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REVIEWER 𝐀 + 𝐁 → 𝐀𝐁

GENERAL CHEMISTRY I
- Is the addition of 2 or more simple reactants to
Note: See examples on your activity sheet for further form complex product.
analyzation of the concept.
DECOMPOSITION EQUATION
CHEMICAL EQUATION
𝐀𝐁 → 𝐀 + 𝐁
- Is the representation of chemical reactions
- Is when complex reactants are broken down
CHEMICAL REACTION into simpler products.
- A process that involves arrangement of the SINGLE DISPLACEMENT EQUATION
molecular or ionic structure of a substance, as
opposed to a change in physical form or a 𝐀𝐁 + 𝐂 → 𝐀𝐂 + 𝐁
nuclear reaction.
- EVIDENCES OF CHEMICAL CHANGE - Is when an element from one reactant switches
- Change in temperature with an element of the other to form new
(endothermic/exothermic) reactants.
- Change in color DOUBLE DISPLACEMENT EQUATION
- Formation of gas
- Formation of precipitates 𝐀𝐁 + 𝐂𝐃 → 𝐀𝐃 + 𝐂𝐁
- Change in pH level
- Heat released - Is when two elements from one reactant
- Heat absorbed switched with two elements of the other to
form two new reactant.
CHEMICAL FORMULA
SYMBOLS:
- language of the chemist
- It tells us the number of atoms of each element ↑ - Something that is evolved to the air
in a compound. - equilibrium
- The product may turn into its reactant
𝐀 + 𝐁 → 𝐀𝐁
REACTANT PRODUCT ↓ - precipitates

LAW OF CONSERVATION OF MASS → - yields

- In every chemical reaction the mass of the ∆ - heat


reactant is equal to the mass of the product
ɭ - liquid
- Numerical Coefficient is altered to balance the
chemical equation ɡ - gas
AINTOINE LAURENT LAVOISIER s – solid
- Lavoisier uses Mercury and Oxygen in his ACTIVITY SERIES OF METALS
experiment. He found out that the mass of his
- it is a list of series of metals in order of
reactants is equal to the mass of his product. He
reactivity from highest to lowest.
became Father of Modern Chemistry because
1. Li
of the Law of Conversion of Mass overthrowing
2. K
the Phlogiston Theory.
3. Ba
TYPE OF CHEMICAL EQUATION 4. Ca
5. Na
COMBINATION EQUATION
6. Mg MOLECULES
7. Al
- Smallest particle in a chemical element or
8. Zn
compound that has the chemical properties of
9. Cr
that element or compound.
10. Fe
- Made up of atoms held together by chemical
11. Ca
bonds.
12. Co
13. Ni IONS
14. Sn
15. Pb - Is a charged ion or molecule
16. H EMPIRICAL FORMULA
17. Cu
18. Hg - A formula giving the proportions of the
19. Ag elements present in a compound but the actual
20. Pt numbers or arrangement of atoms.
21. Au PERCENTAGE COMPOSITION BY MASS
STOICHIOMETRY - States how many percent of a mixture are of a
- Section of chemistry that involves using certain element or molecule
relationship between reactants and/or products 𝒈 𝒐𝒇 𝒂𝒏 𝒆𝒍𝒆𝒎𝒆𝒏𝒕
𝑿 𝟏𝟎𝟎
in a chemical reaction to determine desired 𝒎𝒐𝒍𝒂𝒓 𝒎𝒂𝒔𝒔 𝒐𝒇 𝒂 𝒄𝒐𝒎𝒑𝒐𝒖𝒏𝒅
quantitative data. FACTORS THAT MAY INFLUENCE CHEMICAL CHANGE
- Greek word ‘stoikhein’ means element
- Greek word ‘metron’ means measure - Concentration of reactants
- Temperature
ENDOTHERMIC REACTION - Physical state of reactants and their dispersion
- Drop in the temperature of the system - Solvent
- Presence of catalyst
EXOTHERMIC REACTION
CATALYST increase the rate of reaction by lowering the
- Rise in the temperature of the system activation energy needed with a catalyst, more collision
NEUTRALIZATION REACTION/ACID-BASE result in reaction, so the rate of reaction increases.

REAGENT IN EXCESS is the reagent left unreacted after


- Is when an acid and a base react to form water
and salt involves the combination of H ions and the conditions in the chemical reaction are met.
OH ions to generate water. The neutralization GAS LAW
of a strong acid and a strong base has a pH
equal to 7. STP (Standard Temperature and Pressure)

MOLAR MASS T – 273 K

- Is a useful chemical ratio between mass and P – 1 atm


mole. (g/mol) V – 22.4 L
MOLE R – 0.08205 L x atm/mol x k
- It is defined as the amount of a chemical WHY DO IDEAL GASES DON’T REACT TO FORM NEW
substance that contains as many elementary SUBSTANCES WHEN THEY ALSO COLLIDE EACH OTHER?
entities (e.g. molecule, atoms, ions)
- Because the collision of the gas molecules are
ATOM perfectly inelastic.
- Basic building block of a matter.
WHICH OF THESE HAS GREATER ATMOSPHERIC - 0 Kelvin, because it is the lowest possible
PRESSURE, NEAR THE GROUND OR AT HIGHER temperature where nothing could be colder and
ALTITUDE? WHY? no heat energy remains in a substance.

- Near the ground because of gravity, the KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY


pressure on the bottom of an object is slightly
- Is a general theory which can be used to explain
greater than on its top. Air pressure is the
various properties of solids, liquids and gases.
highest near the earth surface where air
particles are squeezed close together by weight EFFUSION is a passage of molecules of a gas from one
of the air above. container to another through tiny orifice between the
- “ The greater the altitude, the lower the air containers
pressure “.
DIFFUSION is the mixing of gases due to molecular
DO GASES MOVE AT THE SAME SPEED? WHY? motion.
- Yes, because at the same condition no Low molecular weight = faster diffusion
molecular forces at work and according to
Kinetic Molecular Theory an increase in FORMULAS
temperature increases the speed in which the  P (Pressure) = F/A
gas molecules move. All gases at a given  SI unit of P is N/𝒎𝟐 also known as Pascal (Pa) –
temperature have the same average kinetic Blaise Pascal
energy. Lighter gas molecules move/diffuse  One mmHg = torr (Evangelista Torricelli)
faster than heavier molecules.  1 atm = 𝟏𝟎𝟓 Pa = 760 mmHg = 760 torr
WHEN REACTANTS ARE PLACED IN A REACTION VESSEL  0 Kelvin = -273 degree C
CAN YOU EXPECT THAT ALL OF THESE ARE UTILIZED?  K = degree C + 273
WHY?  0 C = 32 F
 Degree F to Degree C = [5/9 (F - 32)]
- No, because there is limiting and in excess  Degree C to Degree F = [C (9/5 + 32)]
reagent in chemical reaction. 𝒎𝒂𝒔𝒔
 𝒏=
𝒎𝒐𝒍𝒂𝒓 𝒎𝒂𝒔𝒔
𝑷𝑽
WHY DO GASES DO NOT HAVE DEFINITE VOLUME  𝒏 = 𝑹𝑻 𝒙 𝒎𝒐𝒍𝒂𝒓 𝒎𝒂𝒔𝒔
𝒎 𝒎𝒐𝒍𝒂𝒓 𝒎𝒂𝒔𝒔 𝑷
- The gas molecules are very far apart and they  𝑫𝒆𝒏𝒔𝒊𝒕𝒚 ( 𝒗 ) = 𝑹𝑻
are constantly moving. Hence, there is no  𝒎𝒐𝒍𝒂𝒓 𝒎𝒂𝒔𝒔 =
𝒎𝒂𝒔𝒔 𝑹𝑻
attraction between molecules. 𝑷𝑽

BOYLES LAW : 𝑷𝟏 𝑽𝟏 = 𝑷𝟐 𝑽𝟐 (T is constant)


EXPLAIN WHY A GAS CREATES PRESSURE
𝑽𝟏 𝑽𝟐
- Gas molecules are moving around randomly, CHARLES LAW : = (P is constant)
𝑻𝟏 𝑻𝟐
bouncing of each other and more importantly 𝑷𝟏 𝑽𝟏 𝑷𝟐 𝑽𝟐
bouncing against the wall of the surface. COMBINED GAS LAW : =
𝑻𝟏 𝑻𝟐
Pressure is a force per area. So the overall
𝑽 𝑽𝟐
pressure inside the container comes from the AVOGADRO’S LAW : 𝒏𝟏 = 𝒏𝟐
𝟏
force of a gas molecules exert against the
𝑷 𝑷𝟐
surface. GAY-LUSSAC’S LAW : 𝑻𝟏 = 𝑻𝟐
𝟏

USES OF BALANCED EQUATION IDEAL GAS LAW : PV = nRT


- To meet the Law of Conservation of Mass DALTON’S LAW OF PARTIAL PRESSURE IN MIXTURE
WHAT IS ABSOLUTE TEMPERATURE? OF GASES : 𝑷𝟏 + 𝑷𝟐 + 𝑷𝟑 = 𝑷𝑻
𝒓 𝒎𝒘
GRAHAM’S RATE OF EFFUSION : 𝒓𝟏 = √𝒎𝒘𝟐
𝟐 √ 𝟏