© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

0 Aufrufe

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

- MB0050-SLM-Unit-04
- DLL SAMPLE
- IMMAN THESIS
- Testing of Hypothesis I
- Grad Speech
- 1305000095_MB0050
- MAP test Q
- Paper_2013_M.Ed
- Academic Words
- Research Methods Statistics I.2_2014-15_Student Handout_S.pdf
- Lesson Plan 1.Draft Copy
- Ergonomics Office Works With Visual Display Terminals
- Mann Whitney U
- 2 Hypo Testing
- sw 4810 syllabus fall 2015 9 9 15
- Mgt602 Lecture 5
- sw 4810 syllabus fall 2015 9 9 15
- ABE Level 5 Quantitative Methods for Business Management DEC 2015
- Math HW Help for 12-1
- Academic word list + forms

Sie sind auf Seite 1von 71

THESIS

BY

FIRDAUS NUR HABIBA

NIM. 130221612267

FACULTY OF LETTERS

DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH

August 2017

THE CORRELATION BETWEEN VOCATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL

THESIS

Presented to

Universitas Negeri Malang

in partial fulfillment of the requirements

for the degree of Sarjana in English Language Education

BY

Firdaus Nur Habiba

NIM. 130221612267

FACULTY OF LETTERS

DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH

August 2017

This is to certify that the sarjana’s thesis of Firdaus Nur Habiba has been

approved by the thesis advisors for further approval by the Board of Examiners,

Advisor I

NIP. 19631102 198803 2 002

Advisor II

NIP. 19530402 198601 2 001

i

This is to certify that the sarjana’s thesis of Firdaus Nur Habiba has been

approved by the Board of Examiners as the requirement for the degree of sarjana

in English Language Education

Board of Examiner,

NIP. 19580329 198601 1 001

NIP. 19631102 198803 2 002

NIP. 19530402 198601 2 001

Acknowledged by Approved by

Head of English Department Dean, Faculty of Letters

Dr. Johannes Ananto Prayogo, M.Pd, M.Ed Prof. Utami Widiati, M.A, Ph.D

NIP. 19581028 198601 1 001 NIP. 19650813 199002 2 001

ii

STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY OF SARJANA’S THESIS

The undersigned,

NIM : 130221612267

Malang. Any theories, findings, research techniques which are not my own have

been acknowledged in the text. Theoretical contributions and findings in the thesis

are my own original works and have not been submitted for any degree in this

university or any other universities. If later it can be revealed that this thesis

contains plagiarism of others intellectual work of any kind, I would readily accept

As signed hereby,

iii

ABSTRACT

Habiba, Firdaus Nur. The Correlation Vocational High School Students’ Listening

Scores and Their Speaking Scores. Sarjana’s Thesis. English Education,

English Department, Universitas Negeri Malang. Advisors: Nunung

Suryati, M.Ed, Ph.D., Dr. Emalia Iragiliati, M.Pd.

They almost every day learn about an English at school. Learning to listen helps

the students to use the language and also to improve speaking skill in English. If

the students are asked to master speaking, they must be comprehend in listening.

The mastery of speaking skills in English is a priority for many second-language

or foreign-language learners. Consequently, learners often evaluate their success

in language learning as well as the effectiveness of their English course on the

basis of how much they feel they have improved in their spoken language

proficiency. The students who got listening scores better also can improve their

speaking scores because those skills are related. In this research, the researcher

chose SMKN 8 Malang as a population and the 12th graders of Software

Engineering Program as a sample which consist of 56 students to find out the

relationship between listening scores and speaking scores.

The data in correlational research are analyzed using statistics result in

correlation coefficient which shows the degree of the relationship between

listening scores and speaking scores. Since this research is quantitative research,

this study attempts to reveal through statistical data analysis, in the form of

students’ score from each variable that both have correlation. To gather the data

from the students listening test and speaking test was conducted by the researcher.

TOEIC test is used to test the students’ listening and speaking test is conducted by

telling the student’s opinion about the positive and negative impact of using social

media. To find the correlation between listening scores and speaking scores, SPSS

17.0 is used as a tool to calculate the data. Several steps are conducted before find

the correlation. There are linearity, normality, and homogeneity. The result of

parametric test is non-parametric test; it means Spearman’s Rho Rank is used by

the researcher to find the correlation between those scores. The result of the study

shows the correlation between students’ listening scores and students’ speaking

scores is .805 that means the better students achieve in listening scores, the better

they got in speaking scores. The correlation of students; speaking scores and

students’ listening scores is very high correlated.

iv

ABSTRAK

Habiba, Firdaus Nur. Korelasi Antara Nilai Listening Siswa dan Nilai Speaking

Siswa di SMK. Skripsi. Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris, Sastra Inggris,

Universitas Negeri Malang. Dosen Pembimbing: Nunung Suryati, M.Ed,

Ph.D., Dr. Emalia Iragiliati, M.Pd.

Kemampuan siswa dalam listening saat ini sangat penting terutama bagi

para siswa. Mereka hampir setiap hari belajar bahasa Inggris di sekolah.

Mempelajari listening membantu siswa untuk menggunakan bahasa dan juga

untuk meningkatkan kemampuan speaking siswa dalam bahasa Inggris. Jika siswa

diminta untuk menguasai speaking, mereka harus memahami listening.

Penguasaan kemampuan berbicara dalam bahasa Inggris merupakan prioritas bagi

banyak pelajar bahasa kedua atau bahasa asing. Akibatnya, peserta didik sering

mengevaluasi keberhasilan mereka dalam pembelajaran bahasa serta keefektifan

kursus bahasa Inggris mereka berdasarkan pada seberapa besar mereka merasa

telah meningkat dalam kemampuan bahasa lisan mereka. Para siswa yang

mendapat nilai listening lebih baik, nilai siswa dalam speaking pun akan

meningkat karena listening dan speaking itu saling terkait. Dalam penelitian ini,

peneliti memilih SMKN 8 Malang sebagai populasi dan kelas 12 RPL sebagai

sampel yang terdiri dari 56 siswa untuk mengetahui hubungan antara nilai

listening dan nilai speaking.

Data penelitian korelasional dianalisis dengan menggunakan statistik

hasil koefisien korelasi yang menunjukkan tingkat hubungan antara nilai listening

dan nilai speaking. Karena penelitian ini merupakan penelitian kuantitatif,

penelitian ini mencoba untuk mengungkapkan melalui analisis data statistik,

berupa nilai siswa dari masing-masing variabel yang keduanya memiliki korelasi.

Untuk mengumpulkan data dari tes listening siswa dan tes speaking dilakukan

oleh peneliti. Tes TOEIC yang digunakan untuk menguji tes listening dan tes

speaking dilakukan dengan memberi siswa sebuah topik untuk mengungkapkan

pendapat siswa tentang dampak positif dan negatif dari penggunaan media sosial.

Untuk mengetahui hubungan antara nilai listening dan nilai speaking, SPSS 17.0

digunakan sebagai alat untuk menghitung data. Beberapa langkah dilakukan

sebelum menemukan korelasinya, diantaranya uji linearitas, uji normalitas, dan uji

homogenitas. Hasil uji parametrik tersebut adalah uji non parametrik; ini berarti

ketiga uji tersebut tidak memenuhi kriteria untuk menguji menggunakan

parametrik test. Spearman's Rho Rank digunakan oleh peneliti untuk menemukan

korelasi antara nilai listening dan nilai speaking. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan

bahwa korelasi antara nilai listening dan nilai speaking siswa adalah 0,805 yang

berarti siswa yang mendapatkan niai tinggi pada test listening, nilai speaking nya

juga meningkat. Dari hasil korelasi menunjukkan bahwa nilai listening dan nilai

speaking siswa SMKN 8 Malang kelas 12 RPL menunjukkan korelasi yang sangat

tinggi..

v

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Suryati, M,Ed, Ph.D and Dr. Emalia Iragiliati, M.Pd for their immense

to solve different technical problems I faced during my thesis writing. I also owe

my deepest gratitude to my examiner Prof. Dr. Gunadi Harry Sulistyo, M.A. for

I owe all the kindness and support from my best friend Dewi Eriana

Fadlyn who gave me the idea. Thanks to my friends who helped me during

conducted the test Dewi Eriana Fadlyn, Aditama Melati, and Flora Desianti Putri.

Also, I thank to Firga Vitrasya who helped me and taught me about the statistics.

Aulia Akifina Annur who let me used her WiFi. For Galih Iman whose came to

friends Fadhilah Suci Safitri, Aditama Melati, and Dewi Eriana Fadlyn who

supported me on my second sarjana’s thesis examination. The last thanks for Arif

Nur Melati Suci for all the love and affection given to me. As parents they both

The writer

vi

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

APPROVAL PAGE……………………………………………………. i

STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY OF SARJANA’S THESIS………… iii

ABSTRACT……………………………………………………………. iv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT……………………………………………… vi

TABLE OF CONTENTS………………………………………………. vii

LIST OF TABLES……………………………………………………... x

LIST OF FIGURES…………………………………………………….. xi

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study……………………… 1

1.2 Research Questions…………………………… 6

1.3 Research Objectives…………………………... 6

1.4 Research Hypothesis………………………….. 6

1.5 Significance of the Study……………………... 7

1.6 Assumption…………………………………… 7

1.7 Scope and Limitation of the Study……………. 7

1.8 Definition of Key Terms……………………… 8

2.1 Research Design………………………………. 9

2.2 Population and Sample………………………... 10

2.3 Instruments……………………………………. 12

2.3.1 Listening Test………………………………... 12

2.3.2 Speaking Test………………………………... 13

2.3.3 Data Collection Procedure…………………... 13

2.4 Data Analysis…………………………………. 14

2.5.1 Description of The Data……………………... 15

2.5.2 Fulfillment of Statistical Assumption 15

Examination………………………………….

2.5.3 Statistical Hypothesis Establishment………... 16

2.5.4 Criteria of Rejection or Acceptance the Null 16

Hypothesis…………………………………...

2.5.5 Interpretation Procedures……………………. 17

3.1 Students’ Score of Listening Test…………….. 18

3.2 Students’ Score of Speaking Test…………….. 20

3.3 Fulfillment of Statistical Calculation…………. 22

3.3.1 Normality Testing…………………………… 22

3.3.1.1 Normality Testing of Variable X (Listening 24

Score) ………….........................................

3.3.1.2 Normality Testing of Variable Y (Speaking 24

Score) ………………...................................

3.3.2 Linearity Testing ……………………………. 26

3.3.3 Homogeneity Testing ……………………….. 27

vii

3.4 Hypothesis Testing…………………………… 29

CHAPTER IV DISCUSSION

4.1 Discussion of Findings………………………... 32

4.2 Discussion of Previous Study………………… 33

5.1 Conclusions…………………………………… 37

5.2 Suggestions…………………………………… 38

REFERENCES…………………………………………………………. 39

APPENDICES…………...……………………………………………... 41

Appendix 1 Students’ Speaking Test Instruction..................................... 41

Appendix 2 Students’ Listening and Speaking Score.............................. 41

Appendix 3 Table 2.1 Tactics for TOEIC Listening Test Score 43

Conversion Tables getting an estimated TOEIC score………………….

Appendix 4 Table 2.2 Scoring Rubrics of Speaking TOEIC Test……... 44

Appendix 5 Students’ Listening Test…………………………………... 47

CURRICULUM VITAE……………………………………………….. 62

viii

LIST OF TABLES

TABLE PAGE

2.1 Tactics for TOEIC Listening Test Score Conversion Tables Getting 43

an estimated TOEIC score ………………………………………….

2.2 Scoring Rubrics of Speaking TOEIC Test…………………………. 43

2.3 Criteria for the Correlation Coefficient Interpretation……………... 17

3.1 Descriptive Statistical Analysis of Students’ Listening Score …….. 18

3.2 Descriptive Statistical Analysis of Students’ Speaking Score……... 20

3.3 Parametric Test of Normality Shapiro-Wilk Test of Students’ 22

Listening Score……………………………………………………...

3.4 Parametric Test of Normality Shapiro-Wilk Test of Students’ 25

Speaking Score……………………………………………………...

3.5 Linearity Testing of Students’ Speaking Scores and Listening 27

Scores……………………………………………………………….

3.6 Homogeneity Testing of Listening Scores and Speaking Scores….. 28

3.7 The Non-Parametric Spearman’s Rho Rank Correlation between 29

Students’ Listening Scores and Speaking Scores…………………...

ix

LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE PAGE

3.1 Frequency of Students’ Listening Score…………………………… 19

3.2 Frequency of Students’ Speaking Score……………………………. 21

3.3 Graphic of the Scatter Diagram of Students’ Listening Score……... 24

3.4 Graphic of the Scatter Diagram of Students’ Speaking Score……... 26

3.5 The Scatter Diagram of Correlation Between Students’ Listening 30

Skill and Students’ Speaking Skill…………………………………

x

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

studies, the research questions, the research objectives, the significance of the

study, the research hypothesis, the research assumption, the scope of the study,

Listening and speaking skills are the skills which cannot be separated

because since we are a child, we used to listen first before we try to speak and we

speak or imitate what we heard. Speaking skills for students is also important for

them to communicate with the opponent, if students cannot reply or answer the

questions; it means they still have not mastery it yet. The students should learn

outside the school and try to speak with their friends. If they do not try to speak,

they would have got difficulties to say something in English even the simple

conversation. It is better after the students listening something; they imitate it and

when we want to express our ideas, opinion, and desires and to establish social

1

2

(Mundhe: 2015).

These skills are derived from his analysis of the listening process with its

identify purpose and scope, follow topic development of lecture, recognize key

lexical items related to subject/ topic, deduce meanings of words from context,

volume, pace, key), follow different modes of lecturing: spoken, audio, audio-

what another person says and psychological involvement with the person who is

talking. The vocational high school students are important to mastery listening

skills. By mastery listening skills, the students who wants to continue work on the

Which means listening skills should be mastered by the students to receive the

3

information.

producing and receiving and processing information (Brown, 1994; Burns &

Joyce, 1997). Its form and meaning are dependent on the context in which it

Language functions (or patterns) that tend to recur in certain discourse situations

(e.g., declining an invitation or requesting time off from work), can be identified

activity as the ability to express oneself in the situation, or the activity to report

from listening. When we speak we produce the text and it should be meaningful.

In the nature of communication, we can find the speaker, the listener, the message

4

different rates of deliver, use grammatical word classes (nouns, verbs, etc.),

systems (e.g., tense, agreement, pluralization), word order, patterns, rules, and

elliptical. Based those are micro-skills the students should mastery speaking by

enormous for the learners of any language. Without speech, a language is reduced

to a mere script. It means with speaking skills the students can deliver the

with people when they are working. Mastery speaking skills is necessary for

company.

The students’ listening skills and students’ speaking skills are related based

on the importance of mastery those skills for vocational high school students. For

daily use students tend to listen to something like songs, movies, and games and

they tend to imitate by speaking what they have heard. This latter view of

listening considers how listening can provide input that trigger the further

more speaking related as it supported by Cross (1999: 244) that naturally baby

can speak after she or he listens to another. It can be through active listening, it is

pronunciation.

5

Previous research that related to this study about the correlation between

listening and speaking is already found and conducted by Maisaroh (2006) This

study was taken from the students of English Department of Stater Islamic

II and listening I. This aim of this study is to get the empirical data about

this study, the researcher concerned that in English teaching especially speaking

subject, may it can be input to all English teachers to develop their way of English

teaching program. It means that it is important for the teacher develop the

material that can be used by students to improve their skill in English outside the

school. The result of this study showed moderate positive correlation which

means the higher or the lower the score in listening, the between or the worst the

This study was taken from 120 students at a specific higher education institution.

This means the students need to improve their skill in English in order to mastery

that skill and also it is necessary for them to learn English as a second language.

The result of this study showed that listening and speaking could not study

separately because somehow those skills work together in the process of second

language acquisition.

influence to students’ speaking among high school students. The study was

6

conducted toward one class of high school students in Yogyakarta. The aim of

this study to observe whether listening in English has any relation in determining

speaking scores at vocational high school students which is related to any findings

on listening and speaking test in vocational high school. The correlation between

students’ listening scores and their speaking scores at the 12th grade of SMKN 8

the problem were formulated as follow: is there any positive and significant

Based on the research problem, the study was extended to get result about

the correlation between students’ listening scores and their speaking scores at the

find out: this study tries to examine the correlation between the students’ listening

7

The researcher formulates the hypothesis is: the higher listening scores the

Practically, the result of this study gives benefits to the English teachers.

By knowing that these two skills are related, teachers can use this research as a

consideration to their teaching. The teacher can make materials or activities which

can relate listening and speaking more. For example, after doing some listening

activity, teacher can make follow up activity on speaking, The teacher could use

that strategy in the classroom and develop the materials more using that strategy,

such as role play or speak about a topic in front of the class with the topic from

listening activity.

Theoretically, for the future researcher, the result of this research could be

used as some basis or consideration when they want to conduct similar research.

The researcher believes that this research could help the future research to give the

1.6 Assumption

The researcher formulates the assumption is: the higher listening scores the

8

This research focuses on confirm that listening scores and speaking scores

are correlated. The subject that is used by the researcher is 12th graders of

Software Engineering Program SMKN 8 Malang. The object was limited on the

students’ listening scores and students’ speaking scores which is used to know the

The test used to measure listening scores in this study adopted from

TOEIC book which suitable for the vocational students for their job requirement.

The text types that used in TOEIC test consist of general business, manufacturing,

technical areas, travel, dining out, entertainment, and health (Kusuma, 2016: 11).

The test used to measure speaking scores in this study is based on the topic

that is given by the researcher which focused on the students’ opinion based on

the topic.

The key terms used in this study are listening and speaking

Listening in TOEIC test ETS TOEIC for vocational high school students

9

language speaking skill for workplace. Speaking skill is important for effective

CHAPTER II

RESEARCH METHOD

In this chapter, the researcher presents the research method, population and

sample, instruments which consist of listening and speaking test, data collection

procedure, data analysis which consist of scoring rubrics of listening and speaking

98) ―The data in correlational research are analyzed using statistics result in

correlation coefficient which shows the degree of the relationship between the

variables involved‖. The relationship in this study is listening and speaking score

researcher using statistics and scatter diagram to show the scores on two variables

The result in the correlation research design is to find out whether the two

variables are connected and correlated. There are some varieties of correlation,

which are positively related, negatively related, positive correlation and negative

10

11

significant relationship despite of how are the correlated. Listening scores as the

independent variable it means the variable that is stable and unaffected by other

means the variable that depends on other factors that are measured. The negative

one means the vice versa, therefore it is not related in any way at all. The positive

correlation means the relationship of listening and speaking scores are moving to

the same direction, meanwhile the negative means that if there is one variable that

is rising, the other one will fall. In the statistics measurement, correlation is

represented by the number between 1 to -1. If the score shows 1, it means that it is

listening and speaking scores of the students, and the closer to 0 means the less

relationship that the variables have. There are two variables in this study. The

The populations of this study were students of SMKN 8 Malang and the

sample were Software Engineering Program of the grade twelve which consist of

56 students. The researcher chose this school of the population because it was the

proceeding. Other reason why the researcher chose this vocational high school

because SMKN 8 Malang got an international certification that is ISO 9001. The

TOEIC test that school usually held for the students also from the application that

12

the government provided. The test is usually online using VIERA application

which if the students got higher score, they could be doing the test and compete

with other students from other schools. The researcher chose 12th graders since

they have enough mastery listening and speaking skill rather than 10th graders and

11th graders.

The researcher chose Software Engineering program since they were the

one who needed communicating skill the most among those three. They need

listening and speaking due to their ability making software, websites, coding or

Engineering deals with hardware and computer peripherals so they deal with

hardware and computer tools. They need reading skill to understand the manual

machines, robots, and heavy equipment, so they need reading skill to read the

manual book of the machines, whereas the Software Engineering program later

will work on service and they need to communicate with the customer a lot, so

The sampling that was chosen by the researcher was simple random

sampling. The researcher only took Software Engineering class grade 12th because

that major only has two classes RPL A and RPL B which are consist of 56

students and the school provided those classes to be conducted. It made the

researcher easy to gather the data and examine the correlation between student’s

13

2.3 Instruments

There were three instruments that used to conduct the research. There were

listening test, speaking test, and students’ interview. The detailed explanations

To conduct the listening test. The researcher used TOEIC test to test

students’ listening skill. There were some reasons why the researcher tests the

student using the TOEIC test. First, the test is considered good enough to know or

use the test after consulting it to the expert of the field which agreed that this test

has its validity and quite reliable to be used. Second, the researcher chooses

TOEIC test since they are vocational high school students and the test using

TOEIC.

The researcher took the listening test from the book and there were 100

questions that tested to the students and also there were a CD included from this

book for listening test. On the listening TOEIC test there were four parts. Part 1

And the last Part 4 Short Talks which consists of number 71-100. There are some

reasons why the researcher did not use TOEIC test from the school since the data

from the students’ test could not be shared and the researcher decided to test the

14

students using paper based test. Also, with test the students the researcher knew

The scoring procedures of listening and speaking test using the rubric

score. The researcher used the rubric score to calculate the test result. The

researcher adopted the listening rubric score from TOEIC test book. The listening

For the speaking test, the researcher provided a topic for each student to

answer and asked them to tell their opinion. The researcher made a topic about the

effect of using social media for their daily life. Then the researcher gave each of

them to tell the negative and the positive effect. The first student told their opinion

about the negative effect, the second student told about positive effect, and so on.

speaking test. The result of speaking test computes using speaking rubrics which

attached in Appendix 3.

The research was taken on Saturday, February 25th 2017. The researcher

chose on Saturday because the researcher did not want to distract students’

teaching learning process since they are 12th graders and they prepared for the

15

National Examination. On Saturday, they had additional lesson and the class and

the time was not the same as usually. The school was grouping them by their

scores. The researcher asked for help to her friends for test the students.

First, the researcher tests the listening. The listening test was held at 11

a.m. until 12 a.m. There were 100 questions that were given to the students. The

researcher also asked the students to write their WhatsApp number to make easy

to contact the students for interviewing them. Since the speaker did not clear

enough, the researcher asked the students to come forward and sit close from each

other. After done the listening test, the researcher asked 6 students to sit in front

row and in turn told their opinion about the negative and the positive effect of

using social media for their daily life. The researcher also wrote the students’

scores for their speaking and after that, they might go home. The speaking test

After getting all the response from the subjects, the researcher then

computes the result of listening and speaking test. The complete score of both of

The data analysis covered the scoring rubrics of listening and speaking

test, analyzing the interview result description of the data, fulfillment of statistical

16

After scoring and computing the final score of both listening and speaking

test, the data need to be described using descriptive statistical analysis. The aim of

using descriptive statistical analysis to make the data easier to understand and to

be described. The data also presented in the form of table and scatter diagram.

are being conducted (Garson, 2012: 8). Parametric tests are more valid when they

are performed on data that have a normal distribution (Tuckman, 1978: 252).

Meanwhile, when the data are not normally distributed, the researcher could not

use parametric test. The researcher should use non-parametric test if the data are

The researcher used non-parametric test after tested the data using SPSS

17.0 then found out the result that to find out the correlation between students’

listening and speaking skill. A directional test or two-tailed test is used to correlate

the variables. The researcher conducts the normality testing to know whether the

testing was conducted to know whether the data in this study were normally

distributed or not. The researcher used SPSS 17.0 to determine the data in this

17

1978: 33). There are two kinds of hypotheses that have to be established, null

H0: rxy = 0

H1: rxy ≠ 0

The researcher needs to test the hypothesis after found the result of

listening and speaking test. The aim of conducting hypothesis testing is to know

the correlation between those two variables. The data was computed and

correlated using SPSS 17.0. Other criteria are needed to reject or accept the null

hypothesis. The criteria to reject or accept null hypothesis are defined below.

The researcher set the significant level as .05 it means when the researcher

calculates using SPSS 17.0 and find out the result of significant level is under .05

18

so the null hypothesis is rejected, otherwise when the researcher calculates using

SPSS 17.0 and find out the result of significant level above .05 so the null

hypothesis is accepted.

correlation coefficient which is used to interpret the result of correlating the two

(2005: 92) defined the criteria of correlation coefficient interpretation in Table 2.1

Range of Values Interpretive Quality

.010 - .200 Very Low Correlation

.201 - .400 Low Correlation

.401 - .600 Fair Correlation

.601 - .800 High or Strong Correlation

.801 – 1.000 Very Strong Correlation

(Source: Triton. 2005: 9)

By using the table, the researcher tries to interpret the result of the

correlation based on the result from the calculation of listening scores and

CHAPTER III

FINDINGS

The data of students’ listening score were calculated using SPSS 17.0. In the

following Table 3.1, the descriptive analysis of students’ listening scores data is

shown.

Listening

N 56

Missing 0

Mean 68.96

Median 74.50

Mode 80

Std. Deviation 17.215

Variance 296.362

Range 62

Maximum 95

Minimum 33

From Table 3.1, it can be seen that the size of the sample (N) is 56 and all

of the data have been calculated (Missing = 0). The mean in Table 3.1 is 68.96

which show that the average score of the students’ listening scores is high enough.

19

20

The median is 74.50 which show that the middle score of the students on listening

test is high. The mode in Table 3.1 is 80 which show that the students frequently

got 80 scores.

that the value of data distribution is higher than 0 and it is assumed that there are

any variances of data in this study but they are not in the high proportion. It is also

confirmed by the value of its range; 62. The value of the range shows the

The data from the table also presented in histogram in Figure 3.1 below.

21

From Figure 3.1, we can see that most of the students got 80. So, we can

conclude that the students’ frequencies of listening score are mostly high. It shows

The data of students’ speaking scores were calculated using SPSS 17.0. In

the following Table 3.2, the descriptive analysis of students’ speaking scores data

is shown.

Speaking

N 56

N

Missing 0

Mean 2.77

Median 3.00

Mode 3

Std. Deviation .786

Variance .618

Range 3

Maximum 4

Minimum 1

From Table 3.2, it can be seen that the size of the sample (N) is 56 and all

of the data have been calculated (Missing = 0). The mean in Table 3.2 is 2.77

which show that the average score of the students’ speaking scores is high

enough. The median is 3.00 which show that the middle score of the students on

speaking test is high. The mode in Table 3.2 is 3 which show that the students

22

shows that the value of data distribution is lower than 0 and it is assumed that

most of the students got the same scores. It is also confirmed by the value of its

range; 3. The value of the range shows the scores that the students mostly got.

The data from the table also presented in histogram in Figure 3.1 below.

From Figure 3.2, we can see that most of the students got 3. Based on the

rubric score the range of the score from 0 to 4. So, we can conclude that the

students’ frequencies of speaking scores are high enough. It shows from the score

23

test. So, the researcher calculated using SPSS 17.0 to find out what kind of

testing that conducted. The normality testing, linearity testing, and homogeneity

Normality testing is needed to find out the data is parametric test or non-

parametric test. The researcher used parametric test Shapiro-Wilk test using SPSS

17.0 to test the normality of both variables. The researcher uses Shapiro-Wilk test

to do normality testing is because the sample of this study is below 2000 samples.

The result shows the normality testing of students’ listening scores can be

Listening Score

Test of Normality

Students’ Listening Shapiro-Wilk

Score Statistic df Sig.

.935 56 .005

24

used the default level of significant which is 5% or .05. The researcher states the

hypothesis as follows.

accepted

rejected

Based on the data in Table 3.4, the calculated value in column Sig.

(Significant) is .005 which is lower than .05, so the null hypothesis is accepted

and the conclusion that the data of frequency of students’ listening scores are not

normally distributed. We can see clearly the data from the normality graphic of Q-

25

Figure 3.3 shows that the data is not normally distributed. It can be seen

from scatter diagram that rise from the bottom left corner to the top right corner

along the diagonal line which shows the data which are not normally distributed

in scatter diagram.

The result shows the normality testing of students’ listening scores can be

Speaking Scores

Test of Normality

Frequency of

Shapiro-Wilk

Students’ Speaking

Statistic df Sig.

Score

.854 56 .000

26

used the default level of significant which is 5% or .05. The researcher states the

hypothesis as follows.

accepted

rejected

Based on the data in Table 3.4, the calculated value in column Sig.

(Significant) is .000 which is lower than .05, so the null hypothesis is accepted

and the researcher that the data of frequency of students’ speaking scores are not

normally distributed. The data also represent on the scatter diagram that shows the

27

Figure 3.4 shows that the data is not normally distributed. It can be seen

from the scatter diagram that rise from the bottom left corner to the top right

corner along the diagonal line which shows the data which are not normally

After the researcher found out the normality testing, then the researcher

conducted linearity testing. The linearity testing was used SPSS 17.0 to test the

linearity of the data from both variables. The result of linearity testing is presented

28

Scores

Sum of

df Mean Square F Sig.

Squares

Between Groups

Within Groups 11572.241 3 3857.414 42.428 .000

Total 4727.687 52 90.917

16299.929 55

used the default level of significant which is 5% or .05. The researcher states the

hypothesis as follows.

If calculated Sig. value of linearity > .05, the null hypothesis is accepted

If calculated Sig. value of linearity < .05, the null hypothesis is rejected

From the data in Table 3.5, the calculated value in column Sig.

(Significant) is .000 which is lower than .05, so the null hypothesis is rejected and

29

Levene Statistic df1 df2 Sig

.856 3 52 .470

significant should be in the same or higher than the level of significant. The

researcher used the default level of significant which is 5% or .05. To interpret the

accepted

rejected

Based on the data in Table 3.6, the calculated value in column Sig.

(Significant) is .000 which is lower than .05, so the null hypothesis is accepted

and we can conclude that the data are heterogeneous. Overall, from those three

statistical assumptions which are required to conduct parametric test, two of them

are not fulfilled and one is fulfilled. So, the researcher conducts non-parametric

test to find out the correlation between students’ speaking score and students’

listening score.

30

testing. There are two ways of doing hypothesis testing; parametric test and non-

parametric test. Based on the normality testing, linearity testing, and homogeneity

testing showed that the result did not fulfill the criteria of parametric test. So,

parametric test Spearman’s Rho in SPSS 17.0. The result of the correlation is

Students’ Listening Scores and Speaking Scores

Correlations

Speaking Listening

Spearman's rho Speaking Correlation 1.000 .805**

Coefficient

Sig. (2-tailed) . .000

N 56 56

**

Listening Correlation .805 1.000

Coefficient

Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .

N 56 56

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).

Based on the Table 3.7 shows that the result of calculation using SPSS

17.0 to know the correlation between students’ listening score and speaking score.

The researcher used the default significant level which is 5% or .05. The

31

The criteria to reject or accept the null hypothesis was formulated below:

.000 which is lower than .05. It means that the higher listening scores the students

got, the better they achieve in speaking scores. The correlation coefficient or r

indicates the strength of the correlation. Based on the information from the table

3.8 r value in this Spearman’s Rho Correlation is .805. According to Triton (2005:

92), the calculated r is categorized as very strong correlation. The scatter diagram

of the correlation between these two variables is shown in Figure 3.7 below.

4,5

4

3,5

Speaking Score

3

2,5

2

1,5

1

0,5

0

0 20 40 60 80 100

Listening Score

32

Figure 3.7 The Scatter Diagram of Correlation Between Students’ Listening Scores

between students’ listening scores and students’ speaking scores. The scatter

diagram indicates that the spreading mostly in the middle. It means that the result

of the students’ listening scores and speaking scores has very strong correlated

related to the Table 2.3 the criteria for the correlation coefficient interpretation. It

means that there is a correlation between students’ listening scores and students’

CHAPTER IV

DISCUSSION

whether the data in this study were normally distributed or not. The researcher

used SPSS 17.0 to determine the data in this study are normally distributed or not.

testing using SPSS 17.0 and the result found that the data is linear. Then, the

researcher also tests the homogeneity of the data the result found that the data is

heterogeneous. Since parametric test was conducted and the result found that just

one of three fulfillments is filled, the researcher using non-parametric test which

means the data was calculated using non-parametric test Spearman’s Rho Rank.

scores has been found. Which the result shows that the higher students’ listening

scores, the better they achieve in speaking scores. The calculation and

computation used SPSS 17.0. The correlation coefficient from both variables is

.805, which means the listening scores, and speaking scores has very strong

33

34

Engineering Program SMKN 8 Malang at the 12th grade affect their speaking

score which means the better the student achieve in listening scores, the better

they achieve in speaking scores and there is positive and significant correlation

This research supported the study by Maisaroh (2006) showed that the

result of listening and speaking score has positive moderate correlation which the

correlation score between listening and speaking is rxy= .371. in this study, the

researcher found the score from students who already passed the listening and

speaking class. There are some differences that the researcher found in this study.

First, the sample and the population were taken, second the method of gathering

the data and third the steps of data calculation. From this study, the researcher

also found the similarities, which this study found the correlation between

listening and speaking score. From the result, showed the same result and support

the study which there is a correlation between speaking and listening score and

supported the study that listening and speaking were studied separately to discuss

and affirm practical and conceptual foundations about the forms in which these

skills are developed and performed in the context of the classroom. It means this

35

study found that listening and speaking skill is correlated each other which cannot

be separated to mastery. With mastery the listening skill, the students also could

mastery speaking skill. In the classroom, the teacher might be using English for

teaching and make the students pay attention listening to the teacher, and then the

students also asked to speak in the classroom. This study showed that students

who listening better, the more they can speak fluently. The similarity that

researcher found in this study is about the interview which researcher conducted

to know how the students learn listening and speaking outside the school. The

result of the interviewing the students found that most of the students capable to

speak after they heard songs, movie, or news. They are trying to imitate what they

listened to. They are improving their skills through songs, movies, or news. It

means in this study shows that there is a relationship between listening and

influence in the way the students respond by speaking. Based on the outcome,

strategies to drive his speaking class. The result of the study demonstrated that the

variable was positive. It also proved with a unit of program or treatment given

3.134 times from previous speaking score for the same sample. For the analysis of

data, the extent of correlation between two variables was shown as low. It

indicated that even though listening had positive correlation toward speaking, it

was not the only dominant factor to determine success in speaking. In this study

36

shows that the correlation between listening and speaking score has low positive

correlation, which means even students has higher score in listening it doesn’t

affect their speaking score would be higher too. This study not quite enough to

support my study, but what the researcher can find in this study that the teacher

should make the right strategy to improve students’ listening and speaking skill

which can improve their skills. With the right treatment, it would show high

correlation between listening and speaking which means the better listening they

After reviewing some related previous study, we can see that some of the

results of previous studies are not supported by the result in this study because of

some factors such as, treatment provided by the researcher, number of sample,

research design, etc. The previous study also stated that listening also correlated

with other skill and specific aspects. However, listening and speaking are

between listening scores and speaking scores, for further study, the teacher or the

researcher can use any strategy that related to listening and speaking to improve

their skills.

Theoretically, this study could give references for further studies that

listening and speaking skill are the skills which cannot be separated because since

we are a child, we used to listen first before we try to speak and we speak or

imitate what we heard. Speaking skill for students is also important for them to

communicate with the opponent, if students cannot reply or answer the questions,

it means they still haven’t mastery it yet. This latter view of listening considers

how listening can provide input that trigger the further development of second

37

language proficiency (Richard, 2008: 3). These trigger is more speaking related as

it supported by Cross (1999: 244) that naturally baby can speak after she or he

to help students practice the full range of speaking and listening skills necessary

in whole groups, small groups, and with a partner—that are built around

significant content. Language arts teachers also realize the importance of engaging

future learning.

CHAPTER V

This last chapter deals with the conclusions of the research findings, and

suggestions for all English teachers and future researchers related to the research

findings.

5.1 Conclusions

From the findings, the researcher concluded that there are three steps that

should be done to know whether the test is using parametric test or non-

parametric test. There are normality, linearity, and homogeneity. In normality test

using SPSS 17.0 the researcher found that the data is not normally distribution

because the significant level is lower than .05. In homogeneity test using SPSS

17.0 the researcher found that the data is heterogeneous it means that the

significant value of homogeneity is lower than .05. In the linearity test, the

researcher found that the data are linear because the data is higher than .05. From

the three steps that already fulfilled, the researcher used non-parametric test to

find out the correlation between students’ listening skill and students’ speaking

Using SPSS 17.0 the researcher then found the value of correlation is .805

38

39

5.2 Suggestions

In this research, the researcher gives the result of listening and speaking

correlation and proves that there is a correlation between both of them. For

further study, this research has some weaknesses when conducting this research.

First, the TOEIC test is not tested by the researcher beforehand. The researcher

just took the test from the TOEIC test book. Second, the researcher did not make

any indicators which the test is appropriate for vocational students or not. The

researcher chose TOEIC test from the book since the researcher did know the

school’s indicators of TOEIC test and the school did not allow to access the

application that students used to do the TOEIC test. Third, the limitation of

sample and population of this research which the school has been provided two

There are also some strengths from this research. First, the sample and

population is vocational high school students since there is not enough research

on vocational high school especially in listening and speaking. Second, this study

found that the higher students achieve in listening, the better they achieve in

speaking which means there is a correlation between listening and speaking. The

researcher hopes that this study can help further researchers to conduct same

research better.

REFERENCES

Adryani, Yune. 2011. The Correlation Between Listening and Speaking Among

High School Students. PGRI University of Yogyakarta: Yogyakarta.

(Online), (http://download.portalgaruda.org/article.php), accessed on

November 24th, 2016.

Astorga-Cabezas, Erickzon D. 2015. The Relationship Between Listening

Proficiency and Speaking Improvement in Higher Education:

Considerations in Assessing Speaking and Listening. English Area

AIEP Institute Santiago: Chile. (Online), (http:

//www.questia.com/library/journal), accessed on November 3rd, 2016.

Brown, H. (2001). Teaching by principles: An interactive approach to language

pedagogy. White Plains, NY: Addison-Wesley

Burns, A., & Joyce, H. 1997. Focus on speaking. Sydney: National Center for

English Language Teaching and Research.

Cross, David. 1999. A Practical Handbook of Language Teaching. Ed. C.

Vaughan James. London: Prentice Hall International.

Garson, G. David. 2012. Assumptions. North California State University: G.

David Garson and Statistical Associates Publishing.

Kusuma, Alvina. 2016. TOEFL TOEIC Practice Test. Solo: Genta Smart

Publisher

Latief, Adnan. 2014. Research Methods on Language Learning an Introduction.

Universitas Negeri Malang: Malang.

Maisaroh. 2006. Correlation Between Listening Score and Speaking Score. Syarif

Hidayatullah State Islamic University: Jakarta. (Online),

(http://repository.uinjkt.ac.id), accessed on November 3rd, 2016.

Mundhe, Ganesh B. 2015. Teaching Receptive and Productive Language Skills

with The Help of Techniques. Pune, Mahashtra: India.

Nunan, D. 1991. Research Methods in Language Learning. Cambridge:

Cambridge

University Press.

Qureshi, Ishrat Aamer. The Importance of Speaking Skill for EFL Learners.

Alama Iqbal Open University: Pakistan

Richard, Jack C and Willy A. Renandya ed. 2002. Methodology in Language

Teaching. An Anthology of Current Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge

University Press.

Richards, Jack C. 2008. Teaching Listening and Speaking from Theory Through

Practice. Cambridge University Press: New York.

40

41

conversation. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Richards, Jack C. 1983. Listening comprehension: Approach, design,

procedure. TESOL Quarterly, 17, 219-239. New York: Cambridge

University Press.

Saricoban, Arif. 1999. The Teaching of Listening. Hacettepe University: Beytepe-

Ankara, Turkey (Online), (http://iteslj.org/Articles/Saricoban-

Listening.html), accessed on January 18th, 2016.

Simon, M. K. 2011. Dissertation and scholarly research: Recipes for success

(2011 Ed.). Seattle, WA, Dissertation Success, LLC.

Tuckman, W. Bruce. 1978. Conducting Educational Research. Harcourt Brace

Jovanovich.

Triton, P.B. 2005. Cara Cepat Menguasai SPSS 13.0 untuk Uji Coba Benda

Nyata dan Rancangan Percobaan. Yogyakarta.

Tyagi, Babita. 2013. Listening: An Important Skill and Its Various Aspects. The

Criterion an International Journal in English ISSN 0976-8165 (p.1).

About the TOEIC Listening and Reading Test

(http://www.ets.org/toeic/listening_reading/about), accessed on June,

15th 2017

About the TOEIC Speaking and Writing Test

(http://www.ets.or/toeic/test_takers/speaking_writing/about), accessed

on June,15th 2017

APPENDICS

1. The posstive effect of using Social Media for your daily life.

2. The negative effect of using Social Media for your daily life.

1 ARP 95 100

2 AT 94 100

3 AYP 91 100

4 ADDDD 91 100

5 AFR 89 75

6 ASZ 89 100

7 AIP 88 75

8 BRS 87 75

9 BRR 87 75

42

43

10 DYK 86 100

11 FIH 85 75

12 FPB 85 75

13 FSZ 84 75

14 MFA 84 75

15 GAB 83 100

16 GK 81 75

17 KWM 80 75

18 LKA 80 75

19 MHR 80 100

20 MAI 80 75

21 MSA 79 75

22 MFA 79 75

23 MIR 78 75

24 RAVS 78 75

25 RM 77 100

26 SP 77 100

27 VNR 77 100

28 WKS 75 100

29 ARA 74 50

30 ACK 73 75

31 AF 73 75

32 DKP 67 50

33 DP 67 75

34 DSA 63 75

35 DKN 63 50

36 DSP 62 75

37 EHP 61 50

44

38 EG 61 50

39 FRZ 60 100

40 FR 58 50

41 HAR 57 75

42 IN 57 50

43 IR 56 50

44 MSADY 53 50

45 MFD 50 50

46 MRA 49 50

47 MYYAR 48 50

48 PAZ 48 50

49 RGM 46 50

50 RGD 45 25

51 SM 42 25

52 SF 41 50

53 TTS 40 50

54 USE 40 50

55 YT 36 25

56 YWA 33 50

Appendix 3 Table 2.1 Tactics for TOEIC Listening Test Score Conversion

Tables getting an estimated TOEIC score

Listening Raw Score Listening Scaled Score

96 – 100 495

91 – 95 450 – 495

86 – 90 415 – 475

81 – 85 370 – 450

76 – 80 340 – 420

71 – 75 315 – 390

66 – 70 285 – 360

61 – 65 255 – 330

45

56 – 60 230 – 305

51 – 55 205 – 275

46 – 50 175 – 245

41 – 45 150 – 220

36 – 40 125 – 185

31 – 35 100 – 155

26 – 30 85 – 120

21 – 25 75 – 100

16 – 20 55 – 80

11 – 15 35 – 65

6 – 10 25 – 40

1–5 10 – 30

0 0

(Source: Kusuma, 2016: 13)

Score General Delivery Language Use Topic

Description Development

4 The response fulfils Generally The response Response is

the demands of the well-paced demonstrates sustained and

task, with at most flow (fluid effective use of sufficient to

minor lapses in expression). grammar and the task. It is

completeness. It is Speech is vocabulary. It generally

highly intelligible clear. It may exhibits a fairly well

and exhibits include minor high degree of developed

sustained, coherent lapses, or automaticity and coherent;

discourse. A minor with good relationships

response at this difficulties control of basic between ideas

level is with and complex are clear (or

characterized by all pronunciation structures (as clear

of the following: or intonation appropriate). progression

patterns, Some minor (or of ideas).

which do not systematic)

affect overall errors are

intelligibility. noticeable but

do not obscure

meaning.

3 The response Speech is The response Response is

addresses to the generally demonstrates mostly

task appropriately, clear, with fairly automatic coherent and

but may fall short some fluidity and effective sustained and

of being fully of expression, use of grammar conveys

developed. It is though minor and vocabulary, relevant

generally difficulties and fairly ideas/

intelligible and with coherent information.

coherent, with pronunciation, expression of Overall

some noticeable intonation, or relevant ideas. development

lapses in the pacing are Response may is somewhat

46

A response at this may require imprecise or usually lacks

level is listener effort inaccurate use elaboration or

characterized by at at times of vocabulary or specificity.

least two of the (though grammatical Relationships

following: overall structures or be between ideas

intelligibility somewhat may at times

is not limited in the not be

significantly range of immediately

affected). structures used. clear.

This may affect

overall fluency,

but it does not

seriously

interfere with

the

communication

of the message.

2 The response Speech is The response The response

addresses the task, basically demonstrates is connected

but development of intelligible, limited range to the task,

the topic is limited. though and control of though the

It contains listener effort grammar and number of

intelligible speech, is needed vocabulary. ideas

although problems because of These presented or

with delivery and/ unclear limitations often the

or overall articulation, prevent full development

coherence occur; awkward expression of of ideas is

meaning may be intonation, or ideas. For the limited.

obscured in places. choppy most part, only Mostly basic

A response at this rhythm/ pace; basic sentence ideas are

level is meaning may structures are expressed

characterized by at be obscured used with limited

least two of the in places. successfully and elaboration

following: spoken with (details and

fluidity. support). At

Structures and times relevant

vocabulary may substance

express mainly may be

simple (short) vaguely

and/ or general expressed or

proportions, repetitious.

with simple or Connections

unclear or ideas may

connections be unclear.

made among

them (serial

listing,

47

conjunction,

juxtaposition).

1 The response is Consistent Range and Limited

very limited in pronunciation, control of relevant

content and/ or stress, and grammar and content is

coherence or is intonation vocabulary expressed.

only minimally difficulties severely limit The response

connected to the cause (or prevent) generally

task, or speech is considerable expression of lacks

largely listener effort; ideas and substance

unintelligible. A delivery is connections beyond

response at this choppy, among ideas. expression of

level is fragmented, Some low-level very basic

characterized by at or telegraphy; responses may ideas.

least two of the frequent rely heavily on Speaker may

following: pauses and practiced or be unable to

hesitations. formulaic sustain

expressions. speech to

complete the

task a may

rely heavily

on repetition

of the

prompt.

0 Speaker makes no attempt to respond OR response is unrelated to the

topic.

(Source: https:// www.ets.org/ toeic/ institutions/ resources/ downloads/)

48

49

50

51

52

53

54

55

56

57

58

59

CURRICULUM VITAE

her family. Her father’s name is Sukwanur Ridho and his mother is Nur Melati

Suci.

On 2006 she graduated from SDN Pakis Kembar 1 Malang. When junior

high school, she studied in Bangil at SMPN 2 Bangil followed her grandparents

She graduated from State Vocational High School 8 Malang in 2012. She

postponed his collage and she has been working an Elementary School in Batu for

- MB0050-SLM-Unit-04Hochgeladen vonGall All
- DLL SAMPLEHochgeladen vonedward_sheed28
- IMMAN THESISHochgeladen vonJustine Grace Loteria
- Testing of Hypothesis IHochgeladen vonsheelajeevakumar
- Grad SpeechHochgeladen vonWayaya2009
- 1305000095_MB0050Hochgeladen vonHeena Nigam
- MAP test QHochgeladen vonShubhangi B
- Paper_2013_M.EdHochgeladen vonSohail_ed
- Academic WordsHochgeladen vonDương Nguyễn
- Research Methods Statistics I.2_2014-15_Student Handout_S.pdfHochgeladen vonJeremy Brown
- Lesson Plan 1.Draft CopyHochgeladen vonShenSy
- Ergonomics Office Works With Visual Display TerminalsHochgeladen vonnoel
- Mann Whitney UHochgeladen vonAshish Thakkar
- 2 Hypo TestingHochgeladen vonPallav Anand
- sw 4810 syllabus fall 2015 9 9 15Hochgeladen vonapi-310782911
- Mgt602 Lecture 5Hochgeladen vonAnabia Chodry
- sw 4810 syllabus fall 2015 9 9 15Hochgeladen vonapi-312648765
- ABE Level 5 Quantitative Methods for Business Management DEC 2015Hochgeladen vonimanuel31
- Math HW Help for 12-1Hochgeladen vonRylanSmolik
- Academic word list + formsHochgeladen vonDr. Lil BaEis
- Even Sem McsHochgeladen vonAnish John
- 08 Lecture HypothesisTestingHochgeladen vonuday369
- AHW4 GrammarSpot U11 NewHochgeladen vonJUAN CARLOS
- CAE Word FormationHochgeladen vonAnca Elena
- Statistics in Analytical Chemistry Part 8Hochgeladen vonHelder Durao
- Content ServerHochgeladen vonJhonJairoGuerreroCenteno
- copy of is there a difference portfolioHochgeladen vonapi-370496755
- lab synopsis writing tips ekbHochgeladen vonapi-446887131
- RMA-lecture.-latest.pdfHochgeladen vonRevin Vincere Caralipio
- Tests for Two CorrelationsHochgeladen vonMorrison Omokiniovo Jessa Snr

- Stat982(Chap13)Q SetHochgeladen vongaurav
- Chapter 3Hochgeladen vonJermain Holmes
- Steps of ResearchHochgeladen vonBouteina Nakib
- NDT NABLHochgeladen vonPrabir Kumar
- Evaluating the Effects of ERP Systems on Performance and Management.pdfHochgeladen vonamit76meerut
- P1 - Random SamplingHochgeladen vonTakchandra Jaikeshan
- Useful ThingsHochgeladen vonAbhilasha Ravichander
- Research Methodology and Design-1Hochgeladen vonMikhail Joshua Presincula
- M-STEP Results Reset the Academic Bar of Higher Expectations for Michigan StudentsHochgeladen vonMichigan News
- Applied Statistic PosterHochgeladen vondouglasgarciatorres
- BCS 40 IGNOUHochgeladen vonAbhishek Mandal
- MCQ RMHochgeladen vonamarpoonam
- AMOS — Statistics SolutionsHochgeladen vonAli Alia
- Rules of Research MethodologyHochgeladen vonmohan4175
- 2 Assessment and Evaluation of Learning PartHochgeladen vonMary Grace Cernechez
- Feby Ppt Marketing Research FixHochgeladen vonRike Desilia
- ran-ras presentation finalHochgeladen vonapi-231978749
- IELTS Backdoor in Iraq, IELTS Backdoor Pakistan, IELTS Backdoor in Iran, Obtain toefl in Brazil, Buy Ielts Band 8 Iraq,Hochgeladen vonGLOBAL DOCUMENTATIN
- EDU 723 BASIC RESEARCH IN EDUCATION.pdfHochgeladen vonolalekan
- Practical Research 1aHochgeladen vonKapitan Bilang
- ESS_weighting_data_1.pdfHochgeladen vonΒΑΣΙΛΕΙΟΣ ΙΣΜΥΡΛΗΣ
- Statistics NotesHochgeladen vonBalasubrahmanya K. R.
- Eamcet 2012 Engineering PaperHochgeladen vonandhracolleges
- Introduction to DIFHochgeladen vonhhkarami
- Dental Satisfaction SurveyHochgeladen vonAamir Bugti
- Kuiper Ch04Hochgeladen vonLuis Ramirez
- GAReddy@OneTestingCenter@QA IntroductionToTestingHochgeladen vonGAReddy
- Managerial Statistics SyllabusHochgeladen vonPed Salvador
- InterviewHochgeladen vonNurul Fadilah Nainanda Putri Chaniago
- zxcvjkHochgeladen vonMuhammad Farras Razin Perdana