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Skull Creek Surface Water Samples

April 10, 2019

Metals, Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Dissolved
Solids (TDS) – Samples Collected on February 12, 2019

Surface water samples collected from three sites on February 12, 2019 were analyzed for 15
constituents including total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total
dissolved solids (TDS), and total metals. All 15 constituents were reported either below
appropriate comparison levels or were not detected e xcept:
• manganese in two samples (sampling sites W00872-01and W00872-02)
• chemical oxygen demand (COD) in one sample (sampling site W00872-02)

The comparison value is a screening value for manganese that is protective for water bodies
used as drinking wate r for livestock. Therefore, these two water samples may represent risk to
livestock drinking at these manganese concentrations for long periods of time.
Chemical oxygen demand is a measure of water quality used by USEPA and TCEQ for water
permitting. High levels of COD in water often correlate with increased algae blooms and
bacteria from organic wastes. High COD levels decrease the amount of dissolved oxygen
available for aquatic organisms and can therefore affect the health of the organisms in the
water body.

Volatile Compounds – Samples Collected on March 22, 2019

Surface water samples were analyzed for 70 different volatile compounds from water samples
collected on March 22, 2019 at four sampling sites (06941-01, 006941-02, 006941-03, and
006941-04).

All compounds were reported either below appropriate comparison values or were not detected
except:
• xylene (total) (sampling sites 006941-01, 006941-02, 006941-03, 006941-04)
• toluene (sampling sites 006941-01, 006941-02, 006941-03, 006941-04)
• ethylbenzene (sampling site 006941-04)
• 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene (sampling site 006941-04),
• 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (sampling site 006941-02)
• total petroleum hydrocarbons (C6-C35) (sampling site 006941-04).

Xylene, ethylbenzene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene were reported above


their freshwater chronic benchmarks of the Texas Surface Water Quality Standards (TSWQS).
Toluene was reported above its water criterion in the TSWQS. Total petroleum hydrocarbons
(TPH) (C6-C35) was reported in one sample at a concentration greater than its Texas Risk
Reduction Program (TRRP) contact recreation water protective concentration level (PCL).

Fish exposed to xylene, ethylbenzene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene in


surface water at co ncentrations greater than their chronic benchmark could experience sub-
lethal effects, such as growth impairment and reduced reproductive success, or lethality. The
duration of exposure applicable to the most common chronic toxicity test is seven days or
more. Based on the results in one sample, individuals using the water for contact recreation
(e.g., swimming) may be exposed to TPH at a concentration greater than the level that
represents a safe level of TPH in water to be protective of water ingestion and dermal contact
with surface water.

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Total Metals – Samples Collected on March 22, 2019

Surface water samples were collected at four sites on March 22, 2019 and analyzed for 13 total
metals.
All metals were reported either below appropriate comparison values or were not detected
except:
• lead (sampling site 006941-03)
• chromium (sampling site 006941-03)
• zinc (sampling site 006941-03)
• copper (sampling site 006941-03)
Chromium, zinc, and copper were detected above their chronic freshwater-life criterion (Texas
Surface Water Quality Standards). Fish exposed to chromium, zinc, and copper in surface water
at concentrations greater than their chronic benchmark could experience sub-lethal effects,
such as growth impairment and reduced reproductive success, o r lethality. The duration of
exposure applicable to the most common chronic toxicity test is seven days or more. The lead
comparison level is a fish ingestion-only criterion in the TSWQS and represents a concentration
in water that prevents contamination o f fish to ensure that they are safe for human
consumption.

Skull Creek Soil Samples

This data was compared to the Texas Risk Reduction Program (TRRP) protective concentration
levels (PCLs) for direct contact. Sample numbers: 006941-01/ TD36534-2; 006941-02/
TD36534-4; 006941-03/ TD36534-6; 006941-04/ TD36534-8.

These samples were collected from the bank of the Skull Creek surface water body above the
waterline; therefore, they were compared to soil PCLs. Specifically, the sample results were
conservatively compared to both the 0.5-acre and 30-acre residential total soil combined
(To tSOILC o mb ) PCLs (protect against effects caused by exposure via combined soil ingestion, dermal
contact, inhalation of volatile and particulate chemicals, and ingestion of above-ground and
below-ground vegetables for residential land use). No analytes were detected at concentrations
above either the 0.5-acre or 30-acre PCL, therefore health impacts from the measured analytes
are not expected via any route of exposure to the soil. The reporting limits for each analyte
were below the respective PCLs.