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THE CORRELATION BETWEEN VOCATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL

STUDENTS’ LISTENING SCORES AND THEIR SPEAKING SCORES

THESIS

BY
FIRDAUS NUR HABIBA
NIM. 130221612267

UNIVERSITAS NEGERI MALANG


FACULTY OF LETTERS
DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH
August 2017
THE CORRELATION BETWEEN VOCATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL

STUDENTS’ LISTENING SCORES AND THEIR SPEAKING SCORES

THESIS
Presented to
Universitas Negeri Malang
in partial fulfillment of the requirements
for the degree of Sarjana in English Language Education

BY
Firdaus Nur Habiba
NIM. 130221612267

UNIVERSITAS NEGERI MALANG


FACULTY OF LETTERS
DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH
August 2017
This is to certify that the sarjana’s thesis of Firdaus Nur Habiba has been
approved by the thesis advisors for further approval by the Board of Examiners,

Malang, 21 June 2017


Advisor I

Nunung Suryati, M.Ed, Ph.D


NIP. 19631102 198803 2 002

Malang, 21 June 2017


Advisor II

Dr. Emalia Iragiliati, M.Pd


NIP. 19530402 198601 2 001

i
This is to certify that the sarjana’s thesis of Firdaus Nur Habiba has been
approved by the Board of Examiners as the requirement for the degree of sarjana
in English Language Education

Malang, 16 August 2017


Board of Examiner,

Prof. Dr. Gunadi Harry Sulistyo, M.A., Chair


NIP. 19580329 198601 1 001

Nunung Suryati, M.Ed, Ph.D, Member


NIP. 19631102 198803 2 002

Dr. Emalia Iragiliati, M.Pd, Member


NIP. 19530402 198601 2 001

Acknowledged by Approved by
Head of English Department Dean, Faculty of Letters

Dr. Johannes Ananto Prayogo, M.Pd, M.Ed Prof. Utami Widiati, M.A, Ph.D
NIP. 19581028 198601 1 001 NIP. 19650813 199002 2 001

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STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY OF SARJANA’S THESIS

The undersigned,

Name : Firdaus Nur Habiba

NIM : 130221612267

Study Program : English Language Teaching

Faculty : Faculty of Letters

declares that the present Sarjana’s thesis describes an original research

undertaken for the English Department, Faculty of Letters, State University of

Malang. Any theories, findings, research techniques which are not my own have

been acknowledged in the text. Theoretical contributions and findings in the thesis

are my own original works and have not been submitted for any degree in this

university or any other universities. If later it can be revealed that this thesis

contains plagiarism of others intellectual work of any kind, I would readily accept

the sanctions established by the University on this matter.

Malang, 16 June 2017

As signed hereby,

Firdaus Nur Habiba

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ABSTRACT
Habiba, Firdaus Nur. The Correlation Vocational High School Students’ Listening
Scores and Their Speaking Scores. Sarjana’s Thesis. English Education,
English Department, Universitas Negeri Malang. Advisors: Nunung
Suryati, M.Ed, Ph.D., Dr. Emalia Iragiliati, M.Pd.

Keywords: listening, speaking, correlation.

Listening skill nowadays is very important especially for the students.


They almost every day learn about an English at school. Learning to listen helps
the students to use the language and also to improve speaking skill in English. If
the students are asked to master speaking, they must be comprehend in listening.
The mastery of speaking skills in English is a priority for many second-language
or foreign-language learners. Consequently, learners often evaluate their success
in language learning as well as the effectiveness of their English course on the
basis of how much they feel they have improved in their spoken language
proficiency. The students who got listening scores better also can improve their
speaking scores because those skills are related. In this research, the researcher
chose SMKN 8 Malang as a population and the 12th graders of Software
Engineering Program as a sample which consist of 56 students to find out the
relationship between listening scores and speaking scores.
The data in correlational research are analyzed using statistics result in
correlation coefficient which shows the degree of the relationship between
listening scores and speaking scores. Since this research is quantitative research,
this study attempts to reveal through statistical data analysis, in the form of
students’ score from each variable that both have correlation. To gather the data
from the students listening test and speaking test was conducted by the researcher.
TOEIC test is used to test the students’ listening and speaking test is conducted by
telling the student’s opinion about the positive and negative impact of using social
media. To find the correlation between listening scores and speaking scores, SPSS
17.0 is used as a tool to calculate the data. Several steps are conducted before find
the correlation. There are linearity, normality, and homogeneity. The result of
parametric test is non-parametric test; it means Spearman’s Rho Rank is used by
the researcher to find the correlation between those scores. The result of the study
shows the correlation between students’ listening scores and students’ speaking
scores is .805 that means the better students achieve in listening scores, the better
they got in speaking scores. The correlation of students; speaking scores and
students’ listening scores is very high correlated.

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ABSTRAK
Habiba, Firdaus Nur. Korelasi Antara Nilai Listening Siswa dan Nilai Speaking
Siswa di SMK. Skripsi. Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris, Sastra Inggris,
Universitas Negeri Malang. Dosen Pembimbing: Nunung Suryati, M.Ed,
Ph.D., Dr. Emalia Iragiliati, M.Pd.

Keywords: mendengar, membaca, korelasi

Kemampuan siswa dalam listening saat ini sangat penting terutama bagi
para siswa. Mereka hampir setiap hari belajar bahasa Inggris di sekolah.
Mempelajari listening membantu siswa untuk menggunakan bahasa dan juga
untuk meningkatkan kemampuan speaking siswa dalam bahasa Inggris. Jika siswa
diminta untuk menguasai speaking, mereka harus memahami listening.
Penguasaan kemampuan berbicara dalam bahasa Inggris merupakan prioritas bagi
banyak pelajar bahasa kedua atau bahasa asing. Akibatnya, peserta didik sering
mengevaluasi keberhasilan mereka dalam pembelajaran bahasa serta keefektifan
kursus bahasa Inggris mereka berdasarkan pada seberapa besar mereka merasa
telah meningkat dalam kemampuan bahasa lisan mereka. Para siswa yang
mendapat nilai listening lebih baik, nilai siswa dalam speaking pun akan
meningkat karena listening dan speaking itu saling terkait. Dalam penelitian ini,
peneliti memilih SMKN 8 Malang sebagai populasi dan kelas 12 RPL sebagai
sampel yang terdiri dari 56 siswa untuk mengetahui hubungan antara nilai
listening dan nilai speaking.
Data penelitian korelasional dianalisis dengan menggunakan statistik
hasil koefisien korelasi yang menunjukkan tingkat hubungan antara nilai listening
dan nilai speaking. Karena penelitian ini merupakan penelitian kuantitatif,
penelitian ini mencoba untuk mengungkapkan melalui analisis data statistik,
berupa nilai siswa dari masing-masing variabel yang keduanya memiliki korelasi.
Untuk mengumpulkan data dari tes listening siswa dan tes speaking dilakukan
oleh peneliti. Tes TOEIC yang digunakan untuk menguji tes listening dan tes
speaking dilakukan dengan memberi siswa sebuah topik untuk mengungkapkan
pendapat siswa tentang dampak positif dan negatif dari penggunaan media sosial.
Untuk mengetahui hubungan antara nilai listening dan nilai speaking, SPSS 17.0
digunakan sebagai alat untuk menghitung data. Beberapa langkah dilakukan
sebelum menemukan korelasinya, diantaranya uji linearitas, uji normalitas, dan uji
homogenitas. Hasil uji parametrik tersebut adalah uji non parametrik; ini berarti
ketiga uji tersebut tidak memenuhi kriteria untuk menguji menggunakan
parametrik test. Spearman's Rho Rank digunakan oleh peneliti untuk menemukan
korelasi antara nilai listening dan nilai speaking. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan
bahwa korelasi antara nilai listening dan nilai speaking siswa adalah 0,805 yang
berarti siswa yang mendapatkan niai tinggi pada test listening, nilai speaking nya
juga meningkat. Dari hasil korelasi menunjukkan bahwa nilai listening dan nilai
speaking siswa SMKN 8 Malang kelas 12 RPL menunjukkan korelasi yang sangat
tinggi..

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Alhamdulillahirabbil'alamin. All praise be to Allah for His innumerable

blessing which enables me to finish this thesis. I eventually did it.

I would like to offer my deepest gratitude to my thesis advisors, Nunung

Suryati, M,Ed, Ph.D and Dr. Emalia Iragiliati, M.Pd for their immense

knowledge, support, and motivation. I treasure their assistance and encouragement

to solve different technical problems I faced during my thesis writing. I also owe

my deepest gratitude to my examiner Prof. Dr. Gunadi Harry Sulistyo, M.A. for

his constructive suggestions during my thesis examination.

I owe all the kindness and support from my best friend Dewi Eriana

Fadlyn who gave me the idea. Thanks to my friends who helped me during

conducted the test Dewi Eriana Fadlyn, Aditama Melati, and Flora Desianti Putri.

Also, I thank to Firga Vitrasya who helped me and taught me about the statistics.

Aulia Akifina Annur who let me used her WiFi. For Galih Iman whose came to

Malang and accompany me during my first sarjana’s thesis examination. For my

friends Fadhilah Suci Safitri, Aditama Melati, and Dewi Eriana Fadlyn who

supported me on my second sarjana’s thesis examination. The last thanks for Arif

Rahmansyah who gave me support to finish my sarjana’s thesis examination.

My greatest gratitude is given to my beloved parents, Sukwanur Ridho and

Nur Melati Suci for all the love and affection given to me. As parents they both

give affection to me of my life.

The writer

vi
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
APPROVAL PAGE……………………………………………………. i
STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY OF SARJANA’S THESIS………… iii
ABSTRACT……………………………………………………………. iv
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT……………………………………………… vi
TABLE OF CONTENTS………………………………………………. vii
LIST OF TABLES……………………………………………………... x

LIST OF FIGURES…………………………………………………….. xi
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study……………………… 1
1.2 Research Questions…………………………… 6
1.3 Research Objectives…………………………... 6
1.4 Research Hypothesis………………………….. 6
1.5 Significance of the Study……………………... 7
1.6 Assumption…………………………………… 7
1.7 Scope and Limitation of the Study……………. 7
1.8 Definition of Key Terms……………………… 8

CHAPTER II RESEARCH METHOD


2.1 Research Design………………………………. 9
2.2 Population and Sample………………………... 10
2.3 Instruments……………………………………. 12
2.3.1 Listening Test………………………………... 12
2.3.2 Speaking Test………………………………... 13
2.3.3 Data Collection Procedure…………………... 13
2.4 Data Analysis…………………………………. 14
2.5.1 Description of The Data……………………... 15
2.5.2 Fulfillment of Statistical Assumption 15
Examination………………………………….
2.5.3 Statistical Hypothesis Establishment………... 16
2.5.4 Criteria of Rejection or Acceptance the Null 16
Hypothesis…………………………………...
2.5.5 Interpretation Procedures……………………. 17

CHAPTER III FINDINGS


3.1 Students’ Score of Listening Test…………….. 18
3.2 Students’ Score of Speaking Test…………….. 20
3.3 Fulfillment of Statistical Calculation…………. 22
3.3.1 Normality Testing…………………………… 22
3.3.1.1 Normality Testing of Variable X (Listening 24
Score) ………….........................................
3.3.1.2 Normality Testing of Variable Y (Speaking 24
Score) ………………...................................
3.3.2 Linearity Testing ……………………………. 26
3.3.3 Homogeneity Testing ……………………….. 27

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3.4 Hypothesis Testing…………………………… 29

CHAPTER IV DISCUSSION
4.1 Discussion of Findings………………………... 32
4.2 Discussion of Previous Study………………… 33

CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS


5.1 Conclusions…………………………………… 37
5.2 Suggestions…………………………………… 38

REFERENCES…………………………………………………………. 39
APPENDICES…………...……………………………………………... 41
Appendix 1 Students’ Speaking Test Instruction..................................... 41
Appendix 2 Students’ Listening and Speaking Score.............................. 41
Appendix 3 Table 2.1 Tactics for TOEIC Listening Test Score 43
Conversion Tables getting an estimated TOEIC score………………….
Appendix 4 Table 2.2 Scoring Rubrics of Speaking TOEIC Test……... 44
Appendix 5 Students’ Listening Test…………………………………... 47
CURRICULUM VITAE……………………………………………….. 62

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LIST OF TABLES

TABLE PAGE
2.1 Tactics for TOEIC Listening Test Score Conversion Tables Getting 43
an estimated TOEIC score ………………………………………….
2.2 Scoring Rubrics of Speaking TOEIC Test…………………………. 43
2.3 Criteria for the Correlation Coefficient Interpretation……………... 17
3.1 Descriptive Statistical Analysis of Students’ Listening Score …….. 18
3.2 Descriptive Statistical Analysis of Students’ Speaking Score……... 20
3.3 Parametric Test of Normality Shapiro-Wilk Test of Students’ 22
Listening Score……………………………………………………...
3.4 Parametric Test of Normality Shapiro-Wilk Test of Students’ 25
Speaking Score……………………………………………………...
3.5 Linearity Testing of Students’ Speaking Scores and Listening 27
Scores……………………………………………………………….
3.6 Homogeneity Testing of Listening Scores and Speaking Scores….. 28
3.7 The Non-Parametric Spearman’s Rho Rank Correlation between 29
Students’ Listening Scores and Speaking Scores…………………...

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LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE PAGE
3.1 Frequency of Students’ Listening Score…………………………… 19
3.2 Frequency of Students’ Speaking Score……………………………. 21
3.3 Graphic of the Scatter Diagram of Students’ Listening Score……... 24
3.4 Graphic of the Scatter Diagram of Students’ Speaking Score……... 26
3.5 The Scatter Diagram of Correlation Between Students’ Listening 30
Skill and Students’ Speaking Skill…………………………………

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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

This chapter presents the background of the study including previous

studies, the research questions, the research objectives, the significance of the

study, the research hypothesis, the research assumption, the scope of the study,

and the definition of key terms.

1.1 Background of the Study

Listening and speaking skills are the skills which cannot be separated

because since we are a child, we used to listen first before we try to speak and we

speak or imitate what we heard. Speaking skills for students is also important for

them to communicate with the opponent, if students cannot reply or answer the

questions; it means they still have not mastery it yet. The students should learn

outside the school and try to speak with their friends. If they do not try to speak,

they would have got difficulties to say something in English even the simple

conversation. It is better after the students listening something; they imitate it and

try to say it.

Listening skills is the key to all effective communication. Without the

ability to listen effectively, messages are easily misunderstood. Speech is primary;

the crucial function of language is for interaction and communication. We speak

when we want to express our ideas, opinion, and desires and to establish social

relationships and friendship. In our spoken communication, we use transactional

language or interactional language. The transactional language contains

1
2

information. It is also for conveying a message as interactional language

(Mundhe: 2015).

According to Richards (1983), influential article on the teaching of

listening skills outlined a detailed taxonomy of what he termed 'micro-skills.'

These skills are derived from his analysis of the listening process with its

semantic, pragmatic and sociolinguistic components, along with the unique

features of oral discourse.

Richards (1983) micro-skills for listening to lectures are abilities to

identify purpose and scope, follow topic development of lecture, recognize key

lexical items related to subject/ topic, deduce meanings of words from context,

recognize function of intonation to signal information structure (e.g., pitch,

volume, pace, key), follow different modes of lecturing: spoken, audio, audio-

visual, recognize instructional learner tasks (e.g., warnings, suggestions,

recommendations, advice, instructions). From all those micro-skills the students

should mastery those all by listening. It can be listening to monologue or dialogue

from spoken, audio, or audio-visual.

The importance of listening skills according to Tyagi (2013), listening

skills is the key to receiving messages effectively. It is a combination of hearing

what another person says and psychological involvement with the person who is

talking. The vocational high school students are important to mastery listening

skills. By mastery listening skills, the students who wants to continue work on the

company, English proficiency is necessary for Software Engineering students.

Which means listening skills should be mastered by the students to receive the
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information while they are having a conversation or getting any kinds of

information.

Speaking is an interactive process of constructing meaning that involves

producing and receiving and processing information (Brown, 1994; Burns &

Joyce, 1997). Its form and meaning are dependent on the context in which it

occurs, including the participants themselves, their collective experiences, the

physical environment, and the purposes for speaking. It is often spontaneous,

open-ended, and evolving. However, speech is not always unpredictable.

Language functions (or patterns) that tend to recur in certain discourse situations

(e.g., declining an invitation or requesting time off from work), can be identified

and charted (Burns &Joyce, 1997).

According to Ladouse (in Nunan 1991: 23), speaking is described as the

activity as the ability to express oneself in the situation, or the activity to report

acts, or situation in precise words or the ability to converse or to express a

sequence of ideas fluently. Speaking is the productive skill. It cannot be separated

from listening. When we speak we produce the text and it should be meaningful.

In the nature of communication, we can find the speaker, the listener, the message

and the feedback. Speaking cannot be separated from pronunciation as it

encourages learners to learn the English sound.

According to Brown (2001) micro-skills on speaking are produce

differences among English phonemes and allophones, stress patterns, words in

stressed and unstressed positions, rhythmic structure, and intonation contours,

produce chunks of language of different lengths, produce fluent speech at


4

different rates of deliver, use grammatical word classes (nouns, verbs, etc.),

systems (e.g., tense, agreement, pluralization), word order, patterns, rules, and

elliptical. Based those are micro-skills the students should mastery speaking by

practicing it can be dialogue or monologue

The importance of speaking skills according to Qureshi (2013) hence is

enormous for the learners of any language. Without speech, a language is reduced

to a mere script. It means with speaking skills the students can deliver the

information or accept the information. It is also important for vocational high

school students to mastery speaking skills. They need to communicate or deal

with people when they are working. Mastery speaking skills is necessary for

Software Engineering students’ proficiency who wants to continue work in the

company.

The students’ listening skills and students’ speaking skills are related based

on the importance of mastery those skills for vocational high school students. For

daily use students tend to listen to something like songs, movies, and games and

they tend to imitate by speaking what they have heard. This latter view of

listening considers how listening can provide input that trigger the further

development of second language proficiency (Richard, 2008: 3). These trigger is

more speaking related as it supported by Cross (1999: 244) that naturally baby

can speak after she or he listens to another. It can be through active listening, it is

thought, and students acquire vocabulary and syntax as well as better

pronunciation.
5

Previous research that related to this study about the correlation between

listening and speaking is already found and conducted by Maisaroh (2006) This

study was taken from the students of English Department of Stater Islamic

University Hidayatullah, academic year 2003-2004 who had completed speaking

II and listening I. This aim of this study is to get the empirical data about

correlation between listening score and speaking score of university students. In

this study, the researcher concerned that in English teaching especially speaking

subject, may it can be input to all English teachers to develop their way of English

teaching program. It means that it is important for the teacher develop the

material that can be used by students to improve their skill in English outside the

school. The result of this study showed moderate positive correlation which

means the higher or the lower the score in listening, the between or the worst the

score in speaking for the students of English Department.

The important of mastery listening skill in higher education according to

previous study which conducted by Astoraga (2015) is listening-based instruction

in order to improve oral skills in students learning English as a second language.

This study was taken from 120 students at a specific higher education institution.

This means the students need to improve their skill in English in order to mastery

that skill and also it is necessary for them to learn English as a second language.

The result of this study showed that listening and speaking could not study

separately because somehow those skills work together in the process of second

language acquisition.

Other study by Andryani (2011) find out listening give significant

influence to students’ speaking among high school students. The study was
6

conducted toward one class of high school students in Yogyakarta. The aim of

this study to observe whether listening in English has any relation in determining

speaking among high school students or not.

On this research, the researcher is going to focus on listening scores and

speaking scores at vocational high school students which is related to any findings

on listening and speaking test in vocational high school. The correlation between

students’ listening scores and their speaking scores at the 12th grade of SMKN 8

Malang Software Engineering Program would be studied by the researcher.

1.2 Research Questions

Based on the background of the problem presented previously, the statements of

the problem were formulated as follow: is there any positive and significant

correlation between students’ listening score and students’ speaking scores?

1.3 Research Objectives

Based on the research problem, the study was extended to get result about

the correlation between students’ listening scores and their speaking scores at the

12th grade of SMKN 8 Malang Software Engineering Program, the objectives to

find out: this study tries to examine the correlation between the students’ listening

scores and students’ speaking scores.


7

1.4 Research Hypothesis

The researcher formulates the hypothesis is: the higher listening scores the

students got, the better they achieve in speaking scores.

1.5 Significance of the Study

Practically, the result of this study gives benefits to the English teachers.

By knowing that these two skills are related, teachers can use this research as a

consideration to their teaching. The teacher can make materials or activities which

can relate listening and speaking more. For example, after doing some listening

activity, teacher can make follow up activity on speaking, The teacher could use

that strategy in the classroom and develop the materials more using that strategy,

such as role play or speak about a topic in front of the class with the topic from

listening activity.

Theoretically, for the future researcher, the result of this research could be

used as some basis or consideration when they want to conduct similar research.

The researcher believes that this research could help the future research to give the

resources for their study.

1.6 Assumption

The researcher formulates the assumption is: the higher listening scores the

students got, the better they achieve in speaking scores.


8

1.7 Scope of the Study

This research focuses on confirm that listening scores and speaking scores

are correlated. The subject that is used by the researcher is 12th graders of

Software Engineering Program SMKN 8 Malang. The object was limited on the

students’ listening scores and students’ speaking scores which is used to know the

correlation between both scores.

The test used to measure listening scores in this study adopted from

TOEIC book which suitable for the vocational students for their job requirement.

The text types that used in TOEIC test consist of general business, manufacturing,

finance and budgeting, corporate development, offices, personnel, purchasing,

technical areas, travel, dining out, entertainment, and health (Kusuma, 2016: 11).

The test used to measure speaking scores in this study is based on the topic

that is given by the researcher which focused on the students’ opinion based on

the topic.

1.8 Definition of Key Terms

The key terms used in this study are listening and speaking

Listening in TOEIC test ETS TOEIC for vocational high school students

for face to face communication, meeting, videoconferencing, podcasts, and

telephone conversations. Listening test offers a common standard of measurement

of comparing the language skills of current and potential employees.


9

Speaking in TOEIC test ETS TOEIC are valid assessment of English-

language speaking skill for workplace. Speaking skill is important for effective

presentation, face to face communication, meetings, videoconferencing,

teleconferencing and telephone.


CHAPTER II

RESEARCH METHOD

In this chapter, the researcher presents the research method, population and

sample, instruments which consist of listening and speaking test, data collection

procedure, data analysis which consist of scoring rubrics of listening and speaking

test, description of the data, fulfillment of statistical calculation, statistical

hypothesis establishment, criteria of rejection or acceptance the null hypothesis,

interpretation procedures, and analyzing the interview.

2.1 Research Design

The study was correlational research design, since it described the

quantitative degree to which variables were related. According to Latief (2014:

98) ―The data in correlational research are analyzed using statistics result in

correlation coefficient which shows the degree of the relationship between the

variables involved‖. The relationship in this study is listening and speaking score

of the 12th graders in SMKN 8 Malang Software Engineering Program. The

researcher using statistics and scatter diagram to show the scores on two variables

and see relationship between the variables involved.

The result in the correlation research design is to find out whether the two

variables are connected and correlated. There are some varieties of correlation,

which are positively related, negatively related, positive correlation and negative

correlation. Simon (2011) explained that positively related means there is a

10
11

significant relationship despite of how are the correlated. Listening scores as the

variable X and speaking scores as variable Y. As we know the variable X is

independent variable it means the variable that is stable and unaffected by other

variables which are trying to measure and variable Y is dependent variable it

means the variable that depends on other factors that are measured. The negative

one means the vice versa, therefore it is not related in any way at all. The positive

correlation means the relationship of listening and speaking scores are moving to

the same direction, meanwhile the negative means that if there is one variable that

is rising, the other one will fall. In the statistics measurement, correlation is

represented by the number between 1 to -1. If the score shows 1, it means that it is

positively related and positively correlated. However, of it is -1 it is negatively

related and correlated as well. 0 means that there is no relationship between

listening and speaking scores of the students, and the closer to 0 means the less

relationship that the variables have. There are two variables in this study. The

result represented on graph, histogram, and scatter diagram.

2.2 Population and Sample

The populations of this study were students of SMKN 8 Malang and the

sample were Software Engineering Program of the grade twelve which consist of

56 students. The researcher chose this school of the population because it was the

researcher’s previous school, so that the permission is a lot easier to be

proceeding. Other reason why the researcher chose this vocational high school

because SMKN 8 Malang got an international certification that is ISO 9001. The

TOEIC test that school usually held for the students also from the application that
12

the government provided. The test is usually online using VIERA application

which if the students got higher score, they could be doing the test and compete

with other students from other schools. The researcher chose 12th graders since

they have enough mastery listening and speaking skill rather than 10th graders and

11th graders.

The researcher chose Software Engineering program since they were the

one who needed communicating skill the most among those three. They need

listening and speaking due to their ability making software, websites, coding or

computer language and also communicating to the customer. The Computer

Engineering deals with hardware and computer peripherals so they deal with

hardware and computer tools. They need reading skill to understand the manual

book or instruction to fix computer. The Mechatronics program deals with

machines, robots, and heavy equipment, so they need reading skill to read the

manual book of the machines, whereas the Software Engineering program later

will work on service and they need to communicate with the customer a lot, so

they need listening and speaking skill.

The sampling that was chosen by the researcher was simple random

sampling. The researcher only took Software Engineering class grade 12th because

that major only has two classes RPL A and RPL B which are consist of 56

students and the school provided those classes to be conducted. It made the

researcher easy to gather the data and examine the correlation between student’s

speaking scores and listening scores.


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2.3 Instruments

There were three instruments that used to conduct the research. There were

listening test, speaking test, and students’ interview. The detailed explanations

were given below.

2.3.1. Listening Test

To conduct the listening test. The researcher used TOEIC test to test

students’ listening skill. There were some reasons why the researcher tests the

student using the TOEIC test. First, the test is considered good enough to know or

to measure students’ achievement or level of ability on the skill. It was decided to

use the test after consulting it to the expert of the field which agreed that this test

has its validity and quite reliable to be used. Second, the researcher chooses

TOEIC test since they are vocational high school students and the test using

TOEIC.

The researcher took the listening test from the book and there were 100

questions that tested to the students and also there were a CD included from this

book for listening test. On the listening TOEIC test there were four parts. Part 1

Photograph which consists of number 1-10. Part 2 is Questions-Response which

consists of number 11-40. Part 3 is Conversation which consists of number 41-70.

And the last Part 4 Short Talks which consists of number 71-100. There are some

reasons why the researcher did not use TOEIC test from the school since the data

from the students’ test could not be shared and the researcher decided to test the
14

students using paper based test. Also, with test the students the researcher knew

their progress while doing the test.

The scoring procedures of listening and speaking test using the rubric

score. The researcher used the rubric score to calculate the test result. The

researcher adopted the listening rubric score from TOEIC test book. The listening

rubric score which attached in Appendix 1.

2.3.2. Speaking Test

For the speaking test, the researcher provided a topic for each student to

answer and asked them to tell their opinion. The researcher made a topic about the

effect of using social media for their daily life. Then the researcher gave each of

them to tell the negative and the positive effect. The first student told their opinion

about the negative effect, the second student told about positive effect, and so on.

The speaking test instruction and blueprint is provided in Appendix 2.

The scoring rubrics of speaking test is used to compute the score of

speaking test. The result of speaking test computes using speaking rubrics which

attached in Appendix 3.

2.4 Data Collection Procedure

The research was taken on Saturday, February 25th 2017. The researcher

chose on Saturday because the researcher did not want to distract students’

teaching learning process since they are 12th graders and they prepared for the
15

National Examination. On Saturday, they had additional lesson and the class and

the time was not the same as usually. The school was grouping them by their

scores. The researcher asked for help to her friends for test the students.

First, the researcher tests the listening. The listening test was held at 11

a.m. until 12 a.m. There were 100 questions that were given to the students. The

researcher also asked the students to write their WhatsApp number to make easy

to contact the students for interviewing them. Since the speaker did not clear

enough, the researcher asked the students to come forward and sit close from each

other. After done the listening test, the researcher asked 6 students to sit in front

row and in turn told their opinion about the negative and the positive effect of

using social media for their daily life. The researcher also wrote the students’

scores for their speaking and after that, they might go home. The speaking test

done at 12.45 p.m.

After getting all the response from the subjects, the researcher then

computes the result of listening and speaking test. The complete score of both of

them are attached in Appendix 4.

2.5 Data Analysis

The data analysis covered the scoring rubrics of listening and speaking

test, analyzing the interview result description of the data, fulfillment of statistical

calculation, statistical hypothesis establishment, criteria for rejection or

acceptance of the null hypothesis, and the interpretation procedures.


16

2.5.1 Description of the Data

After scoring and computing the final score of both listening and speaking

test, the data need to be described using descriptive statistical analysis. The aim of

using descriptive statistical analysis to make the data easier to understand and to

be described. The data also presented in the form of table and scatter diagram.

2.5.2 Fulfillment of Statistical Assumption Examination

Parametric tests are significance test which assume a certain distribution of

the data (usually the normal distribution), assume an interval level of

measurement, and assume homogeneity of variances when two or more samples

are being conducted (Garson, 2012: 8). Parametric tests are more valid when they

are performed on data that have a normal distribution (Tuckman, 1978: 252).

Meanwhile, when the data are not normally distributed, the researcher could not

use parametric test. The researcher should use non-parametric test if the data are

not normally distributed.

The researcher used non-parametric test after tested the data using SPSS

17.0 then found out the result that to find out the correlation between students’

listening and speaking skill. A directional test or two-tailed test is used to correlate

the variables. The researcher conducts the normality testing to know whether the

data is being calculated using parametric test or non-parametric test. Normality

testing was conducted to know whether the data in this study were normally

distributed or not. The researcher used SPSS 17.0 to determine the data in this

study are normally distributed or not.


17

2.5.3 Statistical Hypothesis Establishment

Hypothesis is a suggested answer to the problem. The aim of testing a

hypothesis is to determine the probability that it is supported by fact (Tuckman,

1978: 33). There are two kinds of hypotheses that have to be established, null

hypothesis and alternative hypothesis. The null hypothesis is also called no

different hypothesis. The null hypothesis of this study is formulated below.

H0: rxy = 0

Null hypothesis (H0): there is no correlation between students’ listening

scores and students’ speaking scores.

The alternative hypothesis of this study is formulated below.

H1: rxy ≠ 0

Alternative hypothesis (H1): there is positive and significant correlation

between student’s listening scores and students’ speaking scores.

2.5.4 Criteria of Rejection or Acceptance the Null Hypothesis

The researcher needs to test the hypothesis after found the result of

listening and speaking test. The aim of conducting hypothesis testing is to know

the correlation between those two variables. The data was computed and

correlated using SPSS 17.0. Other criteria are needed to reject or accept the null

hypothesis. The criteria to reject or accept null hypothesis are defined below.

If calculated Sig. (2-tailed) < .05, the null hypothesis is rejected

If calculated Sig. (2-tailed) > .05, the null hypothesis is accepted

The researcher set the significant level as .05 it means when the researcher

calculates using SPSS 17.0 and find out the result of significant level is under .05
18

so the null hypothesis is rejected, otherwise when the researcher calculates using

SPSS 17.0 and find out the result of significant level above .05 so the null

hypothesis is accepted.

2.5.5 Interpretation Procedures

The process of correlating both variables using SPSS 17.0 produces a

correlation coefficient which is used to interpret the result of correlating the two

variables. The coefficient correlation symbolized by r indicates how strength the

correlation of the two variables. To interpret the correlation coefficient, Triton

(2005: 92) defined the criteria of correlation coefficient interpretation in Table 2.1

Table 2.1 Criteria for the Correlation Coefficient Interpretation


Range of Values Interpretive Quality
.010 - .200 Very Low Correlation
.201 - .400 Low Correlation
.401 - .600 Fair Correlation
.601 - .800 High or Strong Correlation
.801 – 1.000 Very Strong Correlation
(Source: Triton. 2005: 9)

By using the table, the researcher tries to interpret the result of the

correlation based on the result from the calculation of listening scores and

speaking scores in which quality the result from those correlation.


CHAPTER III

FINDINGS

This chapter presents the students’ scores of listening, students’ scores of

speaking, fulfillment of statistical assumption examination which consist of

normality testing, linearity testing, and homogeneity testing of listening scores

and speaking scores, and hypothesis testing.

3.1 Students’ Scores of Listening Test

The data of students’ listening score were calculated using SPSS 17.0. In the

following Table 3.1, the descriptive analysis of students’ listening scores data is

shown.

Table 3.1 Descriptive Statistical Analysis of Students’ Listening Scores


Listening
N 56
Missing 0
Mean 68.96
Median 74.50
Mode 80
Std. Deviation 17.215
Variance 296.362
Range 62
Maximum 95
Minimum 33

From Table 3.1, it can be seen that the size of the sample (N) is 56 and all

of the data have been calculated (Missing = 0). The mean in Table 3.1 is 68.96

which show that the average score of the students’ listening scores is high enough.

19
20

The median is 74.50 which show that the middle score of the students on listening

test is high. The mode in Table 3.1 is 80 which show that the students frequently

got 80 scores.

The definition of standard deviation is a variation of the data distribution.

If the value of spreading data is 17.125, it means data is heterogeneous. It shows

that the value of data distribution is higher than 0 and it is assumed that there are

any variances of data in this study but they are not in the high proportion. It is also

confirmed by the value of its range; 62. The value of the range shows the

difference between the highest score with the lowest score.

The data from the table also presented in histogram in Figure 3.1 below.

Figure 3.1 Frequency of Students’ Listening Scores


21

From Figure 3.1, we can see that most of the students got 80. So, we can

conclude that the students’ frequencies of listening score are mostly high. It shows

from the high scores gotten by the students.

3.2 Students’ Scores of Speaking Test

The data of students’ speaking scores were calculated using SPSS 17.0. In

the following Table 3.2, the descriptive analysis of students’ speaking scores data

is shown.

Table 3.2 Descriptive Statistical Analysis of Students’ Speaking Scores


Speaking
N 56
N
Missing 0
Mean 2.77
Median 3.00
Mode 3
Std. Deviation .786
Variance .618
Range 3
Maximum 4
Minimum 1

From Table 3.2, it can be seen that the size of the sample (N) is 56 and all

of the data have been calculated (Missing = 0). The mean in Table 3.2 is 2.77

which show that the average score of the students’ speaking scores is high

enough. The median is 3.00 which show that the middle score of the students on

speaking test is high. The mode in Table 3.2 is 3 which show that the students

frequently got 3 scores.


22

If the value of spreading data is .786, it means data is homogeneous. It

shows that the value of data distribution is lower than 0 and it is assumed that

most of the students got the same scores. It is also confirmed by the value of its

range; 3. The value of the range shows the scores that the students mostly got.

The data from the table also presented in histogram in Figure 3.1 below.

Figure 3.2 Frequency of Students’ Speaking Scores

From Figure 3.2, we can see that most of the students got 3. Based on the

rubric score the range of the score from 0 to 4. So, we can conclude that the

students’ frequencies of speaking scores are high enough. It shows from the score

gotten by the students.


23

3.3 Fulfillment of Statistical Assumption Examination

The normality testing, linearity testing, and homogeneity testing is needed

to know whether the data is being calculated using parametric or non-parametric

test. So, the researcher calculated using SPSS 17.0 to find out what kind of

testing that conducted. The normality testing, linearity testing, and homogeneity

testing is described below.

3.3.1 Normality Testing

Normality testing is needed to find out the data is parametric test or non-

parametric test. The researcher used parametric test Shapiro-Wilk test using SPSS

17.0 to test the normality of both variables. The researcher uses Shapiro-Wilk test

to do normality testing is because the sample of this study is below 2000 samples.

3.3.1.1 Normality Testing of Variable X (Listening Scores)

The result shows the normality testing of students’ listening scores can be

seen in Table 3.3 below.

Table 3.3 Parametric Test of Normality Shapiro-Wilk Test of Students’


Listening Score
Test of Normality
Students’ Listening Shapiro-Wilk
Score Statistic df Sig.
.935 56 .005
24

To know whether the data is normally distributed or not, the researcher

used the default level of significant which is 5% or .05. The researcher states the

hypothesis as follows.

H0: The data is not normally distributed

H1: The data is normally distributed

The criteria to reject or accept the null hypothesis is formulated below:

If calculated Sig. in Shapiro-Wilk table < .05, the null hypothesis is

accepted

If calculated Sig. in Shapiro-Wilk table > .05, the null hypothesis is

rejected

Based on the data in Table 3.4, the calculated value in column Sig.

(Significant) is .005 which is lower than .05, so the null hypothesis is accepted

and the conclusion that the data of frequency of students’ listening scores are not

normally distributed. We can see clearly the data from the normality graphic of Q-

Q plot or scatter diagram is presented in Figure 3.4.


25

Figure 3.3 Graphic of the scatter diagram of Students’ Listening Scores

Figure 3.3 shows that the data is not normally distributed. It can be seen

from scatter diagram that rise from the bottom left corner to the top right corner

along the diagonal line which shows the data which are not normally distributed

in scatter diagram.

3.3.1.2 Normality Testing of Variable Y (Speaking Scores)

The result shows the normality testing of students’ listening scores can be

seen in Table 3.4 below.

Table 3.4 Parametric Test of Normality Shapiro-Wilk Test of Students’


Speaking Scores
Test of Normality
Frequency of
Shapiro-Wilk
Students’ Speaking
Statistic df Sig.
Score
.854 56 .000
26

To know whether the data is normally distributed or not, the researcher

used the default level of significant which is 5% or .05. The researcher states the

hypothesis as follows.

H0: The data is not normally distributed

H1: The data is normally distributed

The criteria to reject or accept the null hypothesis is formulated below:

If calculated Sig. in Shapiro-Wilk table < .05, the null hypothesis is

accepted

If calculated Sig. in Shapiro-Wilk table > .05, the null hypothesis is

rejected

Based on the data in Table 3.4, the calculated value in column Sig.

(Significant) is .000 which is lower than .05, so the null hypothesis is accepted

and the researcher that the data of frequency of students’ speaking scores are not

normally distributed. The data also represent on the scatter diagram that shows the

normality graphic of Q-Q plot or scatter diagram is presented in Figure 3.6.


27

Figure 3.4 Graphic of the scatter diagram of Students’ Speaking Scores

Figure 3.4 shows that the data is not normally distributed. It can be seen

from the scatter diagram that rise from the bottom left corner to the top right

corner along the diagonal line which shows the data which are not normally

distributed in scatter diagram.

3.3.2 Linearity Testing

After the researcher found out the normality testing, then the researcher

conducted linearity testing. The linearity testing was used SPSS 17.0 to test the

linearity of the data from both variables. The result of linearity testing is presented

in Table 3.5 below.


28

Table 3.5 Linearity Testing of Students’ Speaking Scores and Listening


Scores
Sum of
df Mean Square F Sig.
Squares
Between Groups
Within Groups 11572.241 3 3857.414 42.428 .000
Total 4727.687 52 90.917
16299.929 55

To know whether the data is normally distributed or not, the researcher

used the default level of significant which is 5% or .05. The researcher states the

hypothesis as follows.

H0: The data is not linear

H1: The data is linear

The criteria to reject or accept the null hypothesis is formulated below:

If calculated Sig. value of linearity > .05, the null hypothesis is accepted

If calculated Sig. value of linearity < .05, the null hypothesis is rejected

From the data in Table 3.5, the calculated value in column Sig.

(Significant) is .000 which is lower than .05, so the null hypothesis is rejected and

the researcher concluded that the data are linear.

3.3.3 Homogeneity Testing

Homogeneity testing is conducted to know whether the data from both

variables are homogeneous or not. The result of homogeneity testing is presented

in Table 3.6 below.


29

Table 3.6 Homogeneity Testing of Listening Scores and Speaking Scores


Levene Statistic df1 df2 Sig
.856 3 52 .470

In order to conclude that the data are homogeneous, the calculated

significant should be in the same or higher than the level of significant. The

researcher used the default level of significant which is 5% or .05. To interpret the

table easily, the researcher states the hypothesis as follows.

H0: The data is not homogeneous

H1: The data is homogeneous

The criteria to reject or accept the null hypothesis is formulated below.

If calculated Sig. Value of homogeneity < .05, the null hypothesis is

accepted

If calculated Sig. Value of Homogeneity > .05, the null hypothesis is

rejected

Based on the data in Table 3.6, the calculated value in column Sig.

(Significant) is .000 which is lower than .05, so the null hypothesis is accepted

and we can conclude that the data are heterogeneous. Overall, from those three

statistical assumptions which are required to conduct parametric test, two of them

are not fulfilled and one is fulfilled. So, the researcher conducts non-parametric

test to find out the correlation between students’ speaking score and students’

listening score.
30

3.4 Hypothesis Testing

The next steps to know which parametric that be used is hypothesis

testing. There are two ways of doing hypothesis testing; parametric test and non-

parametric test. Based on the normality testing, linearity testing, and homogeneity

testing showed that the result did not fulfill the criteria of parametric test. So,

hypothesis testing of correlation between both variables is calculated using non-

parametric test Spearman’s Rho in SPSS 17.0. The result of the correlation is

presented in Table 3.7

Table 3.7 The Non-Parametric Spearman’s Rho Correlation between


Students’ Listening Scores and Speaking Scores
Correlations
Speaking Listening
Spearman's rho Speaking Correlation 1.000 .805**
Coefficient
Sig. (2-tailed) . .000
N 56 56
**
Listening Correlation .805 1.000
Coefficient
Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .
N 56 56
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).

Based on the Table 3.7 shows that the result of calculation using SPSS

17.0 to know the correlation between students’ listening score and speaking score.

The researcher used the default significant level which is 5% or .05. The

researcher states the hypothesis as follows.


31

H0: There is no correlation between students’ listening scores and

students’ speaking scores.

H1: There is positive and significant correlation between students’

listening scores and students’ speaking scores.

The criteria to reject or accept the null hypothesis was formulated below:

If calculated Sig. (2-tailed) < .05, the null hypothesis is rejected

If calculated Sig. (2-tailed) > .05, the null hypothesis is accepted

According to Table 3.7, the calculated value in column Sig. (2-tailed) is

.000 which is lower than .05. It means that the higher listening scores the students

got, the better they achieve in speaking scores. The correlation coefficient or r

indicates the strength of the correlation. Based on the information from the table

3.8 r value in this Spearman’s Rho Correlation is .805. According to Triton (2005:

92), the calculated r is categorized as very strong correlation. The scatter diagram

of the correlation between these two variables is shown in Figure 3.7 below.

4,5
4
3,5
Speaking Score

3
2,5
2
1,5
1
0,5
0
0 20 40 60 80 100
Listening Score
32

Figure 3.7 The Scatter Diagram of Correlation Between Students’ Listening Scores

and Students’ Speaking Scores

The researcher used Microsoft Excel to present the scatter diagram

between students’ listening scores and students’ speaking scores. The scatter

diagram indicates that the spreading mostly in the middle. It means that the result

of the students’ listening scores and speaking scores has very strong correlated

related to the Table 2.3 the criteria for the correlation coefficient interpretation. It

means that there is a correlation between students’ listening scores and students’

speaking scores. There is positive and significant correlation between students’

listening scores and students’ speaking scores.


CHAPTER IV

DISCUSSION

In this chapter presents the explanation about the discussion of findings,

and the discussion of supported previous study.

4.1 Discussion of Findings

The researcher conducts the normality testing, linearity testing, and

homogeneity testing to know whether the data is being calculated using

parametric test or non-parametric test. Normality testing was conducted to know

whether the data in this study were normally distributed or not. The researcher

used SPSS 17.0 to determine the data in this study are normally distributed or not.

After conducted normality testing, the researcher also conducted linearity

testing using SPSS 17.0 and the result found that the data is linear. Then, the

researcher also tests the homogeneity of the data the result found that the data is

heterogeneous. Since parametric test was conducted and the result found that just

one of three fulfillments is filled, the researcher using non-parametric test which

means the data was calculated using non-parametric test Spearman’s Rho Rank.

The correlation between students’ listening scores and students’ speaking

scores has been found. Which the result shows that the higher students’ listening

scores, the better they achieve in speaking scores. The calculation and

computation used SPSS 17.0. The correlation coefficient from both variables is

.805, which means the listening scores, and speaking scores has very strong

correlation according to the calculation of correlation coefficient table. Therefore,

33
34

the researcher concluded that the students’ listening score of Software

Engineering Program SMKN 8 Malang at the 12th grade affect their speaking

score which means the better the student achieve in listening scores, the better

they achieve in speaking scores and there is positive and significant correlation

between students’ listening scores and students’ speaking scores.

4.2 Discussion of Supported Previous Studies

This research supported the study by Maisaroh (2006) showed that the

result of listening and speaking score has positive moderate correlation which the

correlation score between listening and speaking is rxy= .371. in this study, the

researcher found the score from students who already passed the listening and

speaking class. There are some differences that the researcher found in this study.

First, the sample and the population were taken, second the method of gathering

the data and third the steps of data calculation. From this study, the researcher

also found the similarities, which this study found the correlation between

listening and speaking score. From the result, showed the same result and support

the study which there is a correlation between speaking and listening score and

those skills has high correlation.

The second research entitled ―The Relationship Between Listening

Proficiency and Speaking Improvement in Higher Education‖ by Astoraga which

supported the study that listening and speaking were studied separately to discuss

and affirm practical and conceptual foundations about the forms in which these

skills are developed and performed in the context of the classroom. It means this
35

study found that listening and speaking skill is correlated each other which cannot

be separated to mastery. With mastery the listening skill, the students also could

mastery speaking skill. In the classroom, the teacher might be using English for

teaching and make the students pay attention listening to the teacher, and then the

students also asked to speak in the classroom. This study showed that students

who listening better, the more they can speak fluently. The similarity that

researcher found in this study is about the interview which researcher conducted

to know how the students learn listening and speaking outside the school. The

result of the interviewing the students found that most of the students capable to

speak after they heard songs, movie, or news. They are trying to imitate what they

listened to. They are improving their skills through songs, movies, or news. It

means in this study shows that there is a relationship between listening and

speaking skill which students should be mastered.

Another study by Andryani (2011) supported that listening process gave

influence in the way the students respond by speaking. Based on the outcome,

teacher was encouraged to develop listening session in the class as one of

strategies to drive his speaking class. The result of the study demonstrated that the

correlation of listening as the independent variable with speaking as dependent

variable was positive. It also proved with a unit of program or treatment given

toward listening class, there would be a significant improvement equals with

3.134 times from previous speaking score for the same sample. For the analysis of

data, the extent of correlation between two variables was shown as low. It

indicated that even though listening had positive correlation toward speaking, it

was not the only dominant factor to determine success in speaking. In this study
36

shows that the correlation between listening and speaking score has low positive

correlation, which means even students has higher score in listening it doesn’t

affect their speaking score would be higher too. This study not quite enough to

support my study, but what the researcher can find in this study that the teacher

should make the right strategy to improve students’ listening and speaking skill

which can improve their skills. With the right treatment, it would show high

correlation between listening and speaking which means the better listening they

mastered, the better their speaking skill.

After reviewing some related previous study, we can see that some of the

results of previous studies are not supported by the result in this study because of

some factors such as, treatment provided by the researcher, number of sample,

research design, etc. The previous study also stated that listening also correlated

with other skill and specific aspects. However, listening and speaking are

important skills for who learning English. By knowing there is a relationship

between listening scores and speaking scores, for further study, the teacher or the

researcher can use any strategy that related to listening and speaking to improve

their skills.

Theoretically, this study could give references for further studies that

listening and speaking skill are the skills which cannot be separated because since

we are a child, we used to listen first before we try to speak and we speak or

imitate what we heard. Speaking skill for students is also important for them to

communicate with the opponent, if students cannot reply or answer the questions,

it means they still haven’t mastery it yet. This latter view of listening considers

how listening can provide input that trigger the further development of second
37

language proficiency (Richard, 2008: 3). These trigger is more speaking related as

it supported by Cross (1999: 244) that naturally baby can speak after she or he

listens to another. It can be through active listening, it is thought, and students

acquire vocabulary and syntax as well as better pronunciation.

Pedagogically, the findings can contribute in providing relevant references

to help students practice the full range of speaking and listening skills necessary

for successful participation in the world. Teachers seek to advance students’

abilities for a variety of purposes and audiences by creating rich conversations—

in whole groups, small groups, and with a partner—that are built around

significant content. Language arts teachers also realize the importance of engaging

students in authentic conversation about their interests to establish a bridge for

future learning.
CHAPTER V

CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS

This last chapter deals with the conclusions of the research findings, and

suggestions for all English teachers and future researchers related to the research

findings.

5.1 Conclusions

From the findings, the researcher concluded that there are three steps that

should be done to know whether the test is using parametric test or non-

parametric test. There are normality, linearity, and homogeneity. In normality test

using SPSS 17.0 the researcher found that the data is not normally distribution

because the significant level is lower than .05. In homogeneity test using SPSS

17.0 the researcher found that the data is heterogeneous it means that the

significant value of homogeneity is lower than .05. In the linearity test, the

researcher found that the data are linear because the data is higher than .05. From

the three steps that already fulfilled, the researcher used non-parametric test to

find out the correlation between students’ listening skill and students’ speaking

skill using Spearman’s Rho Correlation.

Using SPSS 17.0 the researcher then found the value of correlation is .805

which means that the correlation has very strong correlation.

38
39

5.2 Suggestions

In this research, the researcher gives the result of listening and speaking

correlation and proves that there is a correlation between both of them. For

further study, this research has some weaknesses when conducting this research.

First, the TOEIC test is not tested by the researcher beforehand. The researcher

just took the test from the TOEIC test book. Second, the researcher did not make

any indicators which the test is appropriate for vocational students or not. The

researcher chose TOEIC test from the book since the researcher did know the

school’s indicators of TOEIC test and the school did not allow to access the

application that students used to do the TOEIC test. Third, the limitation of

sample and population of this research which the school has been provided two

classes to be conducted which consist of 56 students.

There are also some strengths from this research. First, the sample and

population is vocational high school students since there is not enough research

on vocational high school especially in listening and speaking. Second, this study

found that the higher students achieve in listening, the better they achieve in

speaking which means there is a correlation between listening and speaking. The

researcher hopes that this study can help further researchers to conduct same

research better.
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APPENDICS

Appendix 1 The Speaking Test Instruction

Please tell your opinion about:

1. The posstive effect of using Social Media for your daily life.

2. The negative effect of using Social Media for your daily life.

Appendix 2 Students’ Listening and Speaking Score

Students’ Listening Score and Speaking Score

School: SMKN 8 Malang

Address: Jalan Teluk Pacitan Arjosari

Class: XII RPL (Software Engineering)

No Name Listening Speaking


1 ARP 95 100

2 AT 94 100

3 AYP 91 100

4 ADDDD 91 100

5 AFR 89 75

6 ASZ 89 100

7 AIP 88 75

8 BRS 87 75

9 BRR 87 75

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10 DYK 86 100

11 FIH 85 75

12 FPB 85 75

13 FSZ 84 75

14 MFA 84 75

15 GAB 83 100

16 GK 81 75

17 KWM 80 75

18 LKA 80 75

19 MHR 80 100

20 MAI 80 75

21 MSA 79 75

22 MFA 79 75

23 MIR 78 75

24 RAVS 78 75

25 RM 77 100

26 SP 77 100

27 VNR 77 100

28 WKS 75 100

29 ARA 74 50

30 ACK 73 75

31 AF 73 75

32 DKP 67 50

33 DP 67 75

34 DSA 63 75

35 DKN 63 50

36 DSP 62 75

37 EHP 61 50
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38 EG 61 50

39 FRZ 60 100

40 FR 58 50

41 HAR 57 75

42 IN 57 50

43 IR 56 50

44 MSADY 53 50

45 MFD 50 50

46 MRA 49 50

47 MYYAR 48 50

48 PAZ 48 50

49 RGM 46 50

50 RGD 45 25

51 SM 42 25

52 SF 41 50

53 TTS 40 50

54 USE 40 50

55 YT 36 25

56 YWA 33 50

Mean 68.96429 70.08929

Appendix 3 Table 2.1 Tactics for TOEIC Listening Test Score Conversion
Tables getting an estimated TOEIC score
Listening Raw Score Listening Scaled Score
96 – 100 495
91 – 95 450 – 495
86 – 90 415 – 475
81 – 85 370 – 450
76 – 80 340 – 420
71 – 75 315 – 390
66 – 70 285 – 360
61 – 65 255 – 330
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56 – 60 230 – 305
51 – 55 205 – 275
46 – 50 175 – 245
41 – 45 150 – 220
36 – 40 125 – 185
31 – 35 100 – 155
26 – 30 85 – 120
21 – 25 75 – 100
16 – 20 55 – 80
11 – 15 35 – 65
6 – 10 25 – 40
1–5 10 – 30
0 0
(Source: Kusuma, 2016: 13)

Appendix 4 Table 2.2 Scoring Rubrics of Speaking TOEIC Test


Score General Delivery Language Use Topic
Description Development
4 The response fulfils Generally The response Response is
the demands of the well-paced demonstrates sustained and
task, with at most flow (fluid effective use of sufficient to
minor lapses in expression). grammar and the task. It is
completeness. It is Speech is vocabulary. It generally
highly intelligible clear. It may exhibits a fairly well
and exhibits include minor high degree of developed
sustained, coherent lapses, or automaticity and coherent;
discourse. A minor with good relationships
response at this difficulties control of basic between ideas
level is with and complex are clear (or
characterized by all pronunciation structures (as clear
of the following: or intonation appropriate). progression
patterns, Some minor (or of ideas).
which do not systematic)
affect overall errors are
intelligibility. noticeable but
do not obscure
meaning.
3 The response Speech is The response Response is
addresses to the generally demonstrates mostly
task appropriately, clear, with fairly automatic coherent and
but may fall short some fluidity and effective sustained and
of being fully of expression, use of grammar conveys
developed. It is though minor and vocabulary, relevant
generally difficulties and fairly ideas/
intelligible and with coherent information.
coherent, with pronunciation, expression of Overall
some noticeable intonation, or relevant ideas. development
lapses in the pacing are Response may is somewhat
46

expression or ideas. noticeable and exhibit some limited,


A response at this may require imprecise or usually lacks
level is listener effort inaccurate use elaboration or
characterized by at at times of vocabulary or specificity.
least two of the (though grammatical Relationships
following: overall structures or be between ideas
intelligibility somewhat may at times
is not limited in the not be
significantly range of immediately
affected). structures used. clear.
This may affect
overall fluency,
but it does not
seriously
interfere with
the
communication
of the message.
2 The response Speech is The response The response
addresses the task, basically demonstrates is connected
but development of intelligible, limited range to the task,
the topic is limited. though and control of though the
It contains listener effort grammar and number of
intelligible speech, is needed vocabulary. ideas
although problems because of These presented or
with delivery and/ unclear limitations often the
or overall articulation, prevent full development
coherence occur; awkward expression of of ideas is
meaning may be intonation, or ideas. For the limited.
obscured in places. choppy most part, only Mostly basic
A response at this rhythm/ pace; basic sentence ideas are
level is meaning may structures are expressed
characterized by at be obscured used with limited
least two of the in places. successfully and elaboration
following: spoken with (details and
fluidity. support). At
Structures and times relevant
vocabulary may substance
express mainly may be
simple (short) vaguely
and/ or general expressed or
proportions, repetitious.
with simple or Connections
unclear or ideas may
connections be unclear.
made among
them (serial
listing,
47

conjunction,
juxtaposition).
1 The response is Consistent Range and Limited
very limited in pronunciation, control of relevant
content and/ or stress, and grammar and content is
coherence or is intonation vocabulary expressed.
only minimally difficulties severely limit The response
connected to the cause (or prevent) generally
task, or speech is considerable expression of lacks
largely listener effort; ideas and substance
unintelligible. A delivery is connections beyond
response at this choppy, among ideas. expression of
level is fragmented, Some low-level very basic
characterized by at or telegraphy; responses may ideas.
least two of the frequent rely heavily on Speaker may
following: pauses and practiced or be unable to
hesitations. formulaic sustain
expressions. speech to
complete the
task a may
rely heavily
on repetition
of the
prompt.
0 Speaker makes no attempt to respond OR response is unrelated to the
topic.
(Source: https:// www.ets.org/ toeic/ institutions/ resources/ downloads/)
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Appendix 5 Students’ Listening Test


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53
54
55
56
57
58
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CURRICULUM VITAE

Firdaus Nur Habiba was born on October 29th

1994. She has one sister whose name is Nadiya

Nurjannah and studies in Muhammadiyah Malang

University Husbandry major. She is the first daughter in

her family. Her father’s name is Sukwanur Ridho and his mother is Nur Melati

Suci.

On 2006 she graduated from SDN Pakis Kembar 1 Malang. When junior

high school, she studied in Bangil at SMPN 2 Bangil followed her grandparents

She graduated from State Vocational High School 8 Malang in 2012. She

postponed his collage and she has been working an Elementary School in Batu for

4 years. She entered the collage on 2013.