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Noun

Nouns are words that are used to name an animal, person, place, thing, or idea.

 The lady is wearing a red dress.


 China is one of the biggest country in the world.
 The love I have for you is unconditional.
 Team A won the final match last night.
 This glass is so expensive! Handle this with care.

There are several different kinds of noun, as follows:

Common Noun
A common noun is a noun that refers to people or things in general.
➔ pupil, lady, pen, desk, duck, country

Proper Noun
A proper noun is a name that identifies a particular person, place, or thing.
In written English, proper nouns begin with capital letters.
➔ John, China, Mary, Monday

Abstract Noun
Refers to a name of something that we cannot see but can feel or think of.
➔ Happiness, poverty, freedom, love, anger, hunger, kindness

Collective Noun
A name of a group of persons, places, things, animals, etc.
➔ team, family, crowd, army

Concrete Noun
A concrete noun names something you see, hear, smell, taste or touch. In
short, are nouns that you can experience through your senses.
➔ desks, candy bars,oxygen, dog, glass

Activity
A. Direction: Underline the nouns in the following sentences and identify what
kind of noun it is.
1. My cat likes to play with string and yarn.
2. Is that child waiting to get on the bus?
3. The book must be returned to the library soon.
4. I saw my teacher at the store.
5. Can we live without air?
6. Experience is the best teacher.
7. Many people succeed through hard work.
8. David often drinks coffee without sugar.
9. Which newspapers do you read everyday?
10. Singapore is a small country.

Forms of Noun

 It’s not too difficult to grow trees as long as you provide them with plenty
of water.
 There is a mouse in the kitchen.

➔ Regular Noun

Noun ending Forming the Plural Example


s, x, ch or sh Add -es Boss - bosses
tax - taxes
bush - bushes
Consonant + y Change y to i then add Baby- babies
-es candy - candies
curry - curries
most others Add -s Cat - cats
face - faces
day - days

➔ Irregular Noun

An irregular noun is a noun that becomes plural by changing its spelling in other
ways than adding an “s” or “es” to the end of the word. This change can happen
in a variety of ways. It is also called “special noun”. There are some irregular noun
plurals. The most common ones are listed below.
woman women
man men
child children
tooth teeth
person people

Activity
Direction: Fill in each blank with the plural form of the noun given in the
brackets.
1. The ___________ (child) are looking forward for Christmas.
2. Some __________ (student) are not happy with the school’s service.
3. These __________ (knife) are made of stainless steel.
4. The lady has a broken number of ___________ (glass) since she started working.
5. Please put these books on the first and second ____________ (shelf) only.
6. I love _________ (baby) because they are so adorable.
7. All the bank has several ______ (branch) all over Japan.
8. I bought two _________ (pencil) last night.
9. You can get a lot of ___________ (information) from the Internet.
10. When the cat is away, the __________ (mouse) begin to play.

Uncountable Noun
Nouns that cannot be counted. They often refer to substances, liquids, and
abstract ideas.

 Please give me a glass of water.


 The first thing I do when I get to work is have a cup of coffee.

Partitive expression (referring to only a part of a whole) +


Uncountable noun
➔ a cup of ……………………….. tea, coffee
➔ A glass of ………………………… water, milk
(two glasses of water)
➔ a sheet of…………………………... paper
➔ a piece of…………………………… music, cake, news
➔ a slice of……………………………..bread

 Tea, coffee, water, milk, wine are liquids so they cannot be counted. To
express a quantity of an uncountable noun, use a word or expression like
some, a lot of, much, a bit of, a great deal of, or else use an exact
measurement like a cup of, a bag of, 1kg of, 1L of, a handful of, a pinch of,
an hour of, a day of.
 If you want to ask about the quantity of an uncountable noun, you ask "How
much?"
 a lot of snow, a pound of butter, a bottle of wine
 a slice of bread
 Measure 1 cup of water, 300g of flour, and 1 teaspoon of salt.

Countable Noun
Countable nouns are for things we can count using numbers. They have a
singular and a plural form. The singular form can use the determiner “a” or
“an”.

 I bought a pair of shoes at the store

Points:
A pair of + plural noun
(a pair of is always followed by a plural noun and it is used for something that
is made of two items joined together)

➔ a pair of shoes pants/glasses/ scissors


➔ two pairs of pants/ glasses/ scissors
Variation:

 We had a lot of snow last winter.


 We’ll have enough water this summer.

Points:
A lot of and lots of have the same meaning: they both mean a large amount
or number of people or things. They are both used before countable nouns and
uncountable nouns.
➔ a lot of water, a lot of people, a lot of cars
➔ lots of water, lots of people, lots of cars

Plenty of = more than enough


➔ plenty of ideas/ food/ time

Enough = as much or as many as required


➔ enough time/ food

Activity
A. Direction: On the blank provided below, write the correct word/s that is
appropriate in each sentence.

1. Akira drank three ___________ of __________.


2. Would you like ____________ ______________ of cake?
3. Jayson bought a ______________ _____________ beer.

B. Encircle the correct answer inside the parenthesis.

1. We had (many, lot, enough) time to do shopping.


2. Mother bought me a (piece, pair, sheet) of jeans.
3. (Lot, Lots, Much) of people came to the party.

Rules for Subject-Verb Agreement

Basic Rule. A singular subject (she, Bill, car) takes a singular verb (is, goes,
shines), whereas a plural subject takes a plural verb.
Example:The list of items is/are on the desk.
If you know that list is the subject, then you will choose is for the verb.

RULE 1 – The number of the subject (singular or plural) is not changed by words
that come between the subject and the verb.
➔ One of the eggs is broken.
(Of the eggs is a prepositional phrase. The subject one and the verb is are both
singular. Mentally omit the prepositional phrase to make the subject verb-
agreement easier to make.)
RULE 2 – Some subjects always take a singular verb even though the meaning
may seem plural. These subjects always take singular verbs:
each someone either anyone neither
nobody one somebody no one anybody
everyone everybody
➔ Someone in the game was (not were) hurt.
➔ Neither of the men is (not are) working.

RULE 3 – The following words may be singular or plural, depending upon their use
in a sentence: some, any, all, most.
➔ Most of the news is good. (singular)
➔ Most of the flowers were yellow. (plural)
➔ All of the pizza was gone. (singular)
➔ All of the children were late. (plural)

RULE 4 – Subjects joined by and are plural. Subjects joined by or or Nor take a
verb that agrees with the last subject.
➔ Bob and George are leaving.
➔ Neither Bob nor George is leaving.
➔ Neither Bob nor his friends are leaving.

RULE 5 – There and here are never subjects. In sentences that begin with these
words, the subject is usually found later on in the sentence
➔ There were five books on the shelf. (were, agrees with the subject book)
➔ Here is the report you wanted. (Is agrees with subject report)

RULE 6 – Collective nouns may be singular or plural, depending on their use in


the sentence. A collective noun is a noun used to name a whole group. Following
are some common examples:
army, crowd, orchestra, audience, flock, public, class, group, swarm, club, herd,
team, committee, jury, troop, United States
➔ The orchestra is playing a hit song. (Orchestra is considered as one unit—
singular.)
➔ The orchestra were asked to give their musical backgrounds. (Orchestra is
considered as separate individuals—plural)

RULE 7 – Expressions of time, money, measurement, and weight are usually


singular when the amount is considered one unit.
➔ Five dollars is (not are) too much to ask.
➔ Ten days is (not are) not nearly enough time.
Note: On occasion, however these terms are used in the plural sense:
➔ There were thirty minutes to countdown.

RULE 8 – Some nouns, while plural in form, are actually singular in meaning.
Examples:
mumps, home, economics, social studies, economics, measles, calisthenics,
statistics, civics, physics, gymnastics, phonics, news, acrobatics, aesthetics,
thesis, mathematics

➔ Mathematics is (not are) an easy subject for some people.


➔ Physics is (not are) taught by Ms. Karen.

RULE 9 – Don’t and Doesn’t must agree with the subject. Use doesn’t after he,
she, it.
➔ Doesn’t he (not don’t) know how to sail?
➔ They don’t (not doesn’t) make movies like that anymore.

Activity
Direction: Write the correct verb in the blank to the left of each
sentence.

1._________________ Everybody (was-were) asked to be quiet.


2._________________ In a marathon, few of the starters (finishes-finish) the race.
3._________________ Sixty days (is-are) not enough time to complete the project.
4._________________ All of the workers (is-are) receiving their bonus.
5._________________ On our street (is-are) many tall trees.
6._________________ It (don’t-doesn’t) make any difference.
7._________________ The value of cars and motorcycles (has-have) increased.
8._________________ The principal and her husband (is-are) honored guests.
9._________________ Either the pitcher or the base runners (was-were) caught
napping.
10._________________ One of my friends (believe-believes) in Physics.

Subject-Verb Agreement

Rule 1: A verb agrees with its subject in number.

Subject Verb
 The flower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . smells good.
 The woman in the pool . . . . . . . . swims well.

Points: Sentence = singular subjects + singular verbs (add an “s” to the


singular form)

Examples:
➔ Yuri wakes up early.

➔ He enjoys jogging

Subject + Verb + Object + Modifier/Complement


 She likes this place very much.
(subject: she + verb: likes + object: place + modifier)

 The movie is very interesting.


(subject: movie + modifier: very + complement: interesting)

Note:
➔ The subject of a sentence is a noun, a person, place, thing, idea, or
feeling. The subject is always performing an action, doing something, being
something, or feeling something.
(Harry and Sally got married.)

➔ Verbs are action words. Run and jump are verbs.

➔ A sentence can have more than one noun. While a subject performs an
action, an object is a noun that has action performed on it. The object
usually comes after the verb.
(Dave wrote a letter.)

➔ Modifiers use adjectives or adverbs to describe, define, limit, or modify


nouns or verbs. A modifier can be a single word or a phrase. (Dave almost
wrote a letter to his mother.)
➔ A complement is called a complement because it completes the predicate
in a sentence. There are two kinds of complements: object complements
and subject complements.
➔ An object complement follows the direct object and modifies or refers to
the direct object. An object complement can be an adjective, a noun, a
word, or a group of words which acts as an adjective or noun:
Wool socks will keep your feet very warm. ("Very warm" is an object
complement modifying the direct object "your feet.")
➔ A subject complement follows a linking verb and modifies or refers to the
subject. A subject complement can be an adjective, a noun, a pronoun, a
word, or a group of words which acts as an adjective or noun:
I am a student but I didn’t study well. (student is a subject complement
that modify the subject "I.")

Activity

A. Direction: Circle the correct verb in each of the sentences below.

1. Your friend (talk – talks) too much.


2. The man with the roses (look – looks) like your brother.
3. Jack (walk – walks) slowly.
4. She (cook – cooks) dinner for his family.
5. The girls (walk – walks) to school everyday.
6. Karen (run – runs) so fast.
7. The students (clean - cleans) the gym.
8. They (makes – make) their project.
9. We will (go – goes) to Japan soon.
10. Relly (look – looks) so fine today.

B. Rewrite each sentence correctly according to the pattern (Subject +


Verb + Object + Modifier/Complement)

1. my brother a mall at works.


2. very looks he busy.
3. work have a lot of I everyday.
4. She some cake us buys often.
5. I sometimes go with shopping her.
Voices of the Verb

✔ The cat ate the mouse. (the verb "ate" is in the active voice.)
✔ The mouse was eaten by the cat. ("was eaten"the verbal phrase "was
eaten" is passive.)

 Active Voice.
When the subject is the agent or doer of the action, the verb is in the
Active Voice.

➔ The hunter killed the bear.

the verb "killed" is in the active voice, and the doer of the action is the
"hunter"
Examples:
➔ The lady must have eaten five apples.

The lady (subject) is doing the eating (verb).


➔ Albert mailed the letter.

Albert (subject) is doing the mailing (verb).

 Passive Voice
When the subject is the patient, target or under goer of the action, the verb
is said to be in the Passive Voice.

➔ The bear was killed by the hunter.

when the verbal phrase "was killed" is followed by the word "by" and then
by the doer "hunter".

Examples:
➔ Five apples must have been eaten by the lady.
Apples (subject) are being eaten (verb).
➔ The letter was mailed by Albert.
The letter (subject) was being mailed (verb).

Further information: Active voice

• The active voice is the most commonly used in many languages and
represents the "normal" case, in which the subject of the verb is the agent.
• In the active voice, the subject of the sentence performs the action or
causes the happening denoted by the verb.
➔ Example: Carl ate the potatoes.

The verb ate indicates the active voice. But consider the following sentence
which is in passive voice:
➔ The potatoes were eaten by Carl.

The words were eaten indicate the passive voice.


• The passive voice shows that something has been acted upon by someone
or something else.

Further information: Passive voice


The passive voice is employed in a clause whose subject expresses the theme or
patient of the verb. That is, it undergoes an action or has its state changed.
In the passive voice the grammatical subject of the verb is the recipient (not the
doer) of the action denoted by the verb.
Activity:

Direction: Choose the letter of the best answer.

1. I ate a piece of chocolate cake.


a. active
b. passive

2. The librarian read the book to the students.


a. active
b. passive

3. The money was stolen.


a. active
b. passive

4. They are paid on Fridays.


a. active
b. passive

5. The movie is being made in Hollywood.


a. active
b. passive

6. I washed my car three weeks ago.


a. active
b. passive

7. His hair was cut by a professional.


a. active
b. passive

8. I will introduce you to my boss this week.


a. active
b. passive

9. It would have been fixed at the weekend.


a. active
b. passive

10. The national anthem is being sung by Jason this time.


a. active
b. passive

Auxiliary Verbs (Should / Would)


Auxiliary Verb (helping verb) a verb used in forming the tenses, moods, and voices
of other verbs.

Would (past form of will)


Often used in auxiliary functions with rather to express preference:
•I would rather go shopping today.

Used to express a wish or desire:


•I would like to have one more pencil.

Used to express contingency or possibility:


•If I were you, I would be so happy.

Used to express routine or habitual things:


•Normally, we would work until 6 p.m.
Should (past form of shall)
Often used in auxiliary functions to express an opinion, suggestion, preference,
or idea:
•You should rest at home today.
•I should take a bus this time.
•He should be more thoughtful in the decision-making process.

Used to express that you wish something had happened but it didn’t or couldn’t
(should + have + past participle):
•You should have seen it. It was really beautiful.
•I should have completed it earlier to meet the deadline.
•We should have visited the place on the way.

Used to ask for someone’s opinion:


•What should we do now?
•Should we continue our meeting?
•Where should we go this summer?

Used to say something expected or correct:


•There should be an old city hall building here.
•Everybody should arrive by 6 p.m.

Activity:
Direction: Write the correct auxiliary verb (would / should) on each of the
following sentences.

1. ____________ you change your mind, please let us know.


2. Mark suggested we ___________ all go to the pictures.
3. ___________ you mind coming earlier? the meeting starts at eleven o'clock.
4. ___________ you like some more tea, Helen ?
5. We decided not to stop in town lest we ___________ come late to the party.
6. _____________ we go this way?
7. We __________ rather say something than stay quiet.
8. We _____________be there this evening.
9. I _____________ love top go with you.
10. You ___________take this matter seriously.
Infinitive Verb
The infinitive form of a verb is the verb in its basic form. It is the version of the
verb which will appear in the dictionary.

Basically, an infinitive verb is a verb with the word “to” in front of it.
•to be
•to have
•to hold
•to run
•to dream
Infinitive as Noun Infinitive as Adjective Infinitive as Adverb
To dance was her I need a volunteer to take The officer returned to help.
passion. the minutes. (The infinitive modifies the
verb returned. This means it
(The infinitive is the (The infinitive modifies
is functioning as an adverb.)
subject of was.) volunteer. This means it is
functioning as an
Compare it to this:
adjective.)
Dancing was her
passion.(This proves
that the infinitive to
dance is being used a
noun.)

➔ Note: When you use an infinitive verb, the “to” is a part of the verb. It is not
acting as a preposition in this case. And the verb is always just the verb.

Bare Infinitives

Most infinitives are preceded by to, but after certain verbs, the to is dropped. The
most obvious example is when an infinitive follows can, could, may, might, must,
shall, should, will, or would (i. e., a modal verb). For example:
More examples (bare infinitives shaded):

•He should go home.(This is called a bare infinitive.)

•They might finish by Wednesday.

➔ Bare infinitives also follow other verbs. The main ones are feel, hear, help,
let, make, see, and watch. This time, there is a direct object involved. For
example:

More examples (bare infinitives shaded):

•Mark helped his friend finish. The "special" verb is helped. The direct object
is his friend.)

•I watched them bake the bread.(The "special" verb is watched. The direct
object is them.)

ACTIVITY
Direction: Choose the correct infinitive from the parenthesis at the end of the
sentence.
1. Jim stopped _________ his shoelace. Wait for him. (tying / to tie)
2. My friend always volunteers ___________ cakes during PTA meetings. (baking / to
bake)
3. Please allow me ____________ your Facebook page. (joining / to join)
4. Jim always forgets _____________ coffee. (drinking/ to drink)
5. ___________ around the world requires a lot of money. (to travel/ traveling)
6. You promised ____________ me a diamond ring. (buying / to buy)
7. She has the ability ____________. (to succeed/ success)
8. Do you want ________ your family now? (to call/ call)
9. I need _________ a lot of fruits. (eating/ to eat)
10. They might _______ on Wednesday. (to finish/ finish)
Present Perfect Tense
has/have + past participle of the verb
The present perfect is used to indicate a link between the present and the past.
The time of the action is before now but not specified, and we are often more
interested in the result than in the action itself.

THE PRESENT PERFECT IS USED TO DESCRIBE:

An action or situation that started in the They haven't lived here for years.
past and continues in the present.
She has worked in the bank for five
years.
We have had the same car for ten
years.
I have studied English since 2016 years.
An action performed during a period I have worked hard this week.
that has not yet finished.
It has rained a lot this year.
We haven't seen her today.

A repeated action in an unspecified They have seen that film six times
period between the past and now.
It has happened several times already.
She has visited them frequently.

An action that was completed in the Have you just finished work?
very recent past, expressed by 'just'.
I have just eaten.
We have just seen her.

An action when the time is not Someone has eaten my soup!


important.
She's studied Japanese, Russian, and
English.

FORMING THE PRESENT PERFECT


Affirmative
Subject to have past participle
She has visited.
Negative
Subject to have + not past participle
She has not (hasn't) visited.
Interrogative
to have subject past participle
Has she visited?
Negative interrogative
to have + not subject past participle
Hasn't she visited?

TO STUDY, PRESENT PERFECT

Affirmative Negative Interrogative


I have studied I haven't studied Have I studied?
You have studied You haven't studied Have you studied?
He, she, hasn't
He, she, it has studied Has he, she, it studied?
studied
We have studied We haven't studied Have we studied?
You have studied You haven't studied Have you studied?
They have studied They haven't studied Have they studied?

ACTIVITY
A. Write sentences in present perfect simple.

1.they / ask / a question - _________________________________________


2.he / speak / English - ____________________________________________
3.I / be / in my room - _____________________________________________
4.we / not / wash / the car - _______________________________________
5.Annie / not / forget / her homework - ____________________________

B. Write questions in present perfect simple.


1.they / finish / their homework -_______________________________
2.Sue / help / Ben -_____________________________________________
3.the waiter / bring / the tea - ________________________________________
4.Marilyn / pay / the bill - _____________________________________________
5.you / ever / write / a poem - _________________________________________
C. Read through the sentences and change the verb in brackets to the present
perfect tense.
1. He _____________ (fly) in a plane.
2. I _____________ (eat) bird.
3. She ____________ (learn) another language.
4. Wendel and his friends ______________ (witness) a crime.
5. ____________ he slept in an unusual place?

a, an, the

Articles “a”, “an”, and “the”

 She reads a book.


 Mary eats an apple.
 She reads a book.

a + consonant an + vowel the + definite noun

a lamp an apple the dog


a door an elephant the water
a house an ice cream the policeman
a bag an orange the elephant

 The article A is used before singular, countable noun which begin with
consonant sounds.
Examples:
• He is a teacher.
• She doesn't own a car.
• I saw a bear at the zoo.

 The article AN is used before singular, countable noun which begin with
vowel sounds.
Examples:
• He is an actor.
• She didn't get an invitation.
• I saw an eagle at the zoo.

 The article THE is used before singular and plural nouns when the noun is
specific or particular.
 The signals that the noun is definite, that it refers to a particular member of
a group.
Examples:
• The dog that bit me ran away. (Here, we're talking about a specific dog, the
dog that bit me.)
• I saw the elephant at the zoo. (Here, we're talking about a specific noun.
Probably there is only one elephant at the zoo.)
• I love to sail over the water. (some specific body of water) or

• He spilled the milk all over the floor. (some specific milk, perhaps the milk
you bought earlier that day) or "He spilled milk all over the floor" (any milk).

Activity

Direction: Fill in the blanks with the correct articles a, an, the.
1. I work in ________ bank.
2. He is ______ best dancer in ________ Japan.
3. ______ market is noisy. I don’t want to go back there!
4. May I have __________ cup of tea please?
5. I played _________ guitar last night.
6. We saw ________elephant at the zoo.
7. I ate _______ egg for breakfast.
8. I am taking ______ English course.
9. Please wash _______ apple before eating it.
10. There is only one chocolate left in ________ fridge.
Adjectives

In the following examples, the highlighted words are adjectives:


➔ They live in a big, beautiful house.
➔ She is wearing a nice dress.

What is an Adjective?
● adjective is a word that describes or clarifies a noun. Adjectives describe
nouns by giving some information about an object’s size, shape, age, color,
origin or material.

•It’s a round table. (shape)

It’s a big table. (size)


•It’s an old table. (age)

•It’s a brown table. (color)

•It’s an English table. (origin)

•It’s a wooden table. (material)

•It’s a lovely table. (opinion)

•It’s a broken table. (observation)

•It’s a coffee table. (purpose)

When an item is defined by its purpose, that word is usually not an adjective, but
it acts as one in that situation.
•Coffee table
•pool hall
•hunting cabin
•baseball player
What Do Adjectives Look Like?
English grammar can be tricky, there are often exceptions to the rules, so you
need to be careful. You'll find that English adjectives often end with these suffixes:
•-able/-ible – adorable, invisible, responsible, uncomfortable
•-al – educational, gradual, illegal, nocturnal, viral
•-an– American, Mexican, urban
•-ar– cellular, popular, spectacular, vulgar
•-ent– intelligent, potent, silent, violent
•-ful– harmful, powerful, tasteful, thoughtful
•-ic/-ical– athletic, energetic, magical, scientific
•-ine– bovine, canine, equine, feminine, masculine
•-ile– agile, docile, fertile, virile
•-ive– informative, native, talkative
•-less– careless, endless, homeless, timeless
•-ous– cautious, dangerous, enormous, malodorous
•-some– awesome, handsome, lonesome, wholesome

Note:
Many adjectives also end with -y, -ary, -ate, -ed, and -ing. However, nouns and
adverbs can end with -y, lots of nouns end with -ary, nouns and verbs also end
with -ate, and verbs also end in -ed and -ing. Remember we said you need to be
careful! To work out if a word is an adjective or not, look at it's location in the
sentence.

Where Do Adjectives Go in a Sentence?


If you come across a word that ends in -y, -ary or -ate (or any other suffix for that
matter), and you want to know if it’s an adjective, just look at where it is and what
it’s doing in the sentence.
If it comes immediately before a noun, and especially if it comes between an
article (a, an, the), a possessive adjective (my, his, her, its, your, our, their), a
demonstrative (this, that, these, those) or an amount (some, most, all, a few) and
a noun, then it’s an adjective.

Examples:
•The grassy field was wet with dew.– “Grassy” comes between an article (the) and
a noun (field), so you know it’s an adjective.
•These are my old trophies.– “Old” comes between a possessive adjective (my)
and a noun (trophies), making it an adjective.
•We had a few ordinary days.– “Ordinary” comes between an amount (a few) and
a noun (days), so it’s definitely an adjective.
•Did you see that immaculate kitchen?– “Immaculate” comes between a
demonstrative (that) and a noun (kitchen), so it must be an adjective.
Activity:
A. Put the words in the right order.
1. (new/ live in/ house/ they/ a) __________________________________________
2. (like/ jacket/ I/ that/ green) ___________________________________________
3. (music/ like/ do/ classical/ you?) ______________________________________
4. (had/ wonderful/ a/ I/ trip) ____________________________________________
5. (went to/ restaurant/ a/ Japanese/ we) _____________________________________

B. Underline the adjectives on each of the following sentences.

1. Jean looks healthy.


2. The living room should be large.
3. Helen’s room is so clean.
4. English is so difficult.
5. Is Bob a strong man?
6. The table lamp appears bright.
7. A dog is bigger than a cat.
8. Is the monkey the smartest animal of all?
9. This car is more expensive than that motorcycle.
10. I have a difficult task to perform.

Comparison of Adjectives

✔ Comparative adjectives are used to compare a noun to another noun such


as:
She is prettier than me.
✔ Superlative adjectives are used to compare three or more nouns and
show which is best such as hot, hotter and hottest.
She is the prettiest girl I have ever met.

Type of Adjective

✔ most adjectives

comparative: add -er: cheaper, richer, smaller, younger


superlative: add -est: cheapest, richest,smallest, youngest

✔ adjectives ending in -e

comparative: add -r: finer, nicer, rarer

superlative: add -st: finest, nicest, rarest

✔ adjectives with one vowel + one consonant:

comparative: double the final consonant and add -er: bigger,


hotter, thinner

superlative: double the final consonant and add -est: biggest,


hottest, thinnest

Comparative Superlative
One-syllable adjectives
which are irregular

Good Better Best


Bad worse worst
small little least
old older/elder oldest/eldest
far farther/further farthest/furthest

Two-syllable adjectives Comparative Superlative


ending in -y change y
to i and take the -er
and -est endings
Busy Busier Busiest
crazy crazier craziest
funny funnier funniest
easy easier easiest

NOTE:
Longer adjectives
Adjectives of three or more syllables form the comparative with
more/less and the superlative with most/least:
• The second lecture was more interesting than the first.

Not: The second lecture was interestinger …


• That way of calculating the figures seems less complicated to me.

• London is the most popular tourist destination in England.

Not: London is the popularest …

Activity:

Direction: Fill in the correct form of the words in brackets (comparative or


superlative).

1.My house is (big) than yours.


2.This flower is (beautiful) than that one.
3.This is the (interesting) book I have ever read.
4.Non-smokers usually live (long) than smokers.
5.Which is the (dangerous) animal in the world?
6.A holiday by the sea is (good) than a holiday in the mountains.
7.It is strange but often a coke is (expensive) than a beer.
8.Who is the (rich) woman on earth?
9.The weather this summer is even (bad) than last summer.
10.He was the (clever) thief of all.

Coordinating Conjunction
✔ Coordinating Conjunctions can be used to join two words, two phrases,
or two sentences.
✔ When coordinating conjunctions are used to separate two complete
sentences, a comma must come before the conjunction.
✔ When a coordinating conjunction is used to show that something has two
characteristics that seem opposite, a comma is often used as well.

✔ There are seven coordinating conjunctions, namely: For, and, nor, but,
or, yet, so
✔ An easy way to remember these six conjunctions is to think of the
word FANBOYS.

Conjunction Meaning Example


For Presents a reason; I have to find a new job,
because; why for I am unemployed.
And Showing additional I love studying English
information and Math.
Nor Not either; and not Neither my parents, nor
my friends supported me.
But Contrast; however; I have already a car, but I
usually means only don’t know how to drive it
Or Choices; option Which do you prefer,
coffee or tea?
Yet Contrast; usually means He is sick, yet he is
up to this time working.
So As a result of My friend is so very
pretty, so everybody likes
her.

➔ Examples of words joined with coordinating conjunctions:

Red and yellow


Hard, yet soft (two opposite characteristics)
Nice, but firm (two opposite characteristics)
Daniel and Jessica

➔ Examples of phrases joined with coordinating conjunctions:


very good quality, but expensive
either the blue shirt or the red shirt
➔ Examples of sentences joined with coordinating conjunctions:
I like cheese pizza, but Mark likes pepperoni.
I want to go to bed, so I am brushing my teeth.
Please help me find a book, but not one that is scary.
Marissa solved the math problem, and her teacher gave her a sticker.

Activity
Direction: The following exercises will help you gain greater understanding about
how coordinating conjunctions work. Choose the best answer to complete each
sentence.

1. Would you rather have fried chicken _____ fried fish on your dinner?
A. for
B. nor
C. or
D. so

2. His two favorite sports are football ______ tennis.


A. or
B. and
C. nor
D. for

3. I wanted to go to the beach, _______ Mary refused.


A. but
B. or
C. so
D. for

4. I am allergic to cats, ___ I have three of them.


A. or
B. for
C. yet
D. so

5. I am a vegetarian, _____ I don’t eat any meat.


A. so
B. yet
C. nor
D. but

6. Thomas will be late to work, _____ he has a dental appointment.


A. but
B. or
C. for
D. nor

7. Jennifer does not like to swim, ____ does she enjoy cycling.
A. and
B. or
C. but
D. nor

8. Jackson wanted to eat another piece of cake, ____ he was on a diet.


A. for
B. but
C. yet
D. so

9. I want to go to the concert _________ I don’t have enough money.

A. for
B. but
C. yet
D. so

10. She is eager to learn English _____ she is studying hard.


A. for
B. but
C. yet
D. so

Subordinating Conjunctions
Subordinating conjunctions are parts of speech that join dependent clauses to
independent clauses.

COMMON SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS

Cause Place Time Concession Condition


and
Comparison
as where after although even if
because wherever as soon as as if
in order that as long as as though in case
since before even though provided that
so that once just as unless
still though
till whereas
until while
when
whenever

EXAMPLES AND OBSERVATIONS:

➔ English has a wide range of subordinate conjunctions: that, if, though,


although, because, when, while, after, before, and so forth. . . . They are
placed before a complete sentence or independent clause to make that
clause dependent. This dependent clause now needs to attach to another
clause that is independent. Otherwise, a sentence fragment results:
• When Doris bought the cake.
• As soon as the light in the bedroom went out, there was a stirring and
a fluttering all through the far buildings.
• If everyone demanded peace instead of another television set, then
there would be peace.
• As she blew out the candles atop her birthday cake, she caught her
hair on fire.
• Albert begins to sneeze whenever he opens the window to get a
breath of fresh air.
• When the doorbell rang, my dog Renie barked loudly.
Activity

Direction: Choose the best conjunction for each sentence.

1.________ it was raining, I didn't get wet.


A. Because
B. Although

2.________ my wife likes to travel abroad, I prefer to stay at home for my


vacations.
A. Whereas
B. Since

3.Jerry passed the exam first time ________ I had to retake it three times.
A. while
B. as

4.Paula got the job ________ she had no experience.


A. even though
B. as

5.Jun couldn't buy any Christmas presents ________ he didn't have any
money.
A. because
B. even though

6.________ Mei Li doesn't speak English, she can't go to university in Canada.


A. Since
B. Whereas

7. I will be late today ________ my car has broken down.


A. because
B. though

8.I don't drink coffee ________ it makes me nervous.


A. although
B. as
9. I was absent _______ I got sick.
A. even though
B. because
10. She likes me _______ I am not rich.
A. even though
B. as