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Reinforcement Requirements in Bored Piles Based on Finite Element Analysis

Conference Paper · October 2004

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International Conference on Geotechnical Engineering October 3-6, 2004, Sharjah – UAE

Reinforcement Requirements in Bored Piles Based on Finite Element Analysis

Mohammed Yousif Fattah and Firas Ahmed Salman


myf_1968@yahoo.com firas_alobaydi@yahoo.com
Department of Building and Construction
University of Technology
Baghdad - Iraq

ABSTRACT: A beam-on-elastic foundation model is used to analyze a laterally loaded pile in order to investigate its
necessity for reinforcement. This model is performed using the finite element method as a numerical tool for the analysis.
The pile is discretized into a number of elements while the soil is represented by a number of springs. The stiffness of
these springs is considered to be variable with depth. The analysis results are compared with closed form solutions given
by Broms (1965). Two types of soils are used in the analysis; sand and clay. They are assumed dry and homogeneous. It
is concluded that bored piles embedded in sand must be provided with reinforcing bars extending to a depth of not less
than 0.4 times the pile length, while the reinforcement required for bored piles placed in clay depends mainly on the
strength of the soil.

KEY WORDS: bored piles, finite element, reinforcements

INTRODUCTION FINITE-ELEMENT SOLUTION OF LATERALLY


LOADED PILES
The main causes of tensile stresses in a pile section are the
lateral loads and/or bending moments. The reinforcement The finite-element solution is a suitable method to solve
should be provided for all concrete sections subjected to complicated foundations such as a laterally loaded pile.
tensile stresses. One can use the same procedure for the beam-on-elastic
Deep foundations may be subjected to lateral loads as well foundation described by Bowles, (1996).
as axial loads. Lateral loads often come from wind forces The three fundamental equations in the finite element
on the structure or inertia forces from traffic or method of analysis are:
earthquakes. The lateral resistance of adjacent soil and P = A.F (1)
bending moment resistance of the foundation shaft e = A T .X (2)
determines lateral load resistance of deep foundations. The
F = S .e (3)
ultimate lateral resistance Tu often develops at lateral where
displacements much greater than can be allowed by the P: The external nodal forces,
structure. An allowable lateral load Ta should be e: The internal member deformation,
F: The internal member forces, and
determined to be sure that the foundation would be safe
X: The external nodal displacements.
with respect to failure.
The problem of a pile subjected to lateral loading is one of
The internal member forces can be obtained which are
a class of problems concerned with the interaction of soils
necessary for design.
and structures. The solution of such problems usually
involves the use of iterative techniques because the soil
response is a non-linear function of the deflection of the EVALUATION OF THE MODULUS OF SUBGRADE
structure, (Reese and Desai, 1977). REACTION
Brom’s equations given in Table 1 can give good results
for many situations. Thus, these equations are The subgrade reaction approach, in which the continuous
recommended for an initial estimate of ultimate lateral nature of the soil medium is ignored and the pile reaction
load Tu . Ultimate lateral loads can be readily determined at a point is directly related to the deflection at that point,
for complicated soil conditions using a computer program is adopted in this study. The soil is modeled as an elastic
based on beam-column theory and given p-y curves Winkler foundation model having horizontal modulus of
(Reese, Cooley, and Radhakkrishnan 1984). A p-y curve is subgrade reaction. This modulus can be constant or
the relationship between the soil resistance per shaft length variable with depth. In general, the variation of subgrade
(kips/inch) and the deflection (inches) for a given lateral reactions along the embedded length of the pile is taken
load T. from Eq. (4)

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International Conference on Geotechnical Engineering October 3-6, 2004, Sharjah – UAE

Table 1. Brom’s Equations for Ultimate Lateral Load


(Broms 1964a, Broms 1964b and Broms 1965).
Pile Equations Diagram
a- Free head pile in cohesive soil

Tu = 18C u Bs 
(
 e 2 + 1.5 B se + eL + 0.5 L2 + 1.125 B s2 ) 1
2 

− (e + 0.75 Bs + 0.5 L )
Short

L ≤ Lc 1

 My 
2
9
Lc = 1.5 Bs + + 
C u Bs  2.25C u B s 
 
1
2M y  2

Tu = 9C u Bs  (e + 1.5 B s ) + − − 
2
  e 1 . 5 Bs
 u s
Long 9 C B

L ≥ Lc

where for circular section: M y = 1.3 f c Z

b- Free head pile in cohesionless soil


γBs K p L − 2 M a
3
Tus =
Short 2(e + L )
L ≤ Lc 2Tul 2( M a + Tul e )
L3c − Lc − =0
γBs K p γBs K p

Long M y − Ma
Tul =
L ≥ Lc e + 23 f

K S = AS + B S Z n (4) CLOSED FORM SOLUTION FOR LATERALLY


LOADED PILES
where:
As is a constant for either horizontal or vertical Computation of lateral deflection for different shaft
members, penetrations may be made to determine the depth of
Bs is a coefficient for depth, and penetration at which additional penetration will not
significantly decrease the groundline deflection. This
n is an exponent to give K s the best fit.
depth will be approximately 4 βl for a soil in which the
soil stiffness increases linearly with depth
1
5
THE COMPUTER PROGRAM
EpIp 
If the pile is not designed for buckling, then the main
βl =   (5)
causes of tensile stresses in a pile section are the lateral  k 
loads and/or bending moments, i.e., the reinforcement where:
should be provided for all sections that are subjected to E p = elastic modulus of shaft or pile, ksf
tensile stresses. For this reason, a computer program
named (PLRN) is modified from that given in (Bowles, I p = moment of inertia of shaft, ft4
1988) to check the depth through which the reinforcement k = constant r elating elastic soil modulus with depth,
will only be required to cover the tension zone of the pile. E s = kz kips/ft3.
The (PLRN) program is coded in Fortran-77 language and
based on Winkler foundation model where the pile is Shafts that carry insignificant axial loads such as those
treated as beam elements and the uniaxial soil resistance is supporting overhead signs can be placed at this minimum
represented by independent springs. depth if their lateral load capacity is acceptable.

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International Conference on Geotechnical Engineering October 3-6, 2004, Sharjah – UAE

Broms’ method uses the concept of a horizontal coefficient deflection than the finite element method. The lateral
of subgrade reaction and considers short pile failure by deflection increases with the increase in pile diameter.
flow of soil around the pile and failure of long piles by In Figures 8 to 10, the required length calculated by the
forming a plastic hinge in the pile. Refer to Broms closed form solution and the finite element method are
(1964a), Broms (1964b), Broms (1965), and Reese (1986) compared. In the former method, the minimum length of
for estimating Tu from charts. penetration of the pile is calculated while in the finite
element method, the maximum length to which
Cohesive soil to depth 1.5Bs is considered to have
reinforcement must be extended is calculated. The results
negligible resistance because a wedge of soil to depth
points are fitted using the graphing fitting techniques, and
1.5Bs is assumed to move up and down when the pile is
the following relations are obtained.
deflected.
Iteration is required to determine the ultimate lateral Let Lmax = maximum length of reinforcement.
capacity of long piles Tul in cohesionless soil, Table 1. Lmin = minimum length of penetration.
Distance f , Table (1-b) may first be estimated and Tul 1) Cohesion=60 kPa:
Lmax. = -0.8 + 9.5 B
calculated; then, f is calculated and Tul recalculated as Lmin . = 2.607 + 9.464 B
necessary. Tul is independent of length L in long piles. 2) Cohesion=80 kPa:
Lmax. = 2.2 + 6.5 B
The method of solution using load transfer p-y curves is Lmin . = 3.893 + 8.036 B
also based on the concept of a coefficient of horizontal 3) Cohesion=100 kPa:
subgrade reaction. A fourth-order differential equation is Lmax. = -0.833 + 7.5 B
solved using finite differences and load transfer p-y Lmin . = 3.571 + 7.85 B
curves.
An estimate of allowable lateral load Ta is best From the above relations, it can be concluded that the
accomplished from results of lateral load-deflection (p-y) maximum length of reinforcement in a pile is in the order
analysis using given p-y cuves and a computer program. of (70 to 78)% of the minimum length of penetration
The specified maximum allowable lateral deflection required for the pile.
should be used to estimate Ta . Figures 11 and 12 show the effect of undrained cohesion
of the soil on the lateral deflection in the pile as predicted
Calculating lateral groundline deflection yo using by the finite element method and the closed form solution,
equations proposed by Broms (1964a) and Reese (1986) respectively. In the former method, the lateral deflection
may make a rough estimate of allowable lateral load Ta , increases slightly with cohesion until reaching (cu = 90
kPa) at which a sudden increase in lateral deflection is
ya noted. In the closed form solution, the trend is opposite;
Ta = Tu (6) the lateral deflection decreases with cohesion until
yo reaching (cu = 90 kPa). Above this value, the behavior is
where y a is a specified allowable lateral deflection and similar to that predicted by the finite element method.
Tu is estimated from equations in Table 1.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

PARAMETRIC STUDY FOR COMPARISON The basic parameters that are used in the finite element
parametric analysis are as follows: -
In this section, a parametric study is carried out using the
closed form solution and the finite element method. In 1) For pile:
Figures 1 to 4, the effect of the undrained cohesion on the M = 0.1 ∗ B ∗ Qa kN.m
lateral deflection is presented. It can be observed that for
all values of the undrained cohesion, the closed form
H = 0.1 ∗ Qa kN
solution gives values of lateral deflection greater than the where Qa is the allowable axial load.
finite element method. It is also concluded that the pile L = 25.0 m
length has very little effect on the lateral deflection in the B = 1.0 m
closed form solution, while the lateral deflection increases
with the increase in pile length through the finite element 2) For soil:
analysis. The soil is assumed homogeneous with no water table
Figures 5 to 7 show that the lateral deflection increases and its properties are as follows:
when the pile diameter increases. In these figures, the γ = 15 kN/m3
closed form solution also gives greater values for lateral φ = 30° for sand
= 5° for clay

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International Conference on Geotechnical Engineering October 3-6, 2004, Sharjah – UAE

cu = 0 for sand in the compression side. The constant value in the stress
= 80 kPa for clay distribution curves is the same for all values of the applied
The effect of different parameters on the stress lateral loads. The maximum tensile stress, for all curves, is
distribution and, hence, on the extent of reinforcement located at about 4D. The depth where the tensile stress
below the ground surface are presented below. equals to zero will increase as the lateral load increase.

3) Effect of pile length:


Effect of Soil Type Figure 16 represents the effect of pile length on the stress
distribution along the shaft of bored pile in sand. As the
Figure 13 represents a relationship between the minimum pile length increases, the stress will increase too in both
stress within the pile sections under the general working compression and tension sides, but it will not affect the
load and the depth ratio for bored piles embedded in both depth of zero tensile stress nor the location of its
sand and clay. The curve increases in compression side, in maximum value. The maximum tensile stress appears at
case of sand, until it reaches its maximum value, then it approximately 5D and it will be equal to zero at about 6D.
starts to decrease to reach a maximum tensile stress, and
again it starts to increase until reaching a constant 4) Effect of pile diameter:
compression value. In clay, the pile will no longer be Figure 17 shows the effect of pile diameter on the stress
subjected to tensile stress and, therefore, it will act as a distribution along the shaft of bored pile in sand. The
compression member. The variation in the stress increase in pile diameter; increases in pile stiffness, will
distribution along the pile shaft is due to the change in the decrease the value of the stress concentration along the
distribution of bending moment along the shaft and the shaft. The minimum stress will occur at a depth ranging
decrease in the allowable load wi th depth, according to the between 4D to 5D for a pile diameter of 2.0 m to 0.8 m,
following equation, (Teng, 1979): respectively. The depth of zero tensile stress decreases as
Q a M.r the pile diameter increases, but generally it does not
f = − ≥ 0.0 (7) exceed 7D.
A I
where:
5) Effect of angle of internal friction:
f = pile tensile stress on the extreme fiber,
Figure 18 shows the effect of angle of internal friction on
Qa = applied axial load,
the stress distribution for bored pile embedded in sand.
A = pile cross-sectional area,
The angle of internal friction has a significant effect on the
M = bending moment from pile analysis,
stress distribution. As it increases in value; increasing soil
r = distance of extreme fiber from neutral axis, and
stiffness, the bending moment will decrease and the tensile
I = moment of inertia of the pile.
stress will not appear, according to Eq. (7). In general, for
D= pile diameter.
minimum value of the angle, 25°, the zero tensile stress
will appear at about 8D with maximum tensile stress
For bored pile in sand, the maximum tensile stress located
located at about 5D.
at a depth of about 5D and it will equal to zero at a depth
of approximately 6.5D.
6) Effect of soil unit weight:
Figure 19 shows the effect of soil unit weight on the stress
distribution along the bored pile in sand. The behavior is
PARAMETRIC STUDY
somewhat similar to the previous figures, increasing in
Bored Pile in Sand compression side, decreasing to reach a maximum tensile
1) Effect of moment loading: stress; then increasing again to reach a constant
Figure 14 shows the effect of moment loading on the stress compression value. The soil unit weight has little effect on
distribution along the pile shaft for the case of bored pile the stress distribution, at least in the upper part. The
embedded in sand. A family of similar curves shows that; maximum tensile stress located at approximately 5D,
as the applied moment increases, the tensile stress will where it reaches a zero value at about 5.5D to 6.5D
increase at the pile top and decreases or vanishes as it goes diameters.
down. It is seen that the zero tensile stress occurs at a
depth of about 6.5D. Bored Piles in Clay
1) Effect of moment loading:
2) Effect of lateral loading: Figure 20 shows the effect of moment loading on the stress
Figure 15 shows the effect of lateral loads on the stress distribution along the shaft of bored pile embedded in clay.
distribution along the shaft of bored pile embedded in Similar to Figure 14, the tensile stress will appear only in
sand. The stress decreases as the applied lateral load the top of the pile shaft, due to the applied moment, and it
increases until reaching the maximum value of the tensile will increase in depth and value as the applied moment
stress, then it begins to increase to reach a constant value increases. The zero tensile stress will reach a maximum

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International Conference on Geotechnical Engineering October 3-6, 2004, Sharjah – UAE

depth at about 2.5D, which corresponds to the maximum more or less equal to that recommended by (Bowles,
applied moment. 1996), and this will be reduced for other cases.
Table 5 shows that, for bored piles, the depth of zero
2) Effect of lateral loading: moment in soft soils (sand or clay) is greater than that of
Figure 21 represents the effect of lateral loading on the medium or stiff soils. This depth will not be less than one-
stress distribution along the bored pile in clay. The tensile half the pile length.
stress will increase as the applied lateral load increases
and, therefore, the depth of zero tensile stress will increase
too, similar to Figure 15. In general, the maximum tensile CONCLUSIONS
stress will be at approximately 4D to 6D for a lateral load
of (30) to (10) percent of the applied load, respectively. For cast in situ bored piles, the design codes do not
The zero tensile stress will be at about 11.5D for a lateral recommend a specific depth for the reinforcement bars that
load of 30% of the applied load. should be provided to resist the tensile stresses. The
problem is left to the designer. Based on the results
3) Effect of pile length: obtained using the finite element method, the following
Figure 22 shows the effect of bored pile length on the conclusions can be made:
stress distribution if it is embedded in clay. It is obvious 1) Piles embedded in sand must be provided with
that if the pile increases in length, the compression stresses reinforcement bars extending to a depth of not less
will increase and, therefore, the pile will not be subjected than (0.4) times the pile length.
to any tensile stress. 2) The reinforcement required for bored piles in clay
depends mainly on the shear strength of the soil. In
4) Effect of pile diameter: stiff clay, the length of reinforcement may be reduced
Figure 23 shows the effect of pile diameter on the stress to the top quarter only to provide anchorage with the
distribution along the bored pile in clay. The minimum pile cap. In soft clays, this length may be extended to
stress will decrease in value as the pile increases in cover more than one-half the pile length.
diameter and it will reach the maximum tensile stress at 3) A comparison between the finite element analysis
diameters of (1.8m) and (2.0m) with a depth of about 6D. carried out in this paper and the closed form solution
This may be related to the high lateral load applied at the of Broms (1965) showed that the former method gives
pile top. These two diameters will have a depth of smaller values of lateral deflection for all values of
approximately 7D for the zero tensile stress. undrained cohesion.
4) For piles in clay, the maximum length of
5) Effect of soil cohesion: reinforcement bars required ranges between (70 to 78)
Figure 24 shows the effect of soil cohesion on the stress % of the minimum length of penetration required for
distribution along the shaft of bored pile embedded in clay. the pile as calculated by the closed form solution.
The cohesion has a significant effect on the variation of
the stress curves. The stress increases as the soil cohesion
increases, due to increase in soil stiffness. For soft soil REFERENCES
(low cohesion, c = 20 kPa), the pile will be subjected to a
tensile stress at about 6D for maximum, and 12D for the
Bowles, J. E., (1988). Foundation Analysis and Design, 4 th
zero tensile stress.
edition, McGraw-Hill Book Company.
For bored piles embedded in sand, the depths of zero Bowles, J. E., (1996). Foundation Analysis and Design, 5 th
tensile stress will not exceed 9.5D, Table 2, which edition, McGraw-Hill Book Company.
corresponds to the maximum applied lateral load. The
Broms, B. T., (1964a). The Lateral Resistance of Piles in
depth of zero moment, in which the pile is completely
Cohesive Soils, Journal of the Soil Mechanics and
under compression, will appear at about 14D, Table 3.
Foundations Division, American Society of Civil
For bored piles in clay, Table 2 shows that the pile will not
Engineers, Vol. 90, No. SM2, p.p. 27-63.
be subjected to tensile stresses below a depth of 12D. This
large value appears in soft soil. From Table 3, the depth of Broms, B. T., (1964b). The Lateral Resistance of Piles in
zero moment will also occur in soft soil and this will be at Cohesionless Soils, Journal of the Soil Mechanics and
a depth of 16D. Foundations Division, American Society of Civil
Table 4 shows that, for bored piles, the depth of zero Engineers, Vol. 90, No. SM3, p.p. 123-156.
tensile stress in clay is greater than that in sand and it is
Broms, B. T., (1965). Design of Laterally Loaded Piles,
generally not exceeding one-half the pile length, except for
Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations Division,
(2.0m) pile diameter embedded in clay which equals to
American Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 91, No. SM3,
(0.56) from pile length.
p.p. 79-99.
From the above, it is seen that; the depth of the necessary
reinforcing bars in case of bored piles embedded in clay is

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International Conference on Geotechnical Engineering October 3-6, 2004, Sharjah – UAE

Reese, L. C. (1986). Behavior of Piles and Pile Groups


under Lateral Load, Publication No. FHWA-RD-85-106. Table 2. h/B for zero tensile stress.
Available from US Department of Transportation, Federal Parameters Sand Clay
Highway Administration, Office of Implementation, Moment loading, M 6.5 2.5
McLean, VA 22101. Lateral load, H 9.5 11.5
Reese, L. C., Cooley, L. A. and Radhakrishnan, N. (1984). Pile length, L 6 –
Laterally Loaded Piles and Computer Program Pile diameter, B 7 7
COM624G, Technical Report K-84-2. Available from Angle of friction, φ 8 –
Research Library, US Army Engineer Waterways Soil density, γ 6.5 –
Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS 39180. Soil cohesion, Cu – 12
Reese, L. C. and Desai, C. S., (1977). Laterally Loaded
Piles, Chapter 9 in “Numerical Methods in Geotechnical Table 3. h/B for zero moment.
Engineering”, edited by C. S. Desai and J. T. Christian, Parameters Sand Clay
McGraw-Hill Book Company. Moment loading, M 13 11
Teng, W. C., (1979). Foundation Design, Prentice-Hall of Lateral load, H 12 12
India. Pile length, L 12 15
Pile diameter, B 14 15
Angle of friction, φ 14 –
NOTES Soil density, γ 12 –
Soil cohesion, Cu – 16
ft = 0.3048 m
kip = 4.4482219 kN
ksf = 47.88 kN/m2 Table 4. h/L for zero tensile stress
kips/ft3 = 157.08746 kN/m3 (Based on L=25m).
Parameters Sand Clay
Moment loading, M 0.260 0.100
Lateral load, H 0.380 0.460
Pile diameter, B 0.224 0.560
Angle of friction, φ 0.320 –
Soil density, γ 0.260 –
Soil cohesion, Cu – 0.480

Table 5. h/L for zero moment


(Based on L=25m).
Parameters Sand Clay
Moment loading, M 0.520 0.440
Lateral load, H 0.480 0.480
Pile diameter, B 0.448 0.480
Angle of friction, φ 0.560 –
Soil density, γ 0.480 –
Soil cohesion, Cu – 0.640

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40 45 35
Closed form solution Closed form solution Closed form solution
35 40
Finite elemente solution Finite element solution 30 Finite element solution

Lateral deflaction (mm)


Lateral deflection (mm)

Lateral deflection (mm)


35
30
25
30
25
25 20
20
20 15
15
15
10
10
10
5 5 5

0 0 0
10 15 20 25 30 10 15 20 25 30 10 15 20 25 30
Pile length (m) Pile length (m) Pile length (m)

Fig. 1. Effect of pile length on Fig. 2. Effect of pile length on Fig. 3. Effect of pile length on
lateral deflection, lateral deflection, lateral deflection,
(cu=40 kN/m2). (cu=60 kN/m2). (cu=80 kN/m2).

35 45 45
Closed form solution Closed form solution Closed form solution
40 40
30 Finite element solution Finite element solution Finite element solution
Lateral deflection (mm)

Lateral deflection (mm)

Lateral deflection (mm)


35 35
25
30 30
20 25 25

15 20 20

15 15
10
10 10
5
5 5

0 0 0
10 15 20 25 30 0.8 1.2 1.6 2.0 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0
Pile length (m) Pile diameter (m) Pile diameter (m)
Fig. 4. Effect of pile length on Fig. 5. Effect of pile diameter on Fig. 6. Effect of pile diameter on
lateral deflection, lateral deflection, lateral deflection,
(cu=100 kN/m2). (cu=60 kN/m2). (cu=80 kN/m2).

40 24 24
Closed form solution M in. Length of Pe ne tration N im . Le ngth of Pe netration

22 M ax. L ength of Rienforcem ent 22 Max . Le ngth of Rie nforc eme nt


Finite element solution
Lateral deflection (mm)

30 20 20
Required length (m)

Required length (m)

18 18

20 16 16

14 14

10 12 12

10 10

0 8 8
0.8 1.2 1.6 2.0 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2
Pile diameter (m) Pile diameter (m) Pile length (m)

Fig. 7. Effect of pile diameter on Fig. 8. Required length of penetra- Fig. 9. Required length of penetra-
lateral deflection, (cu=100 tion of the pile and reinforc- tion of the pile and reinforce-
kN/m2). ment, (cu=60 kN/m2). ment, (cu=80 kN/m2).

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International Conference on Geotechnical Engineering October 3-6, 2004, Sharjah – UAE

22 11 42
Min. Le ngth of Pe netration D=0.8 m D=0.8 m
40
Max. L ength of Rienforce ment 10 D=1.2 m
20 D=1.2 m
38

Lateral deflection (mm)

Lateral deflection (mm)


D=1.6 m D=1.6 m
Required length (m)

18 9 36
D=2.0 m
D=2.0 m 34
16 8
32
30
14 7
28
12 6 26
24
10 5
22
8 4 20
0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 50 60 70 80 90 100 50 60 70 80 90 100
Pile diameter (m) Cohesion (kPa) Cohesion (kPa)
Fig. 10. Required length of penetra- Fig. 11. Effect of cohesion of soil Fig. 12. Effect of cohesion of soil
tion of the pile and reinfor- on the lateral deflection of on the lateral deflection of
cement, (cu=100 kN/m2). the pile predicted by the the pile predicted by the
finite element method. closed form solution.

Stress (MPa) Stress (MPa) Stress (MPa)


-4 -2 0 2 4 6 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 -20 -16 -12 -8 -4 0 4 8
0 0 0

5 5 5
Depth ratio (h/H)

Depth ratio (h/B)


Depth ratio (h/B)

10 10 10

M=0.10*B*Qa H=0.10*Qa
15 15 15
M=0.15*B*Qa H=0.15*Qa

M=0.20*B*Qa H=0.20*Qa
20 20 20
Sand M=0.25*B*Qa H=0.25*Qa

Clay M=0.30*B*Qa H=0.30*Qa


25 25 25

Fig. 13. Stress distribution of bored Fig. 14. Effect of moment loading Fig. 15. Effect of lateral loading
piles embedded in sand and on the stress distribution on the stress distribution
clay. along the pile shaft, along the pile shaft,
(Bored pile in sand). (Bored pile in sand).

Stress (MPa) Stress (MPa) Stress (MPa)


-3 -1 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 -3 -1 1 3 5 7 -3 -1 1 3 5 7
0 0 0
5
5
10 5
Depth ratio (h/B)

15
Depth ratio (h/B)

Depth ratio (h/B)

10
20 10
15 D=0.8 m
25
L=10.0 m D=1.0 m
30 15
L=20.0 m 20 D=1.2 m Phi=25.0 deg.
35
L=30.0 m D=1.6 m Phi=30.0 deg.
40 25 20
L=40.0 m D=1.8 m Phi=35.0 deg.
45
L=50.0 m D=2.0 m Phi=40.0 deg.
30
50 25

Fig. 16. Effect of pile length on Fig. 17. Effect of pile diameter on Fig. 18. Effect of friction angle on
the stress distribution the stress distribution the stress distribution
along the pile shaft, along the pile shaft, along the pile shaft,
(Bored pile in sand). (Bored pile in sand). (Bored pile in sand).

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International Conference on Geotechnical Engineering October 3-6, 2004, Sharjah – UAE

Stress (M Pa) S tress (M Pa) S tress (MP a)


-2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2
0 0 0

5 5 5

Depth ratio (h/B)

Depth ratio (h/B)


Depth ratio (h/B)

10 10 10

γ = 15 kN/m3
15
γ = 16 kN/m3 15
M=0 .10*B*Qa
15 H= 0.10*Qa

γ = 17 kN/m3 M=0 .15*B*Qa


H= 0.15*Qa

20 γ = 18 kN/m3 20 M=0 .20*B*Qa 20


H= 0.20*Qa

γ = 19 kN/m3 M=0 .25*B*Qa


H= 0.25*Qa

γ = 20 kN/m3 M=0 .30*B*Qa


H= 0.30*Qa
25 25 25

Fig. 19. Effect of unit weight of soil Fig. 20. Effect of moment loading Fig. 21. Effect of lateral loading
on the stress distribution on the stress distribution on the stress distribution
along the pile shaft, along the pile shaft, along the pile shaft,
(Bored pile in sand). (Bored pile in clay). (Bored pile in clay).

Stress (MPa) Stress (MPa)


-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 -2 -1 Stress0(MPa) 1 2 -1 0 1 2 3 4
0 0 0
5
5
10 5
Depth ratio (h/B)

15 Depth ratio (h/B)


Depth ratio (h/B)

10
20 10
25 15 D=0.8 m

L=10.0 m D=1.0 m coh=20 kPa


30 15
L=20.0 m 20 D=1.2 m coh=60 kPa
35
L=30.0 m D=1.6 m coh=100 kPa
40 25 20
L=40.0 m D=1.8 m coh=140 kPa
45
L=50.0 m D=2.0 m coh=180 kPa
30
50 25
Fig. 22. Effect of pile length on Fig. 23. Effect of pile diameter on Fig. 24. Effect of soil cohesion on
the stress distribution the stress distribution the stress distribution
along the pile shaft, along the pile shaft, along the pile shaft,
(Bored pile in clay). (Bored pile in clay). (Bored pile in clay).

210

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