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[Eccentric Mass Dynamic Vibration Absorber] May 13, 2019

“ECCENTRIC MASS DYNAMIC VIBRATION


ABSORBER ”

P.E.S COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, MANDYA


(AN AUTONOMOUS INSTITUTION AFFLIATED TO VTU, BELGAUM)
A project report is submitted to
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

6th SEMESTER, MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


(2018-2019)
Submitted by:
KIRAN KUMAR N R :4PS16ME041
VARUN P J :4PS15ME119
SANJAY C R :4PS15ME090
KAVANA H S :4PS16ME040
Submitted to:
Dr S.L .AJITH PRASAD
professor Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
PESCE MANDYA

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[Eccentric Mass Dynamic Vibration Absorber] May 13, 2019

PES COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING


(An Autonomous Institution under VTU Belgum)

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify the seminar project work entitled“ECCENTRIC MASS
DYNAMIC VIBRATION ABSORBER”is a confide work carried out by,

1. Kiran Kumar N R
2. Varun P J
3. Sanjay C R
4. Kavana H S

In partial fulfillment of the MINI Project in the year of 2018-2019.it is certified


that all correction\suggestions indicated for the assessment have been
incorporated in the report. The project report has been approved as it satisfies
the academic requirements in respect of project work prescribed for the
degree

Under the guidance of:


Dr S.L .AJITH PRASAD
professor
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
PESCE MANDYA

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[Eccentric Mass Dynamic Vibration Absorber] May 13, 2019

ABSTRACT:

A physical model used to demonstrate the use of a passive dynamic


vibration absorber (DVA) to cancel out resonance of a classic mass spring
damper system was developed for
this project. It incorporates an eccentric mass as a rotationalunbalance to
generate movement with two degrees of freedom (DOF). The excitation
frequency can be manually controlled to demonstrate discussed
phenomena of a two mass
system. In this paper, a vibratory model of a mass-spring-damper system is d
eveloped and compared with experimental resultsmeasured from the
physical model. From this it is concluded that the theoretical model
accurately reflects the real world results with minimal deviations. These
differences are due to broad assumptions made in the theoretical
development, so we can conclude that the model is valid

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INTRODUCTION:

Dynamic vibration absorbers are very fundamental devices when it comes to


vibration management in systems, and their effects are interesting to even
those outside of the field of engineering. The concept behind these passive
components is simply to add a spring and mass that have a natural frequency
tuned to that of the resonant excitation frequency of the system .Doing so
transfers all of the resonance energy of the system to the DVA, leaving the
original system undisturbed .However, the classic model of the vertical 2DOF
spring-mass-damper system with a DVA is not widely available to demonstrate
this phenomenon, so this project targeted creating this system with low-cost
components as a demonstration for the Introduction to Engineering Vibrations
class. Due to the availability of electronic components from other coursework,
it was decided that an electric motor with an unbalanced mass is the most
effective way to generate a periodic applied force in the system so that the
excitation frequency can be controlled .The biggest challenge in making a
physical model of this2DOF system is constraining the motion, for which there
are avariety of solutions ranging widely in price. For this we chose an available
middle ground that allowed for reasonable data collection, but significant
improvements could be made to the experimental setup by using linear
bearings and precision mounted slides .This paper focuses on comparing the
theoretical results of the methods developed in class for a 2DOF DVA model to
the data measured from the physical model to identify the validity of
the development. Budget and time constrained fabrication and testing, but we
were able to develop a reasonably robust first prototype of this system and to
record relatively accurate displacement amplitudes for comparison. There
is much that could be done to this design in the future to further characterize
or improve the system performance, but this is outside of the scope we have
developed

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LITERATURE:

This page demonstrates the behavior of the classical undamped dynamic


absorber, introduced into the literature in 1928 by J. Ormondroyd and J.P. Den
Hartog. The results below were calculated using the mathematical derivation
on pages 87-106 of Den Hartog's book Mechanical Vibrations, 4th Edition,
(Dover, 1985).A centrifugal l force m(omega)2*r sin w t acts on an undamped
main mass-spring system (without the absorber mass attached). When the forcing
frequency equals the natural frequency of the main mass the response is infinite.
This is called resonance, and it can cause severe problems for vibrating systems.

When an absorbing mass-spring system is attached to the main mass and the
resonance of the absorber is tuned to match that of the main mass, the motion of
the main mass is reduced to zero at its resonance frequency. Thus, the energy of
the main mass is apparently "absorbed" by the tuned dynamic absorber. It is
interesting to note that the motion of the absorber is finite at this resonance
frequency, even though there is NO damping in either oscillator. This is because
the system has changed from a 1-DOF system to a 2-DOF system and now
has two resonance frequencies, neither of which equals the original resonance
frequency of the main mass (and also the absorber).

If no damping is present, the response of the 2-DOF system is infinite at these


new frequencies. While this may not be a problem when the machine is running
at its natural frequency, an infinite response can cause problems during startup
and shutdown. A finite amount of damping for both masses will prevent the
motion of either mass from becoming infinite at either of the new resonance
frequencies. However if damping is present in either mass-spring element, the
response of the main mass will no longer be zero at the target frequency.

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The 2-DOF system has two natural frequencies, corresponding to the two natural
modes of vibration for the system. In the lower frequency mode both masses
move in the same direction, in-phase with each other. In the higher frequency
mode the two masses move in opposite direction, 180° out of phase with each
other

The application of tuned vibration absorbers to eliminate excesses vibration of a


structure has been investigated by different authors over the years. The theory of
a vibration absorber was first developed in 1902 by Frahm [2], who designed a
fluid tank system for the reduction of rolling motion in the German ships. He
registered a US patent in 1909 for a “Device of Damping Vibrations of Bodies”.
The first classical paper on dynamic vibration absorber was by Ormondroyd and
Hartog [17]. Their vibration absorber consisted of a tuned spring-mass used to
suppress the response of a harmonic oscillator. The principle of operation of the
vibration absorber has remained the same since Hartog [4]. However, a variety
of designs have been proposed to suit different applications. An adaptable
vibration absorber has been designed and investigated by Walsh and Lamancusa
[18], to minimize transient vibrations of rotating machines during start-up and
shut-down conditions, and to adapt to changes in steady state operating speeds
10 such as might occur in engines and pumps when load conditions vary. The
absorber consists of constant mass and damping ratio with variable stiffness. A
variable stiffness spring design is proved to provide a sufficient range of
stiffness variation results in change in resonance frequency of absorber. An
excellent survey of passive, semi-active and active dynamic vibration absorbers
was prepared by Sun et al. [19]. An overview of the recent development of tuned
vibration absorbers (TVAs) for vibration and noise suppression is presented. The
paper discussed the principal of absorber and optimal tuning rules in conjunction
with various design configurations and also presents use of TVAs in vibration

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control of various applications. Furthermore the resent progress, of adaptive and


semi-active TVAs along with their on-line tuning strategies, active and hybrid
fail-safe TVAs, is discussed briefly.

Jolly and Sun [20] in technical note presents a preliminary study of TVA
systems from the viewpoint of attenuating structural modes that couple well with
the acoustic environment. The study shows that TVAs can dampen out the
structural vibration at the tuning frequency and thereby reduce the radiated
sound from the structure. Nagaya and Li [21] discussed a method of tuning of
absorbers considering all tuning parameters of absorbers such as mass, spring
constant, damping coefficient and location. The equation formulated for
prediction of tuning parameters is nonlinear and the neural network procedure is
used to find the optimum absorber parameters. Numerical calculations were
carried out for reducing sound radiated form a clampedfree rectangular plate. To
validate the present method and analysis, experimental test have been carried out
on plate using dynamic vibration absorber constructed form magnetic damper
and the plate spring. Numerical results are in good agreement with experimental
results. In letter to editor Nagem et al. [22], developed an electromechanical
vibration absorber in which mechanical absorber system is replaced by an
electromechanical transducer and a resonant electrical circuit. The vibration
amplitudes of the cantilever beam with and without electromechanical vibration
absorber are obtained by experimental test. It shows that the amplitude of
vibration of the original system reduced significantly by tuning the electrical
circuit properly. In addition the reduction in vibration develops large electrical
oscillations in the resonant circuit. Nagaya et al. [23], has presented a method of
vibration control for a principal mode and higher mode of a structure. A
principal mode of the structure is controlled using variable stiffness vibration
absorber. The stiffness of the 11 absorber is altered by the auto-tuning algorithm

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for creating an anti-resonance state. The optimal vibration absorber with


magnetic damper is utilized for controlling higher modes. Experimental test
proved that the vibrations are controlled to the significant level by present
method. The advantage of the current method is that it reduces the amplitude
ratio to 0.5 in the low frequency region. In addition the fewer number of
absorbers are required to suppress vibrations of higher modes. Yaman and Sen
[24] investigated the effectiveness of a pendulum type passive vibration absorber
attached to a flexible beam modelled as a single-degree-of-freedom subjected to
a sinusoidal base excitation. The optimal orientation of the absorber and the
factors that affects its performance has been determined by them.

The TVA is only effective at the particular excitation frequency. Even with the
addition of damping the absorber is effective over a considerably narrow
frequency range. The vibration attenuation of the absorber reduces or even
collapse with the change in excitation frequency. This problem restricts the use
of the TVAs in applications where change in the forcing frequency takes place.
To overcome this problem adaptive tuned vibration absorber (ATVA) are
developed. In principle, the ATVA improves the vibration attenuation
performance by adjusting its resonant frequency in real time to track the
excitation frequency. A variety of ATVAs have been proposed. The advantage of
an actively tuned device is that low damping can be used if tuning is precise, and
this reduces the need for a large mass. A review of adaptive vibrations absorbers,
which can adjust their own parameters, carried out by von Flotow et al. [25].

OBJECTIVES:
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The primary objective of our project is to fabricate a machine subjected to


unbalance force excitation and functionalise a machine subjected to base motion
excitation; and to design and employ „Eccentric Mass Dynamic Vibration
Absorbers‟ on these machines to demonstrate complete absorption of vibrations
of machines which run at constant speed

PHYSICAL MODEL:

For this project, a physical model of the system was developed using available
materials, as can be seen in Fig. 1.The frame is 14.17" 19.68”and is made from
plywood[1]. A dc motor is used to provide the periodic input force [2]. The
eccentric and DVA masses are un symmetric mass . For the platform a machined
plywood used that has two #8-32 clearance holes drilled at each corner, in
which bolts are mounted [3]. Motor clamped to the platform using tape . . The
DVA mass is constrained similarly with two 5/16" holes for the motion
constraining rods ,and is connected to the DVA mass . and bottom of the frame
are used as constraining rods for system motion. . These work as minimal
friction slides on the steel constraining bars which do not bind. Two extension
springs are attached to eye hooks in the top of the frame and are used to
hang the platform [4, 5]. A spring that is slightly less stiff is used to hang the
DVA from the platform .The electrical drive for the motor is a custom-built
voltage regulator circuit connected to the motor with very light speaker wire to
reduce unwanted constraints on the system motion. This unregulated DC power
supply is 9V DC . The regulator supplies from 1.25to 11.75V to the motor [6]

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FIGURE 1. DAMPER TEST STAND

SYSTEM CHARACTERIZATION

In order to characterize our model, data was taken on the system components
using a triple beam balance from the Systems lab along with
hanging masses. Every spring was measured individually using two mass
increments so that trend lines could be fit to calculate each stiffness
value. Each component used for the platform and DVA assemblies was also
weighed individually. The resulting system characterization values can be

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seen in Fig. 2Energy is required to drive the machines and equipment's for
variety of applications.

Variable Item value units


m1
Platform mass 283 gm

m2 Absorber mass 107 gm

m0 Eccentric mass 41 gm

K1 Eq .platform 147.19 N/m


spring stiffness

K2 Absorber spring 78.48 N/m


stiffness

FIGURE 2. SYSTEM CHARACTERIZATION VALUES

MODEL DEVELOPMENT

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FIGURE 3. SYSTEM SCHEMATIC

Assumptions

 1 Degree of motion, 2 degree of freedom system


no platform pitch, roll, yaw, horizontal lmotion etc...
 Frictionless, undamped motion
 Motor spins at a constant speed
 Ignore effect of gravity on spinning mass
 Linear range of spring operation
 Not bottoming out or over-stretching
Frame is rigid and does not vibrate From the system schematic in Fig. 3 and
using the assumptions above, the system equation in Eq. 1 can be derived,
which characterizes the vibratory system [7]

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Using the complex method, the global frequency response function (FRF) can
be calculated directly, as in Eq. 2 and 3

These equations can be used to produce the displacement amplitude response


with respect to excitation frequency for the vibratory system .Also worth
calculating directly are the system natural frequencies, which can also be
established graphically from the global FRF. From Fig. 2, the platform
and absorber natural frequencies are calculated using Eq. 6 and 7, respectively

Omegha 1= 24.92 rps

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Omegha 2= 27.08 rps

CONCLUSION:

As can be see the experimental data for the platform matches very well with
the theoretical calculations for the 1DOF system. We were limited in the
precision of the excitation frequency adjustment due to the potentiometer
used,so it is reasonable to assume that the experimental and theoretical values
are the same at the natural frequency of the platform . For higher
excitation frequencies in the1DOF system, the displacement measured is
slightly lower than predicted, which we attribute to errors in our amplitude
measurements. However, the amplitude values still
trend as predicted by the model. Similarly, at low excitation frequencies, the
motion was so small that we could not measure movement accurately, but it
was very nearly zero as predicted , the same effects as noted in the 1DOF
system can be seen at the new resonances For the frequency at which 1DOF
resonance occurs, the 2DOF experimental setup showed the predicted
attenuation. At the first 2DOF natural frequency, the resonance amplitude is
small due mainly to the variable speed of the motor. This variable speed is
due to the increased torque required to raise the eccentric mass vs. lowering it,
which is more notable at lower excitation frequencies (when there is less
rotational inertia, we can see that the discussed effects on
the platform are translated directly to the DVA, which shows the same
trends. The experimental results compare favorably with the model for the DVA
amplitudes, which adds even more merit to the validity of the mode l.Overall,
the experimental results were influenced by the unavoidable existence of
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friction (or dissipative losses) in the system and the ability of the platform to
pitch from side to side .This pitching is due to wide clearances between the
nutd sleeves and the steel rods to prevent binding, which was a budgetary
constraint for the project. The rig also seems to pitch more on the left side of
the platform than the right, which could be due to positioning of the motor
or slight differences in spring

Types of mechanical drives:


1. Belt drive
2. Rope drive
3. Chain drive
4. Gear drive

 Rope drive:

A rope drive is a form of belt drive, used for mechanical


power transmission.
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Rope drives use a number of circular section ropes,


rather than a single flat or vee belt.

 Chain drive:

Chain drive is a way of transmitting mechanical power from one


place to another. It is often used to convey power to the wheels
of a vehicle, particularly bicycles and motorcycles. It is also
used in a wide variety of machines besides vehicles.

 Gear drive:

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A worm drive is a gear arrangement in which a worm (which is


a gear in the form of a screw) meshes with a worm gear (which
is similar in appearance to a spur gear). The two elements are
also called the worm screw and worm wheel. The terminology is
often confused by imprecise use of the term worm gear to refer
to the worm, the worm gear, or the worm drive as a unit.

 Belt drive:

A belt is a loop of flexible material used to link two or more


rotating shafts mechanically, most often parallel. Belts may be used as
a source of motion, to transmit power efficiently or to track relative
movement. Belts are looped over pulleys and may have a twist
between the pulleys, and the shafts need not be parallel.
In a two pulley system, the belt can either drive the pulleys
normally in one direction (the same if on parallel shafts), or the belt
may be crossed, so that the direction of the driven shaft is reversed
(the opposite direction to the driver if on parallel shafts). As a source
of motion, a conveyor belt is one application where the belt is adapted
to carry a load continuously between two points.
Power transmitted between a belt and a pulley is expressed as
the product of difference of tension and belt velocity:

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P=(T1-T2)*v1.

where, T1 and T2 are tensions in the tight side and slack side of
the belt respectively. They are related as
(T1/T2)=exp(μe)
where, μ is the coefficient of friction, and α is the angle (in
radians) subtended by contact surface at the centre of the pulley.

Types of Belt Drives:

The following are the types of Belt Drives,

1.Open belt drive:

In this types of belt drive, the belt is employing when the two
parallel shafts have to rotate in the same direction.

2. Cross Belt Drive:

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This types of belt drives, the belt is employing when two


parallel shafts have to rotate in the opposite direction. At the
junction where the belts cross, it rubs against itself and wears
off.
3. Stepped Cone Pulley or Speed Cone Drive:

This types of belt drives are used when the speed of


the driven shaft is to be changed very frequently as in the
case of machine tools such as lathe, drilling machine, etc.

4. Fast and Loose Pulley Drive

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This types of belt drives are used when the driven or machine shaft is
to be started or stopped whenever desired without interfering with the
driving shaft.

Advantages of Belt Drives:


 Made from flexible material, it can be used for
the shafts whose axes are note parallel.
 Initial cost is low.
 Lubricant is not required.
 Noise is relatively less.
 It is flexible member, it slips or break during
overload and safeguards the machine.

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