
The following magazine article about lying has ten paragraphs. Headings 1-5 are for the first five paragraphs 0-D.
Headings 6-10 are for paragraphs E-1.

What to do:
• Read the 1-5 choices first, then the first five paragraphs.
• Choose the most suitable heading for each paragraph and underline the words or phrases in
each paragraph that helped you make the match. The first one has been done for you.
• Follow the same procedure for headings 6-10.

1 Knowing the good from the bad 6 The worst kind?


2 Different categories I I 7 Both sides benefit
3 A difficult distinction 8 How to hear lies
4 Why we need to lie 9 Visual signs
5 Learnt then forbidden 10 Not your responsibility

70 Unit4
The truth about lying Generally speaking there are three types of lies, and
liars. The first sort of liar wants to please people, the
second wants to protect him or herself, the third sort
doesn't care about other people and lies to get what he
or she wants.

If someone is fishing for compliments and you tell them


what they want to hear, you probably think it's a 'kind'
lie. However, you get something as a result of this lie -
affection, friendship, peace and quiet.

When you lie for self-protection, the reason is clearer.


To explain your lateness, you tell your boss the train
was cancelled, not that you overslept. You cannot be
blamed for being late, because you are not responsible
for the 'behaviour' of the train and the consequences.

of course,' most people would answer, but then they've


probably forgotten all those little lies that are said
so easily - 'This is delicious.', 'You look lovely in that
shirt.', 'I'd love to come with you.', etc. Lying is a way of process.
making life run more smoothly.

We are told not to lie from the moment we learn how


someone is telling you a lie? Apparently there are
to do it. According to psychologist Catherine Brown,
some verbal clues - lots of urns and ahs - and liars take
this is at the age of about four when children realise
longer to answer a question. They also speak faster but
they can deceive people. We are not born liars.
don't always give the right amount of detail.

is often not clear. Children are praised for creative


certain things that can help identify someone who's
imagination, but generally criticised for hiding the truth.
not telling the truth. Speaking through their fingers and
putting their hands over the face is one. Playing with
their hair or clothes and being unable to stay still for any
lies are OK and which are not. Very often the reason for length of time is another. But the truth of the matter is
the lie is the important thing in accepting or rejecting that we all lie at some time, and if anyone tells you they
the lie. don't, they're lying.

Matching Unit4 71
.,.. Aim of Exercise B6: to identify the extra
heading which is not needed
Gorillas need
gt Exercise 86
The following sentences (1-7) summarise the
entertainment too
paragraphs of an article about gorillas. Read
the sentences, and then match them to the 2
paragraphs of the article, A-G. Underline the
word or phrase in each paragraph that helped a question that is uppermost in most people's minds, but one that
you make the match. The first one has been
David Raynes, keeper at Leicester Safari Park, had to think about
done for you.
with BooBoo and Coconut, two West African lowland gorillas in
1 Watching TV became a favourite his care.
activity for them.

2 A zookeeper had an unusual problem Fifteen years ago, when the two gorillas arrived in the UK from
with two gorillas. a zoo in France, they had to spend a period of six months in
3 Their TV habits are very similar to isolation, or quarantine as it is called. David and the other keepers
human ones. at the safari park realised that BooBoo and Coconut were
suffering from boredom.
4 They like a variety of programmes.
5 They became bored while in quarantine
for six months. David remembered a TV programme he had seen about a gorilla
in Columbus Zoo, USA, whose stress levels had been reduced
6 TV may be a substitute for the company
of other gorillas. by putting a TV in his enclosure. So BooBoo and Coconut were
given a TV for their six-month isolation period. When this period
7 They stay outside all day, and watch TV
ended, the two gorillas proved to be very keen on their new
at night.
entertainment - so much so that they refused to eat and made
noisy protests when their TV was temporarily removed.
During the day, BooBoo and Coconut wander around their island
on a lake in the safari park, searching out the fruit and nuts left
each morning by the keepers. At night, they return to their small
'house' and watch TV.

They are fond of sports coverage and animal programmes,


especially anything with chimpanzees or gorillas. David says that
at the moment they are particularly keen on an advert for tyres
which features some orang-utans. Coconut also goes for cartoons Look again at the article about gorillas, and
match the headings 1-8 to the most suitable
because of all the funny noises.
paragraph, A-G. Write the numbers in the
table below. There is one extra heading which
you do not need to use.
years, are convinced that BooBoo and Coconut can see exactly
1 A daily routine
what we see. When Planet of the Apes was shown again on TV
recently there was an enthusiastic response from the inhabitants 2 Television addicts
of gorilla island. 'Coconut was rushing around. He collected a 3 Like human behaviour
load of food and sat down in front of the TV and ate it, just like
4 Bored during isolation
we do,' says David.
5 A species in danger

Gorillas have extremely large brains. Their lives in the wild, 6 A curious problem
however, are simple - just eating, playing and sleeping. It is believed 7 TV helps their social life
that the greater part of a gorilla's brain is used in social activities
8 Their favourite programmes
with other gorillas. BooBoo and Coconut don't have a large group

Ic I
within which to explore these possibilities and, like many humans,
seem to use their TV for their social life and sense of community. IA I B D I E I F IGI
Matching Unit 4 73
lill- Aim of Exercise B7: to practise an exam-style task

II Exercise 87
YcTaHOBHTe cooTBeTCTBHe Me~y 3aronosKaMH 1-8 H TeKCTaMH A-G. 3attecuTe CBOH OTBeTbI B
Ta6nm..~y. 11cnOJib3YHTe Ka)!(~YIO QHcppy TOJILKO O~HH pa3. B 33~3HHH O~HH 33fOJIOBOK JIHWHHH.

1 A step forward? 4 A lucky escape 7 Getting away from it all

2 They got it wrong 5 Technical problems 8 Relief from housework

3 Old and new 6 Changing tastes

•Russia has traditionally been seen as a land of tea drinkers, but in the
last ten years coffee has taken off in a big way. All the major chains
of coffee shops are now well established in Russian towns, offering
•The home of the future will definitely be
more and more dependent on technology,
but it is not clear whether this will be all
a wide choice of coffees to drink in or take away. Coffee seems good news for those living there. As things
especially popular with the younger generation, who are the typical stand, if something is broken, it is relatively
customers of such cafes. easy to fix it yourself. In the future, the most
minor problem will require the attention -
Ill

and expense - of an IT specialist.
Visitors to Chester Zoo yesterday couldn't believe their eyes when
they saw teenager Mark Smith climb into the lion's enclosure. It is
thought he did it for a joke. An amazed crowd then saw a large lion Science fiction is often credited with
come right up to Mark, as if to attack him. Thankfully, a quick-thinking predicting things that later came true. A
zoo worker threw the lion some meat and Mark managed to get out classic example is space travel: Cyrano de
before the lion had him for dessert. Bergerac wrote about a 'moon machine'
in 1637. Still, most of the content of
Ill science-fiction books and films has not
Robots may seem more science fiction than reality, but advances been realised: robot teachers have not
in cybernetics mean that one day robots could be as familiar in the replaced humans; time travel is impossible;
house as dogs and cats. No doubt this would save a lot of time spent we cannot press a button that makes
on boring chores like cleaning, washing up and minor repairs. It is housework a thing of the past.
possible that robots could also be used for more creative tasks like
teaching small children. Ill
Do you ever want to escape the stress and
El hassle of big city life? If yes, try a weekend
Stary Oryol cafe on Pushkin Street has reopened after being break at our hotel in the relaxing surroundings
completely redesigned. The restored antique furniture reflects the of the Cheshire countryside. The facilities are
grand age of the eighteenth century - you can imagine Pushkin excellent and we offer a range of activities for
enjoying a pot of tea here - and the menu is full of Russian favourites every taste, from canoeing to pottery making.
like pancakes with caviar. If that is not to your taste, you could use If you're a former guest, welcome back; and
the free wireless Internet and enjoy sushi or a health cocktail. if you're a new customer, we look forward to
meeting you!

IA I B Ic ID I E I F I G I
74 Unit4
Gapped text
Information
In Part 2 of the Reading, you are given a text from which six clauses have been removed; these have been put in a
mixed-up order after the text. The task is to decide where in the text the clauses have been taken from.

• There is one extra clause which does not fit anywhere in the text.
• It is important to be able to follow the 'flow' of a text and to understand how parts of a text are connected
(see Exercise A4).

Here is the task as it is given in the exam paper:

Ilpo':IHTaf1Te TeKcT H 3anoJIHHTe nponycKH A-F qacTj{MH npeAJIO:>KeHHH, o6o3Ha':leHHhIMH u;mppaMH 1-7. 0AHa
H3 qacTeH B CilHCKe 1-7 JIHIIIHj{j{. 3aHeCHTe u;mppbI, o603Ha':lal0i.u;He COOTBeTCTBYIOl..ll;He qacTH npeAJIO:>KeHHH,
B Ta6JIHD;y.

Read the text message. Unless you find the rest of it, you can't
understand what 'it' is - you need to see what came before.

Read the sentences. Use arrows to show the connection


between t he words in green and what they refer to. Underline the
key word or phrase. bring it tonight

0 There are huge nu mbers of trainers on the market nowadays, and


perha ps because of L that, finding the perfect one6 is not easy.

'that' refer6 to the fact that there are huge numbere; of tralner6
on the market

1 Half a century ago, scientists knew very little about 4 Many of us have felt dizzy when climbing a ladder
dreams. They could not even say what proportion of or looking down from the top of a high building. We
the night they occupied. usually blame it on a 'fear of heights'. But this is not
necessarily the reason .
2 Animals which feed at night can eat food that is
also eaten by daylight-feeding animals, but without 5 The economists - not to mention the shopkeepers -
coming into direct contact with them. were disappointed with Christmas. Normally shops
can expect to make record profits at that time, but
3 People who eat breakfast tend to be slimmer than
last year didn't come up to their expectations.
those who don't have it. Perhaps this is because
if you miss food early in the day it leads to mid- 6 It's the opening of New York's Fashion Week and
morning 'snacking'. Karl Lagerfeld and his team are everywhere. So are
his clothes.

Gapped text Unit 5 75


Tip: Missing words
Certain words can be 'missed out', usually to avoid repetition.

That day was one of the busiest of the year.

days has been left out

Sometimes a word is missed out because it is structurally unnecessary.

The wall I built fell down.

that or which has been left out

.,,. Aim of Exercise Al: to understand what is being expressed, even when some words are missed out

II Exerci~e A1
Read the sentences and answer the questions.

0 Many thousands of people pass through the main 4 The Bolshoi Theatre is really worth a visit. Although
airport during the summer months, with most once in danger of collapse, it was lovingly restored in
concentrated in the middle two weeks of August. the 2000s; it is now the place fashionable people go
to be seen.
What word could follow 'most'? people
a What two words could come before 'once'?
Of all the changes we've experienced over the
past 50 years in our daily lives, the development of
shopping has been one of the most remarkable.
b What word could come after 'place'?
'Remarkable' what?

c Does 'to' belong to 'go to', or 'to be seen'?


2 The elegance of Dublin's 18th-century streets wou ld
be a good reason to visit Ireland's capital. The city's
cafes would be too; people there talk to you simply d What two words could be added before 'to'?
for the pleasure of making conversation. Combine
the two, and you have a city that should appeal to
any visitor.

a 'Would be' what?

b What word or phrase could follow 'two'?

3 Forget your roller-blades, this year's fashionable


means of transport is the motor scooter. Not bad for
a 60-year-old invention.

What is 'not bad'?

D the motor scooter

D the fact that it is fashionable this year

76 Units
Saying the same thing in a different way Some negative structures
..,. Aim of Exercise A2: to identify when and how a ..,. Aim of Exercise A3: to understand how some negative
writer repeats something, but uses different words structures are used

11 Exercise A2 p Exercise A3
Read the sentences and answer the questions. Read the sentences and answer the questions. The first
one has been done for you.
1 Flora Britannica by Richard Mabey. The result of
five years of intensive research, this unique work 0 It wasn't because Jeremy disliked tennis that he gave
of reference is a comprehensive guide to Britain's up playing.
wild plants which combines Richard Mabey's own Do we know why Jeremy gave up tennis?
knowledge with that of people around the country.
No, but it was nothing to do with disliking it.
a What is 'this unique work of reference'?
1 For the previous six months Rebecca had spent most
Flora Britannica weekends going to parties and discos, so it was hardly
b What two words could be used instead of 'that'? a big surprise to anyone but herself when she failed
her exams.
2 Richard Attenborough's star-packed film about the
life of Charlie Chaplin tells the story of the diminutive Who was surprised at her failure?
comic's journey from poverty to riches. 2 Giant ants are the insect equivalent of the blue whale
Who is 'the diminutive comic'? or the elephant. But, unlike big animals, big insects
attract very little international effort to conserve
3 The flowering of the giant titan arum last week at
them.
Kew Gardens in London attracted world attention,
but in its wild home in Indonesia, the plant is How much attention do big animals receive?
under threat. The monster flower is often cut down 3 If there is one thing we should be worried about in
because it is believed - wrongly - to attract malarial the English-speaking world it is not that we are doing
mosquitoes. badly at learning other people's languages but that we
What phrase in the second sentence tells you what a increasingly pay so little attention to the correct use of
giant titan arum is? our own.
4 The Spanish don't eat a great deal of mustard. The rest a What does 'own' refer to?
of the world, however, loves this hot, yellow spice. Over
b What is 'the one thing we should be worried
half of all the ready-made condiment is manufactured
about'?
in Dijon, making it the global capital of mustard.
4 Around 1450 the German inventor Johannes
a What two phrases are used in order to avoid
Gutenberg created a means of mass-producing
repeating the word 'mustard'?
books and in doing so gave the world a way of taking
b What does 'it' refer to? knowledge out of the control of the few a~d putting it
into the hands of the many. No other invention has so
5 I put on my fins and jumped into the water. Because I
radically changed the spread of knowledge.
was wearing them, I could now swim twice as fast as
those who weren't. a What was Johannes Gutenberg's invention?

a What are 'fins'? b What makes this invention unique?


D swimming trunks
D things you put on your feet
D special cream

b What does 'those' refer to?

c What phrase do you understand to follow 'weren't'?

Gapped text Unit S 77


Tip: Key words
Often key words will indicate some kind of contrast.

For some pop bands, success is to be on the front cover of Rolling Stone magazine; for others, just being paid for playing in
public is enough.

Sometimes key words can help you to predict an explanation.

With more and more people moving to the cities, the economy of the countryside is being threatened.

Sometimes key words can introduce additional information.

Baseball caps, often worn with the peak facing backwards, were once the fashion from San Francisco to Tokyo.

lill> Aim of Exercise A4: to predict what comes next by recognising some key words and phrases

II Exercise A4
Complete the sentences with either a contrast, an explanation or additional information.

0 With regard to pollution, the fact is that while some rivers are improving, others .. ... ~re e~ttlne . w.Qrf:?e .....

1 Although the ra in brought a smile to the face of the farmers, the holiday makers ........................................................... .

2 It wou ld be much more useful to spend the money on something we real ly need rather than

3 Education is not just a question of doing well in exams,


4 The reason Monday is not a good day to go to the fruit shop .......

5 Top sports people are often criticised because they are paid a lot of money. However,
6 There is very little relationship between success at school .... - ................. -- ... __ ......... .. .

7 Artyom had learned French when he was younger and thought he would have no problems when he was in Paris.
In fact, ..... ............... ............... ........................... .

8 The Chinese made the first maps in 1155, but for centuries they were based more on the rich imagination of
travellers than ..-............ ... ........................

9 Never having played golf before, I .................................................. ...

Main and subsidiary points


lill> Aim of Exercise AS: to distinguish between important and subsidiary points in paragraphs

Iii Exercise AS
Read the text on the next page about the health of footballers and answer the questions that follow each paragraph.
There will be some words that you don't know, but this shouldn't stop you from understanding the general sense.

78 Units
In Russia, the football calendar has changed so
The Health of Footballers that teams do not have very long between seasons
to recover and rest . There is now a short mid-
FOR SUCCESSFUL footballers the season is winter break and an ea r ly summer fi nish, so there·s
becoming longer, sometimes extending to 40 JUSt time for a quick holiday before 1t all starts
weeks a year, and the game has become faster and again .
more competitive.

4 Which is the main point, and which is the supporting


The chance of being injured has also increased. It is point?
now almost 1mposs1ble for a player to get through a
season without missing at least one game through And it's not just physical rest that's important.
injury. Every year the game loses 50 players Sports psychologists are busier than ever helping
permanently. Injuries to the knee ligaments, players to cope with all the mental difficulties of
ankle fractures, torn Achilles tendons, groin and being a sporting hero. The football world is a very
pelvic inju ries, and chron ic back pa in are the most macho one; it's not easy for players to talk about
common complaints. In later life, footballers can emotional problems . Some managers would be
suffer from arthritis in their hips and knees. deeply worried if they knew any of their players had
had therapy and would probably drop them from
the team; other more open - minded managers,
1 What are all these problems examples of? (In other
on the other hand, actually direct their troubled
words, what is the main sentence of this paragraph?)
players to see a psychologist, particularly for help
with loss of confidence and inability to concentrate .
Health care for footballers has improved, with all
clubs employing physiotherapists and having doctors
at every match. The Russian Football Association S Which two words support 'it's not just physical rest'?
has a rehabil1tat1on centre which takes care of
6 Which point is more important in this paragraph: the
injured players, helping them to recover their fitness
and also giving necessary psychological support. work of footballers or the work of psychologists?

So next time you see a 30-million-dollar player


2 Underline the main point which the second sentence rolling around holding his leg, have some sympathy
in this paragraph supports. for him . He may not be pretending .

But top footballers have extra pressure put on


them by the ir clubs. Often the club has paid a lot of
money for the player and therefore wants to see its
investment earning his salary. Players return to the
game before they are fully fit. There are stories of
strikers running before their broken legs are fully
mended and goalkeepers playing with broken toes.

3 Summarise in your own words the main point of this


paragraph.

Gapped text Unit 5 79


..,. Aim of Exercise A6: to practise the skills covered in Section A with a reading text similar to those in the exam

II Exercise A6
Read the text and answer the questions.

1 SALT IS EXTREMELY IMPORTANT. Life depends on it as much as on water or oxygen. Human beings
and animals need salt for the proper functioning of their bodies. But it is strange to think that a mineral as
cheap and commonplace as this has played such an exotic and dramatic role in history. Salt sparked off wars
in 250BC; it caused North American Indians to hand over land and furs to European settlers; and in Tibet,
s Ethiopia and Rome it was so highly valued that it became a form of money.
However, people were not aware of just how much they needed salt until they discovered that it had a very
practical use. If meat or fish could be kept in a barrel of salt, or brine, the food could be stored for months
withemt it going bad. So salt became very valuable, and demand began to exceed supply. For Julius Caesar,
the news that there was salt in Britain provided a good reason for invading the country. And Roman soldiers
10 were even paid in salt - the origin of the word salary.
It is hardly a great surprise, then, to find that salt - like gold - acquired magical properties, and stories
and superstitions grew up around it. Primitive people put it on the head of an animal that was about to be
sacrificed to the gods; babies in medieval Europe were washed in salt water and children made to wear little
bags of the stuff around their necks to keep them from harm. Even today, in many countries, the accidental
15 spilling of salt still makes people throw a pinch of the spilled salt over the shoulder to counteract bad luck -
just in case there's some truth in it.

0 What does it (line 1) mean? salt


1 What two words could follow the second as in line 1?
2 What is the mineral (line 2)?
3 What practical use did people discover and why is this introduced by however (line 6)?
4 Which words in lines 6-7 express the main point of this paragraph?
5 What is it in line 8?
6 So (line 8) means As a result of this. What is this?
7 What is the country (line 9)?
8 Does the writer think it is surprising that salt was thought to be magical (line 11)?
9 What word could come between children and made (line 13)?
10 What is the stuff (line 14)?

Suggested approach for Part 2 of the Reading Test


1 Read the text through once. 5 When you've decided on the
appropriate clause, check that it fits
2 Look at the parts of sentences 1-7.
grammatically and follows the sense
3 Read the paragraph that contains the first gap and look for clues: of the text.
• Are there any reference words to help you?
6 Remember, there is an extra clause
• Is there a linking word before or after the gap?
there - just to confuse you!
4 Look for a clause that changes or continues the 'flow'.
7 Allow yourself ten minutes for this part.

so Units
~Aim of Exercise B1: to practise an exam-style task

Fl Exercise 81
Read the text and complete the missing parts A-F with the clauses 1-7. Complete the table below. There is one
extra clause which you do not need to use.

The Royal Menagerie

The Tower of London, A .... ......... ... ... ... ... . 1 to keep the elephants in
has had many functions over its long history but not many
2 fishing in the river
people know that it used to have a menagerie,
B ............. . Henry Ill began to collect 3 which is a kind of zoo
the animals and in 1254 he built a special house
4 because a lion bit a soldier
C ·-····· --· _ _ ····-·--····-·· . Henry also bought a polar
bear and Londoners loved to see it 5 built in 1066
D ··--· . The menagerie grew and
6 where there were exotic animals
grew over the centuries E
including three leopards from the Holy Roman Emperor. 7 and it received many gifts
In 1835 the animals were all moved to London Zoo
F. A B c D E F

Tip: Types of clauses


In the Reading you need to find clauses which complete sentences. Here are the main types.

• Co-ordinate clauses with conjunctions like and, • Interrogative clauses with wh-pronouns.
but and or.
I can't remember what her name is.
It was raining and everyone was inside.
Tell me who did it.
Mike loves tennis, but I'm not a fan.
• -ing, -ed and (to-) infinitive clauses.
• Subordinate clauses with conjunctions like that,
because, if, although and when. Living in a foreign country is a great experience.

Do you know that Pavel has a new girlfriend? Those cakes baked by Jane are delicious!
Irena phoned because she was worried. Rachel never wanted to see him again.
Tell me if you've got time. Please let me finish my homework.

• Relative clauses with (and sometimes without)


pronouns like that, who and which.

The story that we read was great.


Think of a place which you really like.

Gapped text Unit 5 81


,~ ~ .
Get it right! @
Russian learners often use because of instead of because + clause: Russian learners often use -ing forms
The only reason they love you is because of you are their friend. instead of the simple noun.

Riverside Hotel is not great value because of it is expensive and ... I've already planned your sffiyirtg stay in
my city.
Because of is a preposition and because is a conjunction.
Additionally, we could buy useful books
Use because of with a noun and because with a subordinate clause. for our future studying studies.
I'm sad because of the weather. .,.. see Unit 8, page 126
I'm sad because it is raining.
see Unit 9, page 136

..,. Aim of Exercise 82: to identify different types of clauses to complete sentences

II Exercise 82
Match the sentence halves.

0 You can fly a it's a very nice journey.


1 Stella was worried b which will work.
2 Although it's quite far, c that you do it too often.
3 It's not clear d him coming in.
4 I wouldn't recommend e is a mystery.
5 He says he has a plan f or take a train.
6 Why it took so long g me clean the whole flat.

7 No one heard h when her new film will come out


8 It's too early to think about what job I want to do.
9 Yesterday my dad made that her mum would be angry.

0 f - 1 ..., ' 2 . ,.. 3 ,.. . 4 . ........ 5 ............ 6 ...... ... 7 .... ....... 8 ........... 9

Tip: Moving around a text


When you read, people and ideas are introduced or defined and then referred
to in different ways. For example, when you read about a person, at some stage
in the text she will be named, and in other parts she will be referred to as 'the
woman' or 'she', etc. When you're reading, your eye will meet 'she' and your
brain will tell you 'Oh yes, that's the same woman I read about in paragraph 2.'
Sometimes, your eye has to go back (or ahead) to check the connection.

Niki walked in the door and up the stairs without saying a word to her

82 Units
..,. Aim of Exercise 83: to make your eyes (and your brain) move around a text, checking references and repetition

Fl Exercise 83
Read the article about the discovery of a new star sign and then answer the questions.

You're not the person 5 But Dr Mitton is not going to apologise. All she has
you thought you were done, she says, is point out what astronomers have
known for ages - that astrologers have been using
1 So you thought you were a Sagittarian - lively,
the wrong dates for when the sun passes through the
attractive and optimistic. But if you were born between
groups of stars that make up the zodiac.
November 30 and December 17, you are actually
Ophiuchus - the 13th sign of the zodiac, forgotten by 6 Dr Mitton, 46, born on July 10 and once a Cancer
astrologers for nearly a century. (careful, home-loving, introverted), but now found to be
a Gemini (impatient, enthusiastic, lively-minded) thinks
2 The world of astrology has been thrown into
astrology is 'complete nonsense'.
confusion by astronomer Dr Jacqueline Mitton,
spokesperson for the Royal Astronomical Society, who 7 But she still reads her stars. 'We all want something
says that the signs of the zodiac are completely wrong. mysterious in life. And we all look for guidance
from something outside ourselves. I'm fascinated
3 Dr Mitton was surprised at the anger her
by astrology. There are bits of good advice in it for
announcement had caused. Avoiding a large number
everyone.'
of phone calls, photographers and requests for TV
and radio interviews, she said: 'It's amazing how much 8 So, how will people manage now? How will they
passion I've caused. I'm astonished that people care so search for their perfect astrological partner? Dr Mitton
much about astrology.' doesn't care. 'Labels don't make any difference,' she
said. 'Either people found their characteristics fitted
4 Her pronouncement, nevertheless, has brought
them, or not. Personally, I think I'm more Gemini than
chaos to the whole system of zodiacal signs.
Cancer.
Sagittarians are not alone in wondering who they're
supposed to be this morning. Pisceans turn out to be 9 'More importantly, I hope people will discover the
Aquarians, Virgoans were mostly born in the sign of Leo science of astronomy about real stars. It's far more
and Taureans are in Aries. interesting than zodiacal predictions.'

Read the paragraph indicated, and answer the questions. You will have to look at different parts of the text to find
the answers.
0 Paragraph 2: In which two later paragraphs do 4 Paragraph 5: In which previous paragraph can you
you read about the two worlds of astronomy and find a summary of what Dr Mitton has poirtted out?
astrology?
5 Paragraph 7: What is 'But' in contrast to?
paragraphs 5 and 9
6 Paragraph 8: What doesn't Dr Mitton care about?
1 Paragraph 3: Which two paragraphs tell us what
Dr Mitton's 'announcement' was? 7 Paragraph 8: What are the 'labels'?

2 Paragraph 4: How is her 'pronouncement' 8 Paragraph 8: Where is there a previous reference to


previously referred to? Gemini and Cancer which explains this sentence?

3 Paragraph 4: Where is the first reference to 9 Paragraph 9: In which previous paragraph does
Sagittarians being confused? Dr Mitton show her belief that astronomy is better
than astrology?

Gapped text Unit 5 83


Using key words
.,.. Aim of Exercise 84: to use key words to help you follow the sequence of a text

II Exercise 84
In this exercise, some clauses have been removed from the text. Read the magazine article about the connection
between a dream and the British National Lottery. At certain points, two alternative clauses are shown. One of them
is the clause which was removed, while the other does not fit the context.

Identify the key words or phrases which will help you decide which clause fits the context. These words may be in
the clauses themselves or in the text, either before or after the clause.

0 key words: 'dream' in the


text, 'wpke up' in the My dream numbers
claue;e The twice weekly National Lottery in Britain seems to produce a steady stream of
correct clause:[!] stories of happiness, frustration, disappointment and disaster. And the latest is the
the other clauae ie; wrong story of Sally Ferguson's dream,
becaue;e it doee;n't have Oa as she was very lucky in her choice of numbers for the lottery.
any connection with Ob as she woke up four days before the draw with six numbers fixed firmly in her mind.
dreame;. When it came to filling in her husband Jim's National Lottery playslip, she simply
used the numbers that she'd dreamed about. Sally, who's 44, didn't think much more
about it
1 key word (s): la and her husband was not with her at lunchtime.
lb and in fact she didn't even see the draw.
correct clause: D because she was working in a restaurant near her home in Devon.
One of her colleagues told her three of the numbers that had come up. 'I was quite
calm about it really,' Sally remembers.
'I said to my boss, Fiona, "All I need now is another three and I'm a winner." Fiona
replied, "Dream on, honey."'
It wasn't until the next day, when a customer read all the numbers out loud at
lunchtime, that Sally realised she'd selected five of them - plus the bonus number.
She went to the local supermarket,
2 key word (s): 2a where she overheard the manager, George White, talking about an 'unknown' local
person who was a big winner.
correct clause: D 2b because the manager, George White, was congratulating her husband and talking
about an 'unknown' local person who was a big winner.
'I said to Mr White: "What do you have to do when you get six numbers right?"'
He jumped over the shop counter, checked my ticket and said
3 key word (s): 3a that I was the mystery winner!'
3b I had won £630,000 in the Lottery!'
correct clause: D They found out later that she'd won £630,000 but, like everybody in similar
situations, she says it won't change her life - except, perhaps, for a world cruise, a new
car for Jim and flying lessons for herself.
Sally's dream was obviously very good news for her, but how often does this kind
of thing happen? Research shows that around four percent of dreams concern things
which will happen. Some people think it's wrong, and in some cases dangerous, to use
information that comes to you in dreams,
4 key word (s): 4a so Sally was right to use the numbers she dreamed about.
4b but Sally would have been mad not to use the numbers to try to make this dream
correct clause: D come true for her.

84 Units
~Aim of Exercise BS: to identify clauses which complete a text grammatically

I' Exercise BS
Read the article about the changing lifestyle of the nomadic Tuareg people of northern Africa. Underline the
clause which fits the context and is grammatically correct.

The Tuareg
Nearly one and a half
million Tuareg people
live in and around the
Sahara Desert of northern
Africa in some of the most
inhospitable conditions
in the world. They are
descended from the
original inhabitants of
northern Africa, and speak
a Berber language 1 which
has its own alphabet I to
communicate with. The
Tuareg have a tradition of
oral and written poetry, and
rock inscriptions can be
seen throughout the Sahara.
The desert itself is as
large as the US without
Alaska. To outsiders, it looks like an impossible place But 8 when it rains I if it rained, the animals are free to
2 that they live I to live, but the Tuareg have learned how wander widely for a few months, eating well and putting
to adapt. They are mainly nomadic, 3 that is, they move on the weight they lost during the dry season. And as the
around I however they can travel with their animals animals wander, so do the families.
between dry and wet season camps.
Changes are, however, taking place in this traditional
Three to five families camp together in leather tents, way of life. Since 1969 they have suffered from seasons
which are dyed reddish brown with earth pigment. The of little or no rain. Animals and humans have died of
tents are comfortable inside with mats or carpets on the starvation. And political changes have affected them too .
ground, and flaps 4 which are raised or lowered I raising The Tuareg people were used 9 that they wandered • freely
or lowering, according to the time of day, 5 to control the I to wandering freely across the land. But their world has
temperature I because the temperature is controlled. been broken up by the creation of newly independent
countries 10 whose politicians do not like I in which there
Nature has forced the Tuareg to be nomadic. Rainfall
are not the nomadic habits of the Tuareg.
is uncertain and grass or pasture for the animals is
uncommon, 6 so they have to I and they can move in order As a result of these changes, many young Tuareg men
to find food. In the long dry season, families need to camp are making long journeys to northern African countries
near a well of water, 7 to which the animals must return I 11 to find salaried jobs I for finding better worl<. And 12 with
when they can take something to drink every day or two. their young men gone I although their youth is leaving, the
future for the Tuareg way of life doesn't look hopeful.

Gapped text Unit S 85


llJJ>- Aim of Exercise 86: to identify the words and ideas that connect clauses together to make complex

sentences

II Exercise 86

You are going to read three sets of clauses about six different forms of transport in cities on page
87. Read the first set of clauses on the left (A-F), and to each one add a clause from Set 2 and then a
clause from Set 3. There are no extra clauses. Before you start, look at an example of what to do:

• Read clause A about buses. Underline what you think the key phrase is, that is, the phrase which can
help you get an idea of what might come next.
Key phraae: The great advantage'

• Think what information the next clause could contain.


It could be another advantage, or it could be a contraat - a di6advantage.
• Look at Set 2, and choose which clause follows on best.
Clau6e ii becau6e it introduce6 a contraat. Clau6e i almo6t looka right becau6e thia i6 a
di6advantage too, but the word 'al6o' tel/6 me that the flr6t 6entence 6hould have contained
a negative piece of information.
• Now look at Set 3, and choose which clause completes the sentence.
I mu6t look for a clau6e that connect6 to or contra6t6 with the fact that bu6e6 are powered by
dieael, and are noisy and amelly. Clauae d mentiona power and introduces a contraat to die6el.
Follow this process with the remaining sets of clauses. Look carefully at the key words and phrases to
make sure you build up a logical sequence of clauses.

86 Units
Set1 Set2 Set 3

A The great advantage of buses and they also contribute to the a you to take very much with
is that they can carry a large pollution of the city air through you, or to travel with friends.
number of people, their exhaust fumes,

b so, where this is the case and


B Taxis can, of course, only but most of them are powered where the streets are relatively
carry a small number of by diesel, which makes them free of other vehicles, this is
people at a time noisy and smelly, an attractive and convenient
method of transport.

C Private cars are generally iii putting riders at risk from


agreed to be the worst form of heavy traffic like cars and c the fact that parking is always
urban transport and while some lorries, and it does not enable a problem, and one which is
cities have had the courage to going to become worse and
ban them from their streets, worse.
iv to build, and the few cities that
already have them also face
D Underground railways have huge maintenance costs, d although this is a problem
the great advantage of being which is being overcome in
unheard but they are very many cities by the introduction
expensive v there is strong opposition from of electrically-powered vehicles.
those who see it as an attack
on their personal freedom,
E Tram rails are a traditional sight despite e yet they have the advantage of
in most city streets being able to travel from door
to door, and avoiding parking
vi and this form of transport problems by keeping on the
F Bicycles are an excellent way is still popular, with many move.
of getting around in cities but systems extended and
cycling can be dangerous, modernised
f which, however, may be
outbalanced by the efficiency
and relatively low environmental
impact of such a system .

Tip: Points to remember


• Words like it, this and so must refer to something in another part of the text.
• When words are missed out, you can often understand better if you decide what the missing words are.
• An idea may be expressed in a different way to avoid repetition.
• Negative meanings need to be identified.
• Some words such as however and so can help you predict what you're going to read.
• Not all sentences have the same importance - some are in the text to support the main point.

Gapped text Unit S 87


... Aim of Exercises 87-88: to practise exam-style tasks

II Exercise 87
Ilpo'IHTaliTe TeKcT 11 3anoJJHHTe nponycKH A-F qacTSIMH npe/l,JJO)KeHHH, o6o3Ha'leHHhlMH ll,mppaMH 1-7. 0)1.Ha H3 'lacTeii
B CDHCKe 1-7 JIHWH.H.H. 3aHeCHTe ll,Hcppbl, o603HalJaIOlll,He COOTBeTCTBYIO~He qaCTH npe/l,JJO)KeHHH, B Ta6JJH1.J,y.

What a Fruitarian Eats • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •


In many countries, the number of heightens my senses and so I find my
vegetarians, people who cut out meat diet wonderfully exciting.
and fish from their diets, is growing.
I make sure my children have freedom
Fiona Walk~r has gone a few stages
of choice about what they eat. I certainly
further; she's a fruitarian - a diet not
don't force D , but just
recommended for most people!
teach them about the goodness of it. If
I have my breakfast at about eight they feel like cooked food, I'll prepare
o'clock. Yesterday, this consisted them a vegetarian meal. I don't like to eat
of two apples, an orange and four food too late and I usually have a final
tomatoes; I like a big breakfast. I don't snack at about eight in the evening of a
drink anything during the day such couple of apples, and that's it.
as tea or water A
I'm very unusual for a raw food eater as I do not eat
After breakfast, I take the children to school and then go
the complex foods such as nuts, seeds, etc. My body
to the gym until eleven. I work out every day. After this
is extremely sensitive and I find E
morning's session I had a snack of a couple of apples
I have been a fruitarian for about three and a half years,
and a small bunch of seedless grapes.
and I don't miss anything. People think I have strong
I then went home and did some work. I run an willpower. But it's not really anything to do with that.
organisation called Fresh Network, which is a support Generally speaking, I don't have to stop myself eating
and information network on the raw food lifestyle, other things. I just don't want to.
and every three months we produce a newsletter
It's not that you can't eat certain things, you just find
B
the diet to suit you. There are in fact no rules - everyone
I quite often take lunch upstairs with me to eat while works out their own. And I've found a regime that I'm
I'm working. Yesterday, I had about 12 tomatoes, half comfortable with. But it's my regime and I wouldn't
a lettuce and then a couple of apples and an orange. recommend F
Some people think I have an incredibly boring diet,
C . Because I only eat raw food, this

which explains to the general public the benefits of 5 for educating younger people about the
raw food advantages of this diet

2 them, or anybody else for that matter, to eat raw food 6 but in all honesty I can say this just isn't the
case at all
3 that anybody else follow this diet without medical
advice 7 that I no longer need or desire things like
that any more
4 as I get all the fluid which I need, and more, from
my diet
A B c D E F

88 Units
II Exercise 88
Ilpo'n1Tai1Te TeKcT 11 3anoJIHHTe nponycKH A-F qacrnMH npe)J.JIO)l(ett11l1, o6o3HaqeHHhIMH u;mppaM111-7. 0)J,ua H3 11acTei't:
B CDHCKe 1-7 JIHIDH.ff.ff. 3aHeCHTe u;mppbl, o603Haqa1-0~11e COOTBeTCTBYI-O~He 'IaCTJf npe)J,JIO)l(eHHH, B Ta6n11u;y.

The Per111 Triangle The Perm Triangle covers an area of about 70 square
kilometres located roughly halfway between Perm and
Ekaterinburg. Since 1989, B , there have
been recordings of many unusual occurrences, ranging
from UFO sightings to miracle cures.

Perhaps the most common, C , are


sound hallucinations, that is, people hearing sounds which
have no identifiable source. One man once heard ancient
Russian choral music in a completely deserted stretch of
land.

For all its spookiness, no one to date has been


physically harmed in the Perm Triangle,
D . Whatever is out there does not
seem to have any evil intentions.

The local people seem to accept the notoriety of the


Perm Triangle and have even got used to all the tourists
and researchers E . They probably get
tired of the media exposure, but it is also a source of
income.

Katya was wandering through some meadows near With the advance of technology and greater openness
her home village of Molebka when she was joined by a in Russia, the big question is F . Because
very unusual companion, a green man little more than a of the size of the area and range of phenomena observed,
metre tall. They walked side by side for a while until her this is as unlikely as finding out the secret of its namesake,
new friend suddenly disappeared. Strange indeed, the Bermuda Triangle. The riddle of the Perm Triangle
A , the paranormal centre of Russia. continues.

1 whether the mystery of the Perm Triangle will ever be solved

2 but just another story from the enigma that is the Perm Triangle

3 wanting to experience this very special atmosphere for themselves

4 although it is definitely not a place for the faint of heart

5 if that can be the right word in a case like this

6 which accounts for much of the so-called paranormal activity

7 when the authorities allowed the area to be officially investigated

A B c D E F

Gapped text Unit 5 89


Multiple choice
Information
In Part 3 of Reading, you are given a text followed by seven four-option multiple choice questions. The text is a
narrative, for example part of a story. The questions test detailed and general understanding.

• Four possible answers are given and it is important to remember that three of the answers are wrong. You
therefore need to understand the text before looking at the questions and the four choices. If you don't, you
may misread the text because you have three pieces of incorrect information in your head.
• The 'tjuestions come in the order of information in the text, but one question (probably the last one) may test
understanding of the whole text.
• There is usually a narrator - the person telling the story - and questions may ask what the narrator says,
thinks or means.
• There may be questions such as 'What does the phrase x in paragraph y refer to?' or 'What does the narrator
mean when she says x?' which test your understanding of language as well as ideas.
• You may have to infer the answer from the text, i.e. it is not stated directly.

Here is the task as it is given in the exam paper:


IIpoqHTatiTe TeKCT H BhmOJIHHTe 3ap;aHHS1 A15-A21. B K!UK,D;OM 3ap;aHHH o6sep;HTe QHcppy 1, 2, 3 HJIH 4,
COOTBeTCTBYIOI.QYIO Bbi6paHHOMY BaMH sapHaHTY OTBeTa.

This text is much shorter than the one in the exam, but the task is the same.

Read the text and answer the questions on page 91. Choose the best answer 1, 2, 3 or 4.

A night in the museum Well, almost to myself. There were the exhibits,
It was a brilliant, if totally crazy, idea and I took some thousands of them, from ancient maps to xylophones. As
persuading, but it seemed like a great adventure and darkness fell, some of them looked quite intimidating,
something I could boast about to the other kids for the for example I was sure I could see the knight in an oil
rest of the school year. So here I was, locked in the Penza painting riding out to get me. It didn't, so I decided to go
History Museum for a long lonely night. and explore the rest of the museum. After all, I'd bought
a ticket.
Let's rewind a bit. First I had to get myselflocked in. I
went to the museum just before it closed and headed for the There was a full moon that night, so I didn't have
back rooms which I knew would be the first to be cleared too much trouble getting around. I'm not a great fan of
at closing time. Sure enough, the museum workers went museums, but there wasn't much else to do to keep me
round at five o'clock checking everyone had gone, but they busy until opening time. I stopped looking at my watch,
didn't spot me hiding behind the stuffed elephant. There just walked around and soon I was almost enjoying
was an old cleaning lady after that, but then she was gone, myself - until I heard the steps. Heavy and deliberate,
the doors were locked and I had the museum to myself. they were near and getting nearer. I wasn't alone.

90 Unit6
A15 How did the narrator first feel about the idea of
spending a night in the museum?

enthusiastic

2 reluctant
3 encouraged

4 unimpressed

A16 The phrase 'Let's rewind a bit' at the beginning


of the second paragraph shows

1 the story is going back in time. A19 The knight is an example of


the realism with which the painting was done.
2 the narrator needs to relax.
3 the story is going too quickly.
2 a painting which is inappropriate for younger
visitors.
4 the narrator has to correct some information.
3 how ordinary things become frightening at night.
A17 Why wasn't the narrator found? 4 the general theme of the artwork in the room.
Everything was locked up.
A20 The narrator's phrase 'After all, I'd bought a ticket' is
2 The museum workers didn't do their job properly.
1 a joke.
3 The narrator chose a clever hiding place.
2 a warning.
4 No one was looking for someone at the back of
3 a tip.
the museum.
4 a conclusion.
A18 What does the phrase 'from ancient maps to
xylophones' in paragraph 3 imply? A21 At the end of the text the reader can infer

that the museum was rather old-fashioned 1 the narrator was thrown out of the museum.
2 that the narrator took time to see all the exhibits 2 there is more to come in the story.

3 that the museum was not very organised 3 the narrator is too frightened to continue.

4 that there was a wide range of museum exhibits 4 the story is all a dream.

Multiple choice Unit 6 91


Tip: Phrasal vocabulary: which words go together?
It is possible to know all the individual words in a sentence but not to understand the meaning of what you are
reading. This may be because the sentence contains 'phrasal vocabulary' which is new to you. Phrasal vocabulary
describes all those cases where two or more words make one unit of vocabulary. A great deal of English vocabulary
consists of groups of words which must be understood or used together. In such cases you need to:

• identify which words go together


• think of these words as one idea, and deduce the meaning from the context
IJll> see Unit 9, page 138

..,. Aim oUxercises A1-A4: to become more aware of what sorts of words go together

II ExerciseA1
Match each of the phrases in green on the left (1-5) with one of the explanations on the right (a-e). The phrases all
come from the text about badger watching on page 65.
a to make a bad situation even worse
1 'We might as well ...
b we had had quite enough experience of
2 ... give up and go home'
c make us feel happier
3 ... to cap it all, a cloud covered the moon
d stop what we are doing
4 ... we were fed up with the world of nature
e the best thing for us to do is to
5 ... not even the thought of our fishing trip could cheer us up

II Exercise A2
There may seem to be no logical reason why certain words go together to make an expression with a particular
meaning. With no context to help you, the following exercise is a 'guessing game', but it will make you more aware of
the kind of phrase which can cause problems in your reading.

Match the two parts of some common expressions to give the meanings shown on the right.

put up a of the past = it's no longer true, doesn't exist now


2 make b the battle = you've solved 50% of the problem
3 it's got nothing c in some work =give a written task back to your teacher

4 hand d with something = tolerate something

5 for the time e in the right direction = a (small) improvement


6 a thing f a mess of it = do something very badly
7 that's half g time off = be away from school/work
8 pick up h to do with me = I have no interest or responsibility

9 take i where you left off = start again in the same situation
10 a step j being = temporarily

92 Unit6
51 Exercise A3 fl Exercise A4
Read the sentences and underline the phrase which Read the article about Artyom Silchenko.
could be replaced with the words shown below it
in green. The first one has been done for you as an
example.

0 Let's hope that by the beginning of the next decade


pollution will be a thing of the past,
no longer exist

1 I always look forward to spending New Year with my


family even though I see them every day.
feel happy and excited about

2 Have you got any idea what has become of Steve


since he left the group so suddenly all those
months ago? Jumping 25 metres off a cliff into the sea is hardly
happened to everyone's favourite thing; in fact, it would leave most
3 The first flat we lived in was alright, but I couldn't people petrified. But it's routine for Artyom Silchenko,
stand the neighbours. World Cliff Diving Champion from Voronezh. Artyom
hated became involved with diving when he was a boy, and his
skill and talent quickly got the attention of diving trainers.
4 Sergey was late again, so he made up an excuse
Now Artyom spends most of the year travelling to do
about his cat being sick.
invented competitions all around the world. It is a dangerous
sport and Artyom says he feels net vous before he dives,
5 Look at the weather! It's ten to one no one will come but then he enjoys the thrill of flying through the air like
to the match today!
a bird. To keep in perfect shape, Artyom exercises every
highly probable
day of course and he relaxes by playing chess or just
6 By the time he'd finished telling me about all the being with his family. Artyom is definitely a real success!
difficulties and dangers I would face on the journey,
he'd managed to put me right off going.
Now look at the ten items of phrasal vocabulary below.
discourage me from
Match each phrase with one of the words or phrases in
7 Only somebody born and bred in New York can really italics in the text. Make sure each one fits grammatically.
understand the reasons for the strong emotions
0 gets butterflies .................. f~~(~ n~rv()IJ~ . ..-....
which are sometimes publicly expressed in that city.
from 1 take part in .. ... ...... ................................................................

8 That sandwich was just the job: I'm so full I won't 2 cup of tea
need to eat again for days!
perfect
3 works out

9 A lot of people object to the idea that before a 4 high-flyer ........ ....... ..............................................................
company sells a new product they can try it out on 5 all in a day's work ... _..
animals to see if it is harmful.
experiment 6 caught the eye of ............................- - .............................
7 takes it easy ..............
8 gets a kick out of ....................................................- ......... ___ ..__
9 got into ... ...... ........... ...... ...... ......... ____ ... __ ,,__ ..............

Multiple choice Unit 6 93


Tip: Phrasal vocabulary: which words go together?
It is possible to know all the individual words in a sentence but not to understand the meaning of what you are
reading. This may be because the sentence contains 'phrasal vocabulary' which is new to you. Phrasal vocabulary
describes all those cases where two or more words make one unit of vocabulary. A great deal of English vocabulary
consists of groups of words which must be understood or used together. In such cases you need to:

• identify which words go together


• think of these words as one idea, and deduce the meaning from the context
~ see Unit 9, page 138

IJll. Aim of Exercises A1-A4: to become more aware of what sorts of words go together

II Exercise

A1
Match each of the phrases in green on the left (1-5) with one of the explanations on the right (a-e). The phrases all
come from the text about badger watching on page 65.
a to make a bad situation even worse
1 'We might as well ...
b we had had quite enough experience of
2 ... give up and go home'
c make us feel happier
3 ... to cap it all, a cloud covered the moon
d stop what we are doing
4 ... we were fed up with the world of nature
e the best thing for us to do is to
5 ... not even the thought of our fishing trip could cheer us up

II Exercise A2
There may seem to be no logical reason why certain words go together to make an expression with a particular
meaning. With no context to help you, the following exercise is a 'guessing game', but it will make you more aware of
the kind of phrase which can cause problems in your reading.

Match the two parts of some common expressions to give the meanings shown on the right.

1 put up a of the past = it's no longer true, doesn't exist now

2 make b the battle = you've solved 50% of the problem

3 it's got nothing c in some work =give a written task back to your teacher

4 hand d with something = tolerate something

5 for the time e in the right direction = a (small) improvement

6 a thing f a mess of it = do something very badly

7 that's half g time off = be away from school/work


8 pick up h to do with me = I have no interest or responsibility

9 take i where you left off = start again in the same situation

10 a step j being =temporarily

92 Unit6
II Exercise A3 I I Exercise A4
Read the sentences and underline the phrase which Read the article about Artyom Silchenko.
could be replaced with the words shown below it
in green. The first one has been done for you as an
example.

0 Let's hope that by the beginning of the next decade


pollution will be a thing of the past,
no longer exist

1 I always look forward to spending New Year with my


family even though I see them every day.
feel happy and excited about

2 Have you got any idea what has become of Steve


since he left the group so suddenly all those
months ago? Jumping 25 metres off a cliff into the sea is hardly
happened to everyone's favourite thing; in fact, it would leave most
3 The first flat we lived in was alright, but I couldn't people petrified. But it's routine for Artyom Silchenko,
stand the neighbours. World Cliff Diving Champion from Voronezh. Artyom
hated became involved with diving when he was a boy, and his
skill and talent quickly got the attention of diving trainers.
4 Sergey was late again, so he made up an excuse
about his cat being sick. Now Artyom spends most of the year travelling to do
invented competitions all around the world. It is a dangerous
sport and Artyom says he feels nervoU3 before he dives,
5 Look at the weather! It's ten to one no one will come but then he enjoys the thrill of flying through the air like
to the match today!
a bird. To keep in perfect shape, Artyom exercises every
highly probable
day of course and he relaxes by playing chess or just
6 By the time he'd finished telling me about all the being with his family. Artyom is definitely a real success!
difficulties and dangers I would face on the journey,
he'd managed to put me right off going.
discourage me from Now look at the ten items of phrasal vocabulary below.
Match each phrase with one of the words or phrases in
7 Only somebody born and bred in New York can really italics in the text. Make sure each one fits grammatically.
understand the reasons for the strong emotions
0 gets butterflies ..... .............. f~~(e; nerv.~U.lii... ....................
which are sometimes publicly expressed in that city.
from 1 take part in ........... ...................................................................... .
8 That sandwich was just the job: I'm so full I won't 2 cup of tea ......................................................................................
need to eat again for days!
perfect 3 works out .............. ....................... - ....._................... ·--.........

9 A lot of people object to the idea that before a 4 high-flyer .....................................- ..........................................
company sells a new product they can try it out on 5 all in a day's work ........ - ........... - ............._........... _......-............... .
animals to see if it is harmful.
experiment 6 caught the eye of ...........................-.........................................
7 takes it easy .......... ...................................................... -··
8 gets a kick out of ..... ......... ............. .. .................................................

9 got into ..............................................................................

Multiple choice Unit 6 93


Deducing the meaning from the context
Read the following conversation,
which contains some phrasal vocabulary
that you may not know.

Hello there, Rebecca. I haven't seen Yes, I wanted to keep healthy rather than sit in
Kate you for ages! What are you up to front of the computer all day, so I've taken up Rebecca
these days? You must have plenty yoga. Difficult at first, but now I'm beginning
of time on your hands, now your to get the hang of it and I'm really enjoying it.
exams are over. You ought to give it a go yourself!

Now look at the steps which will help you to find the meaning of the phrasal vocabulary.

Step 1 Identify the words that go together.

Hello there, Rebecca . I haven't seen Yes, I wanted to keep healthy rather than sit in
you for ages! What are you up to front of the computer all day, so I've taken up
these days? You must have plenty yoga . Difficult at first, but now I'm beginning
of time on your hands, now your to get the hang of it and I'm really enjoying it.
exams are over. You ought to give it a go yourself!

Step 2 Think of the words as one idea.

Hello there, Rebecca . I haven't Yes, I wanted to keep healthy rather than sit in
seen you for ages! What are you front of the computer all day, so I've
these days? You must yoga . Difficult at first, but now I'm beginning
have plenty of time , now to and I'm really enjoying it. You
your exams are over. ought to yourself!

Step 3 Fill in the gaps with simple words.

Hello there, Rebecca . I haven't seen Yes, I wanted to keep healthy rather than sit
you for ages! What are you doing in front of the computer all day, so I've started
these days? You must have plenty to do yoga. Difficult at first, but now I'm
of time available, now your exams beginning to learn how to do it better and I'm
are over. really enjoying it. You ought to try it yourself!

94 Unit6
~Aim of Exercise AS: to decide the meaning of phrases, using the context to help you

P Exercise AS
Read the text and choose the best of the three alternatives A, B, or C to explain each of the phrases in italics.
Remember to think of each group of words as one idea and try to decide for yourself what meaning it has before
you look at the choices.

Short holiday breaks Spending sprees


1 Most people (1) take it for granted that if they Some people actually enjoy last-minute Christmas shopping,
have two weeks' holiday, it automatically 20 but most of us don't: if you're working, you (8) don't have any
means spending the whole fortnight away from say in when you are free, so we all find ourselves shopping at
home. However, it can be just as satisfactory to the same time on December 24th. Instead of having to put up
5 have short breaks (2) now and again rather than with the crowds, how about booking a late-autumn two- or
use up all your holiday (3) in one go. Here is a three-day break in your favourite shopping city - Edinburgh,
selection of current 'breakaways'. 25 London, Paris or New York - and shop (9) to your heart's
content. Or why not (10) head for Germany during December,
Food, wonderful food when the traditional Christmas markets in towns such as Koln
Two weeks of eating wonderful food could (4) or ROdesheim will be (11) getting into full swing.
10 play havoc with your weight and figure, but only a
limited amount of damage can be done in a few Learning breaks
days! So, if you want to (5) tuck into a full cooked 30 Most people have often thought they'd like to (12) have a go
breakfast, or (6) work your way through every at something new, such as a sport or craft, but it is hard to get
dessert on the menu, a short break is the time going. Study Centres are starting points for all sorts of exciting
15 to do it. You could either book accommodation skills, where people can find out more about their chosen
(7) within easy reach of a favourite restaurant or subject. The social side is (13) every bit as important, bringing
choose a hotel which is known for its good food. 35 together people with shared interests, making these breaks
(14) just the thing for anyone who is holidaying alone.

1 take it for granted 8 don't have any say in


A decide B hope C believe A don't know B can't choose C don't say

2 now and again 9 to your heart's content


A now B sometimes C again A as much as you like B as little as you like
C as late as you like
3 in one go
A at the same time B at different times 10 head for
C going away A leave B forget C visit

4 play havoc with 11 getting into full swing


A not damage B damage a little A getting too many visitors
C seriously damage B starting to become busy C becoming less busy
5 tuck into 12 Have a go at
A cook B refuse C enjoy A try B teach C buy
6 work your way through 13 every bit as
A systematically eat B travel slowly through A not B equally C almost
C thoroughly study
14 just the thing
7 within easy reach of
A unsuitable B perfect C only
A at B near C within

Multiple choice Unit 6 95


Suggested approach for Part 3 of the Reading Test
1 Read the text carefully - you may need to read it, 5 Look at the choices, and either choose the answer
or parts of it, twice. that you think is right or eliminate the ones you know
are wrong.
2 Look at the first question .
6 Check against the text.
3 Look back to the text and underline the part
which the question refers to. 7 Allow yourself ten minutes for this section.

4 If you have time, think how this information


might be rephrased (or how you would answer
the question in your own words).

Section B Exam pradice


1111> Airnof Exercises B1-B2: to practise checking general and detailed understanding and dealing with
multiple choice questions

II Exercise 81
1 Read the following paragraph two or three times until Check at the bottom of this page to see if your answer
you feel you understand Sonia's feelings and actions. is right. If you've made the wrong choice, look at the
text again. You might, for example, have chosen '2'.
Sonia left home not so much because she was
But the text says 'a lot happier' which is not the same
unhappy, but because she wanted to live
as 'very happy'.
independently; and although she found that living
alone had its ups and downs, she was on the
whole a lot happier.
• Exercise 82
2 Check that you understand how Sonia felt about You are going to practise the procedure from Exercise B1
living at home and why she left. but this time with a longer text.
She wae;n't unhappy at home. She wanted to be Whattodo:
more independent.
• Read the four paragraphs on page 97 about a man
call ed Mr Boggis.
3 So how did she feel about living on her own?
• Think what kind of busin ess Mr Boggis wa s
Complete this sentence in your own words.
probably involved in.
She felt ... • Look at the five quest ions wh ich foll ow the text.
• Rea d each pa ragraph again and underline the part
4 Now look at the four multiple choice answers to which the quest ion refers to.
the same question. Remember only one is correct. • Answer the questions in your own wo rds.
Which of them is nearest to your own answer?

1 unhappy

2 very happy

3 more satisfied

4 lonely

'[ s1 wasp1ax3 011aMsuo a41


96 Unit6
2 The idea behind Mr Boggis's little secret was a
simple one, and it had come to him as a result of
something that had happened on a certain Sunday
afternoon nearly nine years before, while he was driving
in the country. He'd gone out in the morning to visit his
old mother, and on the way back the fanbelt on his car
had broken, causing the engine to overheat. He had
got out of the car and walked to the nearest house, a
smallish farm building about fifty yards off the road,
and had asked the woman who answered the door if he
could please have a jug of water.
3 While he was waiting for her to fetch it, he happened
to glance in through the door of the living-room, and
there, not five yards from where he was standing, he
1 During the past few years, Mr Boggis had achieved spotted something that made him so excited the sweat
considerable fame among his friends in the trade by his began to come out all over the top of his head.
ability to produce unusual and often quite rare items 4 It was a large oak armchair of a type that he had
with astonishing regularity. Apparently, the man had only seen once before in his life. Each arm, as well as
a source of supply that was almost inexhaustible, a the panel at the back, was supported by a row of eight
sort of private warehouse, and it seemed that all he beautifully turned spindles. The back panel itself was
had to do was to drive out to it once a week and help decorated by an inlay of the most delicate floral design,
himself. Whenever they asked him where he got the and the head of a duck was carved to lie along half the
stuff, he would smile knowingly and wink and murmur length of either arm. 'Good God!' he thought. 'This thing
something about a little secret. is late fifteenth century!'

Paragraph 1: What impressed Mr Boggis's friends? Which of the above four choices fits best? Look at how
Paragraph 2: How did Mr Boggis discover his source the right answer is arrived at.
of supply?
1: No, we don't know he had a private warehouse; It
Paragraph 2: Why did Mr Boggis go to the farmhouse?
just seemed to his friends as If he had.
Paragraph 3: Why did he start sweating?
2: Well, yes it was. He didn't tell his friends where he
Paragraph 4: What was special about the armchair?
was getting his Items from but this wasn't what
lmpree;sed them, e;o It's not the answer to the
You have already thought about your own answers to
quee;tion.
the questions. Now look at four possible multiple choice
3: It e;ays In the text that he produced 'unusual and
answers and decide which of them corresponds most
often quite rare Items with astonishing regularity:
closely to what you said.
and It wae; that fact that led to him becoming e;o
A What impressed Mr Boggis's friends? famous among his friends.
4: Yes, his fame was considerable among hie; friends;
1 He had a private warehouse.
but It wasn't his fame that Impressed them.
2 His supply of items was secret.
So 3 Is closest to what I thought, and Is the right
3 He had a regular supply of items. answer.

4 His fame was considerable.

Multiple choice Unit 6 97


Do the same with the following four questions. Make sure you go through each choice one by one to find
the one closest to the answer you gave in your own words.

B How did Mr Boggis discover his source of supply? D Why did he start sweating?

through nine years of driving in the country 1 because he was afraid of something
2 by chance 2 because it was so hot in the house

3 by having a secret idea 3 because of what he saw


4 by looking for it for more than nine years 4 because there was something on top of
his head
C Why did Mr Boggis go to the farmhouse?
E What was special about the armchair?
to visit his mother
' 1 It was very old.
2 because he was thirsty
2 It was supported by eight spindles.
3 to get a new part for his car
3 It was carved in the form of a duck.
4 to get some water for his car
4 It was the only one of its kind.

Now read the rest of Mr Boggis's story and answer the multiple choice questions which follow. Wherever possible,
think about your answers to the questions before you look at the choices.

Mr Boggis poked his head in farther through the 'Dear me, thirty-five pounds.' Well, well, that
door and there, by heavens, was another of them on was very interesting. She'd always thought they
the other side of the fireplace! He couldn't be sure, but were valuable. They were very old. They were very
two chairs like that must be worth at least a thousand comfortable too. She couldn't possibly do without them,
pounds up in London. And, oh, what beauties they were!
not possibly. No, they were not for sale, but thank you
When the woman returned, Mr Boggis introduced very much all the same.
himself and straight away asked if she would like to sell
They weren't really so very old, Mr Boggis told
her chairs.
her, and they wouldn't be at all easy to sell, but it just
'Dear me,' she said. But why on earth should she happened that he had a client who rather liked that sort
want to sell her chairs? No reason at all, except that of thing. Maybe he could go up another two pounds -
he might be willing to give her a pretty nice price. And call it thirty-seven. How about that?
how much would he give? They were definitely not for
They bargained for half an hour, and of course, in
sale, but just out of curiosity, just for fun, you know, how
the end Mr Boggis got the chairs and agreed to pay her
much would he give?
something less than a twentieth of their value.
'Thirty-five pounds.'

'How much?'

'Thirty-five pounds.'

98 Unlt6
F Mr Boggis liked the chairs because G The woman thought her chairs were
1 they were very beautiful. 1 extremely valuable.

2 they looked very comfortable. 2 less valuable than they really were.

3 he was curious about them . 3 worth a thousand pounds in London.


4 he hoped to sell them for a profit. 4 not worth selling.

The next kind of question might come as the last in a series of questions. It is a test of general
understanding, not detail. It's a bit like someone asking you about a book you're reading: 'What's it about,
then?' The best choice of answer will be one that catches the meaning of the whole text, not just part of it.

H What do you think would be a good title for this text?


Where Mr Boggis found his source of supply

2 Mr Boggis's day out

3 An unexpected find
4 Why Mr Boggis likes driving

~Aim of Exercise 83: to practise checking what words and phrases mean in context

II Exercise 83
Read extracts 1-4 and answer the questions, which test your understanding of phrasal vocabulary and
reference words.

Extract 1
1 I'm a huge fan of colour, and our end-of-terrace Edwardian 0 What is meant by 'I'm a huge fan of
house in London has been transformed since we moved here colour' (line 1)?
in January. We took out all the horrible modernisations and I I like colours very much.
was able to start again from scratch, so I painted all the rooms
5 using a palette of seven colours, including copper, silver and What is meant by 'start again from
gold leaf. scratch' (line 4)?
I spent a year on my back in a white room with a white 2 What does 'that' refer to (line 8)?
ceiling after a car accident and that, I can assure you, would
put anybody on to colour. It doesn't have to cost the earth - I 3 What does the writer mean by 'cost the
10 believe in style on a shoestring, in fact I've done up the whole earth' (line 9)?
house for less than £10,000. 4 What is meant by 'on a shoestring'
I originally came to London wanting to be a hair stylist. I (line 10)?
got taken on as a junior in a very fashionable salon, and by the
time I was 17, I was working as a stylist with lots of famous 5 What does the writer mean by 'taken
15 clients. Then came the car crash, and the serious injury to on' (line 13)?
my back which put me in bed for a year. It obviously wasn't 6 What does 'it' refer to (line 16)?
going to stand up to the physical demands of hairdressing any
more, so I turned to interior design and an unexpected new
career in TV.

Multiple choice Unit 6 99


Extract 2
7 What is 'the ink smudge'
(line 4)?
1 It was my first night on Pitcairn Island. A storm had cleared the air
' hear palm fronds rustling like grass skirts and the sea
and I could 8 What does 'lost in the blanket of
washing the rocks. They were familiar sounds. I had heard them in the ocean' make you feel about
my mind back in England as I stared at the ink smudge on my wall the island (line 7)?
S map and prepared for this trip to the world's remotest island. Then,
9 What is 'the same thought'
the knowledge that Pitcairn was little more than a square mile of land,
(line 8)?
lost in the blanket of the ocean, was worrying. Now that I was here,
the same thought was comforting. It would make getting to know the
island and the islanders simple.

Extract 3
10 What does 'it' refer to (line 5)?
1 I suppose being a tea-taster is an unusual job. Sometimes it would be A talking about his job
much easier to say I'm an accountant, especially at parties. Strangers
constantly say: 'how interesting, now what's the best tea to buy,
B his unusual job
what's your favourite, and what's the best way of making a good C going to parties
S cup?' It gets a bit boring sometimes.
D making tea

Extract 4 11 What does 'This' refer to


(line 3)?
1 In the earliest athletic competitions in Olympia, around 800 BC, the
only race on foot was the sprint along the length of the stadium. A the stadium
This soon developed into two lengths, but as the track wasn't circular,
a pole was placed at one end and competitors had to run round it B the track
S before heading back for their second length. C the race
D the Olympics

12 What does 'it' refer to (line 4)?


A the stadium
B the pole
C the track
D the length

100 Unlt6
..,. Aim of Exercise 84: to practise the skills acquired with a text of the size usually found in the exam

mExercise 84
Read the newspaper article and answer the questions.

N THE FACE OF IT, all the energy was


O there is little to connect the
oriental art of Feng Shui with
burning off through
the roof. They said
the world of hammers, power the only thing he
drills and paint. But the ancient could do was to build
Chinese philosophy, which involves a swimming pool
changing the design of your living on the roof, which
or working space to improve your he did. And to this
fortune, is proving to be a big hit in day there is an office
the world of'Do-It-Yourselr stores, block in Hong Kong
where people go to buy building with a swimming
materials and tools. pool 40 floors up
Two vast new DIY superstores which no one ever
have been designed in the UK uses, but there is a
following Feng Shui guidelines, and successful company
their business is booming. Both underneath it. Jon Dorsett, manager of a sister
store managers maintain their 'Some people may think Feng store, also sticks to the policy
success is due to the positive energy Shui is just mystical rubbish and I of wide, uncluttered aisles and
that has been channelled into their must admit there is a superstitious even goes so far as to order all
shops by Feng Shui experts, who element to it,' said Mr Ingliss. restocking work to be done outside
were called in for advice before the 'But much of it is just common opening hours. 'We paid close
final decisions were made about the sense and has a direct relevance to attention to advice on colour,
design of the new buildings. good selling. Experts believe that lighting and especially on the
'I first encountered Feng Shui things should not be messy and distribution of indoor plants,' said
when I went to the opening of our crowded together - it interrupts Mr Dorsett. 'We trained them to
company's first store in Taiwan. the flow of positive energy - so we grow around the entrance to the
Everyone there takes it so seriously made a policy of keeping the aisles garden centre and installed wind
you cannot fail to be impressed,' between the shelves wide, clear chimes. Wind chimes by doors
said David Ingliss, store manager. and welcoming, and generally help weaken negative energy and
Mr Ingliss's hosts in Taiwan told followed the Feng Shui principles bring in positive opportunity. The
him of the Hong Kong millionaire for positioning various departments department is now among the top
who relocated his business empire and activities.' Mr Ingliss's store, five in the company.'
into a new skyscraper. However, with a floor area greater than two 'I'm not sure that I believe in the
soon after the move, the business football pitches, has been described magical side to it, but I did move a
began to go down. In desperation 74 locally as a DIY Disneyland, which mirror at home that was facing the
the businessman called in the Feng he takes as a great compliment. front door - that is very unlucky
Shui experts, who said that because And it has also been one of the apparently - and it actually just
his new office block was round most successful in its first year of looks better in its new place,' said
39 it was like a huge cigarette, and any of the chain of stores. Mr Dorsett.

Multiple choice Unit 6 101


A15 What did the Feng Shui experts do for the A19 What does Mr lngliss think about Feng Shui?
UK stores?
1 It is superstitious rubbish.
1 They gave some advice about business.
2 It can give you more energy.
2 They taught the managers their philosophy.
3 It can help your sales.
3 They made suggestions about design.
4 It doesn't tell you anything new.
4 They helped to build the stores.
A20 What is meant by 'a DIY Disneyland' (line 74)?
A16 What impressed Mr lngliss in Taiwan?
1 a very large building
1 the people's attitude to Feng Shui
2 a DIY store which is enjoyable to visit
2 the opening of a new store
• 3 somewhere for all the family
3 how serious everyone seemed
4 a store where there are lots of things to do
4 the amount of business there was
A21 What do Mr lngliss's and Mr Dorsett's stores
A17 What does 'it' (line 39) refer to? both have?

1 a cigarette 1 successful garden departments

2 the building 2 long opening hours

3 some energy 3 leisure areas

4 the roof 4 lots of space for customers

A18 Why was the swimming pool built?


1 to provide somewhere for the employees to relax
2 to stop the building from falling down

3 to make the building safer in case of fire

4 to stop the building's energy from being lost

102 Unit6
IJl> Aim of Exercise BS: to practise an exam-style task

I I Exercise BS
IlpoquTat1Te TeKCT H Bb!IlOJIHHTe 3a,I:laHHSI A15-A21. B Ka)!{AOM 3aAaHHH o6BeAHTe u;mppy 1, 2, 3 HJIH 4,
COOTBeTCTBy10iu;y10 BbI6paHHOMY BaMH BapHaHTY OTBeTa.

II II

r1·111 ~ii s1o 1rh


Clare's first few days on the planet eyes like they did to open and close in to the space station. Clare didn't
Zong were a bit of a blur. What with a complex code - but she had copied know exactly what her parents did,
moving into their new living capsule, some of the hand signals. but it must have been important
getting used to her oxygen tank and In fact, in spite of all the warnings because they always came back
reprogramming her robot dog, she and precautions, no one really knew late and very tired. In fact, as time
didn't really have much time to take much about the intentions of the went on, they seemed to spend
things in. Of course, they had all done inhabitants of Zong at all, whether more and more time at the space
the familiarisation and adaptation they were friendly or hostile. They station. Gradually, Clare sensed
exercises back on Earth so none of this could equally as well invite her home something was wrong. Her father
came as a great surprise to her, but the for a cup of tea as attack her. She especially seemed to lose patience
reality of being hundreds of thousands hoped the former. with her and lose his temper over
of kilometres away from Earth was still Before she left Earth, Clare had the slightest thing. There was other
going to take some getting used to. wondered what she was going to 89 stuff going on too in the small
School started on the third day do on Zang in her free time. They community - for example, some
and their teacher, Mr Bell, made a were promising a pleasure dome people were unexpectedly reassigned
big speech about what an historical just like back home with a virtual back to Earth and had to leave Zong
moment this was, how proud and reality cinema, robot races and even immediately.
honoured they should be, why ... Clare old-fashioned burger restaurants It all came to a head in the sixth
19 switched off then and started to look (remember those!), but that wouldn't lunar month of their stay on Zong.
around at her new classmates, who all be built for a while, if ever. It wasn't Her parents came home from work
seemed to be doing the same, partly as if she could go for a walk outside in the middle of the day and ordered
out of curiosity, partly out of boredom. easily either as it was very complicated the robots to pack everything onto
Some of them had been on the same putting on her spacesuit, strapping the spaceship as quickly as possible.
space flight and she recognised the her oxygen tank on and taking one of Clare was told to put on her spacesuit
small boy, Jake Greenwood, who had the robot guards. The spacenet was and get on the ship too. When she
asked his mother if it rained in Space. not working very well yet and games got on board, she found everyone
'It only rains cats and dogs' had been would invariably shut down just at the there, from Mr Bell to the robot who
the answer. most exciting bit, although she could delivered the food tablets, sitting
They had been warned about the keep in touch with friends back on and waiting in silence. In the end,
local aliens and been given very Earth if she just sent plain messages there wasn't long to wait until the
detailed instructions on what to without any sD images. It was all spaceship took off from Zong. Clare
do if they came across them inside frustrating, like many things on Zong. had time to look out of the window
the living zone. Clare was a little Clare's parents worked at the space and see the space station below
disappointed that she hadn't seen any station like everyone else. They would explode, together with all the hopes
yet, especially as she had even learned get up early, have a couple of food and dreams of the scientists and
some of the movements they used to tablets and water powder, then they engineers. Only then did she realise
communicate. She couldn't learn all of would put on their spacesuits and she was going home forever.
it -for example, she didn't have five one of the robots would drive them

Multiple choice Unit 6 103


A15 How did Clare feel when she first arrived on Zong?
homesick
2 shocked
3 indifferent
4 confused

A16 What does it mean that Clare 'switched off'


(line 19)?
1 She stopped listening to her teacher.
2 She realised the importance of her teacher's
words.
3 She turned off her mobile phone.
4 She couldn't understand what was being said.

A17 What does Mrs Greenwood's answer to her


son show?
1 She has no time to give a full explanation.
2 It was a silly question.
3 She has misunderstood his question.
4 Jake often asks difficult questions.

A18 What do we know about the aliens on Zong? A20 What does 'stuff' refer to (line 89)?
1 Their reaction to humans is unpredictable. 1 interesting news
2 They have a primitive language. 2 disasters
3 They are dangerous and should be avoided. 3 remarkable events
4 There is no evidence that they even exist. 4 bad signs

A19 Which of these activities could Clare do in her


A21 Why did Clare leave Zong?
free time?
1 She realised she could only be happy on Earth.
1 go to a fast food restaurant
2 The space station was destroyed.
2 play computer games
3 The project had come to an end.
3 write to friends
4 Her parents decided Zong was an unsuitable
4 visit the aliens
place to live.

104 Unit6
Grammar and Vocabulary
The Grammar and Vocabulary chapter has three
units to match the structure of RSE Grammar and
Vocabulary (Pa3p;eJI 3. fpaMMaTHKa H JieKCHKa): Each unit is divided into two sections:

l-T:r.l.rnrrw'!.11 Practising grammar and vocabulary


covers the main areas of structure and usage which are
commonly tested in the exam, and suggests techniques for
tackling particular kinds of questions.
l-"r.Tiim:IJJ.!111 Exam practice
applies these instructions to the RSE format. Questions in
these exercises cover all areas of structure and usage which
are commonly tested in this part of the exam.

Exam Overview Part 3. Grammar and Vocabulary Recommended time 40 minutes

The Grammar and Vocabulary has three parts:


Part 1 Correct forms - completing a gapped text Focus on grammatical 1 mark per question
structures (total 7 marks)
Part 2 Word formation - completing a gapped text Focus on vocabulary 1 mark per question
with the correct form of a word given at the (total 6 marks)
end of the line
Part 3 Multiple-choice cloze - gapped text with 4 Focuses on both grammar 1 mark per question
options and vocabulary (total 7 marks)
Total: 20 questions 20 marks

105
Correct forms
Information
In Part 1 of Grammar and Vocabulary, you are given a text containing seven gaps. You must fill in each gap with
the grammatically correct form of the word in CAPITALS at the end of the line. You have to work out which form
of the word fits the context best. Verbs are by far the most frequent words tested in questions 84-810.

Here is the task as it is given in the exam paper:

TipotIHTaji.Te npusegeHHbie HIDKe TeKCTbI. Dpeo6pa3yf1Te, ecJIH tteo6xogHMO, cnosa, ttanetiaTaHHbie JarJiaBHbIMH
6yKBaMH B KOH~e CTpOK, o603HatieHHbIX HOMepaMH B4-B10, TaK, 'IT06bI OHM rpaMMaTH'IeCKH COOTBeTCTBOBaJIH
cogepxaHHIO TeKCTOB. 3anoJIHHTe nponycKH nonytieHHbIMH cnosaMH. K~bIH nponycK cooTBeTCTByeT
oTgeJibHOMY 3MRHHIO H3 rpynnhI B4-B10.

Section A Practising grammar and vocabulary


Introductory exercise
For Questions 84-86, read the text below. Use the word given in CAPITALS at the end of each line to
form a word or words that fit in the gap in the same line.

DO FISH SLEEP?
A question that many people wonder about is whether fish ever sleep and if
so, how?

B4 Although fish have no eyelids and so cannot shut ................................................. eyes, THEY
they still need to rest and sleep. Some sleep under the sand, while others look
BS for a small space in the rocks. The little clownfish, which . ...... .... .............. .. ...... FIND
in tropical seas, hides among the poisonous tentacles of the sea anemone and
B6 depends on these for protection. Some fish, ...................... .................... most sharks, INCLUDE
have to keep swimming in their sleep.

106 Unit7
..,,. Aim of Exercise_A1: to think about which part of speech is missing. lill- see Unit 4, section A

II Exercise A1
Read the sentences below and the clue for sentence 1. Fill the gap with a word formed from the word in CAPITALS at
the end of the sentence. If you are working in a group, discuss your answers and explain your choices.

1 David was totally fed up with studying the same ... . .... ..... ... ... maths equations. BORE

The sentence is complete in meaning already, so the missing word must 1'e a way of
characterising 'e'f uatione;~ There are two optione; - '1'ored' and '1'oring'. Which of them
do you need here?
2 Emma sat at her computer to reply to the email from ...... ....... .. ... ................ sister's boyfriend. SHE

3 I never ......................................... him at university, but I often saw him on TV. MEET

4 Mark studies every morning and then spends all the afternoon .. .................................... football. PLAY

5 He said he ........................................ to go because it was raining. NOT WANT

6 There aren't many countries where you can ski in the morning and go ..................................... in the
warm sea in the afternoon. SWIM

7 A lot of money ....................................... . by the recycling business. MAKE

8 According to fitness experts, skipping may burn up more calories than jogging,
is ... ..... .. .......................... damaging to the legs and is an excellent exercise for the heart. LITTLE

..,,. Aim of Exe_rcises A2-A4: to practise spotting incorrect forms in sentences and texts

p Exercise A2
In each of the following sentences the gap has been filled with an incorrect word. Most of these mistakes have
occurred because the person who filled in the gaps didn't read the whole sentence carefully enough. Say what is
wrong with each answer and then write the correct word.

0 The next train ..........~rri.YtJ .... ..... at platform fou r is the 20.10 for Manchester.

'The next train arrive' Is the wrong form of the ver1' - it doesn't fit with 'train'; and when you read to the
end of the sentence, you see the main ver1': 'is the 20.10~ Correct word: 'arriving'.
1 There ...... w.emn't hardly any difficult questions in the test.

2 Shakespeare wrote 37 plays, and the . .. .... .mo.rtL . famous of them is Romeo and Juliet.
3 There ...........itL ........ more than two answers to the traffic problem.

4 We all arrived at the exam with plenty of time to ....... sparing . and went for a cup of tea.

5 The film would have been better if the ending ........ ...has. ...... .... been different.

6 Andrey Arshavin played as a fullback for two years before he ... beaomes . a forward.

7 The result of the vote was ..... clo.se.... .. than anyone had believed possible.

8 There has been an .. increasing.... in the number of students expelled from school.

Correct forms Unit 7 107


• Exercise A3 ii Exercise A4
Identify the correct and incorrect uses of the green In the following short texts, you are still concentrating
words in the short texts below. Read each sentence on seeing how commonly tested items can be used
and put a tick (ti) at the end of a line where the word is correctly and incorrectly. This time the texts contain
used correctly and a cross ()C) where it is used wrongly. two or three different words to work on. Read each
Explain your choice. text and mark ti or )C as appropriate at the end of each
numbered line.
will (four correct uses, two incorrect)
has/ had (one correct and two incorrect uses of each)
1 If you will really want to become a top athlete,
1 A new series dedicated to 'The Great Fire of London'
2 you will have to give up a lot of things.
has recently been shown on TV. This is the fire which
3 Whenever you will go out for a meal with friends, in 1666

4 for instance, you will always have to explain 2 had destroyed houses, churches and half the city
centre. The fire started in a baker's bread oven, and
5 to them what kind of food will harm your training
3 it had spread quickly in the strong wind.
6 programme, and what you will be able to eat.
4 Although it has burnt for three days, not many people
been (three correct uses, three incorrect)
5 died. There had been plenty of warning, and most
1 Strange things have been happening in China,
6 escaped and waited until the fire has burnt itself out.
2 where a car mechanic was recently been arrested by
had/ being (one correct and two incorrect uses of each)
3 the police: he had been started landslides above a
I remember when I had first tried to play
4 road, and the stones had been damaged cars, which
2 golf. I was being on holiday in Spain
5 had then been taken to his garage to be repaired.
3 with friends who had played for years. But
6 The scheme had been quite successful for a while.
4 while the rules were still being explained
much (three correct uses, five incorrect)
5 to me I was being hit by a golf ball and
1 Some cities are much nicer to live in than others,
6 had knocked out!
2 and it is not always much easy to say why. It doesn't
3 necessarily have much to do with size - New York

4 and London are much desirable places to live,


Get it right!
Russian learners have the following difficulties
G~ ........
when spelling forms of some verbs:
5 despite their much greater size than other cities.
not doubling the final consonant when adding -ed,
6 It's difficult to say why Kyoto is so much attractive:
e.g. prefered preferred, pkmed planned
7 perhaps it's because the much hilly land around deleting the final -y, e . g.~ studying, plairtg
playing
8 the city can be seen, giving a feeling much of space.
·• replacing the final -y with -i, e.g. 5tiis says
'• treating irregular verbs ending -y as regular
inflections, e.g. peyed paid, seyed said
not changing -y for -i after a consonant, e.g. tryed
tried

108 Unit7
..,. Aim of Exercises A5-A12: to practise using the correct still/yet
forms of verbs in different contexts
P Exercise A6
Past simple I Present perfect/ Present Look at these examples and do the exercise which follows.
perfect continuous with for/since/ago
Anna began writing her book five years ago, and she's
• Exercise AS still writing it. I When Clare arrived to go for a walk
with Patrick, he was still getting ready./ Can I go in this
Look at these examples and do the exercise which follows.
room, or is the exam still going on? I Have you done your
It's been five months since I last danced flamenco. homework yet?I You can't go in there. The classroom
=I haven't danced flamenco for five months. hasn't been cleaned yet.
= I stopped dancing flamenco five months ago. Fill the gap in the sentence with the correct form of
Henry lives in France - he moved there a year ago to study at the verb given at the end of the sentence. You can use
the university. = Henry has been living in France for a year. more than one word for the form, and you can use the
negative form of the given verb.
Fill the gap in the sentence with the correct form of
the verb given at the end of the sentence. You can use ..... .......................... ________ ........ exam-type DO with YOU
more than one word for the form, and you can use the exercises with phrasal verbs yet?
negative form of the given verb. 2 The test in BE with STILL
1 Alex here STUDY progress when I had to leave to see
the doctor.
since 2011.
3 The house .......................................................... SELL
2 Maria ___ __ English LEARN
yet, I'm afraid.
for two and a half years.
4 The owner says the tenant
3 We . .. ............... -··-----·--....-........... any plays REHEARSE
....... ......... .... . ..... still in the BE
for ages.
house.
4 It's been ages since I last
5 The owner says the tenant
........................................................... from my cousin. HEAR
.. ..................................... ____ the house yet. LEAVE
__ .... in the
5 Sue ........................... . BE
6 Bob and Mark __ ........................... .................. FINISH
school orchestra for three years.
their meal yet.
6 Boris .. .............. ........ ............ ... ... . the WIN
7 I can see that Bob
all-Russia competition a year ago.
.... his meal. HAVE with STILL
7 I first .................... .......... . .. .... ... ....... Marta MEET
8 I ................. ......................... ............... the essay WRITE with STILL
about three years ago.
the teacher set for homework. As
8 She ................ ... to Pavel SPEAK soon as I finish, I'll join you at the
since 2010, when he moved to the UK. park.
9 Julia _____ _ __ at this BE 9 Mira ... .. ....................... ............ _____ in her FILL
school for three years. application form for the language
10 We ..................... ........................... this holiday PLAN school yet.
for the last six months. 10 Svetlana ............. ......... ........... .................... . DECIDE
11 Yuri ..... ... __ ... .......................... ....... any of his MISS which department at university to
football classes for six months. apply for yet.
12 Ray ..... . ....... ............................ ........ playing STOP She still .. ................ ... ..... ......... ...... ..... .... she THINK
chess after school three weeks ago. will cope with studying physics.
He .... . _............ _ ............ any other PLAY
games since then.
Correct forms Unit 7 109
Present simple with when/before/after, etc. ll Exercise AS
Tips: Complete the following sentences, which practise some
Use the present simple, not the future simple, after of the basic conditional structures, so that they have
when, before, after, until, as soon as and if. (See below for the same meaning as the first sentence. (See Unit 12
conditionals.) Exercise A3.)
When Emily •will come comes, phone me. Say 'please' or I won't give it to you. If you don't
There's a big party after we vvill fiAisn finish our exams.
We can't go out until the rain ·will stop stops. If you ..... . ......... ......... , I will give it to you.
Unless you ... ....
2 I hope it stops raining soon so that I can go for a walk.
I' Exercise A7 If it doesn't ..
If it
Fill the gap in the sentence with the correct form of
the verb given at the end of the sentence. 3 Diane is very tall, that's why she can't be a
ballet dancer.
1 Wake me up when it
If Diane wasn't/weren't
seven o'clock. BE
2 Don't start until we
If Diane was/were ...... ........... .. ..
there. GET

4 I haven't got enough time to take the exam


3 Find out before anyth ing bad
HAPPEN again, unfortunately.
If I ........... ......................... .
4 I'll tell you as soon as
I .. . . ... .. ............ tomorrow. ARRIVE 5 They didn't understand the film because they missed
the beginning.
5 Mark doesn't know what to do after
he ................................................. school. LEAVE They would .......

6 When the match ................. .........................-........ , BEGIN 6 Ann forgot to set her alarm clock, so she overslept
everyone will be really excited. this morning.
If Ann
7 My advice to you is to apply for university otherwise
Conditionals
you will regret it.
Look at the following examples, paying attention to the
If I ......... .............. ..... ............. . you,
verb tenses and say whether a 'positive' or 'negative' idea
for university.
is being expressed:
If you do not .... , you
1 If the unemployment situation doesn't improve,
many young people will find it difficult to get the kind
..
of jobs they want.
2 Unless James arrives soon, I'm going without him.
Get it right!
...:::::_ .......
G
~ ,~

Russian learners often make mistakes in verb tenses in


3 Put your glasses on or/otherwise you'll damage
conditional sentences. Note that in English you use the
your eyes.
present simple, and not the future simple, after if in real
4 If I were you, I'd go to Canada. conditions talking about the future
5 Anne wouldn't be living in the city centre if she I'll stay at home if I will feel feel worse tomorrow.
didn't have to. If Russia •vvoA't wiA doesn't win the next World Cup,
6 If you hadn't helped me, I wouldn't have passed the I'll be very disappointed.
exam.

110 Unit7
I' Exercise A9
Fill the gap in the sentence with the correct form of the verb given at the end of the sentence. You can use more
than one word for the form, and you can use the negative form of the given verb.

We won the competition last week! If we ............................. your support,


we .......... it. HAVE, WIN
2 If I .... .... you, I . .. .. . .. ................ Kristina today. BE, RING
3 Remember, you .. ................ him unless you to him carefully. UNDERSTAND, LISTEN
4 Maria bought a map of the town before she went. If she a map,
she .... lost there. HAVE, GET
5 You're so forgetfu l! If you .. ... our sandwiches, we . ....... _...............- ......_ ....... REMEMBER, NEED
to buy some.
6 Ivan is sorry he didn't study harder for the exams. If he .. ... ..... .. _........ FOLLOW, DO
Lara's advice, he ... ............... ............ much better.
7 My bike is alright now, thanks to my dad, so I cycled to school. If my
dad .... it, I . . ..... .. .. ...... ...... ..... it to school today. REPAIR, RIDE

If only I I wish I I regret


IJ Exercise A10
Look at these examples of structures which express a regret about something
either in the past or the present. Pay attention to the form of the verbs.

I wish I If only I had some money! (but I haven't, unfortunately)

I wish I If only I could swim! (but I can't)


I regret giving her my telephone number.
David wishes he had worked harder during the academic year.
(but he didn't) Do you regret not studying history?

If only she had never met him. (but she did) Alice regretted her decision.

To practise the verb tenses that go with these constructions, fill the gap in the sentence with the correct form of the
verb given at the end of the sentence. You can use more than one word for the form of the verb, and you can use a
negative form of the given verb.

Pete loves driving. He wishes he a car.



HAVE

2 I regret ............ ............. .......... to the party last night. I haven't finished my homework. GO

3 The weather is very cold at the moment, so Zoe wishes she .... --...................... in a hot country. LIVE

4 If only I them the truth! TELL

5 I wish I .............. to go to school today. I missed seeing my dog give birth to three pups! HAVE

6 Elena wishes she.. . ...-........- - ........ to bed early last night. She's so tired. GO

7 Henry moved to France last year. I wish I .............................. ..... see him again. CAN

8 I wish I .............-............ .... .... rich! BE

Correct forms Unit 7 111


infinitives I gerunds I that-clauses
,---~
Get it right! @
When Russian learners have to use two verbs together (one following the other), they find it difficult to decide
whether to use the infinitive form of the second verb or the gerund form.
1 The most frequent mistake Russian learners make is using the bare infinitive (infinitive without to) instead of
the -ing form after the verb look forward to:

I look forward to fte8f hearing from you.

2 The second most frequent mistake is using incorrect verb forms after suggest and recommend:
Jane suggests to-go to the cinema tonight. (Jane suggests going to the cinema tonight. I Jane suggests that
we go to the cinema tonight./ Jane suggests that we should go to the cinema tonight.)

I recommend to practise phrasal verbs. Cl recommend practising phrasal verbs. I I recommend that you
practise phrasal verbs. I I recommend that you should practise phrasal verbs.)

~ see Unit 11, page 164

I' Exercise A11


Fill the gap in the sentence with the infinitive or gerund form of the verb given at the end of the sentence.

1 I was made ........ ... _...... _.. my ticket three times on the train to Klin. SHOW

2 It's impossible for me . .... ... ...... .... .......... . ............................... about the exams. STOP, THINK

3 Did you have any trouble the schoo l where the Olympiad was held? FIND

4 Nobody in the neighbourhood seemed ....... ...... .. .................. where it was. KNOW

5 I managed ..... __ ... _ ..... . . the instructions for the first task but not for the second. FOLLOW

6 I remembered . ........ ......... ........... to that story when I was a child. LISTEN

7 We will stop ......... ..... .. .... _..... essays when the teacher sees that we can write them well. WRITE

8 I am sorry, I forgot .................................. my pen - can I use yours? BRING

9 In the exam I regretted not .... .. .. . ........ ____ ... harder throughout the year. WORK

10 I miss .......................................... for a walk with my dog when I'm away from home. GO

Suggested approach for Part 1 of the Grammar and Vocabulary test


1 Before trying to form a suitable word for each gap, read through the whole text.
2 Pay attention to the verb tenses used to understand whether the narration is about the present or the past.
3 Trace the sequence of events mentioned and especially note if there is some direct speech in the text.
If there is, note what the correlation in time between the narration and the direct speech is.
4 Look at each sentence in turn and decide what function the missing word has in the sentence.
5 Fill in all the gaps, then read the text again to make sure you have chosen the right forms for the words in
the gaps.

112 Unit7
Ci§Ji[.]jl:I Exam pradice
~Aim of Exercises_a1-B10: to practise the skills acquired in Section A in texts of the size and story genre usually found
in the exam (you will also come across other areas of grammar and vocabulary besides those covered in Section A)

P Exercise 81
IlpoquTaffTe rrpuBe,IJ.eHHbIH HH)l(e TeKCT. Ilpeo6pa3ytiTe, ecJrn He06XO)J.HMO, CJIOBa, HarreqaTaHHbJe 3arJiaBHblMH 6yKBaMH
B KOHQe CTpOK, o603HaqeHHblX HOMepaMH B4-B10, TaK, qTo6bt OHH rpaMMaTuqecKH COOTBeTCTBOBaJIH CO,IJ.ep)l(aH11IO
TeKcTa. 3arronHnTe rrporrycKu rronyqeHHhIMH cnoaaM11. Ka)l()J.biti rrporrycK cooTBeTcTByeT OT,IJ.eJibHOMY 3a,IJ.aH1110 113
rpyrrrrhI B4-B10.

TRAIN JOURNEY TO WORK


It was Monday again and after the weekend everyone was back to work and not in the best
B4 of moods. To make matters ................ -...... , the morning train seemed more crowded BAD
with passengers than usual. As Emma pushed her way through, she realised that she
BS ...................................... to stand up all the way. This was not how she wanted to start her day. HAVE
Just at that moment, she spotted an empty seat in the corner of the carriage. Strangely,
none of the other passengers seemed to have noticed it, so with a feeling of triumph she
B6 went and sat down. Emma was just about ...... _ a magazine from her bag GET
87 when something distracted her. Opposite Emma there was a young boy ..... PLAY
with something which he was allowing to run over his hands and arms. He was probably
on his way to school and messing about with something as bored kids do. At first Emma
BB .......................... much attention, but then a sudden movement caught her eye. A large, NOT PAY
B9 hairy spider .................. .... ... up the boy's arm! It looked like the kind of man-eating spider RUN
B10 you saw in those horror films. So that's why nobody .... . ....... .... .. ........ .. the seat before her! TAKE
Emma decided to stand for the rest of the journey.

P Exercise 82
IlpoquTatiTe rrp11Be,IJ.eHHbIH Hl1)1(e TeKCT. Ilpeo6pa3yJ':iTe, eCJIH He06XO)J.HMO, CJIOBa, HarreqaTaHHbie 3arJiaBHbIMl1 6yKBaMH
B KOHQe CTpOK, o603HaqeHHbIX HOMepaMH B4-B10, TaK, qT06bt OHH rpaMMaT11qecK11 COOTBeTCTBOBaJil1 CO,IJ.ep)l(aHHIO
TeKCTa. 3arrOJIHl1Te rrporrycKH rronyqeHHblMH CJIOBaM11. Ka)l()J.bIH rrporrycK COOTBeTCTByeT OT)J.eJihHOMY 3a,IJ.aHHIO 113
rpyrrrrhI B4-B10.

A COLONY ON MARS
It is one thing to land scientific instruments on Mars; however, it is quite another to establish
B4 a base for humans to explore the planet. Even if we .... .................... .... .. , we would DO
probably freeze to death. Living on Mars would be a bit like living in a giant fridge, just
BS . . .. ............. ..................... Daytime temperatures can rise above freezing, but because of the thin cotD
atmosphere, the sun's heat radiates back into space. Even at the equator, the temperature
drops to -50°( at night. In fact, there is no ozone layer to keep out ultraviolet radiation and
B6 hardly any oxygen for ............................................. ........ . It is not possible to burn conventional fuels either, BREATH
which is yet another problem. But despite all these issues, at the present time scientists
87 ............................. .................on transport and clothing for Mars and an artificial environment in WORK
which colonists will be able to live. Teams from around the world are sharing their experience
BB and expertise. So far scientists ................ . .................... substantial success in their research. ACHIEVE
89 However, the potential cost ...... the idea of human life on Mars nothing more MAKE
B10 than a fantastic dream. It won't happen in our lifetime or that of our but CHILD
maybe one day ...

Correct forms Unit 7 113


II Exercise 83
IlpO'lliTa(1Te npBBeAeHHbIH Hlf)!(e TeKCT. Ilpeo6pa3yJ1Te, ecnli He06XOAliMO, cnoBa, HaneqaTaHHbJe 3arnaBHb!Mli 6yKBaMB
B KOHQe CTpOK, o603Ha'leHHbJX HOMepaMli B4-B10, TaK, 'IT06bJ OHli rpaMMaTB'leCKli COOTBeTCTBOBanli COAep)!(aHlilO
TeKcTa. 3anonHBTe nponycKB nony'leHHhIMli cnosaMB. Ka)!(AhIH nponycK cooTBeTcTByeT OTAenhHOMY 3aAaHBJO li3
rpynnhI B4-B10.

CHATTING WITH CHIMPS


There is much controversy over whether language is a gift which only humans enjoy.
B4 Naturalists ..... for a long time that apes, our nearest relatives in the animal KNOW
kingdom, communicate with one another through gestures, sounds and facial expressions.
BS But it that only human beings could use words and sentences. In the THINK
B6 1960s, however, researchers set .. . .. the task of teaching chimpanzees THEY
to commun icate with humans. At first the scientists tried to make them speak. But no
chimp ever managed to acquire a vocabulary of more than four words and even these
B7 . with great difficulty. The breakthrough came when two scientists from SPEAK
the University of Nevada decided to try American Sign Language, a system of gestures
B8 ... by deaf people. After four years, they USE
B9 . their first chimps to use 132 signs correctly to communicate their TEACH
wants and needs. Some people may argue that this isn't very impressive by comparison
BlO with a human four-year-old's 3,000 or so words, but it's still much .. MANY
than many people had previously considered possible.

II Exercise 84
IlpO'lliTai1Te npBBeAeHHhIH Hlf)!(e TeKCT. Ilpeo6pa3yi1Te, ecnli Heo6XOAliMO, cnoBa, HaneqaTaHHbJe 3arnaBHh!Mli 6yKBaMB
B KOHQe CTpOK, o603Ha'leHHhIX HOMepaMli B4-B10, TaK, 'IT06bJ OHli rpaMMaTB'leCKli COOTBeTCTBOBanli COAepx<aHlilO
TeKcTa. 3anonHBTe nponycKB nony'leHHhIMli cnosaMB. Ka)!(AhIH nponycK cooTBeTcTByeT OTAenhHOMY 3aAaHBJO li3
rpynnhI B4-B10.

'SAD' SYNDROME
Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) is a depressive condition which affects one in every 20
people during the winter months. In the northern hemisphere, January to March are the
B4 months when sufferers feel the . . However, for those badly affected by BAD
SAD, problems can start as early as August and last right through till spring. The cond ition
BS to be the result of a lack of sunlight. SAD sufferers feel increasingly tired BELIEVE
and depressed, and want to sleep and eat more. Light travels to the part of the brain which
B6 controls moods and appetite, and if not enough light ... .... , then the chemical RECEIVE
reactions in your body slow down. The condition was first recognised in 1987, but so far
B7 medical science ........ up with a cure for it. There is a treatment called 'light NOT COME
therapy' which involves sitting in front of a light box for anything up to two hours a day. SAD
B8 sufferers can also help . to relieve their symptoms by wearing a specia l THEY
visor around the head which acts like a portable light box. Interestingly, seasonal affective
B9 disorder is . ..... common when there is snow on the ground. Scientists have LITTLE
B10 also noticed that SAD is about four times more common in than in men. WOMAN

114 Unit7
I I Exercise BS
Ilpoq1-1TatiTe np1-:1BeAeHHblH HmKe TeKCT. Ilpeo6pa3ytiTe, ecJm Heo6XOAHMO, CJIOBa, HaneqaTaHHble 3arJiaBHblMH 6yKBaMH
B KOHQe CTpOK, o603HaqeHHblX HOMepaMH B4-B10, TaK, qT06bI OHH rpaMMaT11qecKH COOTBeTCTBOBaJIH COAep:>I<:aHHIO
TeKCTa. 3anoJIHHTe nponycKH nonyqeHHblMH CJIOBaMH. Ka)({AbIH nponycK COOTBeTCTByeT OTAeJihHOMY 3aAaHHIO H3
rpynnhI B4-B10.

RUSSIAN BANYA
The banya (steam bath) is very important to Russians and it's just as popular in the summer
B4 as in the winter. For centuries the banya .......... a big part in the culture PLAY
of Russia. There is often a banya in or next to country houses, but plenty can be found in
BS towns and ... ................ . .................. too. The banya used to be a very practical solution to the CITY
B6 tough conditions Russians faced. If you ....... ..... ...... ........... .. in Russia even a century ago, LIVE
the communal banya would have been the warmest and cleanest place around . It is not
B7 surprising then that the banya was once the place where babies .................... ... ......................... ! BEAR
With the arrival of modern conveniences, the banya today is more about fun and relaxation
B8 than .......... .... ......... .................. ... . yourself clean. But it is also a healthy use of your leisure time. What KEEP
B9 could be ...... ........... .. .......... than drinking tea with lemon after a hot banya and exchanging GOOD
the latest gossip with your friends? Therefore, it is not surprising that there are millions
of banyas in Russia. Big and small, new and old, they continue a very important tradition.
A lot more could be said about the banya, but you should really go and check it out for
BlO ........... ! YOU

'! Exercise 86
Ilpoq11TatiTe npHBeAeHHbIH HH)({e TeKCT. Ilpeo6pa3ytiTe, eCJIH He06XOAHMO, CJIOBa, HaneqaTaHHbie 3arJiaBHblMH 6yKBaMH
B KOHQe CTpOK, o6o3HaqeHHbIX HOMepaMH B4-B10, TaK, qTo6bI OHH rpaMMaT11qecKH COOTBeTCTBOBaJIH COAep)({aHHIO
TeKcTa. 3anoJIHHTe nponycKH nonyqeHHhIMH cJioBaMH. Ka)({AhIH nponycK cooTBeTcTeyeT OTAeJihHOMY 3aAaHHIO H3
rpynnhI B4-B10.

ALBERT SCHWEITZER 187S-196S


Albert Schweitzer, the 1952 Nobel Peace Prize winner, was born in 1875. He was a
B4 man of many talents, but perhaps he is ................................................. .. for his medical work in FAMOUS
Africa . His selfless and important work there is remembered and honoured today.
BS After ........................ medicine, Schweitzer went to Gabon in 1913, together with his STUDY
wife, to work as a doctor. He wanted to help people who were not as fortunate as himself,
in a practical way. Gabon is a rich country by African standards, but there are still many
B6 poor people. His work went well, but in 1917 he and his wife ......... ......... .......................... to a French SEND
internment camp as prisoners of war. Released in 1918, Schweitzer spent the next six years
B7 in Europe, ............................ ... lectures and concerts. Music was a passion throughout his GIVE
B8 life, and his piano and organ performances .................................. by many. They also enabled ADMIRE
him to raise money for the Schweitzer hospital, which is situated in Gabon. Today's modern
B9 hospital, next to the original one, looks after patients with a wide va riety BUILD
of diseases. Although Schweitzer died in 1965, his work continues as his belief in 'reverence
BlO for life' .... .. .. ..... ... ... .. .. the guiding principle at the hospital in Gabon ever since. BE

Correct forms Unit 7 115


ii Exercise 87
Ilpoq1-1Taf1Te 11p1rneAeHHblH H1'DKe TeKCT. Ilpeo6pa3yf!Te, ecJUI Heo6XOA11MO, CJIOBa, HarreqaTaHHbie 3arJJaBHblMl1 6yKBaM11
B KOHQe CTpOK, o603HaqeHHbIX HOMepaMl1 B4-B10, TaK, qTo6bI OHl1 rpaMMaT11qecK11 COOTBeTCTBOBaJ111 COAepx<aHl1lO
TeKCTa. 3arroJJHl1Te rrporryCKl1 IlOJJyqeHHblM11 CJIOBaMl1. K(l)!(AbIH rrporrycK COOTBeTcTByeT OT):leJJbHOMY 3aAaHl1lO 113
rpy1111b1 B4-B10.

WHY I HATE MY DOG


Don't misunderstand me! I am a very kind-hearted person, but I don't like my dog and I'll
B4

tell you why. If you like dogs, stop .................... .................. now because you'll only get angry READ
BS with me. Two years ago my wife.. ... . home a puppy. It was quite a nice BRING
little dog and we both got quite fond of it. The dog got bigger and that's when the problems
started. For example, one evening I couldn't find my slippers, not surprisingly, because the
B6 dog . .. them that morning. EAT

One day I decided to take the dog for a walk by the pond. Apart from some
B7 ducks and . ..... , we were all alone. Suddenly, the dog decided GOOSE
BB a bath and it dived into the pond . The only problem was that it was the TAKE
B9 only dog in the world that couldn't swim. I . ....... . .. _.......... any choice but to go in after NOT HAVE
the stupid dog and rescue it. That wasn't easy either because the dog was quite fat after
B10 eating half our house. The .. ................................... ....... thing was that I got a terrible cold and had to BAD
have the week off work . The dog was fine.

llJ Exercise 88
Ilpoq11Tai1Te 11p11BeAeHHblH Hl1)!(e TeKcT. B Ka)!(AOH 113 ABYX qacTef! 3Toro TeKCTa 11peo6pa3yf!Te, ecn11 Heo6xoA11Mo, cnosa,
HarreqaTaHHbie 3arJJaBHblMl1 6yKBaM11 B KOHQe CTpOK, o603HaqeHHblX HOMepaMl1 B4-B10, TaK, qTo6bI OHl1 rpaMMaT11qecK11
COOTBeTCTBOBaJ111 COAep)!(aH11IO TeKCTa. 3arrOJIHl1Te rrporryCKl1 IlOJJyqeHHblMl1 CJIOBaMl1. Ka)!(AbIH rrporrycK COOTBeTCTByeT
OTAeJJbHOMY 3aAaH11IO 113 rpy1111b1 B4-B10.

AN UNSUCCESSFUL BANK ROBBER


B4 Simon Lee's attempt to rob the Union Bank ended in fai lure. He by police CATCH
while he was still in the bank. How did this happen?

BS Lee managed to frighten the cashiers into. .. .. .... .. . .......... . him all the cash they had in GIVE
the bank and then tried to make a quick exit. Unfortu nately, running for the door, he slipped
B6 on the floor and broke his ankle. The police came a few minutes .... .. and LATE
kindly took him away by car.

THE FIRST COMPUTERS


Many people think that computers are modern inventions, but that isn't correct. The
B7 first machine ... . ..................... ....... to be a computer was invented by Charles Babbage in CONSIDER
1822. It could do nothing more than count numbers, and because of Babbage's financial
BB problems, the machine . ................ . We had to wait 100 years for the first NEVER FINISH
programmab le computer, and Konrad Zuse made that in his parents' living room. I hope they
B9 in at the time to congratulate him. The first electric computer came in BE
810 1943 and ··- ..... .................. .. success in the war effort made it very famous. IT

116 Unit7
II Exercise 89
Ilpoq11Taf1Te npHBeAeHHblH HH)l(e TeKCT. Ilpeo6pa3yi'1Te, eCJil1 He06XOAHMO, CJIOBa, HaneqaTaHHbie 3arnaBHblMl1 6yKBaMl1
B KOH~e CTpOK, 0603Ha'leHHblX HOMepaM11 B4-B10, TaK, 'IT06bi OHH rpaMMaTH'leCKl1 COOTBeTCTBOBaJIH COAep)l(aHl1lO
TeKCTa. 3anOJIHHTe nponycK11 nonyqeHHblMl1 CJIOBaMl1. Ka)l(AbIH nponycK COOTBeTcTByeT OTAeJibHOMY 3aAaHl1lO 113
rpynnhI B4-B10.

INVENTIONS: ANTIBIOTICS
It's difficult to imagine our world without what many consider to be the greatest discovery of
the 20th century. However, only 85 years ago, antibiotics weren't available. Perhaps this key
B4 breakthrough in medical history .......... .. .. ....... ...... ........... if Alexander Fleming had been more NOT HAPPEN
carefu l about keeping his laboratory clean! Like many scientists, Fleming was not the tidiest
person and even a bit forgetful. He left a glass plate coated with bacteria ·-·········· ........
BS around, and a passing mould spore landed on it and performed its amazing bacterium-killing LIE
B6 act. No one was .. ............................. than Fleming at what he saw when he got back to SURPRISE
B7 the laboratory. One dirty plate forced Fleming to rethink everything he . KNOW
about bacteria before. That was in 1918, but it took another 11 years before the mould's
B8 magic killer ingredient, penicillin, .. ...................... ........................... Since then, this first antibiotic FIND
B9 ........ millions of lives and is perhaps the single most important discovery SAVE
known to medical science. The significance of this cannot be overstated. Today penicillin
B10 is a standard drug on the ...... ................... of any chemist's, but we shouldn't take this SHELF
amazing discovery for granted.

II Exercise 810
Ilpo'll1Tai'1Te np11BeAeHHblH Hl1)!(e TeKCT. Ilpeo6pa3yi'1Te, eCJIH He06XOA11MO, CJIOBa, HaneqaTaHHbie 3arnaBHbIM11 6yKBaM11
B KOH~e CTpOK, o603Ha'leHHblX HOMepaMl1 B4-B10, TaK, 'IT06bi OHl1 rpaMMaT11'leCKl1 COOTBeTCTBOBaJil1 COAep)l(aHl1lO
TeKcTa. 3anoJIHHTe nponycK11 nonyqeHHbIMl1 cnoBaM11. Ka)l(AbIH nponycK cooTBeTCTByeT OTAeJihHOMY 3aAaHHIO 113
rpynnhI B4-B10.

THE TRUTH ABOUT AMERICAN INDIAN SMOKE SIGNALS


A lot of people have got most of their information about American Indians from the
movie world of Hollywood. Many adults, after watching Western films as children, grew
B4 up .................... that American Indians could communicate with smoke signals BELIEVE
BS almost as easily as people nowadays talk on the telephone.............................. ...... ,the idea SAD
that the individual puffs of smoke easily represent complex messages is typical of the kind
of exaggeration that Hollywood loves. Smoke signals were indeed used, but their content
B6 ................................ to a few simple messages. For example, returning Piman fighters in LIMIT
B7 Arizona might signal the end of a successful battle by ......................................................... up a column SEND
of smoke, and the village would reply with two columns of smoke. One or two unbroken
BB columns of smoke were all that ................................. ....... to send a message. It was the place that

NEED
the signal came from - whether the fire was on a hill or in a valley - that was important. When
Apaches, while hunting, spotted another group of Indians in the distance, they lit a fire well
B9 to the right of............. ......... own group, which meant, 'Who are you?' The others, in THEY
order to let the Apaches know that they were friends, would send a prearranged reply. Smoke
signals were most often used to broadcast news of victory in battle, or to warn of dangers,
B10 such as approaching ...... ENEMY

Correct forms Unit 7 117


Word building
Information
In Part 2 of Grammar and Vocabulary, you are again given a text with gaps - this time containing six gaps
(questions 811-816). You must use the 'stem' word in CAPITALS at the end of each line to form a word that fits in
the gap in the same line.

• The missing words are all 'content' words - nouns, adjectives, adverbs, and sometimes verbs.
• As in all gap filling tests, you need to read and understand the whole text before trying to answer the
questfons.
• You may have to look for clues in other parts of the text in order to find out what a missing word should be.

Here is the task as it is given in the exam paper:


IlpoqHTaHTe npHBeAeHHhIH HH)Ke TeKCT. 06pa3yHTe OT CJIOB, HaneqaTaHHhIX 3arJiaBHhIMH 6yKBaMH B KOHQe
CTpOK, o603HaqeHHhlX HOMepaMH Bll-B16, OAHOKOpeHHbie CJIOBa TaK, qTo6bI OHH rpaMMaTuqecKH "JieKcuqecKH
COOTBeTCTBOBaJIH COAep)KaHHIO TeKCTa. 3anOJIHHTe nponycKH noJiyqeHHhIMH CJIOBaMH. Ka)KAhIH nponycK
cooTBeTcTByeT OTAeJihHOMY 3aAaHHIO H3 rpynnhI Bll-B16.

Section A Practising grammar and vocabulary


Introductory exercise
For Questions 811-813, read the text below. Use the word given in CAPITALS at the end of each line
to form a word that fits in the gap in the same line.

ONE WAY TO MAKE MONEY


A man known as 'the human fly' climbed two thousand
buildings in the USA to earn money when he became
811 unemployed. After he lost his job as an ................ ........... , ENGINE
he decided to use his knowledge of mountaineering to help him,
812 until he could find a more ......................................................... job. He started PROFIT
climbing skyscrapers without any special ..............
813 using only his hands and feet. EQUIP

Tip:
When doing the task, it's important to think about the following:
What kind of word is it? Is it an adverb?
What part of speech is it? • If it's an adverb, is it a 'positive'
Is it a noun? adverb (happily) or a 'negative' one
• If it's a noun, is it a concrete noun (building)? Is it singular or plural? (unhappily)?
• Is it an abstract noun (knowledge)? Is it a verb?
• Is it a 'positive' noun (comfort) or a 'negative' one (discomfort)? • If it's a verb, is it a 'positive' verb
Is it an adjective? (encourage) or a 'negative' one
• If it's an adjective, is it a 'positive' adjective (successful) or a (discourage)?
'negative' one (unsuccessful)? ~ see also Unit 4, section A

118 Units
~Aim of Exercises A1-A2: to see what kind of changes I I Exercise A2
may be needed when you form a new word from a 'stem'
word Read the text. Decide what kind of word would fit in
each gap. (Use the tip on page 118 to help.) Then write
a word that could logically fit in the gap. Here is an
R Exercise A1 example of the kind of thinking process you should
Read the text. Look at the words in green, and decide work through.
what 'stem' word the examiners might have put at
(1) The missing word dee;cribes the part of the coae;t, eo
the end of each line. Then say what part of speech it
It mue;t be an adjective. It could describe the geographical
belongs to. (Use the checklist on page 118 to help.)
direction or phyeical feature of the coaet, its eize or
(0) The stem word must have been 'friend'; ehape. Poselble anewers: 'eouthernlnorthernleaeternl
'friendehlp' Is an abstract noun. western: 'rainy: 'e;mall/narrow/rockylmountainoue;'.

ANIMALS AND MAN


Pets in the house help us relax and
provide a kind of (0) friendship. In __________ friend .......... .
fact, they can do much more than
that - the (1) presence of a pet is ..................- .....-..... ....
also believed to be good for our
health. A recent American study
(2) interestingly found that pet ..........- ........................ .
(3) ownership can be an important
factor in the possible (4) survival of ................- ..- .................._ ..
people with heart disease. Health
care workers often (5) encourage
lonely or elderly people, or those with
time to spare, to think about getting
a pet. In 18th-century England,
an (6) unusually forward-looking
hospital for the mentally ill used ACTION ACADEMY
to give its patients small animals The world's newest training academy for stuntmen
to look after. Doctors noticed and women is in Australia. It's located on a
that having other creatures (1) ............... ____ ....... _______ .. part of the Queensland coast,
(7) dependent on them improved .. .......................... ....... ........ and movie (2) .. are coming from
the patients' feelings of importance all over the world to make action films there. On their
and responsibility. It was also noticed (3) ....... _... .. ____ .. _ , they find a wonderful climate,
that while interacting with animals, with (4) . ..... .. ......... ..... ... air and great ccenery. The
patients demonstrated increased Academy itself checks each (5) .... _ .. _ __ for
(8) awareness of the environment. ...........-.................................. its courses carefu lly; they do not want to waste their
More recently, doctors have started time training (6) .................. _.... .. . ...... people.
to make (9) systematic use of pets _............ __ .....................
for therapy and even allow dogs to Look at the following list of 'stem' words for the gaps in
(10) accompany their owners to ____ ............................. .. the text above; some of the words may be ones you've
hospital. already chosen. Put them in the correct form in the
appropriate gap. They are already in the correct order.

I sun produce arrive pollute apply suit I

Word building Unit 8 119


IJJ>.Aim of Exercises A3-A4: to focus on the surround ing context of the deleted word in order to identify the part of
speech it belongs to (noun, adjective, adverb or verb)

B Exercise A3
The words in green in the following sentence can be used to form other words with different
grammatical functions. Fill in the numbered spaces in the table below. Use a dictionary to help you.
Watch out for possible changes in spelling.

For the unfortunate victims of phobias, the main issue is probably the difficulty of giving a logical explanation for
their fear so it is advisable to discuss this with them sensitively.

Noun Verb Adverb 'Positive' 'Negative'


(positive/negative) adjective adjective
(0) fortune • (1) (2) unfortunate
(3) probably (4) (5)
(6) (7) logica l (8)
explanation (9) (10) (11)
(12) (13) advisable (14)
(15) discuss

Now read the text below. Use the word in


CAPITALS at the end of each line to form a
11 Exercise A4
word that fits in the gap in the same line. Read the text. The gaps have been filled in, but five answers are
wrong. Make the necessary corrections. Think about:
LOGIC MAY NOT HELP TO - the part of speech the deleted word belongs to (noun, adjective,
OVERCOME A PHOBIA adverb, verb)
• "' ' "·lllo

~ Y,~
Why do some of us have
- if it has a positive or a negative meaning
fears which we can't { J .. .
explain? These include
- possible changes in spelling t,;y. ...• ~'~7"
.~. ..1: If;.
~ '
ones which we know are - function of the word .." :..
..
~
.}
... ...
~;,._;. .
(1) LOGICAL The first word has been done for you as an example. ... .._...,/
,~1 •
"\
,.. -~--
or even stupid. In all ~·~ ·.....
(0) Right. The word 6hould be a noun: concentration. I • ~
(2) ......... . . ......... .. PROBABLE
there is one part of our THE LANGUAGES OF PAPUA NEW GUINEA
mind where fears live, In New Guinea and the surrounding islands, 750
one which we can't languages have been identified . This represents
reach through logic or by far the greatest single (0) Qr;mcentration .. CONCENTRATE
(3) .. ..... .... .... . .. ARGUE of languages in the world. More than half the
So phobias may be languages have some (1) ~imif.~rly .. to SIMILAR
(4) .. ...... , EXPLAIN
each other, often very close ones. Others, mainly
but they cause misery to in the (2) moµn.t.{31.in. areas, are spoken by MOUNTAIN
those who have them .
just a few hundred people. Almost
(5) .... FORTUNE
(3) cert~.inty there are tribes that remain CERTAIN
there are many support
undiscovered in the remote parts of this land, and
groups where sufferers (4) 6cien~ific believe that these people SCIENCE
can get advice and help.
too may speak other languages. So the total of
750 languages is (5) likely to stay LIKE
the same if further (6) expfot7iftion of the EXPLORE
country takes place.
120 Units
llll- Aim of Exercise AS: to practise expressing an idea 7 choose (verb) choice (noun)
with different words from the same family Felix hasn't decided whether to study history or
politics.
I' Exercise AS Felix hasn't _
Felix hasn't made
Read the sentences. Then write alternative ways of
saying the same thing using the words given. Sometimes 8 agree (verb) agreement (noun)
you will have to change the form of the given words to The committee decided what to do by the end of the
make them fit. There is no word limit for this exercise. meeting.
0 rare (adj) rarely (adv) The committee
I don't go to the cinema very often nowadays. The committee reached .
My visits to the cinema are rare nowadaye. 9 apology (noun) apologise for (verb)
I rarely go the cinema . The Prime Minister said he was sorry about the
1 difficult (adj) difficulty in (noun) financial scandal.
It was hard for David to make the decision. The PM made ..
It was a . The PM ......
David had 10 complain (verb) complaint (noun)
2 by accident (noun) accidentally (adv) The security guard said he didn't like the way he was
an accident (noun) spoken to.
I didn't mean to break your porcelain dish. The security guard .
I broke The security guard made ...
I .. 11 possible (adj) possibly (adv)
Breaking Do you think you could lend me some money?
3 child (noun) childhood (noun) Would it be ?
When I was young, I lived in India. Could you ?
When ......... 12 apply (verb) application (noun)
During ...... Sam filled in a form in order to get a visa.
4 intend (verb) intention of (noun) Sam
Anna didn't mean to say that. Sam wrote/made
Anna ....... 13 responsible (adj) responsibility (noun)
Anna had What you do is up to you.
5 explain (verb) explanation for (noun) You must be
It's difficult to find a reason why the accident You have to take
happened. 14 similar (adj) similar to (adj) similarity Enoun)
It's difficult to There's not much difference between Nick and Liz.
It's difficult to find Nick and Liz
6 succeed in (verb) success (in) (noun) Nick is ....
successful (adj) There's a lot
I've never managed to beat Tim at tennis. 15 surprising (adj) surprise (noun) surprisingly (adv)
I've never Kim was surprised to see all his friends in the shop.
I've had....................... . Kim found
I've never been ........ .. To Kim's ..
, all Kim's friends

Word building Unit 8 121


..,. Aim of Exercise A7: to practise the spelling changes necessary in some words

P Exercise A7
Some words need more spelling changes than others.
Complete the sentences, paying particular attention to spelling.

0 A person who is happy is full of ······-- happinee;s

1 If someone is very poor, they are living in ................. ························-·-··· .


2 Someone who feels anxious often shows their

3 If you ask someone to explain something, they'll give you


an
'
4 A newspaper that's printed every day
is a . ...... newspaper.

5 When you ask how high a thing is,


you want to know its ..... .... ...

6 If you're proud of how strong you are,


you show off your ...

7 When the police want to prove something,


they look for

8 After you . ..... a box, it


becomes completely flat.

Get it right! ~
~
Russian learners often spell the following words incorrectly 3 The following pairs
(the spelling given here is correct, and the words are given in of words are often confused.
the order of the frequency of mistakes).
think thing
1 advertisement 5 convenient 9 important
great grate
2 accommodation 6 restaurant 10 excellent by
buy
3 which 7 experience 11 interesting
would wood
4 receive 8 necessary 12 because

2 The following uncountable nouns are often mistakenly used in the plural. 4 Russian learners sometimes
create non-existent negative
sightseeing 5 research 9 work* adjectives using the un- prefix:
2 information 6 knowledge 10 training unuseful useless,
unnotirnble unnoticed,
3 accommodation 7 homework unexpecffible unexpected,
·except for cases when this word .... ~.. ,,,.·-.hi,, undeniable.
4 shopping 8 advice means something that has been
created (e.g. works of art).

124 Units
Negative prefixes
Negative prefixes can cause problems: it's easy to miss the need for a negative, and it's also difficult to choose the
right prefix.

1111- Aim of Exercise A8: to practise negative prefixes

JI Exercise AS
Use the word in CAPITALS at the end of each sentence to form an appropriate negative word which fits in each gap.
(Look at the table on page 122 if you need help.)
Teachers found Mark's ......________________ -·····-··---···-··- .. quite hard to deal with. OBEDIENCE
2 The Aerostar Hotel is very good and surprisingly .... EXPENSIVE
3 Ramil got lost because the map he had with him was ........ _ ... ACCURATE
4 Max has become very .... ____ .................. _and has stopped going to lectures. RESPONSIBLE
5 Ali fell 30 metres down the mountain but amazingly was ................................................ . INJURED
6 I am afraid I have to . . .. . .. with you on that issue. AGREE
7 In the UK it's ............................ to drive a car if you're under 16. LEGAL
8 Katya is rather __ .................. __ ..... ___ , considering she's already 21. MATURE
9 The boss gave me a ............... _...................... look when I arrived two hours late. APPROVING

1111- Aim of E_xercise A9: to understand the difference between -ing and -ed forms

I! Exercise A9
Complete the sentences using the -ing or -ed form of the verb(s) in CAPITALS at the end of the sentence.

The news about the school trip was so ... .......................... ..... . that the class could EXCITE
hardy concentrate on the textbook.
2 I was extremely ..............................
.. .... about my exam results and even refused to WORRY
go on a trip until I learned how I had done.
3 We have never been ........................................ in our history class as our teacher is BORE
exceptionally good.
4 The walk to the top of the mountain was quite ....... . , but at the top TIRE
we were .. ...... with.......... .. ... ....... .. views of the countryside around us. REWARD, AMAZE
5 The chance to study in Switzerland was really ..... . .. ................. .... , so Dina was EXCITE
... that nobody in her class could be ...... ...- ...... ... to apply for SURPRISE, BOTHER
the scholarship.
6 Lena was completely ... .... ........ .. . .. after the 800m race, but her time was EXHAUST
... and it was ..................... ...... .... to know that even her coach was ENCOURAGE, SATISFY
PLEASE
7 It is , and it makes me personally quite ....... . ............ , how DISTURB, DEPRESS
many teenagers seem to be only ............................. in computer games and other INTEREST
activities which are mentally ...... .. ............. _ .... and quite mindless in fact. CHALLENGE

Word building Unit 8 125


,~ ~ ...
Get it right! @
The -ing form (gerund) is often used by Russian VValkings Walks in the mountains were the highlight of
learners instead of the appropriate noun form. our stavin.t! stay there.

During our working work in the school garden, we had There have been many studyings studies to determine
to draw the roots of different plants. the best soil for the crops.

They pay a lot of attention to students' ... nt... rt~inim1 We have to take all our wasting waste with us when
entertainment at this summer camp . we leave the forest.

.,.. Aim of Exercise A10: to practise the difference between nouns and gerunds

I! Exercise A10
Complete the sentences using the noun or -ing form of the verb in CAPITALS at the end of the sentence.
1 Visitors to the parks are asked not to leave any food - .. ~- ·- on the ground. WASTE

2 During your . you will have to make a lot of important decisions. STUDY

3 shifts has become a problem for me as I can't fall asleep in the daytime. WORK
4 A lot of people nowadays work in privately owned businesses. ENTERTAIN
5 I made excellent progress in English during my with a friendly host family in the UK. STAY

6 guests is a pleasant responsibility, but not if you are an artist and have to continue ENTERTAIN
on the exhibition of your many new WORK, WORK
7 While on a remote island off the coast of Scotland, we enjoyed our STAY, VISIT
to the old castle nearby.

8 What can be better than going for long around the beautiful lake twice a day? WALK

Suggested approach for Part 2 of the Grammar and Vocabulary test

1 Look at the title - it'll help with your general understanding of the text.
2 Read the text.

3 For each gap, decide the function of the missing word.


4 Look out for negative meanings.
5 If you've worked out the kind of word you need but don't know the word itself, make an intelligent guess!
(Remember the possible prefixes and suffixes.)

6 Remember that spelling can change when a word changes its form.
7 Check that the word fits with the meaning of the whole text.

126 Units
l§H.Hl:I Exam practice
llJ. Aim of Exercises B1-B6: to practise the skills acquired in Section A in texts of the size and genre usually found
in the exam

p Exercise 81
Ilp0'111TaiilTe np11BeAeHHblW HJ1)J(e TeKCT. 06pa3yiifTe OT CJIOB, Hane'laTaHHblX 3arJiaBHblMl1 6yKBaMl1 B KOHQe
CTpOK, o603Ha'leHHblX HOMepaMl1 Bll-B16, OAHOKOpeHHbie CJIOBa TaK, 'IT06bi OHl1 rpaMMan1'1eCKl1 l1 JieKCJ1'1eCKl1
COOTBeTCTBOBaJil1 COAep)J(aHJ1lO TeKCTa. 3anoJIHJ1Te nponycKJ1 noJiy'leHHblMl1 CJIOBaMJ1. Ka)J():lb!W nponycK COOTBeTcTByeT
OT):leJibHOMY 3aAaHHIO 113 rpynnhI Bll-B16.

WHAT'S IN A NAME?
Very few people choose their name, but what you are called has a very big impact on your life.
811 Just think of how many times you say or write your name on all those ... . _ ... APPLY
forms you fill in. First names have a relatively long tradition in every society. After all, it would
812 be very __ ---· __ ... _.... __ ..... not to be able to attract someone's attention by using their name CONVENIENT
or to speak about them to third parties.
813 Not every society uses surnames and even in Europe they are . _...................... . _.. __ recent. COMPARE
They usually developed from people's profession or location, so Smith, Miller and North are
typical British examples.
People used to choose quite traditional names for their children and in any case they
814 often needed the .. ______ ·-· ....... .... of someone in authority like a priest or head of the AGREE
community. Things have changed now and children can be given quite bizarre names. One
football fan named his daughter after every player in the Arsenal football team, much to the
815 ....... ........................................ . of his wife who supports Chelsea! APPROVE
816 One piece of practical advice for .. . . ... .. ....... .. . ......... new parents - choose a name with AMBITION
the first letter from the first half of the alphabet as this is a predictor of success: almost all
American presidents fall into this category from Abraham Lincoln to .6,arack Obama .

Word building Unit 8 127


II Exercise 82

IIpoq1nai:'ITe npwae.n;eHHbIH HH)J{e TeKCT. 06pa3yflTe OT CJIOB, HaneqaTaHHbIX 3arJiaBHbIMH 6yKBaMH B KOHQe
CTpOK, o6o3HaqeHHbIX HOMepaMH Bll-B16, O.Jl:HOKOpeHHbie CJIOBa TaK, qTo6bI OHH rpaMMaTwqeCKH H JieKcwqeCKH
COOTBeTCTBOBaJIH co.n;ep)J{aHHIO TeKCTa. 3anoJIHHTe nponycKH nonyqeHHbIMH CJIOBaMH. Ka)K.Jl:b!H nponycK COOTBeTcTByeT
oT.n;eJibHOMY 3a.n;aHHIO H3 rpynnhI Bll-B16.
AMAZING HOLIDAY DESTINATIONS
Tresca is the second largest of the five inhabited islands which make up the Isles of Scilly.
This is a small group of islands lying about thirty miles or so south-west of the British Isles.
Tresca is a private island with a population of about a hundred. Interestingly, it was the first
B11 place in England to make education compulsory. The major tourist .. ·····- ...... - .. .............. is the ATTRACT
subtropical garden at Tresca Abbey. The garden is home to species from 80 countries ranging
from Brazil to New Zealand and Burma to South Africa, and is regarded by botanists as one of
B12 the most amazing ................................................. experiments in the world. Another of the islands is St BOTANY
B13 Agnes, which due to its quiet and gentle scenery promises to be a truly .................................. ........ ·- FORGET
holiday destination. There are a few guest houses, a couple of small tea-rooms and a very
B14 friendly pub by the water's edge where they serve ......................... ...... ... .......... fresh food. The sea FANTASY
around the island is rough when there is a strong northerly wind, but in good weather boats
will take visitors out to the western rocks where lots of ships have been wrecked. The sea is
B15 very dangerous unless you are a good ........................ ......... .................. Every summer St Agnes holds a SAIL
B16 festival. All the stalls are piled high with............ . ... .................... made arts and crafts as well as LOCAL
tasty organic vegetables.

128 Units
B Exercise 83
IlpoqMTaf!Te npMBeAeHHblH HM)!(e TeKCT. 06pa3yHTe OT CJIOB, HaneqaTaHHblX 3arJiaBHblMM 6yKBaMM B KOHQe
CTpOK, o603HaqeHHblX HOMepaMM Bll-Bl6, OAHOKopeHHbie CJIOBa TaK, qTo6bI OHM rpaMMaTMqecKM M JieKcMqecKM
COOTBeTCTBOBaJIM COAep)!(aHMIO TeKCTa. 3anoJIHMTe nponycKM nonyqeHHblMM CJIOBaMM. Ka)!(AbIH nponycK COOTBeTCTByeT
OTAeJibHOMY 3aAaHMIO M3 rpynnhI Bll-B16.
VAMPIRES OLD AND NEW
People have always been fascinated by the strange and supernatural. However, no creature
B11 of the . ..... _ ............................ has excited lovers of horror as much as the vampire. The vampire IMAGINE
itself originates from Eastern Europe, where tales of blood-drinking creatures active only at
B12 night used to scare ....................................... of children. Of course the most celebrated vampire GENERATE
B13 in fiction is Dracula. The novel met a rather ............................................ response when it was first ENTHUSIASM
published in 1897, but it has never been out of print since. The first vampire film was Nosferatu
B14 in 1922, paving the way for ......................................................... films based on Dracula and his vampire COUNT
friends. Today the films look rather different, with a focus on the romantic and attractive side
B15 of vampires. This is natural as film makers ....................... ........... ............ try to find new audiences for CONTINUE
the genre. An example of this new trend is the Twilight series with Robert Pattinson, which
B16 caused a ......................................................... among teenage fans. The success of such films shows that the SENSE
vampire is very much alive and kicking (or biting!).

P Exercise 84
IlpoqMTaHTe npMBeAeHHblH HM)!(e TeKCT. 06pa3yHTe OT CJIOB, HaneqaTaHHbIX 3arJiaBHblMM 6yKBaMM B KOHQe
CTPOK, o6o3HaqeHHhIX HOMepaMM Bll-B16, OAHOKopeHHbie cnoBa TaK, qT06b1 OHM rpaMMaTMqecKM M neKcMqecKM
COOTBeTCTBOBaJIM COAep)!(aHMIO TeKCTa. 3anoJIHMTe nponycKM nonyqeHHblMM CJIOBaMM. Ka)!(AblH nponycK COOTBeTCTByeT
OTAeJibHOMY 3aAaHMIO M3 rpynnhI Bll-B16.
MYTHS ABOUT THE RUSSIANS
B11 It is always interesting to know what other people think about us. This is......... PARTICULAR
the case with Russia because our country was closed for most of the 20th century. Russia
B12 is much more open to outsiders now. ......................... ...................... , however, there are still a lot FORTUNE
of myths and misconceptions about who we are and how we live. To give an example,
B13 .............................................. are often under the impression that Russians are cold and reserved. In FOREIGN
fact, we are very warm-hearted and generous when you get to know us. Next, there is the
B14 mistaken belief that winters are ................................................... ... cold everywhere. In fact, the south of BEAR
Russia has a very mild climate and there are many days in winter when the temperature is
above zero, even in Moscow. Then there are critics of our cuisine who say it is bland and
B15 ... ... .. ...................................... : a diet of bread and potatoes. These people have not tried delightful TASTE
dishes like the wonderfully named 'herring under a fur coat'. As mentioned above, such myths
are understandable. However, as Russia plays a fuller role in the international community,
B16 attitudes will change and there will be less .... ..................................... .. about our country. IGNORE

Word building Unit 8 129


II Exercise BS
Ilpoq11Taf1Te np11Be}:\eHHblH HmKe TeKCT. 06pa3yflTe OT cnoB, HaneqaTaHHbIX 3arnaBHblMl1 6yKBaMl1 B KOHQe
cTpOK, o6o3HaqeHHhIX HOMepaM11 Bll-B16, OAHOKopeHHhie cnoBa TaK, qT06b1 OHH rpaMMaT11qecK1111 neKc11qecK11
COOTBeTCTBOBan11 CO}:\ep)!(aHHlO TeKCTa. 3anonHHTe nponycKH nonyqeHHblMl1 cnoBaMH . Ka)!(]:\b!H nponycK COOTBeTCTByeT
OT}:\enhHOMY 3a}:\aH1110 113 rpynnhI Bll-B16.

HOWARD HUGHES: A SAD END


The American millionaire Howard Hughes once knew the world's most attractive movie
B11 stars. But for the last 15 years of his life he had almost no ...... ··-··· ... ...... ......... . with the outside COMMUNICATE
B12 world. Hughes effectively became a recluse and his ..... .... ...... ........ ........... ... life turned into GLAMOUR
misery as he became convinced that his health was at risk from everything and everybody
around him . Hughes became so terrified of illness that nobody else was permitted to touch
B13 his food, and no visitors were allowed to see him. He ... _ ... ... . -· .......... moved from hotel SECRET
to hotel trying to hide from the world. In Hughes' room the only item of furniture, apart from
B14 a bed and a chair, was a screen and some projection ............. ... . ...... ... .......... so that he could EQUIP
watch films. For days Hughes would eat only ice cream, and when he died his weight had
B15 gone down to only 40 kg because he ate so .................................................... Despite his huge wealth, HEALTH
B16 Hughes seems to have been a very unhappy man and ...... . ......................................... very lonely DOUBT
as well.

II Exercise 86
IlpO'IHTaHTe np11Be}:\eHHblH HH)!(e TeKCT. 06pa3yflTe OT cnoB, Hane'laTaHHblX 3arnaBHblMl1 6yKBaMl1 B KOHQe
CTpOK, o6o3Ha'leHHbIX HOMepaM11 Bll-Bl6, OAHOKopeHHbie cnoBa TaK, 'IT06b1 OHH rpaMMaT11'1ec1<1111 neKc11qecK11
COOTBeTCTBOBan11 CO}:\ep)!(aHHlO TeKCTa. 3anonHHTe nponycKH nony'leHHblMl1 cnoBaMH . Ka)!(}:\b!H nponycK COOTBeTCTByeT
OT]:\enbHOMY 3a}:\aHHIO H3 rpynnhI Bll-B16.

TIME TRAVEL
B11 You mightthink that time travel is the stuff of science fiction . So far it is, but SCIENCE
are beginning to challenge the idea that it is impossible. Time travel is a familiar concept
B12 to us. It has been the subject of books by ........... ............ . ..... ........ literary figures such as H. FAME
G. Wells and Mark Twain . However, researchers today are taking time travel seriously.
Developments in theoretical physics show that time, speed and distance interact in a complex
B13 way which may allow humans to do the . . . . In fact, the main barriers to time POSSIBILITY
travel are probably technological rather than theoretical. If we were able to travel faster than
B14 light, time travel would be a possibility. But at present we are simply . ......................... ..... of CAPABLE
B15 developing such a vehicle. This raises the .......... ............. ..... ........ ·- question of what we wou ld FASCINATE
do if we could travel back and forth in time. Would we be spectators or could we change
our past and future? Could time travel damage the present somehow? It is fun to think
B16 about such questions, but if you are a .................................. you will accept that time travel is REAL
still some way off in the future. So, don't book your holiday to visit your great-great-
grandparents yet!

130 Units
Multiple choice doze
Information
In Part 3 of Grammar and Vocabulary, you must fill a gap in a text by choosing one word or phrase from a set
of four (1, 2, 3 and 4). There are seven gaps and the questions are always numbered A22-A28. Many of the
exercises in this unit are therefore numbered in the same way so that you get used to the format.
The emphasis is on vocabulary.

What's being tested:

• single words that have something in common or have a similar meaning:


frontier, border, boundary, limit
say, tell, talk, speak
• word + preposition: comparison between
• preposition +word: by heart
• phrasal verbs: go through, pull through, see through; look for/after/up
• collocations: to make a living, to do research, work hard, common knowledge
• idioms: early bird
• linking words and phrases: because, since, as, for

Here is the task as it is given in the exam paper:


Ilpoq11Taihe TeKCT c rrporrycKaMH, 0603HaqeHHhIMH HOMepaMH A22-A28. 3TH HOMepa COOTBeTCTBYIOT
3aAaHHSIM A22-A28, B KOTOph!X rrpeACTaBJieHhl B03MO)!(Hhle aapHaHThl OTBeTOB. 06BeAHTe HOMep
Bh16paHHoro BaMH aapwaHTa OTBeTa.

For Questions A-D, read the text below and decide which answer 1, 2, 3 or 4
best fits each gap. The first one has been done for you as an example.

The Arizona desert is hot and extremely dry, but row (A) ....... after. ........ row of giant
cacti, up to 18m tall, grow there, all well-supplied with water. How do these plants
survive in a land that hardly ever sees rain?

Nature has (B) .......................... .. cactus plants with a special design which enables them
to collect and keep rain in desert conditions. (C) ..... ........................... ordinary plants, whose
roots go deep underground for moisture, cacti have very shallow roots that grow a long
way round the plant. These take in water very quickly. On a large cactus, the roots can
(D) ....................... ·-· an area 100m from the plant itself.

A 1 by 2 after 3 with 4 for

B 1 given 2 allowed 3 provided 4 granted

c 1 Different 2 Dissimilar 3 Contrary 4 Unlike

D 1 radiate 2 spread 3 include 4 cover

Multiple choice cloze Unit9 131


Identifying the kind of language that is tested in Part 3 can A Please confirm your reservation in ........... .
help you to anticipate problems. It may be helpful to think
1 letter 2 writing 3 words 4 paper
in terms of three categories:
Category ..... ··- ............ -·-· .. .
Category 1: single words that don't depend on anything
else in the sentence except the meaning B Can you lend me some money? I've ...... my wallet at
Category 2: linking words that must fit the meaning and home.
structure 1 let 2 put 3 left 4 taken
Category 3: words that often go together (combinations Category ............................................. .
like verb+ noun, verb+ preposition, adjective+ preposition,
constructions with two verbs in a row, etc.) and idiomatic C The accident investigators are looking ........... the cause of
vocabulary (phrasal verbs are probably the most the crash very thoroughly.
important). lr11these cases the word being tested depends
1 at 2 into 3 out 4 after
on other words in the sentence to make a complete phrase
Category ............................................
..,. Aim of Exercise A1: to identify what type of word is
missing D Alex went for a long walk ..-···-· he was feeling very tired.

1 although 2 in spite of 3 however 4 despite


• ExerciseA1
Category ............ ... ·-......... ·-· ..·- --·
Look at the following sentences A-I and decide which
category is being tested and which answer 1, 2, 3 or 4 best E Everybody knew Gregory had ........... a crime, but nobody
fits each gap. wanted to tell the police.
At the age of 65, Andrey retired and lived off his ....4.... . 1 done 2 made 3 performed 4 committed
1 allowance 2 salary 3 grant 4 pension
Category .................... .
Category 1: e;lngle worde; all connected with money. The
right word mue;t dee;cribe the money you live off when F Everyone knows that it was wrong to ........... Masha for
you've retired from work. The other worde; refer to money the accident.
in different e;ituatione;. 1 accuse 2 blame 3 charge 4 connect
I was allowed to leave early ...:3. ... I did the work the Category
following day.
1 in case 2 even if 3 providing 4 otherwise G Katya's only been here a week. I think you should ............
that into consideration before you complain about her.
Category 2: the e;entence le; e;aying that the pere;on
would only get permi66ion to leave early if he did the 1 take 2 put 3 bring 4 carry
work the following day. The linking word or phrae;e mue;t
Category .......................
fit thie; meaning.
David has never been ....3 ... in football. He prefers rugby. H I've never ..... that strange building before, have you?
1 keen 2 eager 3 fond 4 interested 1 realised 2 remarked 3 noticed 4 recognised
Category :3: thee;e worde; have e;imilar meaninge;, but only Category ..............................................
one of thee;e e;ynonyme; i6 ue;ed with the prepoe;ltion 'in'.
......... the lights went out, I was taking a maths test.
We cannot put .2 .... with the noise in this room. People are
working here. 1 During 2 While 3 As soon as 4 When
1 off 2 up 3 on 4 out Category ..................................... ..
Category :3: phrae;a/ verb 'put up with' meaning 'tolerate'.

132 Unit9
Commonly confused words
..,_Aim of Exercises A2-A4: to practise single word answers

p Exercise A2
1 Below are two extracts from a student's personal diary,
in which there are some single word gaps. Read the first
extract. Then look at the three choices given. They are
all wrong. Write a correct fourth choice.

DIARY ENTRY FOR JUNE 2nd


Summer is here, but I'm not on vacation yet - unfortunately. Today got off to a bad start because my
(A22) journey.. _. to school today took twice as long as usual. There were some (A23) _---·-··-·---··-····- . ___ .
on the underground and I never thought I'd get there. Just my luck! At least I managed to finish my homework
(A24) . . .... ... the way. Well, that should make my physics teacher happy. By the time I
(A25) ............ . .............. school, I was hungry and worried about being late. Luckily, I wasn't the only one running late
as most kids come by underground. I (A26) ... .... ... I get back home alright as I don't fancy going through that
again. I'd rather do my homework at home with a cup of tea than standing up in an overcrowded carriage. Everything
should be back (A27) ............ ........ normal by this evening, but you never know. These things can take some time
to sort out. Perhaps I'd better (A28) .. ........... .,..... ...... the underground on the Internet before I leave school after the
rehearsa l. It's quite likely that something else will go wrong tonight. I feel it's going to be one of those days!

A22 1 travel 2 trip 3 way 4 ... journey A26 1 think 2 wish 3 believe 4
A23 1 stops 2 breaks 3 intervals 4 ....... A27 1 on 2 in 3 at 4
A24 1 in 2 by 3 off 4 ........ A28 control 2 test 3 prove 4 ... . ... ~ ..........
A25 1 arrived 2 got 3 came 4 .............- .......

2 Now do the same with the second extract.


LATER THE SAME DAY ...
You know what - I was right! Believe it or not, going home was just as bad! First of all, when I left school the rain
was (A22) ....... .. ............ .... . down, and guess where I had left my umbrella - at home, of course. I'd forgotten that
it rains in summer too. I ran to the underground station in order to (A23) ....... getting too wet. Sitting
on a train with wet clothes for half an hour is no joke. I wasn't really looking where I was going and I didn't
(A24) .. ......... ......... ............. .... a small child standing outside the underground entrance and I knocked her over.
One second she was standing there, the next she was on the floor looking up at the rain. The girl wasn't
(A25) .... _ . ...... , thank goodness, and she didn't start crying or anything like that. Still, her father wasn't
at all happy when he saw that she'd fallen into a large (A26) ..... and was completely soaked. I kept
(A27) ........ .....-.... ....... , although to be honest I was just as wet through as her. Anyway, I helped to pick the girl
(A28) ....... . .... ....... ... and that was that. I dashed inside the station before I got even wetter and jumped on the train.
I've decided to ask Dad to give me a lift to school tomorrow.

A22 1 fa lling 2 spilling 3 dropping 4 ···-· ·· ... ......... A26 1 pool 2 pond 3 water 4 ............
A23 1 prevent 2 resist 3 stop 4 ........... ....... A27 1 excusing 2 forgiving 3 regretting
A24 1 remark 2 recognise 3 look 4 --· ............... ,_, ___ 4
A25 1 wounded 2 damaged 3 broken 4 ··-· .... A28 1 out 2 for 3 about 4 .. ..................

Multiple choice doze Unit 9 133


,.,.......
~

Get it right! @ ~~
II Exercise A3
Russian students often confuse these words: -- Read the sentence below. There are five other ways
of saying this. Choose the correct option 1, 2 or 3 to
way I journey
My wey journey to school only takes ten minutes. complete sentences A-E. Use the examples to help you.
Circle the number of the answer you have chosen.
opportunity I possibility
There are more possibilities opportunities for young The police told Kim that he couldn't leave the room.
people today.
job/ work A Kim wasn't . to leave the room.
Oksana has a new work job.
1 let 2 allowed 3 made
countyside I nature
The rttffl:tre countryside around my dacha is wonderful. B Kim was .. ... . .............. to stay in the room .
travel I trip

1 let 2 allowed 3 made
In June we had a -tfflvel trip to St Petersburg.
last I latest
C They didn't ............................... Kim leave the room at
Do you know the kts-t latest news? the police station.

1 let 2 allow 3 make


make/let/allow D The police ......................... ................ Kim stay in the room.
Analyse the examples below and answer the following 1 let 2 allowed 3 made
questions.
E The police didn't ................- ........................ Kim to leave the
His boss made him cancel the reservation. (active) room.
She was made to apologise. (passive) 1 let 2 allow 3 make
Ja ne let me borrow her car. (active)

Jane allowed me to borrow her car. (active)

I was allowed to borrow Jane's car. (passive)

My parents didn't/wouldn't let me eat in bed. (active)

My parents didn't allow me to eat in bed. (active)

My parents didn't allow eating in bed. (active)

I wasn't allowed to eat in bed. (passive)

1 When do we use 'to + infinitive' after 'make/let/


allow'?

2 Which verb is not used in the passive voice?

3 Which verb is never followed by the 'to-infinitive'?


4 Can you explain the difference between 'allow'
(permit) and let'?

134 Unit9
Tips: Reporting verbs D Jenny .... .... .............................. Rita she had beautiful hair.
agree, offer, propose, refuse, promise(+ infinitive with to) 1 suggested 2 admitted 3 said 4 told
'You can't come in, I'm afraid,' the manager said to Pete.
E Yan ............ ............................ me not to do that.
... The manager refused to let Pete come in.
1 advised 2 offered 3 said 4 suggested
ask, warn, tell, order, advise, invite, encourage, remind,
persuade(+ pronoun/noun+ infinitive with to) F Zoe .......................................... Aneta if she felt like seeing her
'I think you should stay at the Cosmos Hotel,' said room.
Henry.
1 proposed 2 asked 3 offered 4 told
... Henry advised us to stay at the Cosmos Hotel.
G Elena ........................ .......... ..... her son not to play with
advise, complain, promise, propose, say, suggest, warn
matches.
(+that)
'I think you'd better stay in bed a little longer,' said 1 refused 2 criticised 3 offered 4 warned
the nurse.
H 1......... . .............................. if Jenny knew the way to the
... The nurse suggested that I stay in bed a little
football stadium.
longer.
1 complained 2 asked 3 said 4 told
advise, promise, remind, tell, warn(+ pronoun/noun
+that) She ......................... .............. to make Paul a cup of tea.
'You'll be late!' 1 suggested 2 proposed 3 offered 4 advised
... Tom warned me that I would be late.
J The travel agent ..................................... us to fly on a
admit, deny, recommend, suggest, propose(+ -ing) weekday as it was the best option.
'Why don't we go to the theatre for a change?' said
1 advised 2 invited 3 admitted 4 proposed
Fiona.
... Fiona suggested going to the theatre for a change. K The government are ............... ............ .......... to double
pensions.
apologise for, accuse someone of, criticise someone for ...
(+preposition+ -ing) 1 ordering 2 proposing 3 telling
'You took my money, Nick!' said Angela. 4 recommending
... Angela accused Nick of taking her money.
L May 1........................................ you that the exam is next
week.
'! Exercise A4 1 promise 2 persuade 3 remind 4 say
Choose the best reporting verb 1, 2, 3 or 4 to complete
M A lot of teenagers ............................................ that their parents
the reported speech sentences A-0. Circle the number
never listen to them.
you have chosen.
1 accuse 2 complain 3 warn 4 tell
A Paula ................................... ........ for causing me a problem.
1 warned 2 criticised 3 apologised 4 accused N I'd like to ........ ......................... ....... everyone to take part in the
competition.
B Karl ........................................... carrying Ann's bag for her. 1 encourage 2 suggest 3 promise 4 order
1 suggested 2 offered 3 said 4 proposed
0 But would Alissa .......... .. _......... .. ..... .... to help?
C Mary ........................................ breaking the plate and said 1 deny 2 invite 3 admit 4 agree
that Tom had done it.
1 refused 2 admitted 3 agreed 4 denied

Multiple choice doze Unit 9 135


Tips: Linking words and phrases
Conjunctions connect clauses, e.g. and, but, if, although, when, while.

Sit down while I get ready.


It was a nice holiday although the weather wasn't great.
Adverbs refer forward and back, e.g. however, unfortunately, at first, therefore, obviously.

Sara is only sixteen. However, she's already a really good swimmer.


Obviously, Martin is unhappy. That's why he refused to go.
Prepositional phrases go before nouns and noun groups, but not before complete clauses, e.g. because of, thanks to,
instead of, due to, together with.
We lost ever,ything, thanks to Mike. (but: We lost everything because Mike came unprepared.)
Can you do some work instead of just sitting there?
To-infinitive and participle clauses add more information to sentences.

I'm not sure I can, to be honest.


Lying there in bed, Isuddenly had a great idea.
IJll- For more information on linking words and phrases go to Unit 5 page 78 and Unit 11pages166-7

.,.. Aim of Exercises AS-A6: to practise different types of linking words and phrases

II Exercise AS
Choose the best linking word or phrase 1, 2, 3 or 4 to complete the sentences A22-A28. Circle the number of the
answer you have chosen.

HOW NOT TO GET FIT


After a New Year holiday of eating and sitting around the flat too much, Alexei made up his mind to get fit. He didn't
fancy the idea of getting up at 6.00 and going running, (A22) ............ .................. .... ..... he joined a local gym. Alexei liked
the idea so much that he went out and bought himself a new tracksuit. (A23) .. . .. ...... ........ ........ , Alexei felt a bit shy
as he went to the gym for the first time. Everyone else looked so fit and slim compared to him. He took it easy at first
(A24) .... ......... .. .. . .......... it had been a while since he had done any real exercise. (A25) ....-................................ , he couldn't
even remember how long it had been. Everything was going alright (A26) ................ .... ....... ....... how out of shape
he was when Alexe i noticed a pretty girl right next to him. She was lifting some weights (A27) ... ................................ . . it
was the easiest thing in the world. Alexei decided to show her what he was capable of. He picked up the biggest
set of weights and got ready to lift. Oh no! Alexei immediately felt a sudden pain in his back. (A28) ............... ............. .......... .
making a good impression on the girl, he had injured his back. The pretty young girl carried him back to his car.

A22 1 so 2 because 3 since 4 then


A23 1 Moreover 2 However 3 Next 4 Then
A24 1 as so 2 so 3 as 4 so as
A25 1 In fact 2 In particular 3 Generally 4 Eventually
A26 1 looking 2 thinking 3 knowing 4 considering
A27 1 like if 2 like 3 as if 4 as
A28 1 With regards to 2 Instead of 3 Because of 4 Due to

136 Unit9
P Exercise A6
Read the text and answer questions A22-A28. In the exam, there is always only one possible correct
answer, but in this exercise there may be more than one in some cases.

Check carefully that the answers you choose are correct in both structure and meaning, and look out
for linking words and phrases to help you.

REALLY COLD PLACES


How would you like to throw snowballs in -50°C? Russians do
(A22) . . ..... 1 &4.. about bad weather from time to time,
especially those of us who live in the north. But in fact most of us
live in (A23) ..... ...... ....... comfort as far as climate is concerned.
However, in the Arctic region, the temperature may
(A24) .... ... . . to -57°(, which is pretty cold even by Russian
standards. In summer, the temperature in the Arctic doesn't often
(A25) .... ..._.................... above 7°C. And as for Antarctica, no
human beings, except for research scientists, live there.

A22 1 talk 2 insist 3 regret 4 complain


A23 1 comparable 2 reasonable 3 relative 4 satisfactory
A24 1 drop 2 decrease 3 become 4 cool
A25 1 rise 2 raise 3 heat 4 grow

WHAT CAUSES COLDS


The common cold is the illness we most love to hate. Coughing, sneezing
and having to stay in bed watching boring daytime TV is not anyone's
idea of fun. Despite this fact, we are not much closer to finding a
(A26) ... .. . ... .. ........... for this annoying illness than doctors were a
century ago. The first laboratory to concentrate on the common cold
was set up in 1946. Since that time, many groups of volunteers have been
(A27) ... ....... .................... colds in the interests of medical science. This
is not a pleasant job, as you can imagine. Nevertheless, thanks to the
(A28) .. of these volunteers, we now know that colds are
not caused by a single cold virus but can be caused by many different ones.

A26 1 solution 2 cure 3 remedy 4 medicine


A27 1 infected 2 given 3 treated 4 researched
A28 1 attempts 2 deeds 3 doings 4 efforts

Multiple choice doze Unit 9 137


Tips: Phrasal vocabulary ~Aim of Exercises A7-A10: to practise word
A great deal of English vocabulary consists of groups combinations
of words which must be understood or used together.
Phrasal vocabulary describes all those cases where
II Exercise A7
two or more words make one unit of vocabulary. Choose the correct option to complete the sentences.
Examples are: The correct choice depends on matching the right
preposition with a particular word. There is only one
Word + preposition: correct answer. (Look at Appendices 2 and 3 to help
He insisted on coming. She is incapable of dishonesty. you.)
(See Appendix 2.) 0 Skiing doesn't ....3. ... to me at all. I don't like snow.

Preposition(s) + word: 1 interest 2 attract 3 appeal 4 like

It happened' by chance. The car was out of control. A I don't think Larry will ever ......... in getting a place at
(See Appendix 3.) university.
1 manage 2 succeed 3 arrive 4 achieve
Phrasal verbs (where the meaning of the individual
words may not help you to understand the word B The bank was closed today ...... of a robbery during
combination): the night.
1 in view 2 in spite 3 in case 4 as a result
He took up fishing at the age of 50.
(= started a new activity or hobby) C Joe can't go to Mike's party because he'll be away
__ holiday.
Let's give up and go home.
(=stop what we are doing) 1 for 2 on 3 at 4 with

When will you get round to repairing the car? D Jane was forced to stay at home ··---······- of whether she
(= finally do it, after a long time) (See Appendix 6.) wanted to.
1 regardless 2 on account 3 because 4 despite
Collocations (words which 'belong' together):
E It was a very popular film, ............ by the amount of
to do your homework (not make) money it took.
to make a complaint (not do) 1 referring 2 judging 3 regarding 4 estima~ing
a golden opportunity (not a silver or precious one) F Plastic ..... _... flexibility with great strength.
1 joins 2 connects 3 combines 4 involves
Idioms:
I'm feeling a bit under the weather. (= ill) G Mary arrived .......... good time to take the speaking test
first.
I'm at a loose end. (haven't got anything to do)
1 with 2 on 3 at 4 in
They jumped at the chance of going to Australia.
H ............ to class gossip, Hugh is going to fa il the exam.
(= were happy to have the opportunity)
1 Referring 2 According 3 Regarding 4 Attending
Other word combinations which don't fit the
A large number of seabirds are now at ........... as a result
categories above:
of an oil tanker disaster.
straightaway (= immediately) 1 danger 2 threat 3 difficult 4 risk
above all (= most importantly)
J There's not much new about this textbook. It's very
for the time being (= temporarily) similar ........... last year's publication.
In this book we have described all the above types of 1 as 2 to 3 with 4 like
word combinations as phrasal vocabulary. K The new school is to be built ....... _to the old one.
1 nearby 2 beside 3 next 4 alongside
138 Unit9
g Exercise AS
Decide which answer 1, 2, 3 or 4 best fits each gap (A22-A28).
Circle the number of the option you have chosen.

FAMOUS FORAN HOUR


know that most people dream of being famous. You get the
idea of money, excitement and a (A22) ................. .. ... .. lifestyle.
But I wouldn't recommend it because I was famous once, just for an hour, and it was terrible. You might wonder
how this happened. To (A23) . .. ........................... you the truth, it was a bit embarrassing but it was a good lesson for
me. I was flying to St Petersburg from Moscow, only a one-hour flight, but I was quite excited when the plane
(A24) ..... .... .. . .. .......... off. I haven't been on many plane (A25) , but I noticed something odd about this
one. Everyone seemed to be looking (A26) ............ ........ at me. Then a man came over and said, 'Are you Nyusha?'
Then everyone else around shouted (A27) ...... ....... . excitedly, 'Yes, it's Nyusha!' Suddenly, before I could say a
word, everyone was crowding round, asking for autographs and photos. I was in shock - and the thing was, it had gone
too far for me to say, 'No, I'm not Nyusha. There's been a mistake. I just (A28) .................... ...... ... like her.' The celebrity
treatment continued for the rest of the hour and it was the most painful hour of my life. I was so glad to get off the plane
and become normal again!

A22 1 happy 2 glamorous 3 rich 4 expensive A26 1 hardly 2 deeply 3 curiously 4 interestingly
A23 1 explain 2 speak 3 tell 4 say A27 1 out 2 up 3 over 4 in
A24 1 ran 2 got 3 went 4 took A28 1 seem 2 look 3 appear 4 am
A25 1 journeys 2 travels 3 ways 4 voyages

II Exercise A9
Decide which answer 1, 2, 3 or 4 best fits each gap (A22-A28). The first one has been done for you as an example.
Circle the number of the option you have chosen.

EARLY NEWSPAPERS
Newspapers are still going strong despite the Internet. Before all this technology, newspapers were the main source
of information for people. Did you know that Julius Caesar introduced the earliest known official written news as far
(0) ... .. ..back .......... as 59 BC? The Acta Diurna (Daily News) was a handwritten sheet, posted daily in the Forum of
Rome. Its contents would not have been out of (A22) in a modern newspaper. Accounts of battles,
military appointments and pol itical events were written about in (A23) detail. Citizens in distant
(A24) ......... ...... ... .. ........ ... of the Roman Empire sent men, scribes, to Rome to copy the news. (There were no i;ihotocopiers
in those days of course!). The scribes then sent the newspaper back (A25) .. letter. In this way, they were
able to keep in touch with what was (A26) ........ ... ... .... ...... ......... on at the centre. Sadly, the Acta Diurna didn't last and like so
many of the Romans' inventions it couldn't be copied by the people who followed them. After the death of this early form
of newspaper, it was left to travel lers to spread the (A27) .. ............................. . Until the invention of the printing press in the
1400s, information was carried from place to place by (A28) . ........ ..... .. .... .. of mouth.

0 1 ago 2 back 3 before 4 away A25 1 in 2 with 3 by 4 through


A22 1 order 2 t ime 3 line 4 place A26 1 coming 2 being 3 keeping 4 going
A23 1 large 2 huge 3 great 4 big A27 1 issues 2 news 3 affairs 4 communications
A24 1 parts 2 pieces 3 places 4 portions A28 1 way 2 means 3 speech 4 word

Multiple choice cloze Unit9 139


I' Exercise A10
Decide which answer 1, 2, 3 or 4 best fits each gap (A22-A28).
Circle the number of the answer you have chosen.

THE POWER OF TORNADOES


You must have seen one of these disaster movies where a whole
city is destroyed by a tornado. However, the truth about tornadoes is
a bit different. It is true that tornadoes (A22) .......... ... ... ... terrible
damage, but the area that they cover at any one t ime is actually quite
small. (A23) . . .... ............. fact, this area is often not more than 100m
wide. So a tornado can destroy a house on one side of a street, while
a house opposite remains undamaged. What actually is a tornado?

Well, it is much more than a (A24) ........................ wind. It is a rotating
column of air, typically trave lling at about 160 kilometres per hour.
The tornado usually travels a few kilometres before it disappears.
While the effect on the ground is devastating, people
(A25) . ............. ........... by m ight not even notice the tornado because of
the dust and ra in that often comes with it. If the weatherman
(A26) . . ... ... ...... .. that a tornado is coming, you should definitely
listen . The best way to (A27) .. .. .... ....... yourself and your family
is to get underground. Houses in danger areas often have special
cellars for this purpose. Otherwise, you might find yourself almost
literally in the (A28) ... .... of a storm .

A22 1 make 2 cause 3 result 4 lead


A23 1 In 2 By 3 As 4 For
A24 1 hard 2 strong 3 heavy 4 large
A25 1 moving 2 making 3 getting 4 passing
A26 1 admits 2 recommends 3 warns 4 orders
A27 1 protect 2 aid 3 survive 4 defend
A28 1 neck 2 heart 3 eye 4 tail

Suggested approach for Part 3 of the Grammar and Vocabulary test

1 Look at the title of the text. It is a kind of summary of what you're going to read and can help your understanding.
2 Read through the whole text at least once to get the general meaning. Don't look at the 1, 2, 3, 4 choices while
you're reading.

3 Look at the words surrounding the gaps before you look at the choices. When you try to use a word from the
choices, remember to check that it fits with the meaning of the whole sentence.

4 Do the easier items first to give you confidence and save your time for the more difficult ones.
5 Make your choice - don't leave any blanks. Even if you have no idea, it's still worth having a guess.
6 Read the completed text through.

140 Unit9
(j§ii[.]il:I Exam pradice
""Aim of Exe_rcises 81-810: to practise the skills acquired in Section A in exam-style texts

I! Exercise 81
IlpoqMTaf1Te TeKcT c nponycKaMM, o6o3HaqeHHhIMM HOMepaMM A22-A28. 3TM HOMepa cooTBeTCTBYJOT 3a)l;aHMSIM A22-
A28, B KOTOphIX npep;cTaBJieHhI B03MO)!(Hhie sapHaHThI OTBeTOB. 06sep;MTe HOMep BhI6paHHoro BaMM sapHaHTa OTBeTa.

FOREIGN TRAVEL
Everyone likes travelling and I am no exception. My first visit to another country was when I went
(A22) .. ............... ........ ........ ... a school trip to a seaside town in Italy. I can't remember (A23) ............. ................................. about it
and I didn't take any photos, but some things stick in my mind. I know I (A24) .................................................... it very exciting being
abroad and hearing different languages spoken around me. Also, I went with some really (A25) ........... ........... ,,_.. _,_ .......... friends
and that made it fun. One of them, Masha, lost her passport on the first day and it took our teacher the whole holiday to
(A26) .................... ........................... .the problem out. That was typical Masha! We're still in (A27) ............................ ............ ....... and she hasn't
changed a bit. I'm sure she's lost her passport several times since then. Nowadays, of course, people travel abroad much
more, but in those days it was still quite unusual to go to (A28) ...... .... ................................ country for your holidays. That made
travelling overseas much more attractive than staying in Russia. All the same, holidays in Russia are becoming popular again
because there are so many great places to go here.

A22 1 with 2 on 3 by 4 to A26 sort 2 arrange 3 decide 4 solve


A23 1 lot 2 any 3 many 4 much A27 relation 2 touch 3 connection 4 communication
A24 1 found 2 thought 3 regarded 4 felt A28 abroad 2 other 3 another 4 different
A25 1 firm 2 true 3 near 4 close

I I Exercise 82
IlpoqMTatiTe TeKcT c nponycKaMM, o6o3HaqeHHhIMM HOMepaMM A22-A28. 3TM HOMepa cooTBeTCTBYJOT 3a)l;aHMSIM A22-
A28, B KOTOphIX npep;cTaBJieHhI B03MO)!(Hbie sapHaHThI OTBeToB. 06sep;MTe HOMep BbI6paHHoro BaMM sapHaHTa oTBeTa.

SWEET INACCESSIBLE DREAMS


It is a very familiar story. You wake up. You were dreaming and in the (A22) ............................ ................ ....... of the morning, you try
to recall what happened in those sweet dreams. But you cannot quite remember what ran (A23) .................................... ................ your
head. Childhood acquaintances were there. You were in Australia. One guy was a pirate. There was something about a
cow. We have all had memories of an earlier night's dream. But what if you could actually (A24) . . ........................... your
dreaming brain? It sounds strange, but just think about the implications of that for a moment. Would it mean that you could
(A25) .................................................... the stories that play out in your head? It appears to be plausible. (A26) ... ...... ..... .. ...........................
fiction is full of machines that can peer inside our heads and decipher our thoughts. And science, it seems 4 is catching
(A27) ................................................ with writers' imaginations. Today is a time when the boundaries between fiction and reality
are constantly changing. The news abounds (A28) .... ..... .. . . ..... . .... ... tales of scientists who have created 'mind-reading'
machines that can convert our thoughts into images. What seems like a dream today may well be reality tomorrow.

A22 1 sun 2 rain 3 rays 4 light A26 1 Science 2 Fantasy 3 Non 4 Unreal
A23 1 across 2 through 3 in 4 on A27 1 up 2 on 3 off 4 forth
A24 1 record 2 write 3 reproduce 4 fix A28 1 in 2 with 3 by 4 of
A25 1 reconstruct 2 remind 3 redevelop 4 rethink

Multiple choice cloze Unit 9 141


I! Exercise 83
Ilpo'!11Tai1Te TeKcT c nponycKaMM, o6o3Ha'!eHHhIMM HOMepaM11 A22-A28. 3n1 HoMepa cooTBeTcTBYIOT 3agaHMHM A22-
A28, B KOTOpbIX npegcTaBJieHbI B03MO)J(Hbie sap11aHThI oTBeToB. 06segwTe HOMep BhI6paHHoro BaMH sap11aHTa OTBeTa.

HAPPY BIRTHDAY, MARINA!


Marina woke up feeling really excited because it was her birthday. It had taken her ages to (A22) . ... .... .... ....... .. ...................... to
sleep last night because she had been thinking about the next day so much. And here it was, August 30th, the day she
had really been looking forward (A23) . . . .. .................. At last it had come and she was sure it was going to be a
really great day. The flat seemed pretty quiet, which was unusual as her parents and kid brother were early
(A24) .... ..... ..... .... ... .... and liked to get up before her. Marina went to the kitchen expecting to hear everyone's best
wishes, but to her (A25) .... ... .......... _ .. there was nobody there. The kitchen was empty, as was the living room
and the other bedroom . Everyone had gone out and forgotten her. Marina was (A26) .... .......................................... disappointed.
She was alone on her birthday and even had to (A27) ............. .............. .... .. .. . ........ her own breakfast. She sat down, almost in
(A28) ........... .....' ........... ............... now, and went to the bathroom to dry her eyes. She was about to open the bathroom door when
her parents and brother jumped out, shouting, 'Surprise, surprise!' It really was a birthday to remember.

A22 1 make 2 fall 3 get 4 do A26 1 bitterly 2 largely 3 badly 4 unhappily


A23 1 by 2 on 3 to 4 for A27 1 have 2 make 3 do 4 take
A24 1 mice 2 cats 3 dogs 4 birds A28 1 tears 2 cries 3 screams 4 shouts
A25 1 shock 2 interest 3 curiosity 4 surprise

IJ. Exercise 84
Ilpo'IMTai1Te TeKcT c nponycKaMw, o603Ha'!eHHhIMM HOMepaMw A22-A28. 3rn HoMepa cooTBeTcTBYIOT 3aAaHWHM A22-
A28, B KOTOpbIX npegcTaBJieHbI B03MO)J(Hbie sapwaHThI oTBeTOB. 06BegwTe HOMep Bb16paHHoro BaMH sapwaHTa oTBeTa.

HOME, SWEET HOME


There's no place like home, they say. My home town, Tula, is small, but you'd be surprised at how much is going
(A22) .................. ....... here. Tula is (A23) ... .... .......................... a very nice place to live and it's quite famous. Everyone
knows that Leo Tolstoy's family home is just down the road in Yasnaya Polyana. We also have pryaniki - what you call
gingerbread in English . Sometimes I (A24) .. .. ........................... that there was more for people to do in Tula in the
evening and that it was a bit nearer to Moscow. Of course, you can't really compare a small town like ours with the capital.
(A25) .. ............... ........ .. ...... ,I like the feeling that it is my home, and I know most people I meet. Tula is a friendly kind of place,
and it doesn't seem cold and impersonal like big cities do. I am sure I will (A26) ......... ... ...... .. all this next year because
I'm going to university in Moscow. I won't be seeing all those (A27) ................... ................ faces every day and it's going to be
strange at first. On the other hand, I will definitely (A28) .. ..... ....................... the most of all the opportunities that living in
the capital provides. Plus, I'm sure you can buy priyaniki in Moscow too.

A22 1 for 2 at 3 in 4 on A26 1 avoid 2 escape 3 lack 4 miss


A23 1 actually 2 factually 3 practically 4 completely A27 1 known 2 familiar 3 famous 4 similar
A24 1 like 2 desire 3 want 4 wish A28 1 do 2 make 3 take 4 use
A25 1 Still 2 Furthermore 3 Moreover 4 Besides

142 Unit9
II Exercise BS
Ilpo•n1Ta1':'1Te TeKcT c nponycKaM11, o6mHa'leHHhIMH HOMepaM11A22-A28. 3T11 HOMepa cooTBeTCTBYIOT 3aAaHHSIM A22-
A28, B KOTOphIX npeACTaBJieHhI B03MO)((Hhie sap11aHThI oTBeToB. 06BeAHTe HOMep BhI6paHHoro BaM11 sap11aHTa oTBeTa.

A NIGHT IN
A wet autumn evening in a typical Russian town, and Sanya and Boris were wondering how to spend it. 'Nice to be alone for
a change. Shall we go out, or would you prefer to stay at home (A22) .......................................... our own tonight?' asked Sanya.
'Come on, get off that couch and talk to me!'

'No need to shout!' grumbled Boris, yawning. 'Let me think. There's a good film on TV and besides it's
(A23) .... .................. ............... down outside. If you don't (A24) ......... .. ..... .. .... .. .. ... , I'd rather just stay inside and have a quiet
evening. But I don't feel like cooking. Do you (A25) ........... ... ... .._.......... . a pizza, Sanya? It will make a change and we won't
have to do the washing up.'

'You mean I won't have to,' replied Sanya. 'Anyway, that's not a bad idea. Let's check out the pizzas at that new takeaway
on the corner. It's open round the (A26) ................................................ ,so we can order one now. Look, here's the website and here's
the menu. Wow, that's quite impressive. It's got quite a (A27) .. . .... ...... ... . ..... range of different seafood pizzas, my
favourite. Anyway, what will you (A28) ... .... .................. ......? Do you want one of the seafood ones too?'

A22 1 by 2 to 3 on 4 for A26 1 hour 2 time 3 clock 4 day


A23 1 falling 2 rushing 3 raining 4 pouring A27 1 varied 2 fantastic 3 wide 4 long
A24 1 complain 2 bother 3 care 4 mind A28 1 have 2 eat 3 want 4 take
A25 1 fancy 2 like 3 prefer 4 choose

JI Exercise 86
Ilpo'111Taf1Te TeKcT c nponycKaMH, o6o3Ha'leHHhIMH HOMepaM11 A22-A28. 3T11 HOMepa cooTBeTCTBYIOT 3aAaHHSIM A22-
A28, B KOTOphIX npeACTasneHhI B03MO)((Hhie sap11aHThI oTBeToB. 06BeAHTe HOMep Bh16paHHoro BaM11 sap11aHTa oTBeTa.

THE PRICE OF VICTORY


It's tough at the top and this is especially true for sportsmen and sportswomen, who have to handle incredible mental as
well as physical pressures. If you really want to become a top athlete, you will have to give (A22) ... ................... . . ... a lot
of things. Whenever you (A23) ..................................................... out for a meal with friends, for instance, you will always have to check
the menu carefully. Certain kinds of food could (A24) ... .................... ... .. .............. your training and are best avoided. And you can
absolutely forget alcohol. What's more, staying out late will be (A25) ....... .... ............. ............. of the question for you. As every
coach knows, rest and recovery are as important as training. Serious sport is definitely not for night owls then! It is important
to (A26) .................... to your daily regime, however tedious that is. Success will not come overnight; it is the result
of dedication and application. Every athlete runs the (A27) ........... .................................. of injury. Pushing yourself to the limits each
day is actually very stressful and things can easily go wrong. If this happens, stop and get proper treatment and advice. Sport
may be your life, but don't do yourself permanent damage for the (A28) ... .. ............ of victory.

A22 1 up 2 to 3 in 4 off A26 1 care 2 think 3 stick 4 follow


A23 1 eat 2 get 3 go 4 put A27 1 risk 2 danger 3 fear 4 problem
A24 1 violate 2 effect 3 injure 4 harm A28 1 sake 2 aim 3 goal 4 way
A25 1 beyond 2 out 3 outside 4 inside

Multiple choice cloze Unit 9 143


II Exercise 87

IIpo'I11TatiTe TeKcT c nponycKaM11, o603Hat.J:eHHhIMl1 HOMepaM11


• •• .
A22-A28. 3T11 HOMepa cooTBeTCTBYIOT 3agaH11SIM A22-
A28, B KOTOpbIX npegCTaBJieHbl B03MO)J(Hble Bap11aHTbl OTBeTOB. 06segMTe HOMep Bbi6paHHOro BaMM BapHaHTa OTBeTa.
WINDMILLS AND WATERMILLS
For 1,000 years, windmills and watermills were the largest and most complex machines in our world. As a result of the
development of steam in the 18th century, their (A22) ........ _ ... .. declined. Water and wind power were
comparativel~inefficient and expensive. Nevertheless, many mills remain as (A23) ............................... of an age of silent
power. Watermills were (A24) ........ ....... to the Greeks during the 1st century BC and are thought to have been
introduced into Britain by the Romans. However, it was the Saxons who made most use of them in Britain. Records show
that the Arabs invented windmills as (A25) ...... .... ... . ... .... .. ...... as the 7th century. They were used where water power was
unavailable or unsuitable. They were usually built on high (A26) . ... ... .. ........ . .. to catch the winds and could be seen
for miles around. Nowadays there are very few mills of either sort left in Britain, although in recent years there has been a
movement to (A27) ... .............................. some of them to their former glory. This is good news because mills are not only
attractive to look at but also environmentally friendly in that they get their energy from (A28) ............................................. resources.
Some are working museums, so you can appreciate their history and cultural significance.

A22 1 strength 2 size 3 employment 4 importance A26 1 place 2 hill 3 earth 4 ground
A23 1 mementoes 2 memories 3 reminders 4 souvenirs A27 1 restore 2 build 3 renew 4 make
A24 1 used 2 invented 3 known 4 designed A28 1 normal 2 natural 3 primitive 4 common
A25 1 early 2 soon 3 long 4 far

mExercise 88
IIpot.I11TaHTe TeKcT c nponycKaMM, o6o3Hat.J:eHHhIMM HOMepaMM A22-A28. 3TM HOMepa cooTBeTCTBYIOT 3agaHMSIM A22-
A28, s KOTOpbIX npegcTaBJieHbI B03MO)J(Hbie sapHaHTbI oTBeToB. 06segMTe HOMep Bb16paHHoro BaMM sapHaHTa oTBeTa.

THE WRONG DATE


At first I was pretty doubtfu l about the whole thing. But Fiona, my sister, (A22) ... ............. ........... ..... .. ..... asking me to go with
her and I couldn't really say no. The (A23) ............................................ was that there was a guy called Leo who Fiona really liked,
so she said, who had invited her on a date. Fiona said she didn't want to go by herself, so she asked me. I didn't really see
the (A24) ...... of going with her, but I agreed. We had arranged to meet in a cafe on Leopold Street, a quiet
(A25) .......... -· ....... _ little place. I came first and sat down with my coffee to wait. Leo turned
(A26) ............... _......... ........ a bit late and he seemed surprised to see me. I (A27) ... ... .......... ... that Fiona would be
coming later and we were soon having a good chat. An hour later, Fiona still hadn't come but we were getting on so well
we hardly noticed. Anyway, to (A28) .............. .... ............ .. .. a long story short, Fiona never appeared. And Leo and I agreed
to meet again, without her. Fiona wasn't angry at all because this had been her plan all along. Leo and I are still together, all
thanks to Fiona. Sisters definitely have some uses.

A22 1 kept 2 went 3 got 4 made A26 1 at 2 down 3 by 4 up


A23 1 plan 2 thing 3 arrangement 4 argument A27 1 told 2 explained 3 persuaded 4 complained
A24 1 reason 2 need 3 point 4 idea A28 1 finish 2 stop 3 cut 4 drop
A25 1 busy 2 smelly 3 tasty 4 cosy

144 Unit9
Writing
The Writing chapter has three units covering the two
question types in RSE Writing (Pa3AeJI 4. IIuchMo): Each unit is divided into two sections:

applies these skills to the RSE format. In this section


you'll get help and practice in tackling both parts of the
Writing.
Essays: expressing yourself

Exam Overview Part 4. Writing Recommended time 80 minutes

The Writing has two parts:


Part1 Informal letter, 100-140 words Focus on responding 6 marks based on criteria : task
appropriately in the format of a achievement, organisation and
personal letter to a short piece language resource.
of input.
Part2 Opinion essay, 200-250 words Focus on presenting a logically 14 marks based on criteria: task
constructed argument on a achievement, organisation,
topical issue. vocabulary, grammar and
spelling and punctuation.
Total: 20 marks

145
Letters: format, organisation
and style
Information
In Part 1 of the Writing you need to write an informal personal letter of 100-140 words to a friend . You are given
a short excerpt from your friend's letter, and you need to base your letter on that and the task given . There is
particula[ focus on answering and asking qu~stions. Your writing must deal with the task fully, be in letter format
and use a satisfactory range of language.

Here is the writing task as it is given in the exam paper:

)J,nsi OTBeToB Ha 3agatt1rn Cl 11C211cnonh3YHTe 6naHK oTBeToB N!! 2. qepHOBhie noMeTKH MO)KHO genaTh
npS!MO Ha JIHCTe c 3agaHHSIMH HJIH MO)KHO HCilOJlb30BaTb OTgeJibHbIH q epHOBHK. TipH BhIIlOJIHeHHH 3agaHHH
Cl H C2 oco6oe BHHMaHHe o6paTHTe Ha TO, 'ITO BawH OTBeTbI 6ygyT OQeHHBaTbCSI TOJihKO no 3anHcS1M,
cgenaHHhIM B 6naHKe oTBeTOB .NQ 2. HHKaKHe 3anHCH qepHOBHKa He 6ygyT y'IHThIBaTbCSI 3KcnepTOM. 06paTHTe
BHHMaHHe TaK)Ke Ha Heo6xogHMOCTh co6mogeHHSI yKa3aHHoro o6'heMa TeKcTa. TeKCThI HegocTaTO'IHoro
o6'heMa, a TaK)Ke qacTh TeKcTa, npeeb1wa10lll,asi Tpe6yeMhIH o6'beM, He oQeHHBaIOTCSI. 3anHWHTe CHa'lana
HOMep 3agaHHS1 (Cl, C2), a 3aTeM OTBeT Ha Hero. EcnH ogHoli CTopoHhI 6naHKa HegocTaTO'IHO, Bbl MO)KeTe
HCilOJib30BaTb gpyry10 era CTOpoHy.

Section A Writing skills


As you have seen in the introductory exercise, you may need to include descriptions in your letter. The work in
this section gives you practice in describing people, describing objects and describing places and buildings.

Introductory exercise
Read the task and answer the questions. Then look at a model answer to this question in the key on page 259.

You have received a letter from your English-speaking penfriend Dominic, who writes:
... I wae; trying to find e;omething about where you live on the Internet. What'e; the moe;t lnteree;tlng or unue;ual
place there? Can you dee;cribe it? Oo you like going there? My friend Rebecca wae; lnteree;ted too.
Write a letter to Dominic. In your letter:
- answer his questions
- ask 3 questions about his friend Re becca
Write 100-140 words.
Remember the rules of letter writing.

Who are you writing to? 4 What do you need to answer questions about?

2 Is the letter formal or informal? 5 What do you need to ask questions about?

3 How many questions do you need to answer and ask? 6 How is a letter different from an email?

7 Does there need to be an address and date?


146 Unit10
Describing people
Ill> Aim of Exercises A1-A4: to build up skills in describing people from sentences to short texts

IJ Exercise A1
Look at the table, which shows some categories you can use when writing a physical description of a person.
Think of somebody you know and add some vocabulary to the appropriate columns.

Hair Facial Body Clothes


features
Her hair is Her eyes are She's quite She looks
quite curly. blue. athletic. very
fashionable.

He's got He's got a He's tall and He always


short dark neat beard. well-built. wears a tie.
hair.

Write answers to the following questions about your 1 He has (got) curly hair I a bad temper ...
friend. Look at the example sentences to help you.
2 She always wears jeans and trainers I wonderful
1 Which physical feature is the one that you notice first hats I black ...
about your friend?
3 Her most striking feature is her voice ...
The thing you notice fir6t about Julia Is her eyes.
4 The most striking thing about him is the way he
Julia's most striking feature Is her eyes. walks I his height ...

2 What else can you say about this most noticeable 5 She (sometimes I always I hardly ever, etc.) looks/
feature? seems bored with life I tired ...

They are very blue and when she looks at you, you 6 He (sometimes I usually, etc.) looks/seems as if he
feel she Is looking straight through you. doesn't care about anything/ he is angry ...

3 Can you relate this feature to your friend as a person? 7 She gives (someone) the impression of always being
(This is not always possible!) too busy to talk I that she understands everything ...

Some people find her direct look a bit worrying, 8 At first he can appear very confident ... , but when
but In fact she is the kind of person who really you get to know him better you realise that deep
concentrates when you have something to say. down, he's quite a shy person ...
She's the most understanding person I know.
9 She's the kind I sort of person you can always have
a laugh with I who has a big influence on others ...
I ' Exercise A2
10 The best I worst I most interesting thing about her
Look at the following ways of beginning sentences. Think is her sense of humour I the way she dresses ...
of different people that you know, and in each case finish
the sentence with your own ideas. 11 What I like I appreciate (most) about her is the way
she makes everyone around her feel special ...
0 S(he) is an easy-going person/ the same age as
me I quite small ... 12 The reason why I I people like him is because he has
always been very honest/ never criticises others ...
(Martina) Is very sporty.

Letters: format, organisation and style Unit 10 147


II Exercise A3 Describing objects
..,.. Aim of Exercise AS: to practise writing a paragraph
Complete the following descriptive sentences, and
in each case add a further sentence to make your describing an object
description more interesting. Write about either real or
imaginary people.
11 Exercise AS
Read the following description of a favourite possession
0 The strangest thing about my grandfather is ... his
and then answer the
way of speaking. He sounds as if he's giving orders,
questions.
1:1ut perhaps this Is 1:1ecause he was In the army and
had to shout at people.
M~ fo..vo1Art.te possesswn
1 My younger brother always wears ... It's a. wo..tcl1 o..n<i Lt's
2 What I fa1d interesting about this character in the ex~ ri-911t for me.
book is ... It's q1Ai.te tr~no..L in
o..ppeo..ro..nce. The fo..ce
3 My father's most striking feature is ... ~s ro1And. a.,nd, wl1t.te

4 The woman next door has got ... which ... o..nd, Lt's eo..5!:1 to rea..d,.
The stro..p ~s ma.d.e of
5 I often give people the impression ... red. Leo..tl1er. It feels
6 When people first meet me they often think ... good, on m!:I wr~st. I
wa.s g~ven Lt for m!:I
7 My mother is the sort of person who ... Lo..st b~~ b!:I a. good,
fr~d,, so t11o..t mo.kes
8 I've always enjoyed the company of my friend
Lt a. bi-t more specia.L.
because ...
It meo..ns a. Lot to me.

• Exercise A4
What does the writer tell you about this object? (Not
Read this sample paragraph describing everything is included.)
the writer's favourite person.
1 what it is?
M~ gra..ncimotl1er 2 size/shape?
M!:j gro..ncimotl1er 11a.s <A.Lwo.+is been m!:I fo..vo1Ari.te person. 3 weight?
Sl1e ~s o..n e.Uler!.!:1 womo..n in 11er mi.<i-s~xti.es, wit11
gr~ing 11<W-, wl1o <A.Lwo.+is weo..rs c.Lotl1es tl1o..t s11e 4 appearance?
mo.kes 11erself. Sl1e 11a.s a. gentle, kind. fo..ce, b1At tl1e
5 made of?
thing !:jOIA notice ~st o..bo1At 11er ~s 11er fr~d..LH smiLe.
S11e gwes tl1e ~presswn of being a. Yer!:j S!:jmpa.tl1eti.G 6 use/purpose?
person o..nd, Lt,s tr1Ae tl1o..t ~ I ever 11a.<i a. problem
w11en I INM Little, I IASe<i to go to 11er. 7 where it came from?

8 owner's feelings?
Use the model paragraph on page 260, and the cues
Choose a favourite object of your own. Use the
below, to help you write your own paragraph about a
questions above to help you get some ideas of what to
favourite person.
include. Then write the details in a paragraph. Follow the
- who (s)he is
structure of the watch description where possible.
- physical description (age, size, hair, facial features,
clothes)
- what you notice first
- the impression (s)he gives

148 Unit10
Describing places and buildings ExerciseA7
..,. Aim of Exercises A6-A10: to build up skills in describing places and What kind of places could the
buildings from useful vocabulary and phrases to short texts sentences below describe?

Size

0 It holds 20,000 people.


stadium I concert hall
1 It's big enough for us.

2 It has a population of 20,000.

3 It's uncomfortably small.


4 There's enough room for 12
P Exercise A6 tables.

5 It's got at least 20 rooms .


Position
The phrases below can be used to describe where a room, building 6 It used to be much bigger.
or town is. Divide the phrases into these three groups. Some phrases
can go in more than one group. Use

7 It's a place where people can


Room Building Town, etc.
meet friends.
overlooks the main on the left-hand side on the coast
road of the street
8 People can get fit there.
9 It is interesting for teenagers.
oA the left hand side of the street in Krasnaya Street 10 It has a wide range/variety of
things to look at.
overlooks the main road on the outskirts of the town
11 The programme changes
OA the coast on the site of an old church
regularly.
not far from the station in the basement
12 The place is quite expensive
west of the capital in a pedestrianised area compared with the burger bar.

with a view of the mountains quite close to the History Museum 13 It used to be a church .
about 2km from the university surrounded by countryside 14 You have a choice between
upstairs and downst<(irs.
on the tenth floor opposite the bathroom
15 The leisure facilities are fantastic.
within walking distance of the centre in the city centre

Now think of two different places


Now write three sentences giving factual information about the
you know and write a brief factual
position of the room, the building and the town you are in at the
description of each. Describe the
moment. Use the phrases above to help you.
position, size and use of each place.
1 My room ... Use structures from Exercises A6
and A7.
2 The building I'm in ...

3 This town ...

Letters: format, organisation and style Unit 10 149


9 Exercise AS
What's it like?
When you're writing a description of a place, you want
not only to give physical detail, but also to describe the
atmosphere or the impression the place gives. To do this
you need a variety of adjectives and some useful phrases.

Look at the two lists of adjectives. Which three pairs


of adjectives are 'opposites'?

'positive' adjectives: lively, well-organised, picturesque,


welcoming, impressive, cosy, spacious

'negative' adjectives: old-fashioned, dull, chaotic,
depressing, sleepy, dirty, unfriendly

Use one positive and one negative adjective (of your own
or from the lists above) to describe each of the places in
the pictures.

II Exercise A9 mExercise A10


Look at the following ways of describing the impressions Read the following paragraph describing the writer's
that places give. favourite room in her house.

It looks I seems I feels well- organ ised. Mlj fu.vourite room

It looks (etc.) as if nobody has looked after it for years. For me, our kit:cl1en ~s the best plo..c.e in the floJ;.
You co..n't fi,t more tho..n IA.bout fi,ve people there
It gives (you) the impression of being well used. sitting clown, but Lt's mucl1 more tho..n a. plo..c.e to
cook o..nci eo..t. In the evenings, when evet"Hone ~s o..t
You get the impression I feeling that a lot of money has
home, we cirink tea. o..nci W1.k IA.bout the ~- We
been spent on it recently.
cetebro..te b~~s o..nci spe.cio..L ocw.swns there,
It makes you feel as if you're in your own home. m~be bringing out the so..mova.r o..nci spe.cio..L cliina.
tea. set. Atw~s wa.rm o..nci COS!:!> the o..tmosphere
You are made to feel very welcome. ~s so home.4:1 tho..t ever!:lone feels rWA.xeci o..nci

The general effect is of an area that has been neglected. comfort<A.bte there.

In general, it's a very welcoming place.


Underline the ways in which the following are expressed:
There is a friendly I uncomfortable atmosphere there.
what place it is; what size it is

Use these phrases, together with adjectives from what it's used for; special features
Exercise A8 (and some of your own), to write four
what feelings I impressions it gives
sentences about places you know. Begin 'I like ...
because .. .' or 'I don't like ... because .. .'. why it's her favourite place

I like the Sound Bite cafe because there la a lively


Write a similar paragraph about one of the following:
atmosphere there on Friday nights, when local bands play.
- your favourite room in your apartment or dacha

- your least favourite building I place in your town

- the best shop you know


150 Unit10
(j§ji[.]il:I Exam practice
The work in this section gives you practice in the language you need for writing letters, as well as the format letters
should have. When writing letters you need to pay attention to:

• presentation and layout


• openings and general style
• contents, or main body of the letter
• endings
• style The address and date are on the far
• punctuation and capitalisation right. The address can either be full -
the house number, street name, town
This is how your letter should look.
or city, postcode and country - or
. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ; short - town or city and country.
Address:
(Number of your house, name of the street)
Town/City
Country

Date (day/month/year)
Salutation: Oear X, I Hi X,
Greeting: Thanka for your letter. I lt'a lovely to hear from you. Each paragraph is
Answer questions: You are aaking If ... I To anawer your firat queation, ... indented and you can
Ask questions: Could you tell me ... 1 also leave a line under
each paragraph.
End: Hope to hear from you aoon. I Good luck in the exam and ...
Sign off: Youra, I 13eat wiahea, ......._ There is a comma
Name after the salutation
and sign-off.

..,.. Aim of Exercise Bl: to identify reasons why a letter hasn't been answered properly

• Exercise 81
Look at the task. Read the model answer on page 152 and discuss what's wrong with it with your partner.
Use the guidelines given above.

You have received a letter from your English-speaking penfriend Lesley, who writes:
It aounda like you had a great birthday/ You mentioned you got Iota of preaenta. What waa the beat preaent
you got? Why did you like It? What are you going to do with it?
You might be able to give me aome advice aa I need to get a preaent for my dad who la 46 next month.
Write a letter to Lesley.
In your letter:
- answer her questions
- ask 3 questions about her dad
Write 100-140 words.
Remember the rules of letter writing.

Letters: format, organisation and style Unit 10 151


OearLe61ey
You are a6klng me about my birthday. The beet preaent wa6 definitely my brand
new mountain bike. It look6 really cool and aty/lah, plu6 it'a atrong but light, 60 I'll be
able to cycle on any terrain. Aa for what I am going to do with it, I plan to do 6ome off-
road cycling at the weekende.
To help you out with your dad'6 pre6ent, I need to ask a few CfUe6tlon6. Firet,
what doe6 he do In hie free time? Then, ie he into any kind of aport? Maybe he ie a fan
of mountain biking like me!
Well, I'm off now for a ride on my new bike/
Goodbye, Oleg

(142 words)•

.,.. Aim of Exercises B2-B6: to practise writing the opening, the body and the end of a letter

Openings

• Exercise 82
The letter you write in the exam should be in an informal style, not too formal or too colloquial.
Look at the table and then answer the questions.

Formal Informal Colloquial 1 Wh ich is the best way to begin an informal letter and why?

Dear Sir, Dear John, John, a Hi Lesley!


You OK?
ro whom it Hi Sam, Heyl
b My dear Lesley,
may concern,
I was delighted to receive your letter.
I would like to Thank6 for Nice letter -
c Dear Lesley,
thank you for your laet thank6.
It's good to hear from you.
your recent letter.
letter.
2 Tick the opening sentences which are also appropriate for
May I wi6h you Have a nice Have a 6uper an informal letter.
a plea6ant trip! cool holiday!
journey.
a D Thanks a lot for your letter.
b D Let me answer your questions.
Your6 Be6t wi6hes, CU soon,
faithfully, c D I'm very glad you wrote.
You re Yours, Love and
d D That was a great letter!
sincerely, klesee, e D This letter is divided into three sections.
f D Sorry for not being in touch.
3 Write three alternative openings for the letter to Lesley in
Exercise Bl

152 Unit10
Contents (the 'body' of the letter) If Exercise 84
II Exercise 83 In the letter you need to ask three questions. Look at
Exercise Bl and answer the questions.
In the body of the letter you need to answer three
questions. First, you need to rephrase the question Which of these questions would be appropriate in
using indirect speech. Then you need to give a the letter from Oleg to Lesley above?
relevant answer.
a What is your dad like?
Underline the correct word and add a sentence with a
b Do you like your dad?
relevant answer to the original question.
c When is your dad's birthday?
1 You asked/ questioned me what I wanted to do after I
leave school. d What kind of things does he do in his free time?
2 Your second question is about ifI whether or not e Why don't you get him a watch?
basketball is popular in Russia .
f Are birthdays important in England?
3 You write that you don't understand why I for what
g Is he quite a practical person?
Russians love travelling by train.
h Would your dad like something unusual?
4 You ask me regarding/ about my plans for the
summer.
2 Make three questions to ask about these sentences
5 I also wonder/ think whether we still need libraries. from two different letters.

6 Your question about/ of the most popular Russian a I've just started a part-time job in a cafe.
dishes has made me think.
b In the school holidays, I'm going to visit my sister
in Bristol.
Get it right! ~
~
Russian learners sometimes have problems with Get it right!
indirect questions. There is no need to change the word
Russian learners sometimes leave out the
order or use an auxiliary as in a direct question.
auxiliaries and question marks in direct questions.
How much money will I need? _. Could you give me How much money do I have to take with me?
some idea about how much money I will need?
Where did you stay in London?
Does she like tennis? _. I wonder if/whether she likes
tennis.
Endings
Usually, if and whether are both possible but we only use
whether after prepositions and before to-infinitives. Fl Exercise BS
You asked me if/whether I like sushi. Put the endings of these letters written by Mike in order.
The answer depends on if whether it is real sushi. write I the I Mike I all I please I best I soon
You write that you don't know whether to come in
spring or summer. 2 touch I Mike I be I wishes I I'll I in I best
We can write whether or not but not if or not.
Your last question is if whether or not we celebrate 3 time I at I a I zoo I Mike I the I have I good I love
Halloween in Russia.
4 Mike I to I zoo I enjoy I trip I yours I the I your

Letters: format, organisation and style Unit 10 153


II Exercise 86 .,.. Aim of Exercises B7-B9: to practise the style and
format of the letter
Match the salutation and sign-off in each pair.

1 Dear Sam, a Yours faithfully,


II Exercise 87
The following sentences are either too colloquial or very
2 Dear Sir, b All the best,
formal. Change them so that they give the right tone.

1 I would be grateful if you could give me your opinion


3 Dear Miss Smith, a Yours sincerely,
regarding this matter.
4 Hi Sam, b Love,

2 RU OK?
5 To whom it may concern, a Best wishes,
'
6 Dear Sam, b Regards,
3 Need 1,000 roubles. PLS send.
7 Dear Sam, a Yours,
8 Dear Dr Jones, b Yours sincerely, 4 Cambridge is situated approximately 100 kilometres
from London.

2 3 4 5 6 7 8
I 1 ! 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 5 Many people currently attend English classes.

Choose the most appropriate salutation and sign-off


for an informal personal letter in each pair. 6 It's stupid to become a vegetarian.

7 Meet where?

Tip: Style 8 I got acquainted with Olga when we were studying


Writing to a friend is a bit like speaking to him or her, together.
so you can:

• use contractions: doesn't, she'll 9 Will write soon!


• write shorter sentences: So that was that.
• start with an imperative: Tell me when he's coming.
• occasionally use a dash(-) for punctuation: 10 You're crazy if you think that kids understand all that
He gave me a present - a beautiful watch. stuff.
• use exclamation marks: What a day!
• ask direct questions: What do you think?
• use phrases like: anyway, well

However, you still need punctuation and paragraphs.


You must also write in full sentences, not in notes like
in a text message or email.

154 Unit10
I I Exercise 88 Volgograd
Read the task below and the letter on the right. Russia.
13 May, 2.D13
You have received a letter from your
English-speaking penfriend Sue, who writes: [)ear Sue,

... In Geography we are doing a project It was a. pleasure to receive your letter and be informed
about animals in danger. Oo you think this about recent events in your We. £verything is satisfactory
is a big problem today? Could we do more to with me.
look after animals? Are there any animals in Let me respond to your questions regarding your Geography
Russia which need protecting? prQJ'ed. You enquire whether I am concerned about aniA'na.ts a.t
risk. I would agree tha.t this is a. serious ma.tter. Your next
As part of this project we had a great trip
question Uriplies tha.t more could be done to protect aniA'nats.
to Chester Zoo ...
Again, I am in agreement and would add tha.t it is necessary
to give more consi.dera.tion to the issue. As for aniA'nats in the
Write a letter to Sue. Russia.n Federa.tion which are in need of protection, I must
In your letter: mention the Siberian tiger.
Your excursion to Chester Zoo sounds of grea.t interest.
- answer her questions
Are you a..cquainted with this zoo? M?o wiLl a.ccompa.ny you
- ask 3 questions about her trip to Chester Zoo on this excursion? Wtll the trip ha.ve any Uripad on the
assessment of your prQJ'ed?
Write 100-140 words.
I wok forward to hea.ring from you soon.
Remember the rules of letter writing.
Yours sincereiy,
MiXe

This letter contains all the necessary information but is not written in an appropriate style. It is too formal.
It would be more appropriate to write:

Thanks for your letter and newe;. I'm fine, thanke;.

Rewrite the letter, making it sound as if Sue is a friend, not a business partner!

mExercise 89
Elena in Belgorod has written to Wayne in England. Rewrite her letter with punctuation and paragraphs.

belgorod ru6sia 11111:3 dear wayne your letter took a long time to arrive but i was very
glad to get it its fanta6tlc that youre coming to belgorod in june and ill try to an6wer
your que6tions first about the weather it 6hou/d be quite warm then well i hope 60
then regarding pre6ent6 my mum would really like some traditional engli6h tea you
know were great tea drinkers here in russia i cant answer your que6tion about medical
insurance so youd better contact the ru6sian embassy its my turn to ask you some
question6 about the driving lessons you mentioned how old do you need to be to drive
in the uk do many teenagers have cars are you planning to get one i must go now but
6ee you in belgorod very 6oon all the best elena

Letters: format, organisation and style Unit 10 155


.,.. Aim of Exercises B10-B11: to revise the work done in this unit

mExercise 810
This letter from Ruslan to Sarah is all mixed up. Rewrite the letter in the correct order and format.

If so, why? Russia I don't know so muah about it, so I've got some questions of my
own. Dear Next, is it popular in Britain? Ruslan Your letter and aard aame
just in time for my birthday. Looking forward to your reply/ 27 Terek St I think it
is, espeaially the grammar. Then you ask if I aan speak any other languages. Yours
fondly, Well, my native language is aatually Cheahen, whiah is very different from Russian.
The words have lots of different endings. 06.02.13 Finally, about whiah languages we
study at sa~ool: Sarah, Thanks again for the aard. English and Frenah are most
aommon. I'm glad you remembered the date. Tell me more about this game of ariaket.
Grozny First, is it like baseball? Let me answer your first question about whether Russian
is a difflault language.

II Exercise 811
Complete the letter with appropriate words.

Khabarovsk
Russia

August 2, 2013
Dear Sharon,

It was so lovely to (0) hear from you again and I really liked the photos of your
graduation party.

You were interested in my alose friend Matvei. Well, he's the (1) . ··-·-····· .... _.. . _ of
person who is always fun to be with. Matvei gives people the (2) of being
very laid-baak. Physiaally, his most (3) feature is his ginger hair. You
(4) if we had been friends long. Sinae kindergarten, I think. Then you wondered
(B) .... " _ ....... _.. Matvei had a girlfriend. He does, unfortunately!

I am aurious about the Russian film you say you saw. (6) there
subtitles or was it dubbed? (7) .. .... you see it at the ainema or on DVD?
(8) you ever seen any old Soviet films? (If you haven't, I aan reaommend
a few.)

Well, that's all (9) now. Please (10) . .. . my best to your family.

Kind (11)

Dima

156 Unit10
Suggested approach for Part 1 of the Writing test

1 Read the whole question carefully.

2 Make sure you understand who you are writing to, what questions you need to answer and what you need to
ask about.

3 Make a brief plan. There should be an address, a date, a salutation, a greeting, a paragraph answering questions,
a paragraph with your questions, an ending and a sign off.

4 Write your letter.


5 Check you have:
• included an address
• included a date
• used the right form of salutation
• included a greeting
• reformulated and answered the three questions
• asked three relevant questions
• included an ending
• used the right form to sign off
• divided the letter into paragraphs
• used appropriate language for the task
• kept within the word limit (the address is counted)

6 Try not to spend more than 25 minutes on this question if you plan to answer question C2 as well.

..,. Aim of Exercise 812: to practise an exam-style task

P Exercise 812
You have received a letter from your Australian friend Pete, who writes:

... 60 I 6pent all day at the beach again. What do you like to do at the weekend? Oo you live near the 6ea'I Oo
people in Ru66ia like to 6pend time out6ide'I

I forgot to tell you about the beach party la6t month ...

Write a letter to Pete.

In your letter:

- answer his questions

- ask 3 questions about his beach party

Write 100-140 words.

Remember the rules of letter writing.

Letters: format, organisation and style Unit 10 157


Essays: ideas, structure
and body paragraphs
Information
In Part 2 of Writing, you have to write an opinion essay using the following plan:

• make an introduction (state the problem)


• write•the body paragraphs to
- express your personal opinion and give two or three reasons for your opinion

- express an opposing opinion and give one or two reasons for this opposing opinion

- explain why you don't agree with the opposing opinion (the counter-argument)

• make a conclusion restating your position

The essay should be 200-250 words and it is marked for task achievement, organisation, vocabulary, grammar,
and spelling and punctuation.

Section A Writing an opinion paragraph

Introductory exercise

C2. Comment on the following statement.

Some people think that the world is becoming more dangerous.


What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?

Write 200-250 words.

Read the statements 1-6 about how you should answer C2. Answer T (True) or F (False).

1 The essay (Part 2) should be longer than the letter (Part 1). D
2 You must agree with the statement. D
3 You can give personal examples. D
4 There is a list of essay titles to learn. D
5 The essay needs to be organised into paragraphs. D
6 You may lose marks for bad handwriting. D f--
Now look at the model answer to this question on page 264 of the key.

158 Unit11
Stating information .,.. Aim of Exercises A3-A4: to practise putting your
points in order
In Writing question 2 (the essay), you can state facts as
well as give your personal views.
IJ Exercise A3
.,.. Aim of Exercises A1-A2: to practise stating facts and
You will have to give two or three reasons to support
giving personal views
your opinion, so you need to put your points in order.
If you're writing notes, you'll probably number the
II Exercise A1 points 1, 2, 3, etc. If you're writing in full sentences, a
simple sequence is:
Complete the sentences below with an idea which is
a fact, not an opinion. In other words, say something First (of all), ... I Firstly, ... I To begin with, ...
that is 'real,' not how you personally feel about it.
Secondly, ...
Remember that in your exam essay you should
clearly state your opinion! Another point/thing/argument/(dis)advantage is ...

Finally, ... (introduces your last point)


0 In most cities, traffic ... has increased enormously
over the last few years. t/ (This is a fact.) In conclusion, ... (usually introduces a comment or
opinion)
Traffic in cities ... should be reduced.
)( (This is an opinion.)
Write a paragraph in answer to the question 'Is it good
One of the most challenging fields of modern to have many friends?' using the phrases above and the
science is exploration of space. t/ (This is a fact.) ideas below.

I don't think the government should invest so much Your ideas:


money into exploration of space. Agree, because
)( (This is an opinion.) - can have fun
- share a hobby
1 Russia is ...
- help/support you
2 Learning a foreign language can ...
First of all, ...
3 ... electricity.

4 Families ...
Get it right!
5 Dreams are ...
Russian learners often confuse At first with
6 My home town ... First/Firstly and At last with Finally.
7 ... the environment. First(ly) and Finally are used when putting points in order.
At first is used to show what happens or how you feel
8 Flying ...
early on. It is often followed by then, next, but now, etc.
9 Mobile phones ... At last is used to show that something happened which
you had hoped a long time for.
10 ... traveiling.
At first First, I would like to thank you for letting me stay
in your flat for a week while you were away.
II Exercise A2 fifstfy At first Sasha was quite friendly to me, but then ...
Now complete the sentences 1-10 above with an opinion. And at-ktst finally, I'd like to know as much as possible
about the evening courses.
Traffic in cities ... should be reduced. (This is an opinion.)
fffiaHy At last I've saved enough money to buy some
new skis!

Essays: ideas, structure and body paragraphs Unit 11 159


II Exercise A4
Think of either three points in support of or three points against
keeping cats as pets. Write these ideas in sentences, introducing
each one with one of the phrases from Exercise A3.

Tip: Adding linking points


In Exercise A1sentence9, you wrote something about flying.
Maybe you said something like:
Flying gets you to your destination quickly. (positive point)
Flying is the safest form of transport. (positive point)

Look at the ways in which a second piece of information can be


I
introduced. The phrases below are used to introduce a second
idea on the same subject when both ideas are positive .

Flying gets you to your destination quickly ...


It is also the safest form of transport.
In addition (to this/that), it's (also) the safest form of transport.
What's more, it is the safest form of transport.
Moreover, it is the safest form of transport.

The same constructions can also be used to link two ideas which are negative in meaning.
Traffic in cities pollutes the atmosphere (negative point); moreover, it can cause damage to people's
health. (negative point)

II- Aim of Exercises AS-A7: to practise adding linking points and ideas

• Exercise AS
Use the constructions above to add the second piece of information to the ideas below.
The symbols(+) and(-) show whether the ideas are positive or negative.

1 Football is a good way for people to get some exercise. (+)


... (exciting game) (+)
2 For young people, living in a vi llage often means there is not much to do in the
evenings . (-)

... (go to nearest town for work) (-)

3 People say that computer games can become addictive. (-)

... (some are quite violent) (-)

4 Skype is popular because you can speak to people from different countries. (+)
... (you don't need to pay for it) (+)

160 Unit11
Tip: 11 Exercise A7
There are other ways of linking similar ideas together.
Read the article about smartphones and answer the
Flying gets you to your destination quickly ... questions that follow it.

As well as this, it is the safest form of transport. Wh ~ I 11o..te smo..rtpl1ones

Apart from getting you to your destination quickly, A Ft.rst of o..LL, very few teen~ers r~ need,
flying is the safest form of transport. o., sma.rtphone. If !:jOU need. to co.LL !:jOUr friend,
or use the Internet, o., normo...L mobite phone or
Apart from the fact that flying gets you to your
computer is good. enough. A sma.rtphone is o.,
destination quickly, it is the safest form of transport. sto..Ws S!:jmbol. Teen~ers Like being seen wW1
As well as getting you to your destination quickly, one - th~ think i..t mo.-kes them Look i.mporto..nt
flying is the safest form of transport.
o..nd. suc.cessf!Al. lt>s o...Lso ver!:j fo.-shwno..ble
now~s. People bu!:j them, in the so.-me w~
Besides getting you to your destination quickly, o.,s th~ bu!:j the la.test tro.,Lners or jeo..ns, o..nd,
flying is the safest form of transport. ver!:j often d,on't use most of the flAnctWns.

B In M.,cWion, teen~ers co..n wo.-ste o., Lot of ti.me


I I Exercise A6 o..nd. mon~ on sma.rtphones insteo.,d, of Ming
For each of the pairs of ideas, write three sentences
more interesting o..nd, heo.-lth!:j things Like sport.
As well o.,s this, i..t co..n o.,c,wol4l be d.o..ngerous
joining them in different ways. Use as well as, apart from
in some si..t!Aa.tic>ns to use o., sma.rtphone, even
and besides.
when just wo..U::ing o..bout wW1 one. Accord,Lng
0 Theatre: entertaining I cultural to the po~, o., Lot of <AGci.d.,ents htA..ppen when
people concentra.te on thw smCA..rtphones o..nd.
The theatre le; entertaining ae; well ae; (11eing) d,on't no~ who..t is htA..ppening o.-round. them.
oultural. Also, teen~ers often get thw expensive
sma.rtphones stolen.
Apart from 11eing oultural, the theatre ie; also
entertaining.
13eaidee; 11efng entertaining, the theatre ia oultural.

1 Bicycles: dangerous to ride in cities I not good in


the rain

2 Music: helps you to relax I gives you pleasure

3 Books: expand your mind/ develop your imagination

Add one more idea to each pair using 'What's more',


'In addition', 'Moreover'.

Essays: ideas, structure and body paragraphs Unit 11 161


1 If the article did not have the title, would it be clear from the text that the author really hates
smartphones? Why? I Why not?

2 Do these paragraphs sound more like somebody's opinion or like an argument against smartphones?
3 What type of essay are you supposed to write in the exam?

4 Imagine that this is not a magazine article, but an exam essay with the question 'Smartphones are
becoming very popular with young people. Is a smartphone the gadget every teenager should have? What is
your opinion?'

Do you think these paragraphs would get a good mark? What is missing in them?

5 How can you make this text sound like paragraphs 2-3 from an opinion essay? ('In my opinion ... '/
'However, some people might say .. .') Rewrite Part A so that it sounds like your opinion. The first change
has been•done for you . You can use the following expressions in your essay to express your attitude
towards the topic:

In my opinion/view, It seems to me that


I think/believe that I am sure that
I don't think (smart phones) ...

Fire;t of all, I don't think that teenagere; really need a e;martphone ....

Get it right! ~
~
Russian learners often use in my view/opinion wrongly.
TA m·" Al'liiqif'liq In my opinion, it was probably one of the best ones I have ever seen.
In my -pWtffif view, this festival should be held again next year, because this one was really wonderful.

6 Now rewrite Part Bas a separate paragraph to make it sound like your personal opinion.

Don't forget to
• make the necessary changes.
• add the topic sentence which expresses your main idea, opinion or feeling about the topic.
For example, 'In my opinion, most teenagers do not really need smartphones.'

7 Now write an answer agreeing with the essay question 'Smartphones are becoming very popular with
young people. Is a smartphone the gadget every teenager should have? What is your opinion?'

Don't forget to
• start with the topic sentence
Note5
• use 'opinion' expressions
- they are very convenient
Get help from:
- they can be ue;ed for e;tudy
• the model text above, for its structure and use of linking phrases
- pricee; of mode/e; and providere;
• the linkers practised in Exercises A3-A6
are decreae;ing
• the notes on the right, if you don't have your own ideas

162 Unit11
ill> Aim of Exercises A8-A10: to
review different ways of organising
I' Exercise AS
ideas in paragraphs Giving examples
In paragraph 1 of the body of the In each of the three paragraphs below underline one phrase that gives an
essay, you should express your opinion, one phrase that provides a reason and one phrase that gives an
personal opinion and give 2-3 example. Then finish each paragraph by writing down two more reasons in
reasons for your opinion . sentence form. You can use the notes in brackets if you don't have your own
ideas. Don't forget about the linking devices!
As you have seen, you can
organise your ideas by ordering
your points (First of all, second, etc., 1 In my vieN, Russian food is the best in the world. There a.re
see Exercise A3), by adding ideas a. Id of tasty dishes, but the reason why I Like our food is
(also, moreover, besides, etc., see that there is so much variety. To give an exa.mple, we ha.ve Ids
Exercises A4-A6) or by using the of fa.ntasfic soups, Like the rich borsch and the unusual co!.d
following pattern: express your soup okroshka., whi,ch is perfect for a. summer's day ... (heaLthyl
opinion (in my opinion/view, etc.)
(}f-ga..tlic; deiicious + an exa.mple)
+give your ideas + explain why
(because, since, as).

You can also use examples (for


example, to give an example, as
an example, for instance, take, to
illustrate/show you what I mean) to
support your point of view:

The quality of food is getting


worse.

For example, it is hard to find


tasty fruit and vegetables in
supermarkets.

To give an example, fast food


2. The most interesting place on the Got.den Ring is Suzdal.
is becoming more and more
popular.
I doubt whether any other town of Us si,ze has so many
churches. M1at I Like a.bout Suzdal is that there is a. very
As an example, not many
speci,ai, atmosphere, for instance some of the churches a.re so
people can cook these days.
sma.11 they can only ho!.d a. few people. {rich in history + an
For instance, people used to eat exa.mple; besides, my fa.miiy and/or friends Uve here) '
much healthier food.

Take the milk which you buy


these days. Is it really from a 3 I don't think people ha.ve changed so much in the last 100
cow? yea.rs. This is because we stiJL ha.ve the sa.me ba.si,c needs and
To illustrate/show what I problems and these things stay the sa.me however much society
mean, more than half the and technology advance. As an exa.mple, let's compare /i,terature
people in Russia are overweight. today and in the 19th century: the themes of Love, confli,d and
adventure a.re stiJL the most popular. {fa.miiy Life I sa.me problems
+ an exa.mple)

Essays: ideas, structure and body paragraphs Unit 11 163


H Exercise A9 p Exercise A10
Giving suggestions Extending ideas
Sometimes you may want to add some suggestions. Look at a possible way of extending the
sentence below.

It would be a good idea if all teenagers learned


to cook.

Why? What would be a possible result of this?


Read the following ways of extending your
ideas.

In this way, they could help their parents


more.
That would mean they were more
independent at home.
Complete the sentences in order to express an opinion, a reason As a result (of this), they would have a
or a suggestion. valuable skill and an interesting hobby.
0 I don't think computer games ... are very intere6ting. (opinion) If this happened, teenagers would be far less
likely to have unhealthy diets.
I think my parents should ... (opinion/suggestion)
By doing this, they could appreciate how
2 The reason why a lot of teenagers do not like school is that ... difficult it is to prepare good-quality meals.
(reason) Because of this, the standard of cooking
3 In my view/opinion, fast food is ... (opinion) would improve.

4 It would be a good idea if all teenagers ... (+ past tense) Choose any three sentences from Exercise
(opinion/suggestion) A9 and extend them using the suggested
approaches above.
5 Money is one reason why ... (reason)

6 If you ask me, St Petersburg is ... (opinion) ..,. Aim of Exercise All: to practise what you've
learnt in Section A
7 I doubt whether many of my friends ... (opinion)

8 It seems to me that Russian music ... (opinion)


§I Exercise A11
Now use the language from this unit in a piece
9 My first/second/next reason is that .... (reason)
of your own writing. Write two paragraphs
10 What I like about where I live is that ... (reason) (each 60-75 words) giving your opinion on the
following question. One paragraph should be in
11 One way of learning new words is to ... (suggestion)
support of the statement, the other against the
,~IH ~ statement.
Get it right! @ Comment on the following statement.
Russian learners often use the wrong forms after suggest
and recommend. Boys and girls have different values and
I suggest you reOOirtg read this book. interests, so they should study separately.
I would strongly recommend to-ikit visiting our annual festival.
What is your opinion?
Suggest and recommend are followed by a that-clause or a gerund. Do you agree with this statement?
Dentists recommend that we clean our teeth twice a day.
Write 200-250 words.
Nobody would suggest closing all zoos.

164 Unit11
fj41t.],l:I Exam practice
Introducing an opposing opinion and writing a counter-argument
(paragraphs 2 and 3 of the body of an essay)

..,. Aim of Exercise 81: to identify the different sections of an essay

R Exercise 81
1 For the question below, make a list of reasons for and against the statement.
Some people think that young people today are not interested in old traditions and customs. They prefer to
live in the present, not the past.
What is your opinion?

2 Below are the introduction and conclusion to the essay question. The sentences in the body of the
essay, paragraphs 2, 3 and 4, are all mixed up. Reorder them and divide them into paragraphs so
that they correspond to the following RSE directions:
Paragraph 2: express your personal opinion and give 2-3 reasons for your opinion
Paragraph 3: express an opposing opinion and give 1-2 reasons for this opposing opinion
Paragraph 4: explain why you don't agree with the opposing opinion (the counter-argument)

There is always a conflict between tradition and modernisation. Therefore an argument is


presented that young people care little for traditions and customs, and
that the present mattera more to them than the past. But la thla true?
D If they did, their frlenda would laugh at them.
D Thia featival la one tradition that teenagers could safely Ignore.
D Just think of May 9th and how you aee teenagers giving flowera to
war veterana.
OJ I would agree with the atatement made uecauae teenagers eapeclally
want to be modern and fashionable.
D On the other hand, young people are clever enough to aee that not
all tradltlona and cuatoma are uaeful or good, especially thoae
aaaoclated with magic and superetition.
D For example, I don't think many teenagers wear Ruaslan national
dreas although It la part of our culture.
D Halloween, for inatance, haa a very dark aide and It Is not encouraged
by our Orthodox Church.
D On the other hand, tradltiona and cuatoms can be Important for
people of any age.
D They naturally dislike anything which aeema old-faahioned and 'uncool'
D Although the Second World War waa a long time ago and there are fewer veterana every
year, thia tradition continues and haa significance.
To conclude, I think the atatement made ia correct. The younger generation haa little time
for the old waya. Fashion and common aense make them see that It ia better to concentrate
on the preaent.

As you can see above, in paragraph 2 of the body of the essay, you will have to express an opposing opinion.

Essays: ideas, structure and body paragraphs Unit 11 165


.,. Aim of Exercises 82-BS: to practise using different
words and phrases to introduce contrasting ideas and an
II Exercise 83
opposing opinion There are several words and phrases which you can use
to introduce contrasting ideas. Look at the examples,

II Exercise 82 then complete sentences 1-11 with your own ideas. The
first sentence has been done for you. The symbols(+)
Look at some ways of stating a fact or idea which is and (-) show whether the ideas are positive or negative.
not yours. Look carefully at the punctuation, especially commas.

However, some people say/believe that dreams are


but
a way of sorting out the events of the day.
I'd love to come with you(+), but unfortunately I've got
There is a different point of view that ...
too much homework to do(-).
There are ~eople who (may) think that ...
0 The government promised to introduce new laws
It is said/believed that our weather is changing. to fight crime (+), but ... ao far they have done very
little (-).
It can/could be argued that ...

Some people would say/argue that ... however

A different opinion holds that ... A lot of people find winter a depressing season(-);
however, for me it's a good time because I love cold,
An argument against this is that ...
frosty weather(+).
Igor thought he was going to get a new smartphone.
However, he was wrong(-). His parents gave him a
bike(+).

Russian salads are really tasty(+). However, ... (-)

2 The film we went to see last night wasn't very good


(-);however, ... (+)

although

A lot of tigers are killed every year (main piece of


information), although they are protected by law.
Although it was raining hard, Nina went out for a walk
(main piece of information).

3 Many Europeans prefer to go abroad for their


holidays, although .. .

4 Although a few professional sportspeople can earn


a lot of money, most ...
Choose from the above phrases, and write three
sentences about Moscow and then three sentences
about shopping. Look at the sample answer in the key
on page 267.

166 Unit11
~
. .. ~
!~ in spite of I despite
Get it right!
Russian learners often write on the one side ...
~~r,I A lot of tigers are killed every year in spite of I despite the
fact that they are protected by law.
on the other side. Instead, write on the one hand ...
on the other hand. In spite of I Despite the fact that it was raining hard, Nina
went out for a walk.
On the one~ hand, it's easy to get to. On the other
~ hand, it's not so interesting. In spite of I Despite his decision to leave the team, he still
tried hard to win.

on the other hand 9 The number of bicycles in cities has decreased


despite the fact that they ...
Travelling by coach is much cheaper than any other
method of transport(+). On the other hand, it is a lot
slower(-).
10 In spite of the fact that computers have come down
Some people from northern countries tend to be rather in price recently, ...
reserved(-) .Those from tropical countries, on the other
hand, are often more open (+).
11 Their plan failed despite ... (plus noun)
5 People say that living in a foreign country is difficult
(-).On the other hand, it ... (+)

6 Personally, I don't need any breakfast(-). Dinner, on Get it right! B


t•~
. ·~ •1
~. . . . v
the other hand, ... (+)
Russian students often confuse in contrast and
on the contrary. Use in contrast to present an idea which
is the opposite of the point just mentioned. Use on the
whereas (quite a 'formal' word) contrary to disagree with what somebody else has said .
The USA is a republic, whereas Britain is a monarchy. St Petersburg has a lot of tourists. My city, errtfte-
contrary in contrast, has very few.
Most people used to live in small houses in the
countryside, whereas nowadays the majority live in My coach says I am lazy. In contrast On the contrary,
apartments in the city. I have never missed a training session.

7 People drive on the left in Britain, whereas ...

8 I prefer spending my free time in the open air,


whereas ...

Essays: ideas, structure and body paragraphs Unit 11 167


II Exercise 84
Imagine that you have to travel 1,000km. Look at the following positive and negative aspects of travelling by
plane or by train.

Positive(+) points Negative(-) points


quick way to get there long transfer from airport to city
easy - you don't have to do expensive
........,_~.™ anything boring - nothing to do on journey
not much legroom in front of seat
horrible food
possible long delays - weather?

convenient - goes straight have to carry own luggage


into city centre relatively slow
can look out at scenery
plenty of space

Complete the sentences using some of the ideas above. You can use the same idea more than once.

0 The plane is quicker. However, if there are weather 5 You can save time by flying. However, ...
problems, ... you can be delayed for houre.
6 Flying is comfortable, although sometimes ...
1 Although the train is slower, ...
7 I prefer flying in spite of ...
2 The train is slower. On the other hand, you ...
8 I wouldn't choose the train, although ...
3 Flying is boring, whereas ...
9 Despite the fact that ... , it's quite a
4 When you fly, everything is done for you. In contrast, .. . comfortable way to travel.

11 Exercise BS
1 In answering Writing question 2, you need to express Some people think that the Internet is a bad
your personal opinion and then write a paragraph influence on teenagers. However, some people
with an opposing opinion. Read the question disagree. What is your opinion?
and mark the arguments (1-8) you would use to
agree (A) that the Internet has a bad influence on
teenagers, and which you would use to disagree (D). The Internet wae;te6 teenagere;' time.
Compare your answers with your partners if you 2 It givee; knowledge and ree;ourcee;.
work in a group. Discuss your reasons for agreeing or
:3 It encouragee; independent e;tudy.
disagreeing.
4 It containe; une;uitable and harmful material.
5 It can become addictive.
6 It is an essential part of everyday life.
7 It is an excellent way of communicating.
8 It makee; teenagere; anti-social.

168 Unit11
2 Read this answer to the question in 1. One paragraph is missing. Will this paragraph be for or against
the idea that the Internet is a bad influence on teenagers?

The Internet has been around for nearly :30 years and surfing the web is bec;oming one of
the most popular pastimes. Teenagers nowadays spend a lot of time on the Internet and e;ome
people are worried about the poe;e;ible negative influenc;e on them.

Pere;onally, I think responsible internet ue;e by teenagere; ie; not a problem. To begin with,
teenagers need the Internet beaaue;e it a/Iowa them to aommuniaate with friende;, develop
e;oaial aontaata and even make new friende;, whiah aan aometimee; be very hard, eapeaially when
you live in a big aity. 13eaidea, the Internet ia a great learning reaourae and e;avee; time. If you
are doing e;ome geography homework, you aan 'JUic;kly find e;tatie;tiae; and maps to help you.

On the other hand,

However, I aannot agree with thie; line of argument. While I don't think it ia poe;e;ible to
aontrol internet uae aompletely, I believe parente; aan make sure their ahildren are using the
Internet properly. Teenagers aan be proteated from unhealthy aativitiea like internet games.

In aonaluaion, the Internet la not a negative influenae on young people. Like any tool,
the Internet aan be used for good or bad, but it hae; great potential to help teenagers
aommuniaate and learn more aonveniently.

3 Now complete the missing paragraph using one or two of the suggestions above or your own ideas.
Remember that this paragra ph must give an opposing opinion to the previous paragra ph.

~Aim of Exercise B6: to practise writing a counte r-argument

Expressions that show that you don't agree with the opposing opinion:
I am afraid I cannot agree with this argument/point because ...

I disagree with this argument/point because ...

This argument/point is not valid because ...

This is a weak argument because ...

My response to this argument/point is ...


However, ...

Still, ...

On the other hand, ...

Nevertheless, ...

Essays: ideas, structure and body paragraphs Unit 11 169


II Exercise 86
1 Read this essay answering the following question.
Then write paragraph 3 of the body of the essay, the
counter-argument to the previous paragraph.

It is better to stay in a comfortable hotel than go camping.


Do you agree?

We al/ love holidays and they are a great break 2 Now read this essay answering the following
from the daily routine. However, some people like question. Then write paragraph 3 of the body of
to holiday in comfort, choosing a nice hotel, while the essay, the counter-argument to the previous
others prefer to go camping in probably more difficult paragraph.
conditio'1s. Which is better? Many young people dream of being famous one
In my opinion, hotels are a better option than day. This is a mistake - being famous has more
camping. For a start, they are more practical: you disadvantages than advantages. Do you agree with
can't put up a tent in the middle of a city. Second, they this view?
have all sorts of modern conveniences. Even a fairly
cheap hotel will have a TY, kettle and WiFi access - if it It is true that a lot of youngsters want to
doesn't, choose another onel become famous. They watch the stars on TY,
see their glamourous lifestyles and envy them.
There is a different point of view which is that However, one view is that such dreaming is
camping brings you closer to nature and is more basically a waste of time because fame is
romantic. It is argued that the whole process of something to be avoided.
camping - putting up a tent, cooking for yourself,
making a fire - is a real experience and makes the In fact, I disagree with this opinion and I would
holiday more exciting. Certainly, everyone has stories say that there is nothing wrong in dreaming
to tell after a camping holiday. of being famous. The reason is that we all
need goals to motivate us. If you are famous,
...
[ ] that means you have done something special
In conclusion, I am in full agreement with the and more than achieved your goal. Therefore a
statement that hotels are preferable to camping. While teenager who wants to be a famous writer aims
camping does have its attractions, at the end of the very high.
day hotels are just more comfortable and convenient. It could be argued that it is almost impossible
, , .......
~
to be famous and failure will only make you
unhaPPY· Take music: for every singer who makes
Get it right! !:}1 it and becomes a household name, there are
probably a thousand poor artists who you will
Russian learners often confuse comfortable and
convenient. never hear of. They will not make a lot of money or
even continue their career and their dreams are
If something is comfortable, it makes you feel physically
broken.
relaxed.
My bed is very convenie11t comfortable. ..
[. ]
Do your feet feel co11ve11ie11t comfortable in those shoes? To sum up, I do not agree that young people
If something is convenient, it is easy and useful. should give up their dreams of fame. It is always
Electronic dictionaries are very comfo1 table convenient. good to have goals and they can give us pleasure
even if we never realise them. Take away our
The Moscow metro may not be that comfortable, but it is
dreams and we are nothing.
convenient.

170 Unitn
~Aim of Exercise B7: to revise linking words and 4 Now add two more paragraphs to what you
essay structure have written:

B Exercise 87 •

to express an opposing opinion.
to explain why you don't agree w ith the
opposing opinion.
1 Read this essay question and discuss your
opinions in class.
~Aim of Exercise BB: to practise an exam-style task
Some people think that it is better to live in the country
than in the town. B Exercise BS
2 Below is the introduction, first paragraph of the Now use the language and the patterns from this unit
body of the essay and the conclusion. Complete in a piece of your own writing. Read the question and
the gaps with phrases in the box. introduction to the essay question.

as a result as well as despite this Space exploration is a waste of time and money. It
in conclusion in my opinion the reason why achieves nothing.
to begin with while What is your opinion?

Today more and more people are leaving villages lntroduation:


to find work in towns. (1)
People have always been interested in epaae exploration.
there are still quite a lot of people who prefer
Thie ie probably why eaienae-fiation books and films are
aountry life. So, some people live in the aountry,
eo popular. But in real life ie epaae exploration worth all
(2) -- __ othere live in the town.
the time and money spent on it?
But who ie to say whlah environment ie better?
Write the body paragraphs for the essay. You can use
(3) ...... , it ie better to live
these notes if you don't have your own ideas.
outside towns. (4) , it ie muah
quieter and aleaner. (5) __ alty
life ie beaoming more and more etreeeful ie that
many aitiee are overarowded and polluted. Notee;: Die;agree!
(6) . ... - ·- ... .. . ... , people are ahooeing -13ringe praatiaal results (e.g.
villages or smaller towns for health reasons ... satellites) & we need to know
...
[ ]
more about epaae (new home?/)
-13ut many problems on Earth +
[ ...]
expensive
(7) ....... .... ... ........ . .. , I would agree with the
statement that the aountryeide has more to - 13ut Earth and epaae
offer than the town. (8) .. _being aonneated, e.g. moon - eeae
a healthier option, it ie just more pleasant to live
in the aountryeide.

3 Now add one or two reasons to the first paragraph of


the body of the essay, using phrases and techniques
you have learned in this unit.

Essays: ideas, structure and body paragraphs Unit 11 171


Essay structure, style
and punctuation
Section A Writing introductions and conclusions
The work in this unit gives you practice in

• writing introductions and conclusions


• writing noles and extending them into an essay
• using an appropriate style
• checking your work (punctuation, mechanics, grammar and vocabulary)

Introductory exercise
A UV\FortuV1.ately, I would a9ree that soMe RussiaV\S have
Read the Writing part 2 exam question. little iV1.terest iV1. the eV1.viroV\W\eV1.t. If you 90 to a towV1.
iV\ Europe you will V1.otice a 9reat differeV1.ce iV1. people's
Comment on the following statement. attitudes to the eV\viroV\W\eV\t. For exaMple, you will fiV1.d
rubbish biV1.S with sectioV1.s for recycliV1.9 differeV1.t thiV1.9s. It
In Russia, there are many people who don't is very hard to fiV1.d this kiV1.d of thiV1.9 here.
care enough about the environment. They
are just not interested in ecology and green B IV\ coV1.clusioV1., I have to a9ree that Most RussiaV1.S just
issues. 1gV1.ore eV1.viroV1.W\eV1.tal probleMs. Althou9h we eV1.joy the
V1.atural beauty arouV1.d us, iV1. coV1.trast to other V1.atioV1.S,
What is your opinion? Do you agree we doV1.'t do Much to protect it.
with this statement?
C Still, it could be ar9ued that Russia has aV\ aMaz.iV\9
Write 200-250 words. V1.atural eV1.virOV1.W\eV\t aV\d MaV\y people, youV\9 aV\d old,
like 9oiV\9 to the couV1.tryside, whether vi.earby or further
The paragraphs in the answer have away iV1. truly wild places like KaMchatka. Surely this
been mixed up. Match the directions Must show that RussiaV1.S do care about what is arouV1.d
below with the corresponding paragraph theM aV1.d waV1.t to keep it beautiful.
from the essay. D The eV1.viroV\W\eV1.t is OV\e of the bi99est probleMs faciV1.9
make an introduction (state the problem) society today. The effects of a 9rowiV1.9 populatioV\, risiV\9
teMperatures aV1.d Massive pollutioV1. should worry us all.
express your personal opinion and
However, the questioV1. states that MaV\y RussiaV1.S are
give 2-3 reasons for your opinion
basically iV1.differeV1.t to what happeV1.s to the eV1.viroV1.W\eV\t.
.... .. _ express an opposing opinion and give
1-2 reasons for this opposing opinion E While there is soMe truth iV1. this ar9uMeV1.t, uV1.FortuV\ately
too few people iV1. our couV\try take practical steps to save
explain why you don't agree with the the eV1.viroV1.W\eV1.t. Perhaps we are spoilt by liviV1.9 iV1. such a
opposing opinion (the counter-argument) bi9 couV1.try with a relatively SW\all populatioV\. Of course,
those who live iV1. deV1.sely-populated couV1.tries like JapaVI.
make a conclusion restating your
aV\d EV\9laV1.d worry More about the eV1.viroV1.W\eV1.t because
position
it is easier to spoil everythiV\9.
(246 words)

1) 2 Unit12
Answer the questions. You've made some notes about what you want to include
in the body of the essay, but what can you write in the
1 What topic is discussed in the essay?
introduction? Read the two alternative introductions for
2 How is the problem formulated in the question and in Essays 1 and 2, and decide which one is better in each
the introduction? case. Use the following checklist to help you.

3 What are the reasons for the personal opinion? 1 Is it an introduction or is it the first point?
Underline the key words.
2 Does it refer to the question in any way?
4 What is the opposing opinion and the reasons for it?
3 Does it use the same words as the question?
Underline the key words.
4 Does it give an opinion?
5 What is the counter-argument? Underline the key
words. 5 Does it make you want to read on?
6 How is the conclusion introduced? 6 Do you feel you know what the next paragraph
will be about?
7 What information is restated in the conclusion?
7 Is it a reasonable length (about 45 words)?
Introduction and conclusion
Essay 1
The introduction and conclusion show that you have
a The first thing is that there is no link between toys and
understood the question and answered it fully. The
children's character. My little nephew, for example, has
introduction should make a general remark about the
lots of toy soldiers but he is not aggressive at all. This
topic, rephrase the question and make the reader want
shows that the essay question is wrong.
to continue reading. It may give the writer's opinion, but
this can also be given in the following paragraph. The b It is difficult to say what makes some boys behave
conclusion should restate your opinion and summarise worse than others. There is a view that military toys
your arguments as well as showing why the opposing like guns have a bad influence on their character. I
opinion is wrong. agree and it is my opinion that we shouldn't give them
such presents .
..,. Aim of Exercises A1-A7: to practise writing a good
introduction Essay 2

P ExerciseA1 a The weather plays an important role in our lives.


But does it actually shape the character of people
Imagine you've been asked to write the following wherever they live? I think that it does and I will give
two essays. my reasons why.
Essay 1: Some people think that it is wrong to give b There is no doubt that the weather influences national
children toys like guns and soldiers because it characteristics and how people in different countries
makes them aggressive. Do you agree? feel and behave. For example, people in warmer
Essay 2: The weather influences national characteristics countries spend more time outdoors and this makes
and how people in different countries feel and them more sociable. In contrast, people in colder
behave. Do you agree? climates are not as friendly.

Essay structure, style and punctuation Unit 12 173


Tip: Guidelines for writing a good introduction
The introduction should state the problem which is given in the essay question and possibly give your opinion.
It could be structured in the following way: sentence 1 - a general statement to introduce the topic which the essay
is going to deal with; sentence 2 - paraphrase the question; sentence 3 - give your opinion.

II Exercise A2
Reorder these introductions.

Essay 1 It's important that smaller regional languages, like Mansi and Nogai, in Russia, are kept alive. Do you agree?

D I strongly disagree with this opinion for several reasons.

D Not everyone is sure that it is worth keeping such languages alive.

D There are many different languages in Russia: a region such as Dagestan has as many as a hundred.

Essay 2 Military service in countries like Russia is a good idea. Do you agree?

D The question asks whether this is really useful or necessary.

D In some countries, including Russia, young men serve in the army for some time.

D In my opinion, military service is important and the system should continue.

Essay 3 Some people think that genius is a natural gift and can't be taught. What is your opinion?

D Very few people are geniuses and have the talents of Pushkin or Einstein.

D I would agree with the statement and will explain why below.

D The question argues that people are born geniuses and it is impossible to achieve this through education.

II Exercise A3 Tip: Introducing the topic


Write two alternative first sentences for these three Read the essay question and identify the topic, e.g. for
essay questions. In pairs, discuss your answers. 'How well do schools prepare students for their future?'
the topic is 'education' so you start your introduction
Essay 1: Team sports are better than individual sports. with a general statement about education. Useful
Do you agree? phrases to start with: Nowadays, ... Today, ... Generally, ...
Essay 2: Is it t rue that today is the most interesting time In many places ... It is a we/I-known fact that ... There is no
in the whole of history? doubt that ... There is a trend that ... It is obvious that ... .

Essay 3: In Russia there are fewer opportunities for Nowadays, education is very important in preparing young
women than men. What is your opinion? people for the future.
Generally, the state of a country can be judged by how
effective its school system is.
It is a we/I-known fact that a good education gives you the
best possible start in life.

174 Unit12
Tip: Paraphrasing the task
In your essay, you should restate the essay question in your own words, that is, paraphrase it. Remember: you will
lose marks if you copy the whole question or too many words from the task.

You can use the following paraphrasing techniques:


• replace a word with a close synonym, e.g. difficult (work) -+ hard (work)
• replace a word with a phrase or a phrase with a word, e.g. to decide -+ to make a decision; to relax -+ to take it easy
• use different forms of the same word. This means moving between nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs.
Sometimes this produces constructions with prepositions or other phrasal vocabulary Ill- see Unit 8, Exercise AS,
e.g. by accident (noun) -+ accidentally (adv)
• replace a word or a phrase with a phrasal verb, e.g. tolerate -+ put up with Ill- see Unit 9, Exercise A7
• restructure your sentence, e.g. Parents should let teenagers make their own decisions. -+ Teenagers should be allowed to
take decisions by themselves (active voice, passive voice)
• replace a word with its definition, e.g. to escape -+ to get free from something or to avoid something

You can use Cambridge dictionaries to find definitions or synonyms, and Cambridge Dictionaries Online
(www.dictionary.cambridge.org) will help you find words with a similar meaning in a thesaurus (that is, a type of
dictionary in which words with similar meanings are arranged in groups), e.g. a soap opera - a serial

IJ Exercise A4
Rewrite the sentences to say the same thing in another way.

0 It can be difficult to choose your future profession.


It ie; e;ometimee; challenging to decide what you
would like to do when you grow up.
1 Teenagers today have no respect for the law.

2 Sport is the best way of helping you relax.


3 It is better to see animals in the wild than in zoos.
4 Who knows what will happen in the future?
5 I would rather be poor and happy than rich and miserable.
6 Modern films are all about entertainment, not culture.

7 People should give more to charity.

Tip: Giving your opinion


The last sentence in the introduction may give your opinion on the topic. You can either support or oppose the
argument. Choose the position which is easiest to argue for and defend. Look back at Unit 11 Exercise A7 for
language to give an opinion.

ll Exercise AS
Give your opinion on each of the topics in Exercise AS.

Essay structure, style and punctuation Unit 12 175


II Exercise A6
Read the essay
questions and
complete the
introductory
paragraphs. Try to
use the approach
suggested on
pages 174 and 175.

1 Is it difficult to be a teenager? What is your opinion?


(1) .............. . (2). They say that their teenage years were the happiest of their life.
But is this period of our life easy and carefree?

2 Is it easy to be an adult? What is your opinion?


(1) When I was a little girl, I thought that my life would be very easy and carefree
when I became an adult. (2) I know that many children think like that and dream
about the time when they grow up and become independent.

3 It is better for children to grow up in a city than in a village. What is your opinion?

(1) Modern life can be very hectic and stressful wherever you live. (2) .. ·- __
(3) However, in my opinion, villages are the most suitable place to bring up children.

4 Some people say that globalisation has had a negative influence on Russian culture.
What is your opinion?
(1L ............ . (2) No wonder that many Russians are worried about the possible impact
of globalisation on their way of life.

II Exercise A7
Now write your own introduction to the following essay topics.

a Technology makes people lazy. What is your opinion?


b Some people say that discipline is the key to success. Do you agree?

If you're working in a group, exchange paragraphs with someone else and answer the
following questions: Does the introduction state the topic? Has your partner restated
the problem? Has he/she copied words from the task? If so, how would you advise
him/her to paraphrase the question without copying too many words?

176 Unit12
~Aim of Exercises A8-A10: to practise writing a conclusion ExerciseA9
Tip: Guidelines for writing the conclusion Read the following conclusions to topics 1-4 from
• use a phrase at the beginning to tell the reader this is the Exercise AS and discuss with your partner what is
end (In conclusion, To conclude, To sum up, In summary) wrong with them. Use the checklist from Exercise
• restate your opinion and summarise the main points, A9. Then make the necessary changes.
including the opposing opinion 1 It can be difficult to choose your future
• relate back to the original question profession.

2 Teenagers today have no respect for the law.


I I Exercise AS 3 Sport is the best way of helping you relax.
Read the three alternative conclusions for Essays 1 and 2 in
4 It is better to see animals in the wild than
Exercise A2 (bad toys for children and the influence of the
in zoos.
weather), and decide which one is best, and why.

Essay 1: Some people think that it is wrong to give children 1 In conclusion, I share the opinion that it is not
toys like guns and soldiers because it makes them easy to decide what job you want to do. There
aggressive. Do you agree? are a lot of different options which you have to
evaluate carefully.
a For all the above reasons, I would like to encourage
parents to give educational toys to children. There is 2 To summarise, I agree that teenagers nowadays
enough violence in the world already! do not follow the law.

b To sum up, I believe that there is nothing harmful in 3 To conclude, sport is a great way of taking
traditional toys like guns. As argued, children need to it easy. Physically and mentally it is very
play and it is untrue that there is some kind of link refreshing. Although exercise can be tiring, the
with aggressiveness. long-term effects are very positive.

c And my final point is that presents do not make 4 I believe that we should watch animals where
children happy. It is wrong to claim that parents show they live and not in cages. This gives us a more
their love with toys like guns and soldiers so this makes natural picture and, while less convenient, it is
them acceptable. definitely possible in the modern world.

Essay 2: The weather influences national characteristics and


how people in different countries feel and behave.
II Exercise A10
Do you agree? Write conclusions to go with the introductions
you have written to the two questions from
a So weather conditions vary around the world and as Exercise AS.
the environment gets worse, there will be more natural
disasters. For this reason, people will continue to pay a lot
of attention to the weather.

b In conclusion, in my opinion the weather does shape


people's characters and style of life. There are many
examples from different countries and these differences
cannot be explained as just generalisations.

c To conclude, the weather does influence national


characteristics and how people in different countries feel and
behave. This is a fact and it is impossible to argue against it.

Essay structure, style and punctuation Unit 12 177


lill> Aim of Exercises A11-A12: to practise integrating the introduction and conclusion into the body of the essay

R Exercise A11
Read the essay question and sample answer. Answer the questions that follow the sample answer. Use the
guidelines on pages 174 and 177.

Some people think there is nothing they can do to stop crimes happening.
What is your opinion?

Cavi avi ordiviary persovi really do viot/r.ivig to prevevit a criWl.e


lr.appeviivig? It would be depressivig if t/r.is were true.
fv'ly first exaW1.ple of criWl.e prevevitiovi is about our /r.ouses. We
could do WI.ore to W1.ake it /r.ard for a burglar to steal froWI. us.
Evevi if we dovi't wavit to Ir.ave burglar alarW1.s, we s/r.ould W1.ake
sure t/r.at all t/r.e doors avid wividows are locked properly w/r.evi
we go out. As well as good locks, a dog is excellevit protectiovi
for your property - burglars are viot keevi ovi dogs, for obvious
reasovis.
SoWl.e people W1.ay argue t/r.at t/r.ere is viot Wl.uc/r. t/r.e ordiviary
persovi cavi do agaivist a serious criW1.ivial. It doesvi't seeWI. to
W1.atter Ir.ow careful you are, or Ir.ow sevisible; if you're faced wit/r.
soW1.eovie carryivig a guvi or a kviife, you would be stupid to try
avid do aviyt/r.ivig. Persovial safety W1.ust always coWl.e first.
Still, I believe t/r.at evicouviters wit/r. professiovial criW1.ivials are
t/r.avikfully quite rare avid Wl.ost criWl.e is low-level avid defiviitely
prevevitable. lvi t/r.e vast Wl.o.jority of situatiovis we cavi /r.elp
ourselves. Most criWl.e lr.appevis ovi a very siW1.ple avid everyday
basis avid we s/r.ouldvi't get too drnW1.atic about it.
fv'ly opiviiovi is t/r.at we cavi do a lot to lower criWl.e. fv'luc/r. of t/r.is
is siW1.ple to do yet effective.
(231 words)

1 Is the introduction adequate? How could we improve it?

2 What are the two main 'positive' points, i.e. that people can do something about crime?

3 What is the opposing argument?

4 What examples are given to support these points?

5 What is the counter-argument?

6 Is the conclusion adequate? What is missing?

7 Is there a variety of vocabulary and structure? Underline examples of this.

Rewrite the introduction and the conclusion to meet the exam requirements. In pairs,
discuss your answers. Use the questions above to see if your answers satisfy the exam
requirements. Compare your writing with the model answer in the key on page 271.

178 Unit12
I' Exercise A12
Read the essay question below and the body paragraphs, and answer the questions.

Is it better to go on holiday in summer or winter?

fvly first poiVtt is tho.t plo.ces o.re WlLAch less crowded iVt
wiVtter. I reo.lly ho.te it wheVt !JOLA co.Vt ho.rdly 9et o.roLAVtd
beco.LAse there o.re so WlO.Vt!J people everywhere. SecoVtdly,
prices o.re 9eVtero.lly lower beco.LAse wiVtter is low seo.soVt.
FiVto.lly, it is jLAst woVtderfLAI to ho.ve o. cho.V1.9e o.Vtd celebrate
New Yeo.r iVt o. differeVtt plo.ce.
The WlO.iVt objectioVt to wiVtter holido.ys is tho.t the weo.ther
is colder o.Vtd less pleo.so.Vtt. Certo.iVtly, !JOLA woLAldVt't ho.ve
o. beo.ch holido.y iVt RLAssio. iVt Jo.V1.1Ao.ry o.Vtd there is so little
do.yli9ht tho.t eveVt iVt the cities yoLA doVt't ho.ve WlLACh tiWle
to see the si9hts.
fvly o.r9LAWleV1.t o.90.iV1.st this is tho.t the weo.ther is V1.0t so
iWlporto.Vtt if !JOLA o.re sto.yiV1.9 soWlewhere !JOLA reo.lly like.
After o.11, !JOLA co.Vt sto.y iVt wo.rWl o.Vtd coWlforto.ble hotels
which feel extro. VI.ice o.fter o. cold wo.lk oLAtside. We ho.ve o.11
the coV1.veV1.ieV1.ces of the tweVtty-first ceVttLAr!J to protect LAS
froWl the worst weo.ther.

How many reasons does the writer use to support the argument?

2 What is the opposing opinion? Underline the words in which it is introduced.

3 What is the counter-argument? Underline the words in which it is introduced.

4 Write the introduction and conclusion to these body paragraphs.

Look at the model answer in the key on page 271. Compare it with the introduction and conclusion
you have written. Which answer do you like better and why? Are there any words or phrases from
the model answer you would like to learn?

Essay structure, style and punctuation Unit 12 179


II ExerciseA12
Read the essay question below and the body paragraphs, and answer the questions.

Is it better to go on holiday in summer or winter?

My first poiV\t is tlriat places are W\LAClri less crowded iV\


WiV\ter. I really Viate it wlrieV\ yoLA caV\ Viardly get aroLAV\d
becaLAse tViere are so W\aV\y people everywViere. SecoV\dly,
prices are geV\ero.lly lower becaLAse wiV\ter is low seasoV\.
FiV\ally, it is jLAst WOV\dedul to Viave a clriaV\ge aV\d celebrate
New Year iV\ a differeV\t place.
TVie W\aiV\ objectioV\ to wiV\ter Violidays is tlriat tlrie weatVier
is colder aV\d less pleasaV\t. CertaiV\ly, yoLA woLAldV\'t Viave
a beacVi Violiday iV\ RLAssia iV\ JaV\LAary aV\d tViere is so little
dayli9Vit tlriat eveV\ iV\ tlrie cities yoLA doV\'t Viave W\LACVi tiW\e
to see tVie si9Vits.
My argLAW\eV\t agaiV\St tlriis is tViat tlrie weatlrier is V\Ot so
iW\portaV\t if yoLA are stayiV\9 soW\ewViere you really like.
After all, yoLA caV\ stay iV\ warW\ aV\d coW\fortable Viote/s
wViicVi feel extra V\ice after a cold walk outside. We Viave all
tlrie COV\VeV\ieV\ces of tVie tweV\ty-first ceV\tLAry to protect LAS
froW\ tlrie worst weatlrier.

How many reasons does the writer use to support the argument?

2 What is the opposing opinion? Underline the words in which it is introduced.

3 What is the counter-argument? Underline the words in which it is introduced.

4 Write the introduction and conclusion to these body paragraphs .

Look at the model answer in the key on page 271. Compare it with the introduction and conclusion
you have written. Which answer do you like better and why? Are there any words or phrases from
the model answer you would like to learn?

Essay structure, style and punctuation Unit 12 179


Section B Exam practice

Tip: Understanding the task and getting started


To write to the point, you need to understand the task, identify a position, generate some ideas and
organise them into a writing plan by supplying details to the general plan given in the Writing task C2.

Use the following plan:


• make an introduction (state the problem)
• express your personal opinion and give 2-3 reasons for your opinion
• express an opposing opinion and give 1-2 reasons for this opposing opinion
• explain why you don't agree with the opposing opinion
• make a conclusion restating your position

~Aim of Exercise 81: to practise understanding the task, generating some basic ideas and writing a plan

II Exercise 81
1 Read the essay question. Answer the questions below to help you get started with your answer.
Some prompts are given for you.

Do you think old people should be looked after by their families when they can no longer manage by themselves?
1 What is the topic?
2 What is the issue?

3 What is your personal reaction?

4 (If the answer is yes) Why? (1) duty of younger


generation, (2) ............ , (3) ..... ...

5 What could be the opposing opinion and reasons?


(1) may need special care, (2) ...............

6 What would be a counter-argument?

2 In a group, discuss the following questions.

a Which questions deal with the introduction?


b Which questions generate ideas for the opinion?
c Which question(s) introduce(s) an opposing opinion?
d Which question provides explanation as to why the author does not agree with
the opposing opinion?

3 Use your notes to write the first draft of your essay. Swap drafts with your partner and read
what your partner has written. Are the ideas organised in paragraphs? What interesting ideas
has he/she developed?

Now read the model answer in the key on page 271 and underline the answers the author
gives to questions 1-6. Are there any words, expressions and grammatical structures you
would like to use in your second draft? Write the second draft of your essay.

180 Unit12
Tip: Organising your ~Aim of Exercises B2-B3: to practise organising your ideas into a writing plan
ideas
There are different ways of
II Exercise 82
organising your ideas: you Read the essay question below. Divide into two groups: those who agree and
can list them as answers to those who disagree with this statement. In groups, brainstorm how you would
questions (Exercise Bl) or answer this question. Choose the most interesting ideas and organise them into
you can create a mind-map an essay plan as shown on the left. Report your answers to the class.
or a diagram. Another way is
to organise them into a plan, Comment on the following statement.
for example: Family life is less important in Russia today. Young people especially value freedom
and individuality.
Essay Plan
What is your opinion? Do you agree with the statement?
Introduction Write 200-250 words.
Paragraph 1:
A What is the topic?
Now read the sample answer below and underline the key ideas. Use them to fill
B What is the problem?
in the essay plan. Write notes, not full sentences, as you would do in a plan. In
Rephrase it
pairs, compare your plans: Have you written out the same key ideas? Compare
C Give your opinion
your answers with the key on page 272.

Body
Traditiovi.all!:J, the Faw.ii!:} has been. the basis of societ!:J. 81At is the faw.il!:J
Paragraph 2:
stilt relevavi.t to RtAssiavi. societ!:} toda!:J avi.d teen.agers ivi. partictAlar?
Your opinion: Persovi.all!:J, I disagree with the statew.evi.t w.ade avi.d I believe that faw.il!:J
Reason 1, Reason 2, life is iw.portavi.t ivi. OIAr COIAVl.tr!:J.
(Reason 3)
First, the Faw.ii!:} offers stApport avi.d stabilit!:} ivi. a chavi.givi.g avi.d o~evi.
Paragraph 3:
davi.gerotAs world. Parevi.ts do vi.ot jtAst offer food avi.d shelter to their
children., the!:} teach thew. how to live avi.d SIArvive. WithotAt faw.ilies,
The opposing opinion:
!:J01Avi.g people wotAld grow tAp vtAlvi.erable avi.d vi.eed!:J. A secovi.d poivi.t is
Reason 1, (Reason 2)
that the faw.il!:J brivi.gs IAS ftAvi. avi.d jo!:J. I ovi.l!:J have to rew.ew.ber sow.e
favi.tastic Faw.ii!:} holida!:JS.
Paragraph 4:
Why you do not agree with Ovi. the other havi.d, oppovi.evi.ts wotAld c/aiw. that Faw.ii!:} life is breakivi.g
the opposing opinion.
down.. The divorce rate is high in. RtAssia avi.d sivi.gle-parevi.t faw.i/ies are
cow.w.ovi.. Also, !:J01Avi.g people w.a!:J have to leave how.e earl!:} to fivi.d work
Your counter-arguments in. big towvi.s. These factors drive faw.ilies apart avi.d the distavi.ce is w.ore
to the arguments given in than. ph!:Jsical.
paragraph 3
However, I do vi.ot stApport this argtAw.evi.t becatAse the Faw.ii!:} tAvi.it is too
Conclusion
strovi.g ivi. RtAssia to be ivi. davi.ger of disappearivi.g. There is a trctditiovi. of
extevi.ded faw.ilies livivi.g tAvi.der ovi.e roof, avi.d this is vi.ot jtAst becatAse of
Paragraph 5:
the problew. of fivi.divi.g accow.w.odatiovi.. Faw.ilies wavi.t to be together.
A Restate your opinion
B Summarise your To SIAW. 1Ap, I do vi.ot share the opivi.iovi. that the Faw.ii!:} is becow.ivi.g
arguments irrelevavi.t. Basicall!:J, we all vi.eed the faw.il!:J to SIArvive avi.d while the
stress of w.odervi. life is ptAttivi.g presstAre ovi. faw.il!:J life, it is vi.ot w.akivi.g
it redtAvi.davi.t.
(250 words)

Essay structure, style and punctuation Unit 12 181


II Exercise 83
Below is an example of how you can use this approach in your exam. Look at the essay question and the plan.
Then do the task that follows.

Comment on the following statement.


It would be great for Russia to hold the summer Olympics. Everybody would
benefit, even those who don't like sport.
What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?
Write 200-250 words .


ln.troduction.
Paragraph :1: IV1.troductioV1.
A Topic: SUW\W\er O~IW\ cs
13 ProbleW\: Should R s:Jf hold theW\? SeV1.tel/\~e paraphro.ses the
probleW\: ~uW\W\el q fyW\pics would briV1.g W\1l ri advaV1.tages to
everyoV1.e IV\ RuSSE_
C Qive your opiV1.ioV1.: agree

J1ady
Paro.graph 2: M!J opi')..io
ReasoV1. :1: would briV1.g
ReasoV1. 2

Paragraph 3: The opposiV1.g opiV1.ioV1.:


ReasoV1. :1: crowds would be a probleW\
ReasoV1. 2 ....

Paragro.ph 4: Why I do V1.0t agree with the opposiV1.g opiV1.ioV1.:

Con.clusion.
A Restate your opiV1.ioV1.: agree
13 $uW\W\arise the W\aiV1. arguW\eV1.tS ..

Fill in the missing parts of the plan. Write your answer using your notes. If you are working in a group, swap
your papers after you have written your essay. Read and discuss the essay using the following checklist:

• Content: Does the essay answer the question? Is the opinion clear? Does t he essay include the opposing
opinion and the counter-opinion? How many words are there in the essay?
• Organisation: Does the essay include an introduction, three body paragraphs, a conclusion? Are the ideas
logically connected? Do you see the connection between paragraphs?
• Grammar and vocabulary: Are there any mistakes? Are there any 'interesting' words and expressions?

Look at the model answer in the key on page 272. Compare it with your answer. Is there anything you would
like to improve in your essay? What words and expressions would you like to learn to use in your written and
spoken speech? Underline and learn them.

182 Unit12
•Aim of Exercises 84-BS: to revise linking devices for making smooth transitions within and
between paragraphs

I! Exercise 84
Read this essay question and the sample answer. Underline the key ideas and the linking devices.
Write an essay plan using the guidelines on page 181, including the linking devices you have
underlined in the essay. Write notes, not full sentences, as you would do in a plan.

Comment on the following statement.


It is not important what you wear. Following fashion
is a waste of time and money.
What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?
Write 200-250 words.

Fo.shioV1. is o. bi9 busiV1.ess V1.owo.do.ys. Nevertheless, so1Me people


o.r9ue that we shouldV1.'t take O.VI. iV1.terest iV1. fashioV1. o.V1.d that
it just 1Mo.kes us speV1.d o. lot of ti1Me o.V1.d W\OV1.ey. I do V1.ot
o.9ree with this o.r9u1MeV1.t o.V1.d I will preseV1.t several reasoV1.s
o.90.iV1.St it.
As IMY first poiV1.t, people have always beeV1. iV1.terested iV1.
fashioV1. ever siV1.ce they started 1Mo.kiV1.9 o.V1.d weariV1.9 clothes.
So, fo.shioV1. is a V1.0.tlAro.I hulMO.VI. iV1.stiV1.ct o.V1.d we shouldV1.'t
deV1.y it. Besides, dressiV1.9 up just IMo.kes people feel 9ood.
DoesV1.'t everyoM like to put OVI. so1MethiV1.9 special to 90 out
or W\eet so1MeoV1.e they like?
OVI. the other ho.V1.d, so1Me people CO.VI. beco1Me obsessed with
fashioV1.. AdvertisiV1.9 co.VI. IMake thelM buy clothes they really
doV1.'t V1.eed. The power o.V1.d iV1.ff ueV1.ce of the advertisiV1.9
iV1.dustry CO.VI. create pressure to buy o.V1.d wear the treV1.diest
- o.V1.d W\OSt expeV1.sive - clothes. Fo.shioV1. is o. busiV1.ess o.V1.d
youV1.9 people especially co.VI. be V1.o.ive.
This is 0V1.ly partially trne. /VI. IMY view, we o.11 have choices
o.V1.d people should dress withiV1. their IMeO.l'\S. /VI.deed, fo.shioV1.
co.VI. be very si1Mple o.V1.d iV1.expeV1.sive. I re1Me1Mber seeiV1.9 OVI. TV
so1Me poor farW\ workers ii'\ Tho.i10.V1.d o.V1.d beiV1.9 i1Mpressed by
the lovely straw ho.ts they wore to keep off the SUV\..
To coV1.clude, I have Vl.O sy1Mpathy with the view that fashioV1.
is just vo.V1.ity. Fo.shioV1. has always beeV1. a V1.atural o.V1.d
i1Mporto.V1.t aspect of life for everyoM. Also, there doesV1.'t
Med to be o.V1.y pressure to buy expeV1.sive clothes if you o.re
seV1.sible.
(250 words)

Now write another plan and write an answer agreeing with this essay question. Don't forget about
the linking devices! Then look at the model answer in the key on page 273. Are there interesting
phrases or grammatical structures you would like to use in your writing? Underline and learn them.

Essay structure, style and punctuation Unit12 183


ii Exercise BS
Read the essay question and the sample answer. Fill in the sample answer with phrases from the box.
Try to remember as many of these phrases as you can. You will be asked to use them in your answer.

Comment on the following statement.


Chinese will replace English as an international language. This is inevitable as China has the biggest
population and the fastest-growing economy in the world.
What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?
Write 200-250 words.

in response to this argument that this is unlikely in the near future does not necessarily mean

a second consideration is the fact that some people argue that by way of summary
this gives it a huge advantage being the prime example

ChiV\o. is the biggest O.V\d fo.stest-growiV\g cor.mtry iV\ the world. As ChiV\o. becoW1.es WI.ore
populous O.V\d powerful, (.:1.) ... ChiMse will overtake EV\glish o.s the V\UWl.ber OM global
lo.V\guo.ge. I stroV\gly disagree.
I thiV\k tho.t ChiV\ese is V\Ot goiV\g to oust EV\glish o.s
the lo.V\guo.ge of iV\terV\o.tioV\o.I coWl.Wl.UV\ico.tioV\. The
o.dvo.V\to.ge of EV\glish is tho.t it is widely spokeV\ o.rouV\d
the world O.V\d (2) . over ChiV\eSe. IV\ fo.ct, iV\ Wl.O.V\Y
couV\tries, such o.s IV\dio. O.V\d SiV\go.pore, EV\glish is o.
secoV\d lo.V\guo.ge. FutherW1.ore, (3) ...... ChiMse is WI.ore
difficult to leo.rV\, especio.l/y for Europeo.V\S. fV\glish
voco.bulo.ry is to.keV\ FroWI. Wl.O.V\Y Europeo.V\ lo.V\guo.ges,
which W1.o.kes it fo.W1.ilio.r.
OV\ the other ho.V\d, there o.re ecoV\oW1.ic reo.SoV\S for
leo.rV\iV\g ChiV\ese. 13eiV\g proficieV\t iV\ ChiV\ese would
give you O.V\ o.dvo.V\to.ge iV\ busiV\ess opportuV\ities with
ChiMse coW1.po.V\ies. IV\ o.dditioV\, the doW1.iV\O.V\Ce
of EV\glish (4) it could V\ever be replaced by o.
lo.V\guo.ge like ChiV\ese; lo.V\guo.ges rise O.V\d fo.11, Lo.tilt\
(s) of o. deo.d iV\terV\o.tioV\o.l lo.V\guo.ge.
However, (6) , it would just to.ke too loV\g to
leo.rV\ eV\ough ChiMse to be o.ble to do busiV\ess iV\ the
lo.V\guo.ge. As for the fo.11 of EV\glish, o.V\ythiV\g is possible
but I believe (7) - EV\glish is too we/1-esto.blished.
So, (8) .. , I ho.ve to disagree with the o.rguWl.eV\t
preseV\ted. EV\glish is o. very COV\VeV\ieV\t lo.V\guo.ge to
leo.rV\ O.V\d the ecoV\oW1.ic reo.SOV\S for studyiV\g ChiV\ese
do Mt Wl.o.ke up for the difficulty of leo.miV\g it.
(259 words when complete)

184 Unit12
Now look at Plan A below, which was developed for the above sample answer expressing disagreement with the
essay statement. Fill in the missing parts with the key words from the sample answer.

Then write your ideas to fill in the gaps for Plan B and use it to write your answer agreeing with the essay
statement. Try to use as many phrases from the box above as possible. Swap papers with your partner: Which
of you has used a greater number of linking devices from the sample answer? Then look at the model answer in
the key on page 274. Analyse the way the ideas are connected within each paragraph and between paragraphs.

Plan A Plan B

(sample answer, disagreeing with the essay question) (your own answer, agreeing with the essay question)

Introduction Introduction
Paragraph 1: Paragraph 1:
A International language A International language
B B
C Disagree C Agree

Body Body
Paragraph 2: Paragraph 2:
My opinion My opinion
Reason 1: Reason 1: China very big
Reason 2: Reason 2: ...........

Paragraph 3: Paragraph 3:
The opposing opinion The opposing opinion
Reason 1: Reason 1: Chinese too difficult to learn
Reason 2: Reason 2: .

Paragraph 4: Paragraph 4:
Reasons against the opposing opinion Reason(s) against the opposing opinion
Reason 1: Reason 1: Chinese already popular
Reason 2: Reason 2:

Conclusion Conclusion
Paragraph 5: Paragraph 5:
A Disagree A Agree
B English a very convenient language to learn; B
although Chinese would be useful, it is just too
difficult

Tip: Style
If you are writing an essay which asks for your opinion and ideas, then the style you use will be fairly neutral -
neither too informal nor too formal. In general, this means:
• don't use conversational language, e.g. direct speech, contracted forms, colloquial words
• use connecting words and phrases to link your ideas ..,. see Unit 11
• remember you are writing an essay which someone you don't know will read so write your ideas clearly
• paragraphing, punctuation and spelling are important ..,. see Unit 12, Exercise 87

Look back at Unit 10page154 for more information on style.

Essay structure, style and punctuation Unit 12 185


..,. Aim of Exercise B6: to practise using an appropriate ..,. Aim of Exercises B7-B8: to practise checking your
style work for punctuation and other errors

B Exercise 86 Tip: Basic punctuation rules


Look at the essay question below. Full stops (.), question marks (?)
and exclamation marks(!) finish sentences.
Art is becoming less and less important for young people. Teenagers should help their parents more around the house.
Why is this a good idea? Because a lot of teenagers are
Which of these two conclusions is most appropriate in
simply lazy!
style? In two columns, write out the words belonging to
the formal style and their informal equivalents.
Commas (,) separate clauses and phrases.
To finish off this essay, if you ask me, kids are still When I am a parent, I would like my children to help me.
keen on the arts and get something useful out
In my opinion, teenagers could help their parents more.
of them. Just look at how many teenagers go to
theatres, galleries and other stuff like that. Some
Commas also divide things into lists.
teenagers might get bored by the arts, but there
aren't a lot of these people, I'm glad to say.
They could do the shopping, take the dog for a walk,
wash up, and many other things.
2 To conclude, in my opinion, young people still
appreciate and value the arts. Consider the many Semi-colons(;) can divide complicated things into
teenagers that visit theatres, galleries, etc. A small lists.
number of them find the arts boring, but they are in Imagine the perfect teenager. She gets up at six o'clock
the minority, thankfully. to walk the dog; she makes breakfast for her parents; she
washes up afterwards; she carries her little sister's books to
Formal Informal school.

Apostrophes (') are used in contractions and


possessives.
It isn't fair for teenagers to behave like that.
Many teenagers' attitudes are wrong.

Colons (:) introduce an explanation or more details.


Teenagers need to do some useful tasks: housework,
looking after younger children, etc.
Now write your own conclusion giving the opposite
opinion on the same topic, using some or all of the notes Brackets ( ( ) ) and dashes(-) give extra
below. Remember to use an appropriate style. information.
My sister (who is 15) does nothing around the house.
My brother does nothing around the house - and he is 19!
•arts - not everyone interested in museums, etc.
(do they go and see them?);

• people can look at art on Internet for free;

•people, not government, should pay for museums,


etc. (ticket prices)

186 Unit12
p Exercise 87
Punctuate the sentences.

1 In my opinion smoking should be banned

2 If you ask me smoking in public places is a disgrace

3 I wonder why people start smoking

4 Believe it or not attitudes to smoking are changing really

5 There are many adjectives to describe smoking unhealthy dirty unpleasant inconsiderate

6 I dont know whether its possible to ban smoking its really difficult

7 Unfortunately smoking is cool or at least people think so

8 I think that smoking which is expensive think how much a packet of cigarettes costs as well as
unhealthy is a serious problem in todays society

P Exercise BS
In the exam, after you have written your essay, check it carefully. The answer
below has 33 mistakes typical of Russian learners: 12 grammar, 13 vocabulary,
3 punctuation, 5 spelling. Find the mistakes and correct them. In pairs, discuss
the mistakes and how they could be avoided.

It is very good experience for teenagers to have a part-time job while they are at school.

What is your opinion?

It is qf,(ite COW\W\ovi for teevio.9ers to work viowo.do.ys. lvideed, soW\e people


so.y tho.t po.rt-tiW\e work helps teevio.9ers 9et experievices. lvi W\Y opiviiovi
teevio.9ers shof,(ld viot to sfody o.vid work o.t the SO.W\e tiW\e.
At first, o. job co.vi iviterfere with sfody. Pf,(pils W\O.Y viot be ivi tiW\e for lessovis beco.f,(se they o.re so
tired they overslept. It is vio wovider why o.re pf,(pils tired if they spevid their free tiW\e workivi9
ro.ther tho.vi beivi9 with their fo.W\ily o.vid prepo.rivi9 for the school. Also, work stops pf,(pils relo.xivi9
o.vid doivi9 heo.lthy activities. Usf,(o.I teevio.9ers W\O.Y 90 to the vio.fore ovi the weekevid, bf,(t those with
jobs vieed work; whevi their frievids ho.ve o.vi iviterestivi9 tro.ve/, they ho.ve to sit o.t hoW\e.

Ovi the other side, there is o.vi o.r9f,(W\evit tho.t work W\O.Y 9ive possibilities ivi the ff,tfore, W\o.y be o.fter
school ho.s fiviished. It o.lso o.llows teevio.9ers to practice f.(Seff.([/ skills o.s well o.s 9ettivi9 9ood o.dvices
froW\ people who.t they work with. So work W\o.kes teevio.9ers to 9row f,(p W\ore qf,(ickly beco.f,(se it
9ives theW\ experievice of the o.df,(lt life.
Uvifortf,(vio.telly, this is ro.rely trne beco.f,(se W\ost teevio.9e jobs o.re very f,(viiviterested o.vid of vio vo.lf,(e o.t
o.11. To.ke o. typico.I teevio.9e job like workivi9 like o. waitress ivi o. co.Fe who.t does the teevio.9er 9et froW\
o. repetitive job like this? It's jf,(st o. wo.stivi9 of tiW\e.
lvi covic/f,(siovi, I diso.9ree with the sto.teW\evit W\o.de Work iviff f,tevices ovi teevio.9ers school sfodies bo.dly
o.vid it is siW\ply viot trf,(e tho.t o. typico.I teevio.9e job offers o.viy worth while experievice.
(258 words, uncorrected)

Essay structure, style and punctuation Unit 12 187


Suggested approach for Part 2 of the Writing test

1 Give yourself about five minutes' planning time.


2 Make sure you understand the task (What is the topic? What is the problem?).

3 Make a decision about your opinion.

4 Write down some ideas.


5 Think of reasons and examples to support your points.
6 Begin, paying attention to the introduction.

7 Write your ideas in paragraphs. Remember to think carefully about how you link one idea to the next.
8 Make si.ire your conclusion ties everything together.

9 Make sure you do not exceed the word limit of 250 words. Your essay can be a little bit longer than that, but if it
has more than 275 words, the part above 250 words won't be assessed. If your essay is shorter than 180 words,
it will not be assessed and you will get 0.

10 Give yourself five minutes to check through your work for accuracy.

11 Try not to spend more than 55 minutes on this task .

.,... Aim of Exercise 89: to practise writing an exam-style essay

II. Exercise 89
Read the Writing part 2 question and write an answer using the guidelines below.

Comment on the following statement.


Some people think that your teenage years are the happiest time of your life.
What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?
Write 200-250 words.

• Write an introduction (state the


problem)
• express your personal opinion and
give 2-3 reasons for your opinion
• express an opposing opinion and give
1-2 reasons for this opposing opinion
• explain why you don't agree with the
opposing opinion
• Write a conclusion restating your
position

When you have finished, compare your


essay with the model answer on page
275.

188 Unlt12
Speaking
The Speaking chapter has three units covering useful skills
for RSE Speaking: Each unit is divided into two sections:

~mnI!'lll Speaking skills


teaches general speaking skills which you'll need for all
parts of the Speaking. In this section you'll get help and
practice in tackling both monologues and dialogues of
different levels. The types of exercises used will help
students develop skills necessary for different types of
exams including RFE (fMA), RSE (Ef3), FCE and IELTS.
II: ·r·u • ..;JI Speaking and answering exam questions
applies these skills to an exam format.

The RSE Speaking section had not been introduced when this book went to print, but this chapter has been de~igned to
cover the most likely formats of this part of the test as well as language and strategies which can be used in any task of this
type. The exercises used will help students develop skills necessary for different types of exams including GIA, RSE, FCE and
IELTS. Check the companion website [www.fipi.ru] to keep up to date on the latest developments of the RSE Speaking test.

Whatever the format of the RSE speaking section may be, the examinee is expected to demonstrate the ability to:

• communicate, that is to speak at length, to initiate interaction, respond appropriately, react and take turns
• produce coherent utterances, that is to link together ideas and language to form connected speech
• use accurate and appropriate grammar and vocabulary
• speak clearly (pronunciation, stress, rhythm, and intonation)

Whatever the marking scheme may be, the criteria will include task achievement, interaction with the interlocutor,
organisation and language resource.
189
Basic speaking skills
.,.. Aim of Exercises A1-A2 to practise responding to 2 f) 3.18) Listen and check your answers .
personal questions and making your answers as full as
3 Now answer questions 0-9 in Exercise 1A about
possible
yourself.
• ExerciseA1 O .I W?J!?....kPrn..in ..T!r.2l.~P-QLf?.l!'t. J.!.lv.~ Jn Or~nkure .. np.w.... ....... ..

1

Match the questions and answers.
1 ...........................................................................................................................................................
0 Where are you from?
2 ...........................-.... - ................................................................................................................
1 What's it like there?
2 What do you do in your free time? 3 ......................................................................................................................

3 Tell me about your family. 4


4 What do you want to do after you leave school?
5
5 Have you ever been abroad?
6 ......................................................................................................................................
6 What kind of music do you like?
7 Where do you like to go with your friends? 7

8 What things annoy you? 8


9 Have you done anything interesting recently?
9 ........ _...........................................................................................................................................

a No, but I'd like to visit the USA one day.


4 Carry out a dialogue using these questions and
b It was my birthday last week and I had a great party answers with a partner. Think of a follow-up
with my friends.
question for each answer. When you've finished,
c I'm from a village just outside Sevastopol. switch partners.
d I can't stand people who talk too loudly on their
mobile phones. Where are you from?

e I'm an only child but I have two cousins.


I was born in Belgorod but I
f There's a decent cinema a bus ride away.
live in Orenburg now.
g It's a quiet place but the countryside is lovely.
h Hard to say, different groups, I guess.
I don't have any real plans yet but I'll probably go to Why did you move to Orenburg?
university.
I don't have a lot of spare time these days because of
My dad was in the army
my studies.
and he was sent there.

0 a.... 1 ....... 2 ............ 3 ........... 4 ............. 5 .........


6 ..... ...... 7 .... 8 ........... 9 ..... .

190 Unit13
Describing people
You will need the following phrases in this part of the Speaking Test.

Giving basic information


My name's ... (but you can call me ... ) My name's Alexandra but you can call me Sasha.
I come from ... (near ... ) I come from Troitsk near Moscow.
There are ... people in my family and I'm the oldest/ There are four people in my family and I'm the youngest child.
youngest I middle I an only child. I'm a student in the tenth form at school.
I'm a student in the ... th form at school
Talking about the past and future
When I was ... I used to ... When I was younger I used to like computer games.
Once I ... Once I went on a cruise down the Volga.
... ago I ... Two weeks ago I saw 'The Three Sisters' at the theatre .
One/Some day I'd like to ... One day I'd like to learn to drive.
Next ... I'm going to ... Next Saturday I'm going to visit my grandparents.
Expressing your likes, dislikes, preferences
I (really) like/love/enjoy ... I really enjoy cooking.
I don't (really) like ... I don't like my bedroom.
I'm (really) into ... I'm into diving.
I like ... (a lot) more than ... I like watching football more than playing it.
I can't stand ... I can't stand Rap music.
I love/hate it when ... I love it when it snows for the first time.
My favourite ... is My favourite writer is Pushkin.
I'm (not) very keen on ... I'm not very keen on musicals.
In my free/spare time I ...
. In my free time I do judo.
I often/never/sometimes ... I sometimes play chess with my brother.
Asking for clarification
Sorry, could you repeat that?
Sorry, what does ... mean? Sorry, I'm not sure what you mean.
Can you say that again please? I'm not quite sure what I need to do.
Do you mind if ...? Do you mind if I ask you a question?
Do you understand what I mean?
So you want me to ... So you want me to ask you some questions?
Correcting yourself
What I mean is (that) ... What I mean is that it's a very unusual place.
What I meant was (that) ... What I meant was you have to know someone to get ih
What I'm trying to say is (that) ... What I'm trying to say is that it isn't very easy.
Sorry, let me say/explain that again.
If you don't know the word for something
I don't know the word/what you call it in English but... I don't know what you call it in English but it's something for
opening wine bottles.
It's like ... It's like a mouse but a bit bigger.
It looks like ... It looks like a carrot.
You use it to/for ... You use it to keep your neck warm.
It's used to/for ... It's used for taking photographs.

~ Listen and repeat the functional phrases.


Basic speaking skills Unit 13 191
II Exercise A2
Change these answers to make them longer and more interesting.
. -y:. ~~--i·
•,!,_ .. t!!" .
,,
) ii\

~
=
'i'\,""
.,..,.
(~r,... m....
'
~
Fffn

0 What do you like about Saratov? It's very green.


The.r~ ;;1.r.~ lg~~ qf p~rke;... ~n4 gr.e.~n areas,
1 What did• you do at the weekend? I walked.

2 Which country would you most like to visit? Spain.

3 Do you think St Petersburg is too crowded? Yes.

4 How often do you go to the cinema? Rarely.

5 Why is English important for you? For study.

6 Do you have a favourite day of the week? Saturday.

7 Who do you look like in your family? My mum.

8 Would you say that you have many friends? No.

9 What are you doing next weekend? I don't know.

.,...... ,~

Get it right!
Pronunciation of consonants 2 Russians sometimes pronounce /w/ like /v/ at
0~:;;;;.<'

the beginning of a word . Compare:


1 f)3.20) Russians sometimes pronounce /p/ It/ and
/kl wrongly so that they sound like /b/ Id/ and /g/. The wet - vet west - vest
sounds /p/ /ti and /kl are pronounced differently at the while - vile worst - verst
start of stressed syllables. wince - Vince

Compare Russian and English:


3 Russians sometimes pronounce /r/ with the tongue
neTh pet tapping the roof of the mouth. In British English, /r/ is
TOHHa ton pronounced with no contact, and only before vowels.
KOHh con Listen.
Compare English: red dress
pit - bit toss - boss road wrong
post - boast cut - gut sorry car
toe - bow come - gum agree horse

192 Unit13
Section B Speaking and answering exam questions

~Aim of Exercise 81: to practise giving personal answers ~Aim of Exercise 82: to identify typical mistakes and

mExercise 81 learn how to give more detail to your answers

1 This is part of the Speaking test where the


I' Exercise 82
interlocutor asks the candidate some personal Correct the ten mistakes in this dialogue between an
questions. Fill in the gaps before you listen. interlocutor and candidate and then add details to make
the candidate's answers better. The first one has been
Interlocutor: Can you tell me your name and where
done for you.
you're from?
Candidate: I'm (0) ... pa(!.~4. ........ Masha and I come Interlocutor: Sergei, have you ever been to Moscow?
from Tver. Candidate: Yes, I was have been there twice.
Interlocutor: What about your family? .fP'~.. m.!!.f.b.. f?..iese.r.. than my h.Qme . ~w..n,..........
Candidate: I'm an (1) ........ ............... child, I haven't got Interlocutor: Really. Can I ask you about your favourite
any brothers or sisters. place where you live?
Interlocutor: What do you do in your free time, Masha? Candidate: ... because of it is so beautiful in winter.
Candidate: My (2) ...... .. ........ is painting. I'm not Interlocutor: Do you like the winter?
very good but I really enjoy it. Candidate: Yes, I like ...
Interlocutor: How long have you been interested in Interlocutor: What do you like to wear when you go out,
painting? Sergei?
Candidate: For ages. My gran (3) ... ......... _ to be a Candidate: It depends of where I'm going....
good painter and she taught me. Interlocutor: I see. Do you have many friends?
Interlocutor: What about now, do you watch much TV? Candidate: I'm lucky, I have few good friends ....
Candidate: No, I (4) .......... ,_... _ ....... . There isn't enough Interlocutor: What kind of things do you do with her?
time. Candidate: We enjoy to watch films . ...
Interlocutor: Do you have any pets? Interlocutor: That sounds interesting. Anything else you
Candidate: Sure, I've got a dog called Max who I like to do together?
(5) ........ ...... for a walk every morning. Candidate: ... . The nature is wonderful.
Interlocutor: Was it your idea to get a dog? Interlocutor: You said that you have a small family.
Candidate: Not really (6) .... ..... ..... .... now I'm glad Candidate: Yes, we are three ...
we have him.
Interlocutor: Would you like to have a brother or sister?
Interlocutor: Let's talk about your home. Do you live in a
Candidate: Why not? .... I'd better have a brother
flat or a house?
though .
Candidate: We live on the sixth (7) .. . of a
Candidate: What do you think you will be'doing in five
block of flats fairly near the centre.
years' time?
2 fJi2D Listen and check your answers. Interlocutor: I will be at university after a year....

3 Repeat the dialogue in pairs.


~Aim of Exercise 83: to practise doing an exam-style task
4 Role play the dialogue with the same questions
but your own answers. p Exercise 83
Interlocutor: Can you tell me your name and where Student A is the candidate and Student 8 is the
you're from? interlocutor with a question card. Turn to page 238 for
the question cards. Practise this part of the test and then
Candidate: I'm Ali66a and I live In Ufa. swap round. Repeat the exercise with different cards
and different partners.
Basic speaking skills Unit 13 193
Monologue
(individual long turn)
Information
In this part you will most probably speak without interruption for one to two minutes. Then an interlocutor can
ask you additional questions on the topic you have presented. You are expected to demonstrate the ability to:
• speak,at length, elaborating on the topic
• fully address all parts of the task without digression
• produce coherent utterances
• express attitude, give reasons, make conclusions
• use accurate grammar structures and a good range of vocabulary appropriate to the context and function
• pronounce individual sounds and larger units of speech clearly

Functional language
Functional phrases will help you structure your talk and give you time to organise your thoughts and language.

Starting a talk See Unit 12 Section A for more ways to begin a talk
I'd like to tell you about I describe ... I'd like to describe my ideal weekend.
My topic is ... My topic is fashion.
I want to give a (short) talk about ... I want to give a talk about computer games.
Developing a talk See Unit 11 Section A for more linking words and expressions
I'd like to begin by saying that ... I'd like to begin by saying that school is very important.
Let me start/finish with ... Let me start with a few words about transport.
Another point is that ... Another point is that we don't have enough time.
As I was saying ... As I was saying, it's a big problem today.
First/secondly/next/finally Next, gyms can be expensive.
Ending a talk See Unit 12 Section A for more ways to finish a talk
In conclusion, In conclusion, people need to take more care of the countryside.
I've come to the end of my talk, thank you for listening.
That's all I've got to say.
I'm ready for any questions now.
Argue your point See Unit 11 Section A for more ways to express a reason
It's true I a fact that ... It's a fact that women live longer than men.
You can't deny that ... You can't deny that most people are lazy.
Everyone would agree (with me) that ... Everyone would agree with me that sport is important.
Obviously ... Obviously, this is a big mistake.
Generally speaking, .. . Generally speaking, poetry is not read much today.

194 Unit14
Express your opinions/feelings/reactions See Unit 11 Section A for more ways to express an opinion.
I (don't) think ... I think Spanish sounds beautiful.
I reckon ... I reckon it's quite serious.
I'm (not) sure that ... I'm not sure that she can finish it on time.
I doubt that ... I doubt that many people enjoy shopping.
I can't believe that ... , I can't believe that this is normal behaviour.
It's terrible/great/strange that ... It's strange that I didn't hear her call.
I find it really interesting/funny that ... I find it really funny that people can't live without the Internet.
It makes me angry/laugh I want to ... It makes me laugh.
... looks as if .. . It looks as if we can't do anything about it.
Speculate
He/It might/could ... She might get angry.
It's possible that ... It's possible that we will Jive on the moon.
What (would happen) if ... ? What if everyone lived to be 100?
There's every/no chance that ... There's no chance that computers will replace teachers.
Describe people I places I objects
She/It has (got) ... It has got four windows.
He/It looks/seems He seems very serious.
He/She looks like ... Jessica looks like her father.
The reason why I like him/it is because ... The reason why I like the museum is because it has a very wide collection.
The best/worst/most interesting thing about The most interesting thing about Irena is that she can sing very well.
her/it is ...
The most striking thing about him/it is ... The most striking thing about Kazan is the cathedral.
Compare and contrast pictures or photographs
They (are quite similar because they) both/all They are quite similar because they all show people working.
show/have/are
There are ... in both/all of them. There are animals in both of them.
Both/All of them have got ... (in them). All of them have got unusual situations.
There are some differences. One ... but the other ... There are some differences. One is at night but the other is during the day.
The top one looks more ... than the bottom one. The top one looks more interesting than the bottom one.
The one on the left is/shows/has ... but the one The one on the left is a small shop but the one on the right is a
on the right ... supermarket.
This one is not as ... as the other one. This one is not as fast as the other one.
It's quite difficult to compare them.
Describe what you like
I love ... I love history.
I'm crazy/mad about ... I'm crazy about dancing.
I'm a great fan of ... I'm a great fan of science fiction.
I'm really into ... I'm really into Italian food. '
... is fantastic/brilliant/wonderful/amazing/ The show was brilliant, just mind-blowing.
magic/mind-blowing

8A:@ Listen and repeat the functional phrases. Remember to discuss:

~Aim of Exercises A1-A3: to practise generating ideas • different kinds of pets and their characteristics
dog (loyal, friendly), cat6 (cute, di6tant?), rat6
on a typical topic and to use the functional phrases above

mExercise A1 •
(intelligent, clean), parrot6 (funny, 6ad in cage)
how pets make your life more interesting taking for a
walk (dog6), teaching trick6 (dog5/rat6), feeding (all)
1 Look at the task and the notes the student makes in • problems with keeping pets illne66, dangerou6?
preparation. • your personal opinion/experience my aquarium
Give a talk on keeping pets.
Monologue (individual long turn) Unit 14 195
2 Read the student's answer below and underline the 5 Make your own notes about the topic below.
functional phrases from the list on page 194. Give a talk on what makes a good party.
Remember to discuss:
I want to give a Bhort talk about keeping pet6.
• where to have the party
There are lots of different kinds of pets but let me • the food and drink
start with dogB, which are really popular pets and • who and how many people to invite
I'm sure lots of families have them. They are loyal • activities: games and entertainment
and friendly, unlike cats which are cute but a bit
diBtant maybe. I reckon rats are nice pets because
they are intelligent and clean. Parrots are quite Food & drink:
funny too but it'6 Bad to keep them in a cage. Where:
Generally speaking, pets are fun to have. For

example, you can take your dog for a walk or teach
it a few tricks. Feeding pet6 is also intereBting. I've
got an aquarium and I love feeding all the different
..................... ,_,,,_,, ........ "'\ /
fish and e;eeing them swim around for the food.
PARTY

""
It's true that there can be e;ome problem6 looking
after your pet. Firat, they get ill and may need a
trip to the vet. Secondly, certain types of pets,
even Bmall ones like mice, can be dangerous
becaue;e they could bite. If there are small children
People: / Activitiee;:

in a family, you need to be very careful with pete.


Children can do eilly thinge; and any animal will
react if it ie; frightened.

I think fie;h make ideal pete; and, ae; I mentioned,


I've got an aquarium in my bedroom. The reae;on 6 Give your talk, using the functional phrases from the
why I like fie;h le becauee they don't need too much list and the linking devices from Unit 11 Section A.
time but they are beautiful and quite relaxing. Get
eome for yourae/f if you don't believe me. 7 Look at the sample answer in the key on page 277
and again underline all the functional phrases from
In conc/ue;ion, lt:I e;ay that keeping a pet ie a the list.
very good idea and I recommend it to everyone.
I've come to the end of my talk, thank you for 8 Which of the categories in the question is not
lie;tening. covered in the example? Add two or three sentences
to cover this category.

9 Find informal expressions in the sample answer (A1


3 Give your own talk using some pets not mentioned
question 8, page 278) which means the same as:
in the model answer. Try to use as many functional
phrases as you can. 1 friends 2 to choose 3 quite 4 to w ant

4 Look at the example in the key on page 277 and


underline the 12 functional phrases from the list.

196 Unit14
mExercise A2
1 Look at this pair of photos. Briefly describe each one, using the functional phrases on pages 194-195.

Compare your answer with the example in the key on page 278.

2 Speculate about what might be happening in each picture using the functional phrases.
Compare your answer with the example in the key on page 278.

3 Think of similarities and differences between the photographs and write them in the table.

Similarities Differences

pro'11em 61tuation6 man/woman

4 Compare and contrast the pictures using the functional phrases on pages 194-195. Compare your
answer with the sample answer in the key on page 278.

5 Complete your description and comparison of the photos by saying what each person should do to
sort out the problem.

Monologue (individual long turn) Unit 14 197


p Exercise A3
1 Look at the task and the photographs below and write notes in the table.

These two photographs show people who are happy. Compare and contrast the two photographs and say why
the people might be happy. Speak for about 1 minute.

Compare Contrast Why are they happy?


Smiling Family I individual Relaxing

2 Functional phrases give your talk structure. Speak about the photographs using the frame below.

I'd like to describe ..........................-. . ....................... . They are quite similar because they both show
.......... ... ... . ..... .... .... . ........ . ....... . ..... . In the first picture you can see .......... ..................... .. .
I think they are happy because ... ...... ..... . The second picture shows
......... ....... ..... ... ......... .. ..... .. . The man seems happy because ...
There are some differences between the photos. The top one ..... ... ..... .... ...... ...... .... ... .. .... while
the bottom one. .... ...... ... . . So, they show happiness in different ways.

3 1)4.02) Listen to someone speaking about the photos and read the sample in the key on page 278.
Compare it to your talk.

4 1)4.02) Listen again and complete these common phrases.

1 ................................. your time

2 take it ................................................ .
3 it just ..... __ ....- ...._ ....... .... that
4 .happy
5 it's not of
5 At home, find some images on the Internet related to one of the RSE topics (see www.fipi.ru), print
them out and prepare a similar talk using the ideas and functional phrases above. Bring the images
to class and practise your talk with a partner.

198 Unit14
Aim of Exercises A4-A10: to practise speaking and
IJJ>
2 ~ Listen and check your answer.
building an argument
3 The answer is quite short. Add functional phrases,
Tip: questions or examples to make it longer.
You may need to read a text, give your opinion on it 4 ~ Listen to someone answering three
and then answer some questions about it. For your talk questions about the talk. How would you answer
use the following structure: these questions if you had given this talk?
Introduce your topic.
2 Summarise the text and say what the point of view is. JP Exercise AS
3 Say whether you agree or disagree with the text. 1 Work in pairs. One person will talk about the text,
4 Give arguments for your opinion. using the structure in the tip box above, the other
5 Introduce a counterargument. person will listen and then ask three questions about
6 Explain why the counterargument does not work. the talk. Swap roles when you have finished.

7 Make a conclusion restating your opinion. 1 Last night I was coming home when I saw a
8 End your talk. gang of young people standing next to my bus
stop, smoking and talking very loudly. What has
The language and strategy for answering the RSE essay happened to teenagers today? They don't seem
question will help you . ..,. see Unit 11 to have any direction or discipline in their lives.
I'm 64 now and things were much better when I
I! Exercise A4 was young.
1 Put the eight parts of the talk in order. Number the
2 School subjects should be more practical, things
boxes.
that we can use in everyday life, like how to repair
I don't see the point of all these huge shopping a car and a basic knowledge of the legal system.
centres out of town. They are difficult to get to unless A lot of subjects we learn, like geometry, just
you have a car and they are so big you can get lost aren't useful outside school.
there. It is better to shop locally near where you live.
3 Village life in Russia is dying. Almost all the young
D This is not really true because shopping centres people are moving to towns to find a decent
always provide buses to town and usually they are education and better work. There's nothing
free. anyone can do about this so we should just
accept the situation.
D I disagree with this opinion for several reasons.

D First, customers have more choice in shopping 4 Vegetarianism is not popular in Russia today but
centres and they can get what they want. it will be in the future once people realise that it
Secondly, prices are often lower than in smaller is much healthier and cheaper not to eat meat.
shops. Also, there is the fact that it will protect lots of
animals which are killed just to feed us.
D That's the end of my talk. Thanks for listening.

[JJ My topic is shopping. 2 Look at the sample questions on page 279 of the key.
Discuss the questions with your partner.
D The author doesn't approve of big shopping
centres and claims it is better to go shopping near
your home.

D To summarise, it is not true to say that shopping


centres are unnecessary. They provide a service
which is better than local shops.

D The text states that transport can be a problem.


Monologue (individual long turn) Unit 14 199
Tip: M Exercise A7
You may be given a proverb. You will need to explain
Here are some well~known proverbs. Match them with
it, give a talk stating your opinion and then answer
their meaning.
some questions about your talk. For your talk use the
following structure: The grass is always greener on the other side.
2 Don't judge a book by its cover.
Explain the proverb
3 Two heads are better than one.
2 Give example situations
4 You can't make an omelette without breaking eggs.
3 Say whether you agree or disagree with it and why
5 A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush .
4 Summarise what you have said
6 Don't cry over spilt milk.
7 Look before you leap.
II Exercise A6 8 Time is a great healer.
Look at the proverb and talk below. 9 Too many cooks spoil the broth.
10 Birds of a feather flock together.
'People in glass houses shouldn't throw stones'

The meaning of this proverb is that you should be careful a Different opinions are useful.
not to criticise someone if you have the same problem b It is not worth regretting things.
yourself. If you live in a glass house it could easily be c Be careful before you do something.
smashed by a stone. To explain what it means, if you d Something unknown seems better.
are often late, it is hypocritical to tell someone off for
e Troubles eventually pass away.
not being on time, and they could do the same to you.
As an example, my sister has a friend, Olga, who always f Anything difficult involves trouble.
says I spend too much money on clothes, but the other g Similar people have similar interests.
day she bought this really expensive pair of trainers for h Appearances can deceive.
herself. The best thing is that she already has three pairs! What you have is better than what you might have.
Generally speaking, I agree with this proverb because When a lot of people get involved, things get
people love to find fault with others when they are far complicated.
from perfect themselves. It makes me annoyed when
people do this and it happens quite often. I guess this is
because we think we are great and everyone else must be
• Exercise AS
worse. Human nature is difficult to change at the end of Explain one of the proverbs in Exercise A7 to a partner.
the day. So, in conclusion, it is true that we should not be See if they can guess which proverb you are referring to.
so quick to criticise others. We also need to be a bit more Remember that your partner may have interpreted the
understanding of each other and remember that nobody proverb in a different way.
is perfect. That's the end of my talk, thanks for listening.

How would you answer these questions about the talk? llJ Exercise A9
1 Can criticism be helpful? 1 For proverbs 1 - 4 in Exercise A7, explain them and
give your opinion using the structure in the tip box.
2 Is it good to speak your mind?
You have five minutes to think about what you want
3 Do your parents criticise you for anything? to say and make notes. Give your talk.

2 tlf@ After you have finished speaking you will


hear three questions about each proverb. If you
use this book by yourself, pause and answer each
question, then compare your answer with the sample
answer. If you use this book in class, compare
different answers amongst yourselves and then listen
200 Unit14
to the sample answers which follow.
II Exercise A10
Work in pairs. Choose a proverb from 5-10 in Exercise A7 and make up a story to illustrate what it means. Your
friend must guess the proverb .

.,.. Aim of Exercise All: to revise the speaking skills learned by comparing different answers

• ExerciseA11
1 ~ Listen to two students doing part of the speaking test. Their task is below. Which one does better and why?

STUDENT CARD
Give a talk on your favourite school subject.
Remember to say:
• which of the school subjects you like most and why;
• whether you prefer to study individually or in groups during your favourite lessons;
• whether this subject is going to be useful for you, and why/why not.
You have to talk for 1.5 - 2 minutes. The examiner will listen until you have finished.
Then he/she will ask you some questions.

2 ~ Listen again and complete the checklist.

Student 1 Student 2 Student1 Student 2


begins by stating the topic gives good reasons
covers all the points in the task speaks for long enough
summarises, not repeats, the does not hesitate much
prompts on the card
sticks to the task uses a range of language
connects the points well finishes with a summary or
conclusion

3 Work in pairs. Take it in turns to give your own talk using the same Student Card. Your partner should ask you
two or three questions after you have finished.

Suggested approach for monologue 6 Be aware of the timing of this part and make sure you can
speak for the right length of time but don't worry if the
Listen to the interlocutor's instructions carefully and
interlocutor stops you.
think about what you are asked to do: give an opinion,
7 This is a monologue so don't expect the interlocutor or
compare and contrast, explain, etc.
other student to help you.
2 Do not memorise and reproduce a topic you have
8 You can only be assessed on the language you produce so
learned by heart. You must answer the task.
use the best language you can.
3 Use any preparation time carefully: make notes which
9 Be ready to answer a few questions at the end of your talk.
cover all aspects of the task and organise your answer.
Your answers do not need to be more than two or three
4 Study and remember the functional phrases presented
sentences.
in the unit as these will help you structure your talk.
10 You can only learn how to speak by speaking. Things
5 If you're not sure what to do, or don't understand
you can do by yourself are reading texts aloud, repeating
something, ask for clarification before giving your talk.
recorded monologues following the tapescript and timing
yourself to speak on an improvised topic.

Monologue (individual long turn) Unit 14 201


Section B Speaking and answering different types of exam questions

• Exercise 81
~ Listen to a student speaking on the task below. As you listen, answer the questions.
STUDENT CARD
You have 5 minutes to read the task and think about what you want to say.

There is an English saying, 'Blood is thicker than water', meaning that family relationships
are more important/reliable than relationships with friends. Do you agree with this?

1 Does the student agree or disagree?

2 Does the'student talk about both kinds of relationship?

3 What counterargument does the student introduce and what is her response?

4 What conclusion does the student come to?


5 Think of two questions you would like to ask the student after the talk.
Now work in pairs and practise giving the talk. The person who listens should ask two questions after the talk.

II Exercise 82 II Exercise 83
Do the tasks below with a partner. As you listen, Work in pairs. Student A is the candidate and
assess your partner using the checklist on page 201. Student B is the interlocutor (the person who
listens and asks questions in the exam). Go to
Give a talk on learning English page 238 for the interlocutor's card.
Remember to discuss:
STUDENT CARD
• whether it is easy or difficult to learn English; why?
• which is most important - grammar, vocabulary, Give a 2-m inute talk on famous people.
pronunciation; why? Remember to say:
• what you prefer doing - listening, speaking, writing, • what makes people famous (writers,
reading; why? singers, politicians, etc.)
• what you could do to improve your English • what famous people/person you like,
You will have to talk for 1.5 - 2 minutes. and why
• where you prefer to get information about
Give a talk on cultural differences famous people from, and why
Remember to: • if the life of a famous person is easy, and
• give examples of cultural differences between Russia and why I why not
another country You will have to talk for 1.5 - 2 minutes. The
• say how cultural differences can affect foreign visitors, interlocutor will listen until you have finished.
tourists, etc. Then he/ she will ask you some questions.
• give reasons for cultural differences, e.g. climate,
language, etc. Compare your answers with the sample in the
• suggest ways of learning more about and understanding key on page 281.
different cultures
You will have to talk for 1.5 - 2 minutes.

Compare your answers with the sample in the key on page 280.

202 Unit14
W Exercise 84 II Exercise 86
Work in pairs. Student A is the candidate and Student Bis the Work in pairs. Here are six famous quotations.
interlocutor. Go to page 238 for the interlocutor's card. Take it in turns to talk about each of them. For
each one, say what it means, whether you agree
STUDENT CARD 1 with it and why or why not. You have five minutes
You have 5 minutes to read the task and think about what you to think about what you want to say and make
want to say. notes. Your partner should ask you two or three
There is a well-known saying, 'Money is the root of all evil'. questions from the list on page 239 after you
Explain the meaning of this saying. Do you agree with it? have finished. For your talk you can use the same
Why? I Why not? Include details and examples in your structure as for proverbs. (See Exercise A6.)
explanation.
1 'We know what we are, but know not what
You will have to talk for 1/2 - 2 minutes. The interlocutor will we may be.' (William Shakespeare)
listen until you have finished. Then he/she will ask you some
questions. 2 'Imagination is more important than
knowledge.' (Albert Einstein)
STUDENT CARD 2
3 'Ask not what your country can do for you;
You have 5 minutes to read the task and think about what you ask what you can do for your country.'
want to say. (John F. Kennedy)
There is an English saying, 'One man's meat is another man's
4 'To travel hopefully is a better thing than to
poison', meaning that what is good for one person might be
arrive.' (Robert Louis Stevenson)
bad for another. Do you agree with this?
You wil l have to talk for 1.5 - 2 minutes. The interlocutor will 5 'When everything is easy, one quickly gets
listen until you have finished. Then he/she will ask you some stupid.' (Maxim Gorky)
questions.
6 '[Russia] is a ridd le wrapped in a mystery
Compare your answers with the samples in the key on pages inside an enigma.' (Winston Churchill)
281-282. Compare your answers with the samples in the
key on pages 282-285.

B Exercise BS
Work in pairs. Student A is the candidate and Student B is the
interlocutor. Go to page 239 for the interlocutor's card.

STUDENT CARD
You have 5 minutes to read the task and think about what you
want to say.

The British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher once said 'There


is no such thing as society. There are individual men and
women, and there are families.' Do you agree with her?

You will have to talk for 1.5 - 2 minutes. The interlocutor will
listen until you have finished . Then he/she will ask you some
questions.

Compare your answer with the sample in the key on page 282.

Monologue (individual long turn) Unit 14 203


Dialogue
(two-way discussion)
In this part of the exam, candidates interact with each other and/or an interlocutor in order to carry out a
communicative task. There are two basic types of task.

1 Informal dialogue (asking for something, making suggestions and arrangements, discussing everyday topics)
For example, the candidate wants to buy a new mobile and asks the interlocutor for some advice.

2 Evaluative reasoning (making a choice or finding a solution together)


For example, two candidates must decide where to go on vacation based on a list of holiday destinations.

Here are the skills you need for these tasks.


Informal Evaluative
dialogue reasoning
start and finish a conversation t/ t/
discuss everyday topics t/ t/ You have already learned a lot of functional phrases in the
interact with your partner t/ t/ first two Speaking units and in the Writing chapter. Fill
appropriately (turn-taking) in this table with as many useful phrases as you can and
maintain a conversation then check the key on page 286.
t/ t/
ask for and give factual t/ How to organise your conversation
information Starting Involving your Ending/
find out your partner's attitude t/ t/ partner reaching a
make a request I an invitation t/ t/ conclusion
explain yourself t/ t/
come up with suggestions t/ t/
build and justify an argument t/
agree or disagree with your t/ t/
partner's opinion
build and justify a t/
counterargument
express 'for' and 'against' views t/ In your conversation you may
describe something t/ t/ Agree and Express 'for' and Ask for opinions
give good reasons t/ disagree 'against' views and alternatives
invite your partner to come up t/ t/
with suggestions
accept/reject an invitation t/ t/
make a conclusion t/
be active and polite t/ t/
reach an agreement t/
This unit will give you practice in different variants of both tasks.
204 Unit15
II>- Aim of Exercise A1: to practise using functional phrases (9) they .......................... • I

can be violent too and you say you don't like


I I ExerciseA1 that kind of thing.

1 Two students are doing the task below. Complete Student A: You have a point there. The pirates film
the dialogue with a functional phrase. There may be might be fun but there are so many films
more than one alternative. Compare your answers in about pirates these days, it's getting boring.
pairs and discuss them. (10) . .. . .... ...... .. ......................... ... . ?

You and your friend are deciding what to see at the Student B: Yeah, you're right. That leaves us with the
cinema. You can choose from: romantic comedy. It'll be good to see a
Russian movie for a change and it's quite light.
• Rambo 5 an action film
• Vampires Never Die a horror film Student A: That's fine with me. It's not perfect but it's
• Honeymoon in Sochi a romantic comedy the best of the films on the list. So, we'll
• Toy World a cartoon see Honeymoon in Sochi.
• The Longest Night a thriller (11) . . . .................... .... ................. ?
• Pirates of the Black Sea an adventure story
2 ~ Listen and check.
Discuss with your friend and choose the one film you
would both like to see. 3 Do the same task yourself with another student,
using as many of the functional phrases as you can.
Student A: Let's make a start then. You can make your own list of films to discuss.
(1) ..... .... which
film to see. Let's go through the different II>- Aim of Exercises A2-A4: to prepare for the
alternatives. information exchange task
Student B: Sure. (2) Tip:
go to Rambo 5, that looks pretty exciting. I've
seen all the Rambo films and they're great. Making requests
In this part you need to be able to form requests which
Student A: (3) ...... ................ ..... ..... .... ...... ... . .. ... are grammatically correct, appropriate and polite. There
Rambo films all seem the same to me are three ways that you can make a request more polite.
and there's a lot of violence. I'd rather see
something a bit easier viewing. 1 Add please or (very polite) possibly.
Come at 7.00 please.
Student B: I guess that means you won't much like
the horror film then. Do you possibly have time on Saturday?
(4) ... ?
2 Use a modal verb like could, would and may.
Student A: Yes, you are. I can't stand horror films. Could I use your phone?
Student B: (5).. ... .............................................. watch Would you say that again please?
the cartoon. The special effects look 3 Use an indirect question. In this case the word
amazing. order stays the same as a statement.
Student A: (6) ...................................... I saw it When is the best time to go?
last week with my brother. Do you know when the best time to go is?
(7) ..... ........................ ................................... .. ?
Will we need tickets?
Student B: The Longest Night sounds alright, that's a Could you please tell me if we'll need tickets?
possibility. (8) ... ......... .... .................... .. ...... .................. .
thrillers is that you never know what's going ..,. see Unit 10, page 153 for more information on making
to happen until the end. They keep you right indirect questions.
on the edge of your seat.

Dialogue (two-way discussion) Unit15 205


II Exercise A2 II Exercise A3
1 Work in pairs. In the dialogue below 1 Read the task below.
the ten questions and requests are
You want to join a sports club. Before joining, ask the trainer some
either grammatically incorrect or
questions about
inappropriate. Find them, discuss
why they are inappropriate and • the facilities • the opening hours
change them. • the location • how to become a member
Your interlocutor will play the part of the trainer and speak first.
Student A: Hello, there. How do you
do? I haven't seen you for 2 Before doing the task, discuss with your partner what questions you
ages. would ask the trainer.
Student B: Hello, I'm fine thanks. I 3 Reorder this dialogue of the role play activity.

heard you were away last
weekend. Did you went to D Interlocutor: You need to fill in the application form. You can
the music festival? download it from the Internet, and pay the annual fee.

Student A: Yeah, it was great. It was


D Student: Yes, I saw a movie there last month.
so much fun. Was you at a D Interlocutor: There is a pool, it's not very big though, and a nice
music festival? cosy banya. Apart from that there are exercise machines and
weights, something for everyone.
Student B. No, not yet. Anyway, I've
got a favour to ask you. Lend D Interlocutor: It depends on the category so check out the website.
me your laptop. OJ Interlocutor: So you're interested in joining our sports club?
Student A: For what? D Student: One last thing. Please tell me how I join the club.
Student B: Mine is broken and I need to
D Interlocutor: Oh, lots of things. What kind of things do you
like doing?
prepare a presentation for
Monday about the festival. D Student: Well, first I was wondering what kind of facilities the
Alright? club has.

Student A: I guess so but return it the D Interlocutor: Well, the club is just behind it. There is a map on the
next day. Who did break it? website if you need it.

Student B: My dad spilled some coffee


D Student: Great. Also, could you tell me where exactly your club is?
on it. I need to buy a new D Interlocutor: Do you know where the cinema is on Factory Street?
one but I don't have much D Student: Yes, I am. Would you mind if I asked you a few questions?
money after the festival.
Give me advice.
D Interlocutor: Twenty-four hours at the weekends and seven
o'clock until eleven on weekdays. The timetable is on the website.
Student A: I know a good website D Student: Thanks a lot, you've been a great help.
where you can get stuff like
that really cheap. Will I write
D Interlocutor: No problem, see you down the club.
it down for you? D Student: I think I'll be able to find it. Do you know when the club is
open?
Student B. Thanks. By the way...
D Student: How much does membership cost?
2 ~ Listen to a correct version D Interlocutor: Fine, no problem, anything you like.
of the dialogue and read it on page D Student: I don't really know but it would be good if there was a
286 of the key. Then act out the pool and a banya.
dialogue with a partner.
3 ~ Listen and check. Underline the five expressions used to
sound more polite.
206 Unit15
4 Act out the dialogue, then change roles. You could 2 Tick [V'] the table where the student has
also make your own dialogue about joining an English problems. Explain each problem with an example
language Speaking Club, a Drama Club, a Literary from the dialogue.
Club or a Music Club. Try to use as many 'polite'
expressions as you can. Problem? Example
understands the task

II Exercise A4 makes no language


mistakes
A student is doing a roleplay activity with an starts appropriately
interlocutor using the task below.
covers all the points in
Your friend phones you. You want your friend to go the task
skating with you. sticks to the task
• Ask about your friend's plans for the weekend rephrases, not repeats,
• Invite your friend to go skating with you the prompts on the card
• Explain why it will be really interesting is polite
• Agree a time and place to meet uses extended language
Your interlocutor will play the part of your friend and gives reasons
speak first. finishes appropriately

1 Read the dialogue below. The student's half of the 3 Rewrite the same dialogue but make the student's
dialogue is not very good. answers better, then compare with the key on page
288.
Interlocutor: So I'm calling you and you're my friend ...
Hello, could I speak to Olga please? 4 Use the ideas from this dialogue to make a similar one
Student: Hello. What are your plans for the on the topic below:
weekend? You are calling your friend to ask if he has got your
book - you think you forgot it at his/her flat. You talk
Interlocutor: I'm not sure really, what do you suggest?
about the book and the types of reading each of you
Student: I invite you to go skating with me. prefer.
Interlocutor: That sounds good but I've never been S Look at the sample answer in the key on page 288.
skating before. What makes you think I'll Find informal equivalents for these terms:
like it?
1 How are you?
Student: Skating is really interesting.
2 search for it
Interlocutor: I might as well give it a try then but I hope
I don't break anything! Do you go skating 3 enjoy
often?
4 very good
Student: No. Let's agree a time and place to meet.
5 what I like
Interlocutor: Well, I've got school on Saturday as usual
so maybe Sunday. Would the afternoon be 6 liked
alright with you? 7 an interesting book
Student: Yes. Goodbye. 8 Have a nice day!
Interlocutor: Great, so I'll be seeing you on Sunday
afternoon then. Shall we say outside the
ice rink?
Student: OK.

Dialogue (two-way discussion) Unit15 207


~Aim of Exercises AS-A6: to prepare for the evaluative reasoning task

II Exercise AS
1 What are the biggest problems faced by teenagers? Write down your ideas.

2 Compare your ideas to the prompts on the task card below.

It's not easy being a teenager! Here are some typical problems teenagers have.
• sharing a bedroom • boyfriends/girlfriends
• quarrels with parents • school exams
• not enough money • keeping up with fashion
Discuss with your friend and decide which of these is the biggest problem for teenagers today.

3 Read the sample dialogue below. There are no grammar mistakes in the dialogue but the
vocabulary is limited. Change the underlined words/phrases into something more expressive.

Student A: Is it alright if I start? I share a bedroom with my sister and it's not very good.

Student B: Why's that?

Student A: Well, when I want to go to sleep she wants to watch a film or something. I dislike that very
much. Is it the same with you?

Student B: Not really because I don't have any brothers or sisters. I do argue with my parents though.
For example, they don't let me come back home after ten o'clock. It's not fair!

Student A: I think this too. My dad is alright but my mum is quite strict. She was very angry last
Saturday night when I came in after eleven.

Student B: And money? My parents are actually quite good, they give me as much money as I need.

Student A: I'm alright too because I have a part-time job so I can have a bit of pocket money. My new
boyfriend is not a problem . But he looks quite nice so some of my friends are a bit jealous!

Student B: I want a boyfriend like that! I think exams are a problem for teenagers. I get very worried
during the exams and it can even be hard for me to go to sleep. Do you feel the same?

Student A: Yes. Exams are a very bad experience. About fashion, I hate all those people waiting to buy
something so I am not interested in shopping. I buy most of my things online.

Student B: Those shoes you were wearing last Saturday were really fashionable, so don't say you
aren't interested in fashion .

Student A: Thanks. Let's finish? Exams are the biggest problem?

Student B: Yes .

4 ~ Listen to the sample answer, paying attention to the words/phrases that are used
instead of the underlined words/phrases. Write them out and compare them with the ones you
have suggested. Practise their pronunciation.

5 Make a similar dialogue using a different set of problems. Try to use the words/phrases from the
model dialogue. Then compare your dialogue with the sample answer.

208 Unit1S
l l Exercise A6
1 ~ After the dialogue in Exercise AS, the interlocutor asks the candidate five extra
questions. Listen to each question and answer in the pause. Then listen and compare your answer
with the candidate's.

2 Work in pairs. Do the task in Exercise AS. Then Student A takes the role of the candidate and
Student B takes the role of the interlocutor and asks three questions from the list on page 240.

Get it right!
Commonly mispronounced words

~ Russian students sometimes have problems pronouncing these words. Listen and repeat.
camera /'kremgrg/ iron /'a1gn/

clothes /kfauoz/ police /pg'li:s/

comfortable /'lumftgbgl/ rouble /'rmbgl/

embarrassed / 11mbrergst/ since Isms/

fortunately /'fatfgmth/ walk /w:J:k/ and work /w3:kf

hamburger /'hrernb3:gg/

Suggested approach for the Speaking Test


1 Listen to the interlocutor's instructions.

2 Study and remember the functional phrases presented in the Speaking Chapter as these
will help you structure your answers.

3 If you're not sure what to do, or don't understand something, ask for clarification.

4 Be aware of the timings of the different parts, and know when you should speak, listen,
interact with your partner, interact with the interlocutor, etc.

S It's a speaking test, not a listening test. So speak as much as possible when it's appropriate.
Don't just give one-word answers. The assessor needs some language to assess.

6 However, you must be sensitive to turn-taking. There has to be a balance between saying too
little and saying too much.

7 The interlocutor's responsibility is to give clear instructions and to manage the interview;
your responsibility is to bring the instructions/task to life - to put flesh on the bones!

8 Think about your body language, particularly when you are talking with your partner.
Turn towards each other a little, look at your partner when (s)he is speaking. Look interested.

9 There are no right and wrong answers to the tasks so don't worry that you have said the
wrong thing.

10 You can only learn how to speak by speaking. Things you can do by yourself are reading
aloud, repeating recorded dialogues following the audioscript and practising monologues.
For the interactive tasks, find a partner to practise with.

Dialogue (two-way discussion) Unit 15 209


Student B: I disagree. It's great to get back to school
Section B Speaking and answering
after the long summer and see all your mates
exam questions
again . Summer is lovely but I'm glad always
to start school again, especially this year
• Exercise 81 when it's my last one.
1 Two students are answering the task below. There Student A: Alright, we differ on that one. Halloween
are eight grammar mistakes in the dialogue. Find and isn't on the list unfortunately but there isn't a
correct them. Russian equivalent.
You and your friend are discussing which is the best Student B: That's true. New Year. That's got to be my
festival in Russia . You can choose from: favourite. The atmosphere is just unique,
• International Women's Day both for kids and adults. Am I right there?
• May 9th
I Student A: One hundred percent. I think we came at our
• September 1st
decision. New Year it is with May 9th a close
• New Year second.
Discuss with your friend and choose the one holiday
you both think is the best. 2 f)lHJ Listen and check. Correct the mistakes in
the dialogue.
Student A: Is it alright if I start? 3 Listen again. In pairs, discuss and analyse the
Student B: Sure, go ahead . performance of Student A and Student B using the
table as a checklist.
Student A: What do you think about the first one, March
8th? I really like this day because it is the Yes/No Example
start of spring and it's a great chance to give discussed all the options
flowers to every women in our lives. explained their choices
Student B: That's true but it is seeming quite reached an agreement
commercial these days. The price of flowers interacted appropriately
before March 8th is huge! agreed/disagreed
Student A: I know what do you mean but all of these politely
holidays are commercial now. Anyway, asked for each other's
let's go on to May 9th. Victory day is very opinion
important I think, even though it's more than used accurate grammar
half a century after the end of the war. used a variety of
Student B: I agree with you there. I wouldn't exactly grammar
describe it as my favourite holiday used idiomatic
although. It is quite a serious time, more for vocabulary
remembering than celebrating. There are still spoke clearly and loudly
some peoples alive who were in the war and
May 9th must be very emotional for them. 4 Do the same task yourself with another student. You
What about September 1st? can discuss the same holidays or change some or all
of them. Ask someone to listen, or record yourself,
Student A: Oh, that's just the start of another school
so you can analyse your own performance using the
year. I do like this tradition of the first bell
checklist above.
when one of the new kids rings in the
beginning of term . Other than that, it's just
the ordinary day really.

210 Unit15
II Exercise 82
Work in pairs. Student A is the candidate and Student B is the interlocutor. Go to page 240 for the
interlocutor's card. Read your card, then talk for 1 -1.5 minutes. When you have finished, swap
roles. Ask someone to listen, or record yourself, so you can analyse your own performance using the
checklist in Exercise A4 Question 2 on page 207.

Tip:
During the discussion:
• make sure all the options have been discussed
• when discussing each option first use the information that is contrary to what the student says
• you may choose to make use of some ideas only
• do not speak first all the time but ask the student what he/she thinks about the options
• invite the student to come up with his/her suggestions, especially if he/she readily agrees with the
things you say. If the student says all the time, 'What do you think about it?' without expressing
his/her own opinion, say, 'Sorry, I don't know.' or 'I'm not sure. How do you feel about it?'

STUDENT CARD
You play the part of a student living in a host family in England. You go to the son/daughter in the family
and ask to use his/her bicycle. You want to go for a bike ride.
• Ask for the bike and explain what you need it for • Answer some questions about cycling
• Ask for advice on where to cycle • Invite the son/daughter to go
somewhere with you
You begin the conversation . The interlocutor will play the part of the son/daughter.

~ Now listen to 2 candidates doing the task and compare your answer with the sample answer
in the key on page 290.

I! Exercise 83
Work in pairs. Student A is the candidate and Student B is the interlocutor. Go to page 240 for the
interlocutor's card. Read your card, then talk for 1 -1.5 minutes. When you have finished, swap
roles. Ask someone to listen, or record yourself, so you can analyse your own performance using the
checklist in Exercise A4 Question 2 on page 207.

STUDENT CARD
You are thinking of going to an international youth camp in Germany in July to practise English.
Before making a decision you will talk with the youth camp agent about:
• camp location (place) and facilities Remember to:
• languages spoken in the camp • be active and polite
• activities • get all the information you need
• advantages of this particular camp • decide whether you will go
The interlocutor will play the part of the agent
and will speak first.

Compare your answer with the sample answer in the key on page 290.

Dialogue (two-way discussion) Unit 15 211


II Exercise 84
Work in pairs. Student A is the candidate and Student B is the interlocutor. Go to page 240 for the
interlocutor's card. Read your card, then talk for 1 -1.5 minutes. When you have finished, swap
roles. Ask someone to listen, or record yourself, so you can analyse your own performance using the
checklist in Exercise A4 Question 2 on page 207.

STUDENT CARD
You play the part of a student living in a hostel in Britain. You are trying to revise for a test but your
neighbour next door is playing some loud music. Go to your neighbour and say that the music is
too loud.
• Ask your neighbour to turn the music down and explain why
• Ask what music your neighbour likes


Answer some questions about what you like
• Accept your neighbour's invitation and ask for some details
The interlocutor will play the part of the neighbour and start the conversation.

~ Now listen to two candidates doing the task and compare your answer with the sample
answer in the key on page 291.

llJ Exercise BS
Work in pairs. Student A is the candidate and Student B is the interlocutor. Go to page 241 for the
interlocutor's card. Read your card, then talk for 1 -1.5 minutes. When you have finished, swap
roles. Ask someone to listen, or record yourself, so you can analyse your own performance using the
checklist in Exercise A4 Question 2 on page 207.

STUDENT CARD
A group of American teenagers are visiting your school next month. You and your friend are
responsible for organising an evening activity for them. You can choose from:
• a concert of traditional Russian music • a party
• a talk about Russian school education • tickets to an ice-hockey game
Discuss with your friend and choose the one you both would like to be responsible for. You begin the
conversation. The interlocutor will play the part of your friend.

Remember to:
• discuss all the options
• be polite
• take an active part in the conversation:
- explain the situation
- come up with your own ideas
- give good reasons
- find out your friend's attitudes and take them into account
- invite your friend to come up with suggestions
• come to an agreement

Compare your answer with the sample answer in the key on page 291.

212 Unit15
B Exercise 86
1 Work with a partner. Imagine your town is planning to build new facilities for young people. Here
are some pictures of the proposed facilities.

First talk to each other about the


advantages and disadvantages of each
facility. Then decide which two would
be the most popular with young people.

Talk together for about three minutes.

2 Work with a partner and discuss the following questions. Talk for about four minutes.

Do you think it is important for young people to have places where they can meet? Why? I Why not?

If there were more facilities for young people in a city, do you think this would have an effect on the
rate of teenage crime?

In some cities, they ask for citizens' opinions before building new facilities. Do you think this is a
good idea?

In the future, do you think people will prefer to live in big cities with a lot of facilities or in the
countryside with cleaner air?

Compare your answer with the sample answer in the key on page 291.

P Exercise 87
Work in groups of three. Two people are students and the third is the interlocutor. The interlocutor will
listen and assess you using the checklist in Exercise B1 on page 210. When the students have finished
speaking, the interlocutor will ask them some questions from page 241. Swap roles when you have
finished the task.

STUDENT CARD
You and your friend are discussing how the world will look in 20 years' time. Look at the following
and decide together which one will change the most:
• Transport
• Communication
• Leisure activities
• Accommodation
After you have finished the interlocutor will ask you some follow-up questions.

flTu) Now listen to 2 candidates doing the task and compare your answer with the sample answer
in the key on page 292.

Dialogue (two-way discussion) Unit 15 213


Appendices
Appendix 1: Irregular verbs
CEF Past Past CEF Past Past
Level Infinitive simple participle Translation Level Infinitive simple participle Translation

Al be was/were been 6b!Tb Bl light lit lit OCBell.\aTb,3aJKHraTb


A2 become became become CTaHOBHTbCll A2 lose lost lost TepllTb
Al begin began begun Ha'IHHaTb Al make made made 11enaTb
Bl bite bit bitten KycaTb A2 mean meant meant HMeTbB BHJIY
Bl bleed bled bled KpOBOTO'IHTb Al meet met met ec-rpe'!aTb
Bl blow blew blown JIYTb Al pay paid paid nnaTHTb
A2 break ' broke broken noMaTb,pa36HeaTb Bl prove proved proved, proven JIOKa3bJBaTb
A2 bring brought brought npHHOCHTb A2 put put put KnaCTb
B2 broadcast broadcast broadcast TpaucnHpoeaTb Bl quit quit quit npeKpall.\aTb,nOKHJlaTb
A2 build built built CTpOHTb Al read/ri:d/ read/red/ read/red/ 'IHTaTb
Bl burn burnt burnt ropeTb, )l(e'!b Al ride rode ridden e3)1HTb eepXOM
Al buy bought bought noKynaTb A2 ring rang rung 3BOHHTb
Al catch caught caught nOBHTb Bl rise rose risen UOJIHHM8TbCll
Al choose chose chosen BbJ6HpaTb Al run ran run 6e)l(aTb
Al come came come npHXOJIHTb Al say said said roeop11Tb,cKa3aTb
A2 cost cost cost CTOHTb Al see saw seen BH)leTb
A2 cut cut cut pe38Tb B2 seek sought sought HCKaTb
Bl deal dealt dealt HMeTb)leno A2 sell sold sold npo11aeaTb
Bl dig dug dug KOnaTb Al send sent sent nocbinaTb,OTnpaenllTb
Al draw drew drawn p11coeaTb,TllHYTb Bl set set set CTaBHTb,pa3Mell.\aTb
Al drink drank drunk UHTb Bl sew sewed sewn WHTb
Al drive drove driven BeCTH MaWHHY Bl shake shook shaken TPllCTH,BCTp!IXHB8Tb
Al eat ate eaten eCTb, KywaTb Bl shine shone shone CBeTHTb,CH!ITb
A2 fall fell fallen na,11aTb Bl shoot shot shot CTpen!ITb
Bl feed fed fed KOpMHTb Al show showed shown noKa3bIBaTb
Al feel felt felt 'IYBCTBOB8Tb A2 shut shut shut 3aKpbIBaTb
Bl fight fought fought 60pOTbCll Bl sink sank sunk TOHYTb
Al find found found HaXO)IHTb Al sit sat sat CH)leTb
Al fly flew flown neTaTb Al sleep slept slept en aTb
B2 forbid forbade forbidden 3anpell.\aTb Bl smell smelt smelt 'IYBCTBOBaTb 3anax,HJOXaTb
Bl forecast forecast forecast npe)ICK83bJBaTb Al speak spoke spoken roeop11Tb
A2 forget forgot forgotten 3a6bJB8Tb A2 spell spelt spelt np0113HOCHTb no 6yKBaM
Bl forgive forgave forgiven npoll.\aTb A2 spend spent spent TP8THTb
Bl freeze froze frozen 3aMep3aTb Bl spill spilt spilt npon11eaTb
Al get got got nony'laTb B2 split split split pacKanb1BaTb,pa3611eaTb
Al give gave given )18B8Tb Bl spoil spoilt spoilt UOpTHTb
Al go went gone H)ITH A2 stand stood stood CTO!!Tb
A2 grow grew grown paCTH, Bblpall.\HBaTb A2 steal stole stolen KpaCTb
Bl hang* hung hung eewaTb Bl stick stuck stuck np11KneHB8Tb,BTblK8Tb
Al have had had HMeTb Bl sting stung stung )l(anHTb
Al hear heard heard CnbJWaTb Al swim swam swum nnaeaTb
Bl hide hid hidden npllTaTb B2 swing swung swung Ka'!aTb,pacKa'IHBaTbC!I
A2 hit hit hit y)lapllTb Al take took taken 6paTb
A2 hold held held 11ep)l(aTb Al teach taught taught Y'IHTb, o6y'laTb
A2 hurt hurt hurt yw11611Tb, npH'IHHHTb 6onb Bl tear tore torn peaTb
A2 keep kept kept 11ep)l(aTb,XpaHHTb Al tell told told cKa3aTb, paccKa3blB8Tb
Al know knew known 3HaTb Al think thought thought )lyMaTb
Bl lead led led eeCT11 A2 throw threw thrown 6pocaTb
Al learn learnt learnt Y'IHTb,H3Y'laTb Bl wake woke woken 6y1111Tb,npocbmaTbCll
Al leave left left OCTaBnllTb,UOKHJIRTb Al wear wore worn HOCHTb (o)le)l(Jly)
A2 lend lent lent 11aeaTb eJfil!Mbl A2 win won won Bb!HrpblBaTb
Bl let let let no1eonllTb Al write wrote written n11caTb
A2 lie'* lay lain ne)l(aTb

*hang is regular when we talk about the capital punishment af hanging.


**lie is regular when it means 'to not tell the truth'.
214 Appendices
Appendix 2: Word + preposition combinations
Verbs Adjectives Nouns
accuse someone of acceptable to advantage of
agree with accustomed to agreement about/with
apologise for afraid of apology for
appeal to amazed/astonished at/by application for
apply for annoyed with/about approval of
approve of anxious about argument about
argue with/about ashamed of attack on
arrest someone for attracted to attitude to(wards)
arrive in/at aware of attraction to(wards)
be on belief in
believe in
belong to
blame someone for (put the) blame on someone
boast about
borrow something from someone
charge someone with capable of choice between
choose between characteristic of combination of
combine with conscious of comparison between
comment on/about crazy about complaint about
compare with curious about congratulations on
complain about connection between
concentrate on cruelty to(wards)
congratulate on
consist of
decide about/on dependent on decision about/on
depend on different from decrease in
differ from dissatisfied with delay in
disagree with/about doubtful about difference between
divide into (have) difficulty in/with
disadvantage of
disagreement with/about
(have) doubts about
excuse someone for enthusiastic about experience of/in
envious of expert at/in
'
excited about
face up to famous for
forgive someone for fed up with
fond of
friendly with
frightened of
good at
guilty of
hear of/about/from helpful to someone (no) hope for

Appendices 215
Verbs Adjectives Nouns
insist on incapable of increase in
interfere with interested in information about
(have no) intention of
interest in
joke about jealous of
keen on knowledge of
laugh at/about lack of
lend something to someone
listen to
mistake someone for married to
object to • opposed to objection to
opinion of
opposition to
pay for pleased with (have/take) pleasure in
prepare for popular with preference for
prevent someone from proud of preparation for
protest about (have/take) pride in
provide someone with
punish someone for
quarrel about
refer to related to reaction to
rely on respected for reason for
result in responsible for report on/about
responsibility for
result of
rise in
room for
save someone from satisfied with similarity between
sentence someone to sensitive to(wards) solution to
smile at serious about (have/show) sympathy for
stand for sick of
succeed in similar to
suffer from sorry for/about
suspicious of
sympathetic to(wards)
talk to someone about something tired of trouble with
thank someone for typical of
think of/about
used to use of
wait for
warn someone about
worry about

216 Appendices
Appendix 3: Preposition + word combinations
at dawn/night for ages/ever in the news on purpose
at a distance for your birthday in someone's opinion on sale
at first for a change in pain on second thoughts
at first sight for the first/last time in pieces on strike
at a glance for good in practice/theory on time
at a guess for hire in prison on trial
at gunpoint for life in private/public on TV I the radio
at home/school for nothing in relation to on the Internet
at a later stage for once in safety on the whole
at last for sale in secret
at the latest for someone's sake in self-defence out of breath
at least for the time being in stock out of control
at once for a visit/holiday in the sun/shade out of danger
at peace/war for a while in tears out of date
at present in (good) time out of order
at a profit from now on in touch out of place
at random from time to time in the town/countryside out of practice
at risk in tune out of print
at sea in addition (to) in turn out of the question
at the same time in advance in (your) twenties out of reach
at a time of in agreement with in uniform out of sight
at times in answer to in use out of stock
at work in bed in view of three/six etc. out of ten
in bloom in a way out of work
by accident in any case in other words
by bus/car/plane/bike in charge in writing underage
by chance in common (with) under attack
by cheque in danger (of) off duty under your breath
by day/night in the dark off work under control
by far in (great) detail under pressure
by hand in difficulty on account of
by heart in the end on behalf of up to and including
by land/sea/air in fact on business up to date
by all means in fashion on a diet
by means of in favour of on duty with a smile/laugh etc.
by mistake inflames on fire within reach (of) ,
by oneself in general on foot without fail
by(25) % in half/two on the other hand without success
by post/phone/email in honour of on holiday without warning
by return in a hurry on the increase
by sight in ink/pencil on a journey
(take) by surprise in Italian/Chinese etc. on loan
by yourself in length/height etc. on someone's mind
bit by bit/one by one etc. in love on order
in a good/bad mood on the phone

Appendices 217
Appendix 4: Word families
Verb Noun Noun (person) Adjective Participle(s) used as Adverb
adjective(s)
act activity, act activist active/inactive acting actively/inactively
attract attraction, attractiveness attractive/unattractive attractively

comfort comfort/ comforter comfortable/ comforting/ comfortably/


discomfort uncomfortable discomforting uncomfortably
consider consideration/ considerable/ considering considerably/
inconsideration, inconsiderable, inconsiderably,
considerateness/ considerate/ considerately/
inconsiderateness inconsiderate inconsiderately
endanger danger dangerous endangered dangerously

befriend friendship, friendliness friend friendly/unfriendly befriended

defend defence defender defenceless defended


'
educate education educationalist educated/uneducated
help help, helper helpful/ helping helpfully/
helpfulness/ unhelpful, unhelpfully,
helplessness helpless helplessly
honour/dishonour honour/dishonor, honourable/honest honoured/ dishonoured honourably/
honesty/dishonesty dishonourable/dishonest dishonourably, honestly/
dishonestly
interest interest/disinterest interesting/ interestingly
uninteresting,
interested/uninterested/
disinterested

organise organisation organiser organised


disorganised

patience/impatience patient patient/impatient patiently/impatiently

protect protection protector protective/unprotective protected/ unprotected

realise reality real/ unreal really

rely reliability/unreliability, reliable/ unreliable, reliably/unreliably,


reliance reliant reliantly

respect/disrespect respect/disrespect, respecter respectful/ respected respectfully/


respectability disrespectful. disrespectfully,
respectable respectably

satisfy/dissatisfy satisfaction/ satisfactory/ satisfying/unsatisfying satisfyingly


dissatisfaction unsatisfactory, satisfiable satisfied/dissatisfied

science scientist scientific/unscientific scientifically/


unscientifically

sense sense, sensor sensible/ insensible, sensibly, sensitively/


sensation, sensuality, sensitive/ insensitive, insensitively, sensually,
senselessness sensual, sensuous, senselessly
senseless

socialise society, social sociable/unsociable socialising, socially


sociablity, socialism, socialised/unsocialised
socialising,
socialisation
tolerate tolerance/intolerance tolerable/intolerable, tolerated tolerantly/intolerantly
tolerant/intolerant

use/disuse, misuse use/disuse, misuse user useful/useless, used/unused/disused/


usability useable/unuseable misused

218 Appendices
Appendix 5: False friends
English word Its correct Russian equivalent Russian 'false friend' Its correct English equivalent
accord cornacue,eAHHOAYUJHe aKKOPA chord

accurate npasHRbHblli, TO'!Hblli aKKypaTHblli neat, punctual

actual peanbHbili, OOARHHHbili, aKTyanbHb!li topical


Hb!HeUJHHii

angina CTeHOKapAHll auruua tonsillitis

artist XYAOJKHHK apTHCT actor

assistant noMOlllHHK aCCHCTeHT the academic position of


junior teacher

auditorium Jan,ayAHTOpHll ayAHTOpHll, ny6nHKa, audience


cnyUJa10111He

band I) neuTa 6attAa gang


2) MYJhIKanhHall rpynna

biscuit ne'!ettbe,cyxapb 6HCKBHT sponge cake

blank I) nponycK 6naHK form


2) npo6en

brilliant I) caepKa10111Hii 6punnuaHT diamond


2)3AOpoao!

cabinet I) UJKacj> c lllllHKaMH K86HHeT office, study, consulting room


2) K86HHeT MHHHCTpOB

cake, cakes TOpT, nHpolKHOe Ke Kc fruitcake, muffin

cistern 6aK, 6a'!OK YHHT838 QHCTepua tank

to champion Ja111H111aTh, 6opOTbCll, 6b!Tb '!eMnHOHOM/ to be a champion I


noMeplKHB8Tb Karo-To AeR8Tb KOrO-TO '!eMnHOHOM to make a champion of
somebody

chef UJecj>-noaap UJecj> chief, boss

complexion QBeTRHQ8 KOMnneKQHll constitution

clay rnuua Kneii glue

climax Bb!Clllall TO'IK8, KYRbMHH8QHll KRHM8KC menopause

compositor ua6op111HK KOM003HTOp composer

concurrent I) conYTCTBYIOlllee KOHKypeHT competitor


06CTOllTeRbCTBO
2) COB08A8l0111Hii

concourse CTe'!euue,cKonneuue KOHKypc contest, competition

conductor AHPHlKep KOHAYKTOP ticket collector

data AaHHhre A8TB date

decade AeCllTHneTHe AeKSAa ten-day period

decoration l)yKpaUieHHe,y6paHCTBO AeKopaQHll set, setting


2) OpAeH

expertise onb!T, KOMneTeHQHll, 3PYAHQHll 3KCnepTH38 expert report or examination,


inspection, appraisal

extravagant paCTO'IHTenbHblli, Tpe6YI0111Hii 3KCTpaBaraHTHblli eccentric, bizarre,


6onbUJHX paCXOAOB preposterous
fabric TKaHb cj>a6puKa factory
family ceMbll cpaMHRHll surname, last name
genial PBAYUJHhili, cepAe'!Hhrii reHHanbHhrii brilliant, great, of genius

Appendices 219
English word Its correct Russian equivalent Russian 'false friend' Its correct English equivalent
honour 'leCTb,Aonr fOHOp arrogance

hospital 6onbHHQa rocnwranb military hospital

intelligence I) yM, HHTenneKT HHTennureHQHll intellectuals


2) pa3ee11Ka

intelligent YMHbli\, pa3yMHbli\ HHTennureHTHblH intellectual, cultured

list cnHCOK nHCT 1) leaf


2) sheet

lunatic AY1I1eeH06onbHOi\, 6e3yMeQ nyHaTHK sleepwalker

magazine lKypHan Mara3HH shop

mark 3HaK;MeTKa,noMeTKa MapKa 1) stamp


2) make I brand name

marmalade AlKeM, noeu11no MapMenaA sweets similar to jellybeans

mayor M3p ropo11a Mai\ op major

novel poMaH Hoeenna short story

partisan CTOpOHHHK,npueeplKeHeQ napTH3aH guerrilla

physique TenocnoJKeHHe cpH3HK physicist

physician epa'I cpH3HK physicist

pretend npHTBOpllTbCll npeTeH11oeaTb claim

process npoQecc, Ho He e cy11e npoQecc (cy11e6Hb1i\) trial, proceedings

prospect l)BHA,nepcneKTHBa npocneKT 1) avenue


2) nepcneKTHBbl, 6y11y1Qee 2) outline
3) booklet

receipt pacnHCKa,KBHTaHQHll peQenT prescription

replica TO'IHall KOUHll pennuKa 1) remark, retort


2) cue, one's lines

resin cMona pe3HHa rubber, gum

satin aTnac caTHH sateen

smoking KypeHHe CMOKHHf dinner jacket

speculation pa3MbilllneHHe, npe11nonoJKeHHe cneKynllQHll profiteering

sympathetic CO'IYBCTBYIOIQHH CHMnaTH'IHblH likeable, nice

tax Han or TaKCa dachshund

tent nanaTKa TeHT canopy, marquee

terminus KOHe'IHall OCTaHOBKa TepMHHITepMHHaJI term, terminal

trace cne11 Tpacca course, route, routing

translation nepeeo11 TpaHcnllQHll transmission, broadcast

trap KanKaH, noey1I1Ka Tpan ladder, ramp, stairs

trek noxo11 (ne1I1ui\ unu Ha BblO'IHbIX TpeK track race, racecourse


lKHBOTHblX)

urbane Y'ITHBblH ropo11cKoi\,yp6aHHCTH'leCKHH urban

valet naKei\,KaMepAHHep eaneT knave

velvet 6apxaT eenbeeT corduroy

vine no3a BHHO wine

virtuous QenoMy11peHHb1i\ BHPTY03Hb!H consummate

220 Appendices
Appendix 6: Phrasal verbs
add (sth) up to calculate the total of two or more numbers
blow (sth) away/down If something blows away, or if the wind blows something away, that thing moves because the wind blows it
blow (sth) out If a fla me blows out, or if you blow it out, it stops burning because you or the wind have blown it
blow (sth/sb) up to destroy something or kill someone with a bomb
break down If a machine or vehicle breaks down, it stops working.
break in/into to get into a building or car using force, usually to steal something
break up If two people break up, they stop having a relationship.
When schools or colleges break up, the classes end and the holidays begin.
bring (sb) up to care for a child until it is an adult
carry on (sth) to continue doing something
carry (sth) out to do or complete something, especially something that you have said you would do or that you have been told to do
catch up with to meet someone you know after not seeing them for a period of time and talk about what you have been doing
check in to go to the desk at an airport, so that you can be told where you will be sitting and so that your bags can be put on the aircraft
check out to leave a hotel after paying and returning your room key
come out If a book, record, film, etc. comes out, it becomes available for people to buy or see.
When the sun, the moon, or a star comes out, it appears in the sky.
come round to visit someone in their home
end up to finally be in a particular place or situation
fall over If someone or something falls over, they fall to the ground or onto their side.
fill (sth) in/out to write the necessary information on an official document
fill (sth) up to become full, or to make something become full
find (sth) out to get information about something, or to learn a fact for the first time
get (sb) up to wake up and get out of bed, or make someone do this
get off (sth) to leave a bus, train, aircraft or boat
get on (with) to have a good relationship
get on to manage or deal with a situation, especially successfully
get on (sth) to go onto a bus, train, aircraft or boat
give (sth) away to give something to someone without asking for payment
give (sth) back to return something to the person who gave it to you
give in to finally agree to what someone wants, after refusing for a period of time
give (sth) in to give a piece of written work or a document to someone for them to read, judge or deal with
give (sth) out to give something to a large number of people
give (sth) up If you give up a habit, such as smoking, or something such as alcohol. you stop doing it or using 1t
go for to choose something
go off If a light or machine goes off, it stops working
go on to continue to happen or exist
go out If two people go out together, they have a romantic relationship with each other.
go out If a light or something that is burning goes out, 1t stops producing light or heat.
grow up to gradually become an adult
hand (sth) in to give a piece of written work to a teacher
hand (sth) out to give something to each person in a group or place
hang about/around to spend time somewhere, usually doing very little
hang on to wait for a short time
hang out to spend a lot of time in a place or with someone
hang up to finish a conversation on the telephone
hold on to wait for a short time
hold (sb/sth) up to make something or someone slow or late
hurry up to do something more quickly
join in to become involved in an activity with other people

Appendices 221
keep on to continue to do something, or to do something again and again
knock (sb) down to hit someone with a vehicle and injure or kill them
lie down to move into a position in which your body is flat, usually in order to sleep or rest
look after to take care of someone or something by keeping them healthy or in good condition
look forward to to feel happy and excited about something that is going to happen
look (sth) up to try to find a piece of information by looking in a book or on a computer
move in to begin living in a new home
move out to stop living in a particular home
pass (sth) on to give something to someone else
pick (sb/sth) up to lift someone or something using your hands
pick (sb/sth) up to collect someone who is waiting for you, or to collect something that you have left somewhere
put (sth) down If you put the phone down, you put the part of the telephone that you speak into back to its usual position.
put (sth) off to arrange to do something at a later time
put (sth) on to put clothes or shoes onto your body
put (sth) on to make a piece of equipment work by pressing a switch
put (sth) out to make something that is burning stop burning
put (sth) up to spread something that is folded or rolled up, such as a tent, umbrella, etc. so that it is ready to be used
ring (sb) up to telephone someone
ring (sb) back to telephone someone who rang you earlier or to telephone someone for a second time
run out (of) to finish, use or sell all of something, so that there is none left
set off/out to start a journey
set sth up to formally establish a new company, organisation, system, way of working, etc.
show (sb) around/round to go with someone and show them a place
show up to arrive somewhere
shut (sth) down If a computer or machine shuts down or someone shuts it down, it stops operating.
sign up to arrange to do an organised activity
split up If two people who have a romantic relationship split up, they finish their relationship.
start (sth) off to begin by doing something, or to make something begin by doing something
switch (sth) off to turn off a light, television, etc. by using a switch
take off If an aircraft takes off, it leaves the ground and begins to fly.
take (sth) off to remove something, especially clothes
take (sb) out to go somewhere with someone and pay for them
take (sth) up to start doing a particular activity or job
throw (sth) away/out to get rid of something that you do not want any more
tidy (sth) up to make a place or a collection of things tidy
try (sth) on to put on a piece of clothing to discover if it fits you or if you like it
turn (sb/sth) into to change and become someone or something different, or to make someone or something do this
turn (sth) down to reduce the level of sound or heat that something produces
turn (sth) off to move the switch on a machine, light, etc. so that it stops working, or to stop the supply of water, electricity, etc.
turn (sth) on to move the switch on a machine, light, etc. so that it starts working, or to start the supply of water, electricity, etc.
turn (sth) up to increase the level of sound or heat that a machine produces
turn up to arrive or appear somewhere, usually unexpectedly
wake (sb) up to stop sleeping or to make someone else stop sleeping
wash (sth) up to clean the plates, pans, and other things that you have used for cooking and eating
wear (sth) out to use something so much that it is damaged and cannot be used any more, or to become damaged in this way
work out to exercise in order to improve the strength or appearance of your body
write (sth) down to write something on a piece of paper so that you do not forget it

222 Appendices
Appendix 7: Model answers
Letters
Cl You have received a letter from your English- Cl You have received a letter from your English- Cl You have received a letter from your English-
speaking friend Daniel, who writes: speaking pen -friend Judy, who writes: speaking friend Graham, who writes:

You wrote that you saw 'The Three Sisters' at the It was funny to hear about you going to McDonalds. I was thinking about what we were talking about on
theatre. Is the theatre stiff popular in Russia? Do you I didn't realise you had them in Russia too! Tell me, the phone the other day. Do you agree with me that
prefer plays to films? Are there any good modem plays is fast food popular in Russia? Should people try and pop music today has run out of ideas? Is there any
in Russia? avoid junk food? What do you think about this? Right - good Russian music being made? What will the future
I must get back to my history homework. of pop music look like? I just don't know after that
I'd like to go to the theatre some time myself but with terrible concert I went to last Saturday.
this part-time job and all my studies I just don't have Write a letter to Judy.
time. In your letter Write a letter to Graham.

- answer her questions In your letter


Write a letter to Darren.
- ask 3 questions about her history homework - answer his questions
In your letter
Write 100-140 words. - ask 3 questions about the concert Graham
- answer his questions
went to
- ask 3 questions about his part-time job Remember t he rules of letter writing.
Write 100-140 words.
Write 100-140 words.
Remember the rules of letter writing.
Remember the rules of letter writing. 33 Ku.zminsky Prospekb
Torzhok
April ZOth
11/9 Zhukov Street Hi Jt1d.y, l<emerovo, Rt1ssia.
l<ra:mogorsk Grea.b bo hear from you a.gain and I'm sorry Jt1ne ZOth
December 'fth for nob writing for ages. I've been very lazy Hi Graham,
Dear Darren, rec:e.nl:ly. lb was nic:e. bo speak bo you and I'm sorry
Thanks for your lasb l.etber. lb sounds like aboub the ba.d tine. The connedi.on can be
Ld me answer your qt1estions. Yes, a lof; of
the party was fun and it was a shame I wasn' b d,iffi,aitt when I'm phoning abroad.
there. ~pie like fasb food, and nob jt1sb kids. Aboub
nob ea.bing this kind of food, I'd agree, bt1b it t-5 Mien you ask my opini.on abot1b pop mt1sic,
Aboub the the.a./;re, you asked if ~pie still I'd agree tha.b it i6 in a bit of a crisi.6. As for
liked it. Yes they d.LJ, and we have severat qt1ic.k and basty so ~pie atways wi.Ll. You ask
my opini.on and I'd say tha.b having fasb food the Rt1ssian mt1sic sce.ne, there a.re a feN decenb
decenb the.a./;res here. As bo whether I think bands aboub and I'll posb some links on my
onc;e. in a while. i6 nob boo ba.d for you.
pl,a.ys a.re bdber than films, I think they a.re Fac.ebook page. You wonder wha.b pop mt1sic wi.Ll
differe.nb genres and hard. bo compare. Fina.LL!J, I hope you managed bo finish yot1r homework. look like in the fuwre. I reckon tha.b technology
you wanb bo know if ~pie write pl,a.ys todd.y. To Mia.b did you have bo d.LJ? Did it We you a wi.Ll pl,a.y a bigger role and mosb sot1nds wi.Ll be
be honesb, I'm nob a fan of conbempora.ry the.a./;re ltmg bime? Are you inbe.resbed in hi6bory? I like comprAber genera.bed.
bt1b it exisbs. hi6bory so maybe I can help you nexb bime. Tatking of mt1sic, wha.b was thi6 conc:e.rb
I was wtW!As aboub yot1r po.ri;-ti,me job. Mia.b Give my besb bo all your famiJ.y and write tha.b you wenb bo? Miy M you say tha.b it was
M you M exactty? Is it inbe.resWig? How M a.gain soon. Don'b go bo Mcl)onatds boo often! benibie? Have you ever been bo one which was
you batanc:e. work and swd.y? lb S01Ands very even worse?!
d.j,ff;,a;tt. Tell me more aboub thi6 in your nexb Tha.b's all from me now. I'll phone nexb week.
Regards,
l.etber. Tha.b's all for now. t' d bdber go, so We
Vita.Ly
c.are.. Ta.ke it easy,
(140 words) Pa.rAl
Besb wi6hes,
£1.ina (139 words)

(1 45 words)

Cl You have received a letter from your English- Moscow, Rt1ssia.


speaking friend Helen, who writes: October 5th
H~ Helen,
... so it's a a great day out. Is there a nice day trip lb's atways good bo hear from you. I'm gt.ad wive still both gob
somewhere not far from where you live? What is bime bo write reat ieUers, nob jt1sb emails.
interesting about it? Do you think foreigners would Yot1r qt1estion abot1b day tny.; made me think. I'd recommend
enjoy it? Sergi,e.v Posa.d which i6 only a shorb brain journey a.way. lb's inbe.resWig
there btxaJAse it has one of the mosb imporba.nb cathedrals in Rt1ssia..
On a different topic, now I'm feeling better at last, I
Yot1 ask if foreigners would like it. Ad«a.LL!J, lof;s of foreign bourisbs
might start dance lessons again.
M go there and bours a.re available in severat lan9t1a.ges.
Write a letter to Helen. I'm sorry bo hear you were i.Ll. lb wasn'b anything seliotls, was it?
Are yot1 st1re you a.re back bo full heatth? Did you have bo have any
In your letter bime off school? I ha.be being i.Ll and my mt1m says I'm a ba.d patienb.
- answer her questions Thanks a.gain for the /.ett;er and keep well!
- ask 3 questions about Helen's health
Love,
Write 100-140 words.
Tracey
Remember the rules of letter writing.
(135 words)

Appendices 223
Essays
C2 Comment on the follow ing statement. C2 Comment on the following statement. C2 Comment on the following statement.

People never change. They get older and more There is a saying in English that you are what you eat, Not enough foreign tourists visit Russia. We need to
experienced but their basic character is fixed from a meaning that your health depends on your diet. develop the tourist industry as this would be good for
very young age. the economy and general prestige of Russia.
What is your opinion?
What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement? What is your opinion?
Do you agree with this statement? Do you agree with this statement?
Write 200-250 words.
Write 200-250 words. Write 200-250 words.
Use the following plan:
Use the following plan: Use the following plan:
- make an introduction (state the problem)
- make an introduction (state the problem) - express your personal opinion and give 2-3 - make. an introduction (state the problem)
- express your personal opinion and give 2-3 reasons for your opinion - express your personal opinion and give 2-3
reasons for your opinion - express an opposing opinion and give 1-2 reasons for your opinion
- express an opposing opinion and give 1-2 reasons for this opposing opinion - express an opposing opinion and give 1-2
reasons for this opposing opinion - explain why you don't agree with the opposing reasons for this opposing opinion
- explain why youidon't agree with the opposing opinion - explain why you don't agree with the opposing
opinion - make a conclusion restating your position opinion
- make a conclusion restating your position - make a conclusion restating your position
He.al.th is the most important thi.ng i,n life. a.s
There. are a. lot of thi.n!J5 arot.<nd. t.<S tha.t iJ, is the ba.si.6 for a.ny happi.ness or pusona.l Nowadays towism is no/; Ju.st abwt plea.st.<re.,
change., especiaLJ.y technology, bt.<t can people stabi.l.ity. The £ngt.ish saying links he.al.th to diet, iJ, is a. big ~stry wh~ brin!J5 i,n a. lo/: of
the.mseJ.ves cha.nge.? The. essay sta.te.me.nt cl.aims sayi.ng tha.t W yw ea.t well you wi.l.l be well. money. The qt.<estwn is whethe.r tow·ism is
tha.t a.fter chiidhood, people do no/: re.ally t.<nde.rdeveloped i,n Rt.<ssia. a.nd. W i.nc.nasing
cha.nge. bt.<t tha.t their pusonaii.ty cha.raduisti.cs In my opi.nWn, this saying is too si.mpl.isti.c. foreign visitors jV()(.,l{.d be.ne.fil; t.<S.
are pe,rma.ne.nt wha.te-ve.r happe.ns. He.al.th de.pends on many fa.dors a.nd. food is
only one. of the.m, a.nd. no/; the most important. I think tha.t this is the c:Me. Of course., some
I agrre with this positi.on for se.ve.ra/. re.a.sons. Mi~ is the ma.WI fa.dor? I think tha.t iJ, is tourists do come to Rt.<ssia. bt.<t the nt.<mbe.r is
Firsl:J.y, chi/dre.n develop a. ce.rtain cha.ra.du a.nd. ge.nel:i.cs. Some people are Jt.<st born he.a/.thW very small compan;l to othe.r countrres. More.
they kup tha.t throt.<gh a.d.ul.t life.. £xpe1Unc.e than other.; a.nd. there. is nothi.ng they can do to visitors j\J{)(,11.d me.an extra. bt.<si.ness for hotei.s,
may show IAS ne-iv thi.n!J5 bt.<t iJ, doesn't cha.nge. change. tha.t. llJok a.t the. very sad siJ,t.<a.Uon of resta.t.<ra.nts a.nd. tourist a.ttradi.ons, helping the.
t.<s. Se-condi.y, the. best proof is the. ha tha.t iJ, chi/dre.n who are born ivith d.isabiJ.ities. e-conomy. Also, tourists ww/.d see. Rt.<ssia. for
is si.mply very d.i,ffiwl.t to cha.nge. who yw are. the.msei.ves a.nd. report back on how ivonderf«l
For e.xa.mple, a. gi.ri, who pre.fer.; pl.a.ying by On the othe.r ha.rid., !JOIA may say tha.t food is wr country is.
her.;ei.f ivi.U ne.ve.r be-come. a. soci.ab/.e. a.nd. how the body grows. There. are i,ndeed many
e.xtrove.rted woman. ne.gaiive exa.mp/.e.5 of people who ha.ve a. very Aga.i.nst this is the. MN tha.t tourism cot.</.d
bad diet, e.aiing ont.y jt.<nk food pe.rliaps, a.nd. only pl.ay a. mi.nor ro/.e.. A pe.rfed exa.mple is
It cou/.d be. said tha.t this is a. very ne.gaiive. conSl!<{t.<e.n/:J.y their he.al.th st.<ffe.rs. The nt.<mbe.r Gre.ece.. This is one of the most popt.<la.r tourist
a.rgume.nt because. iJ, me.ans tha.t there. is no poi,nt of fa.I; people waiki.ng a.rot.<nd. shows the prob/.e.m. desti.na.tions i,n the. world bt.<t this did..n' t sa.ve iJ,
trying to be. a. be.tte.r puson W e.ve.rythi.ng abot.<t from a. fina.ncid crisis. Rt.<ssia. de.pends ma.Wily
you is fixed. The. logi.c goes tha.t we. shw/.d Neve.rthei.e.ss, diet is pa.rt of the isst.<e, no/: the on ot.l a.nd. ga.s, wh~ tourism ww/.d neve.r
al.ivays look for improve.me.nt i,n ourselves a.nd. who/.e. story. If these people took some. e.xe.rdse., compete. with.
our rel.ati.onshi.ps a.nd. this ww/.d be. impossib/.e. they cou/.d a.fford to ea.t badly from lime to
ivithout be.Wig ab/.e. to develop a.s people. lime. As proof of this, ail these strict diets, l.ilce. Sti.l.l, there. wou/.d be no ha.rm i,n de.velopi.ng
e.aiing only app/.e.5, ne.ve.r ivort because they only tourism, i,n my MN. Gre.ece. we.nt ba.nkropt
Howe.ve.r, this posi.WJn misre.prese.nts the. origi,nal. look a.t pa.rt of the. prob/.e.m. I a.m SIArt l:ha.t good despik, no/: because of tourism. We re./.y on
a.rgume.nt, i,n my opi,Wn. Miit.e. !JOt.< can't he.al.th is mt.<ch more. com~ than tha.t. na.tt.<ra/. resources for our positi.on i,n the world
compi,etel.y change., there. are some thi.ngs !JOt.< bt.<t these. are no/: l!<{t.<a/./.y spread arot.<nd. the
can control. The best exa.mple is bad habiJ,s l.ilce. To St.<m t.<p, 'Yot.< are wha.t you ea.t' is no/: strid/.y country. Ga.s a.nd. ot.l are ma.i,nt.y fot.<nd. i,n the.
smoki.ng - people do give. the.m t.<p. We are al.ivays true. Ge.nef:i.cs ha.s the. most inf/Me.nee. on yot.<r north of Rt.<ssia. bt.<t the sot.<th is pe.rfed for
i,n the positi.on to inf/Me.nee. wr lives. he.al.th, a.nd. diet, whi/.e. important, only ha.s a. tourism.
/i,miJ,ed impact on how we. fe.eJ..
In conc!Msi.Dn, I share the opi,Wn tha.t people To conc!Mde., I agrre tha.t more. foreign tourists
kup the sa.me. cha.ra.der throt.<ghot.<t life.. This (246 words) shot.</.d come to Rt.<ssia. a.nd. tha.t this ivot.</.d
is ma.Wily because our cha.ra.der is formed i,n ha.ve a. very posdive impact. It is wrong to ignore.
chiidhood. Miit.e. this a.rgume.nt coul.d seem tourism because wr ma.WI i.ncome comes from ot.l
de.pressi.ng, iJ, doesn't me.an tha.t we can't We. a.nd. ga.s. Tourism is a. ve.ry a.ttra.dive bt.<si.ness
steps to be-come be.tte.r people. for some. pa.rts of Rt.<ssia..
(250 words) (249 words)

224 Appendices
C2 Co mment on the following statement. C2 Comment on the following statement. C2 Comment on the following statement.

In some schools, pupils all wear o uniform. I believe in the old saying I\ woman's place is in the Team sports like hockey are better than individual
home'. Women should look ofter the family ond not sports like running. They build social skills ond are just
What is your opinion? work. more fun.
Do you think this is a good or a bad thing?
What is your opinion? What is your opinion?
W rite 200-250 words. Do you agree with this statement? Do you agree with this statement?
Use the following plan: Write 200-250 words. Write 200- 250 words.
- make an introduction (state the problem) Use the following plan: Use the fo:lowing plan:
- express your personal opinion and give 2-3
reasons for your opinion - make an introduction (state the problem) - make an introduction (state the problem)

- express an opposing opinion and give 1-2 - express your personal opinion and give 2-3 - express your personal opinion and give 2-3
reasons for this opposing opinion reasons for your opinion reasons for your opinion

- explain why you don't agree with the opposing - express an opposing opinion and give 1-2 - express an opposing opinion and give 1-2
opinion reasons for this opposing opinion reasons for this opposing opinion

- make a conclusion restating your position - explain why you don't agree with the opposing - explain why you don't agree with the opposing
opinion opinion
Rules vary from school l:o school, even in the - make a conclusion restating your position - make a conclusion restating your position
same town. As an exampl,e, in some schools
pupii.s ha.ve l:o wear a. unWorm, in others they Relations between men and women ha.ve cha.ngeel Sport is very lmporta.nt a.s it gives peopl,e
don't. Peopl,e, espedAJJ,y pupii.s, ha.ve strong a. lot in the la.st hundred. yea.rs. Women's rights plea.sure and fitness . Some peopl,e prefer sports
opinUJns about this. and opportunitles ha.ve lmproveel but, a.s the they do by themselves, others sports whlch they
saying shows, the.re is stul a. be/Uf tha.t the rol.e do together, but whlch type of sport is best? 7his
In my ~, it is not worth ha.ving a. school of a. woman is to stay a.t home and f.ook a.ff;er is rea.lly a. matter of persona.l opinUJn.
unWorm . Children, espedAJJ,y teenagers, wa.nt the ff;.miiy.
l:o be indJ,vidJAa.ts and they IViJJ, na.tura.Uy ha.te As for myself, I like team a.diviiU5 so I a.gru
ha.ving l:o dress the sa.me every day. It IViJJ, only I am strongly opposed l:o the lelea. tha.t women with the statement. It is tnle tha.t being pa.rt
convince pupii.s tha.t the purpose of school is to are ba.siaAJ.ly house111lves. Women can work a.s of a. team m/lXes you ha.ve confi,dence in ea.ch
m/lXe a. generation of children think and beha.ve well a.s men and the.re are ma.ny exampl,es of other and develop communlcation skil.ls. Also,
in the sa.me way, right down l:o wha.t they wear. successful fema.le business peopl,e. My mother is you never fuJ, lonely or a.n outsleler when the.re
a. la.Nyer a.nd she ha.s a. high positlon tha.nks l:o are other peopl,e with you who ha.ve the same
7hose who support school unWorm cl.aUn tha.t it her intel.ligence and ha.rel work. It is sexist to interests and goaJ.s.
provides discipline a.nd a. sense of community; say tha.t women belong a.t home.
when evuyone wears the same sma.rt clothes, 7he alternaJive positlon holds tha.t i,nellvid,l),a.l
they fuJ, proud of themselves, ea.ch other a.nel Peopl,e who belleve in this saying ha.ve tra.diliona.l sports are just a.s useful. For exampl,e, you can
their school. In other words, a. school unWorm is ~s of the fa.miiy. 7hey argue tha.t only women do competitlons like track ra.ces where you rnn
like a. team strip in sport. can ha.ve children and tha.t it is na.tural for a.ga.inst other peopl,e and hence the.re is a. socid
women l:o bling these children up. If, they say, a. slele. TllXing pa.rt in competitlons can a.lso be a.
I can't a.gru with this argument. Dlscipline and woma.n goes l:o work, she n~s her fa.miiy for lot of fun, padic«La.rty W you are lucky enough
team spi.lit ha.ve got nothing to do with wha.t the sllXe of money and a. career. l:o Nin a. prize.
you wear. To iJJMstrate, the members of a. fa.miiy
don't a.ll wear the same clothes but the fa.miiy While this argument may ha.ve once been tnle, Against this, I would say tha.t only a. minority
is the socid unit whlch ha.s the strongest tles . it is not now when many women ha.ve higher of peopl,e wa.nt l:o We pa.rt in competitlons,
How would you fuJ, W your po.rents suggested a. education and skil.ls whlch make them equa.l whlch can be a.s stressful a.s erijoyable, by the
fa.miiy uniform? with men. 7he fa.miiy is lmporta.nt but it is way. lndlvUh,;.a.l sports like rnnning are mostly
perfedly posslble l:o ba.lance persona.l [j,fe with about being by yourself a.nd the.re is no rea.l
In summary, I am not in ff;.vour of a. school work. Aga.in, my mother is a. great exampl,e. communlcation with others, sa.dly.
unWorm being worn. School unWorm doesn't work
bec.aJAse it Wes a.way pupii.s' indlvUh,;.a.lity a.nd To fi,ni,sh off, I strongly belleve tha.t the lelea. In concl.uslon, I share the opinUJn tha.t team
freedom. Wearing the same thing doesn't maXe tha.t a. woman's place. is in the home is olel- sports are preferable l:o inellvUh,;.a.l sports. 7hey
pupii.s fui pa.rt of a. team and it is in fad vuy ff;.shwneel and not reLe.vant today. Women can are more sodable and interesting. lneilvid,l),a.l
unna.tura.l. do very ski,IJ,ed work and it is not tnle tha.t they a.divities can be done with other peopl,e, in
ha.ve l:o sa.aWice their ff;.miiy l:o get a. good job. u;mpetitlons USIAa.lly, but this is not the typical
(239 words) ca.se.
( 249 w ords)
(233 words)

Appendices 225
Practice Test
3K3aMeHaQHOHHaSI pa6oTa no aHrJIHMCKOMY Sl3bIKY COCTOHT H3 lJeTbipex pa3geJIOB,
BKJIJO'laJOIQHX 46 3agaHHM.

Pa3geJI 1 («AygnpoBaHHe») BKJIJO'!aeT15 3agaHHM, H3 KOTOpbIX nepBoe- Ha


ycTaHOBJieHHe COOTBeTCTBHSI H 14 3agaHHM c BbI6opoM O):IHOro npaBHJibHOro
oTBeTa H3 Tpex npegJio)l(eHHhIX. PeKoMeHgyeMoe BpeMSI Ha BhinOJIHeHHe
pa3gena 1 - 30 MHHyT.

Pa3gen 2 («l~freHHe») BKJIJO'laeT 9 3agaHHM, H3 KOTOpbIX 2 3agaHHS1 Ha ycTaHOBJieHHe


COOTBeTCTBHSI H 7 3agaHHM c BhI6opoM O):IHOro npaBHJibHOro OTBeTa H3
qeTbipex npegJIO)l(eHHhIX. PeKoMeHgyeMoe BpeMSI Ha BhinOJIHeHHe pa3gena 2-
30 MHHyT.

Pa3geJI 3 («fpaMMaTHKa H JieKCHKa») BKJIJO'laeT 20 3agaHHM, H3 KOTOpbIX 13 3agaHHM


c KpaTKHM OTBeTOM H 7 3agaHHM c BbI60pOM O):IHOro npaBHJlbHOro OTBeTa H3
'leTbipex npegJIO)l(eHHbIX. IlpH BbinOJIHeHHH 3agaHHM c KpaTKHM OTBeTOM
Bbl ):IOJl)l(Hbl caMOCTOSITeJihHO 3anncaTb OTBeT B COOTBeTCTBYJOIQeM MeCTe
pa6oThI. PeKoMeHgyeMoe BpeMSI Ha BhinOJIHeHHe pa3gena 3 - 40 MHHyT. Ilo
OKOHlJaHHH BbinOJIHeHHSI 3agaHHM KIDK):IOro H3 3THX pa3geJIOB He 3a6b1Ba:i1Te
nepeHOCHTb CBOH OTBeTbl B 6JiaHK OTBeTOB .N'!! 1.

Pa3geJI 4 («IlHCbMO») COCTOHT H3 ):IBYX 3a):laHHM H npegcTaBJISleT co6o:i1 He60JibIIIYJO


nttcbMeHHYJO pa6oTy (HanncaHne JIH'!Horo nttcbMa H nttcbMeHHoro
BhICKa3hIBaHHSI c 3JieMeHTaMH paccy)l():leHHSI). PeKoMeHgyeMoe BpeMSI Ha
BbinOJIHeHHe 3Toro pa3gena pa60Tbl - 80 MHHyT. qepHOBbie noMeTKH MoryT
geJiaThCSI npSIMO Ha JIHCTe c 3agaHHSIMH HJIH MO)l(HO HCilOJlb30BaTb OT):leJibHblM
qepHOBHK. JI106b1e qepHOBble noMeTKH (qepHOBHK) He npoBepSllOTCSI H He
OQeHHBaJOTCSI. OQeHKe nogJie)l(HT TOJihKO BapnaHT OTBeTa, 3aHeceHHhIM B
6JiaHK OTBeTOB .N'!! 2!

06IQee BpeMSI npoBegeHHSI 3K3aMeHa - 180 MHHyT.


PeKOMeHgyeTCSI BbinOJIHSITb 3agaHHSI B TOM nopSlgKe, B KOTOpOM OHH gaHbl.
IlocTapa:i1TeCh BbinOJIHHTb KaK MO)l(HO 60Jibllle 3agaHHM H Ha6paTb HaH60JibIIIee
KOJIHlJeCTBO 6a.JIJIOB.

JKenaeM ycnexa!

226 Practice Test


Pa3AeJI 1. AyAnpoeauue

~ Bl Bbl ycnblWMTe 6 BblCKa3bIBaHMH. YcTaHOBMTe cooTBeTCTBMe Me:>KAy BblCKa3bIBaH1ts1M11 Ka:>KAOro


roaop.sm.~ero A-F 11 yTBep)KAeHtt.slMH, ):laHHbIMH B cnHCKe 1-7.11cnoJib3YHTe Ka)K):IOe yTBep:>KAeHHe,
o6o3Ha'IeHHoe cooTBeTCTay10~el1 Qmppow, TOJILKO OAHH pa3. B 3aAaHHH ecTL OAHO JIHwnee
yTeep}f{Aenne. Bbl ycnbIWHTe 3anHcb ABa)KAbl. 3aHeCHTe caoH OTBeTbI a Ta6J111Qy.

1 There is just one good thing about Sundays.

2 Sunday is a lazy day for me.

3 What I do on Sunday is useful for my future .

4 My Sunday is quite traditional.

5 I can't describe a typical Sunday.

6 I do sport on Sundays.

7 Each Sunday gives me a special opportunity.

roeops111.HH A B c D E F

~ Bbl ycnblWHTe AHaJior. OnpeAeJIHTe, KaKHe H3 npHBeAeHHblX yTBep)KAeHHH Al-A7 cooTBeTCTBYJOT


COAep)KaHHJO TeKcTa (1 - True), KaKHe He cooTBeTCTBYJOT (2 - False) H o 'IeM B TeKcTe He cKa3aHo, TO
eCTb Ha OCHOBaHHH TeKCTa HeJib3H AaTb HH IlOJIO)KHTeJibHblH, HM OTpHQaTeJibHblH OTBeT (3 - Not stated).
06BeAHTe HOMep Bb16paHHoro BaMH aapHaHTa OTBeTa. Bbl ycnblWHTe 3anHcb ABa)KAbl.

Al They go to the kitchen for a snack.


1) True 2) False 3) Not stated

A2 Ed is going to visit a castle.

1) True 2) False 3) Not stated

A3 Ed's T-shirt was expensive.

1) True 2) False 3) Not stated

A4 Ed knows the people Liz is going on holiday with.

1) True