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SCIENCE 8

ENZYMES- are organic catalysts


SUBSTRATES- substances that are transformed with the help of enzymes
EMIL FISCHER- a Nobel laureate in organic chemistry in 1894 “Lock and Key” model
INACTIVATED- beyond and below 30 degrees to 40 degrees enzymes

PROTAESES & PEPTIDASES- act on proteins breaking them into Amino Acid Units
CARBOHYDRASES- act on carbohydrates (starch and sugar) breaking them into simple sugars
LIPASES- break fats or lipids into Fatty Acids and Glycerol
NUCLEASES- BREAK DOWN Nucleic Acids into Nucleotides

AMYLOPSIN-enzyme in the pancreatic juice will repeat the work of Ptyalin


MALTASE- will change maltose to glucose+ glucose
SUCRASE- will change sucrose to glucose+ fructose
LACTASE-will change lactose to glucose+ galactose
Carbohydrates simplest units
a. GLUCOSE
b. FRUCTOSE
c. GALACTOSE
PEPSIN- secreted by the chief cells changes protein to small polypeptides
TRYPSIN- enzyme in the pancreatic juice will repeat the work of pepsin, to ensure that all the protein molecules are changed into
polypeptides
AMINO PEPTIDASES- will change polypeptides and small polypeptides to Amino Acids
DIPEPTIDASE (EREPTIN)-will change dipeptides to amino acids
PANCREATIC STEAPSIN- enzyme will act on fats and change fats to fatty acids and glycerol
INTESTINAL STEAPSIN-enzymes will act on fats changing them to fatty acids and glycerol
The chemical Digestion Of Nucleic Acids
NUCLEOTIDASE-enzyme changing nucleotide to nucleoside+ phosphoric acids
NUCLEASE-in the pancreatic juice will act on nucleic acids-rich foods and will change them to nucleotide
NUCLEOSIDASE- enzyme will act on nucleoside changing it to pentose+ nitrogenous base (PURINE OR PYRIMIDINE)
P urine
U
GUANINE
ADENINE

P yrimidine
Y
CYTOSIN
URACIL
TNYMINE

HOMEOSTASIS-to ensure that a stable internal environment is maintained


VILLI- fingerlike extensions increase the small intestine’s surface area for absorption (sing. Villus)
CAPILLARIES- The blood vessels
LACTEAL VESSELS- the lymph vessels
CIRCULATORY SYSTEM- supplies oxygen to the different organs via the blood allowing the cells that compose them to stay alive
ABSORBED BY THE CAPILLARIES
A. GLUCOSE
B. FRUCTOSE
C. GALACTOSE
ABSORBED BY THE LACTEAL VESSELS (brought to the lymphatic circulation)
A. FATTY ACIDS
B. GLYCEROL

HORMONES- are chemical “messengers” that signal the organs of the alimentary tract and accessory organs
GASTRIN- secreted by the S-CELLS lining the gastric glands, secreted upon smelling, seeing, and tasting food
SECRETIN- is secreted by the S cells lining the small intestine
CHOLECYSTOKININ-(CCK)- is secreted by the I cells lining the small intestine

PROBLEMS INVOLVING THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM


A. PICA- characterized by a persistent desire or appetite for substances with no known nutritive value( soil, clay, paper)
B. HEARTBURN AND ACID REFLUX OR (GERD)- occurs due to the excessive secretion of hydrochloric acid in the stomach
C. FLATULENCE- is due to the excessive amount of gases stored in the digestive tract
D. INDIGESTION/DYSPEPSIA- is a condition caused by food stagnation
E. COLITIS- pertains to the inflammation of the large intestine or colon
F. CONSTIPATION- is a condition wherein the fecal material or stool becomes dry, compact, and difficult to discharge