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“Calidad, pertinencia y calidez”



Nagua Erika Mirella
Sigüenza Marcos
Manrique Paco


Lcdo. Patricio Guanuche


Cuarto “A”

In order to establish the need for supplementary irrigation, we must know the water demand
of our crops and the relationship that exists between it and the natural rainfall probability.
The maximum quality in the harvested product is maintained since with this irrigation the
maximum evapotranspiration of the crop is satisfied and high and stable yields are

The initial information is: water consumption of the crop throughout the cycle, daily
consumption during the critical periods, the quantification of the deficit, the probability of
occurrence of that deficit and the estimation of losses.

Depending on the type of soil, the ability to store useful water available for plants to use will
vary. Field capacity is the maximum amount of water that a soil is capable of retaining. As
the soil loses water, a point (wilting point) is reached below which the plant is no longer able
to absorb more. This point is characteristic for each floor. Once these two terms are
defined, useful water is understood as the content between the field capacity and wilting
point levels. The plant will not suffer water stress when the available water level is between
40% and 60% of the useful water.

The amount of water required to compensate for the loss by evapotranspiration refers to the
need for water from a crop. While the water needs of a crop refers to the amount of water
that needs to be applied as irrigation or that is obtained as rain, the evapotranspiration of a
crop refers to the amount of water lost through evaporation and transpiration. .
The different soil types

Sandy soil – are light, warm, dry and tend to be acidic and low in
nutrients. Sandy soils are often known as light soils due to their high
proportion of sand and little clay (clay weighs more than sand).
These soils have quick water drainage and are easy to work with.
They are quicker to warm up in spring than clay soils but tend to dry
out in summer and suffer from low nutrients that are washed away by
rain. The addition of organic matter can help give plants an additional
boost of nutrients by improving the nutrient and water holding
capacity of the soil.

Clay soil – are heavy soils that benefit from high nutrients. Clay soils
remain wet and cold in winter and dry out in summer. These soils are
made of over 25 percent clay, and because of the spaces found
between clay particles, clay soils hold a high amount of water.
Because these soils drain slowly and take longer to warm up in
summer, combined with drying out and cracking in summer, they can
often test gardeners.

Silt soil – are light and moisture retentive soils with a high fertility
rating. As silt soils compromise of medium sized particles they are
well drained and hold moisture well. As the particles are fine, they
can be easily compacted and are prone to washing away with rain.
By adding organic matter, the silt particles can be bound into more
stable clumps.

Peat soil – are high in organic matter and retain a large amount of
moisture. This type of soil is very rarely found in a garden and often
imported into a garden to provide an optimum soil base for planting.
Chalk soil – can be either light or heavy but always highly alkaline
due to the calcium carbonate or lime within its structure. As these
soils are alkaline they will not support the growth of ericaceous plants
that require acidic soils to grow. If a chalky soil shows signs of visible
white lumps then they can’t be acidified and gardeners should be
resigned to only choose plants that prefer an alkaline soil.

Loam soil – are a mixture of sand, silt and clay that are combined to
avoid the negative effects of each type. These soils are fertile, easy
to work with and provide good drainage. Depending on their
predominant composition they can be either sandy or clay loam. As
the soils are a perfect balance of soil particles, they are considered to
be a gardeners best friend, but still benefit from topping up with
additional organic matter.

You may also be interested in learning more about topsoil and the different grading’s
available. You can view our helpful topsoil guide here.


It is a type of irrigation in which water circulates through channels and structures previously
designed to irrigate certain areas. In this type of irrigation, the leaves of the plants or
vegetables do not come into direct contact with the water.


It is a fairly simple system that does not need facilities and prevents plant diseases by not
entering these in direct contact with water.

On the other hand, this system has a lower installation cost than other types of irrigation,
since you do not need as many high-priced components as other sprinkler irrigation
systems, for example pipes or sprinklers.
Also it is possible to emphasize that it is a type of irrigation that only acts on the roots of the
plants, without wetting the rest of its parts. It is an ideal system for small orchards and
uniform grounds.


It is not a type of irrigation indicated for areas with marked hills or slopes, as the
unevenness makes it difficult for the water to advance through the furrows.

It is a type of irrigation that needs a large amount of water.

High water losses due to evaporation. This type of irrigation makes it more difficult to
regulate the necessary flow of water that reaches the plants.

On the other hand, the work of the operator or floodwater is more complicated, since it has
to be carried out "in situ", that is, the worker must get "in the mud".


This type of irrigation throws water with very low pressure to the roots and even distribute
the drip. It is done with the help of small tubes, arranged in the ground or buried. It is
irrigated with great precision but, fundamentally, it is done because this type of irrigation
helps to save a lot of water. In addition, losses due to evaporation, dispersion or infiltration
are limited. Nowadays, drop by drop is widely used to irrigate fruits, vegetables, cereals,
flowers or small nurseries. Of course, we could use it in our small greenhouses or also in
home greenhouses.


It allows automate installations and can be implemented in any type of terrain, even in
rockier terrain.

It needs a smaller quantity of water than the rest of the types of irrigation, thanks to well-
studied water outlets, according to the needs of the crop.

It is a type of irrigation much more suitable for sandy areas or slopes.

By watering only in the areas where it is really needed, it combats the proliferation of


Irrigation canals can clog and cause obstructions in the irrigation system, which can lead to
inequalities in irrigation.

It is also likely that the outlet holes are plugged and affect irrigation.

On the other hand, it is necessary to make a high initial investment, since you need
emitters, pipes, a control system that is automated, etc.

Another drawback is that there may be a high accumulation of salts in the drip areas,
especially if there is not enough rain to clean the soil of these salts.


They are underground pipes that distribute the water through the pipes. A kind of fine rain,
irrigate the plantations projecting the water under pressure.


It allows adjusting the power and orientation of the irrigation, ensuring that it reaches the
entire terrain equally.

It is likely to be used both on flat land and in areas with elevations or depressions in the

On the other hand, the water consumption required is lower than in other types of irrigation,
for example in the case of furrow irrigation. The power of the sprinkler hoses allows the
water to reach a greater distance and that fewer irrigation exits are needed to reach the
whole terrain.

Finally, the water pressure is not great so that despite coming into direct contact with plants
or vegetables, does not cause any damage to them. In addition, the amount of water and
the water pressure of the hoses can be easily adjusted according to the needs of the
Although the water comes out with more pressure, it is deposited smoothly and evenly on
the ground, that is, it does not reach the plants with sufficient pressure to cause damage to


It is necessary to study well the placement of the sprinklers, since a bad situation can cause
excessive spending of water, and an excess or defect of irrigation in certain areas. For
example, when two sprinklers throw water in the same direction, or when a sprinkler wastes
water "watering" the walls "or the power of the water reaches outside the ground.

On the other hand, it needs less water than furrow irrigation but more than drip irrigation.

It does not only water the roots, but it completely wet the rest of the plant, a fact that can
cause diseases in the plant.