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By : Shailaja Raghavendra

‘Inclusion’ means ‘being included within a group’

’Inclusive schools’ aims to increase access and engagement in learning for all
students by identifying and removing barriers.

Any country or board is not a homogeneous unit, a historical perspective is vital to

a deeper analysis of a special education context.
‘being included’ is enough?

From inclusion to access - A Paradigm shift within the classrooms

Developing an inclusive classroom culture

• An inclusive classroom is one that values the

contributions of all students, their families and
communities. It recognises that every learner
is unique and builds on their
languages, cultures, and interests; and
identifies and removes any barriers to

Four Principles of good practice
The four principles of good
practice that promote equal
access to the curriculum for all
learners across the continuum.

We practice differentiation by
identifying a student’s learning
style, giving explicit instructions in
order to develop the student’s
true potential and scaffolding
their learning.

Students are constantly motivated

to learn from multiple
perspectives and through
collaborative learning-teaching
approaches .
Across the Globe, Inclusive classroom practices emerge from a desire to

help students learn. Below are some practices which I believe can make a

difference for the teachers’ and students’ learning. Research supports

these practices, and it is your free choice to use.

▪ Student-Centric Teaching

▪ The Power of Interdisciplinary Work

▪ Integration of Educational Technology

▪ Teaching Practices, Teachers’ Beliefs and Attitudes

▪ Instructional Practices That Makes a Difference

The Power of Interdisciplinary Work: E.g.
Design a short story for children, written in their
mother tongue, about first settlers (history and
language acquisition). It becomes easier for the
student to integrate the knowledge from different
subjects to create new understanding.
Student-Centric Teaching:
(i) Make students do their tasks on their own.
(ii) Adopt explicit skill instruction.
(iii) Make students reflect on what and how they’re
(iv) Give students control over their learning
process. (v) Facilitate collaboration among students.
(vi) Make authentic assessments.
Integration of Educational Technology:
Teachers’ self-efficiency in technology acceptance,
experiences or expertise is a pre-requisite for a successful
e-learning environment which supports diverse learning
needs. The decisions and actions regarding professional
learning and development leading to the instructional
change are also a paradigm shift in inclusive education.
Instructional Practices That Makes a Difference:
Engaging all students, even unmotivated ones, and help them
make a U-turn by applying the four principles of brain-based
* Build and maintain trust;
* Create a collaborative community;
* Take a TEAMing approach;
* Prime the positive environment
Teaching Practices, Teachers’ Beliefs and
Attitudes: The context of the classroom is
often influenced by teacher’s attitudes.
Teacher’s attitude is a critical predictor of
successful inclusion.