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Index

No Topics Pages

1. Introduction 4
2. Literature Review 5,6
2.1 Reducing Delays for Medical Appointments
2.2 Effect of Waiting Time on Health Outcomes
and Service Utilization
2.3Appointment Scheduling in Health Care
2.4 Using Operations Research to Reduce Delays for
Healthcare
2.5 Health Information Technology

3. 3.System design 7-9


3.1. Login flow chart
3.2 Appointment booking
3.3 Token
3.4 Emergency

4. Proposed method 10-13


4.1 Main objectives
4.1.1 Online bill payment
4.1.2 Online doctor appointment
4.1.3 Online token registration
4.1.4 Medicals
4.1.5 Emergency
4.2 Security part

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4.2.1 Cloud-powered technology to instantly back
up data.
4.2.2 Vigilant monitoring of servers
4.2.3 Robust alerting system
4.2.4 Block chain
4.3 Database management

5. Result 14,15

6. Conclusion 16

7. Reference 17

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1.Introduction
Innover health solution is designed for any hospital to replace their existing manual, paper
based system. This System targets to provide complete solution for Hospital and Health care
services. This system can be used in any hospital, clinic, diagnostics or pathology labs for
maintaining patient details and their test results. It Integrates the entire resources of a hospital
into one integrated website.
Enhancing the doctor-patient engagement through technology, we bring you an easy-to-use
Innover health solution.

Features
Useful for:
1. Large, Medium Hospitals and Nursing Homes
2. Physicians, Surgeons, Gynaecologist.
Generate Prescriptions in less than 60 seconds. Multi-user, LAN, Online. Compatible
Compatible with any Windows 7 or higher version.

Benefits
Minimize hand written work from admission to discharge of patient and final billing. It helps
you to minimize your repeated works and take care of the complete functionality of your
hospital. It is huge time saver and really facilitates proper communication among the
management, staff and the patient parties. It will also reduce the queues in the billing sections.
It will also help you in some emergency situations like flood or any disasters.

Experience the innover health solution by brings to your practice:


• Improve your appointment scheduling efficiency.
• Access all patient records with a single touch.
• Enhance your prescriptions and billing procedure.
• Reduce patient waiting time at each clinic.
• Maximise face time, reducing overall time spent on each patient.
• Increase efficiency and effectiveness.
• Get reports on your practice any time.

Security
 Strict access control: 128-bit encryption and a virtual private cloud hosted in a highly
secure AWS environment.
 Cloud-powered technology to instantly back up data.
 Vigilant monitoring of server’s.
 Robust alerting systems.
 Block chain.

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2. Literature Review
2.1 Reducing Delays for Medical Appointments:
Linda V. Green, Sergei Savin (2007): Many primary care offices and other medical practices
regularly experience long backlogs for appointments. These backlogs are exacerbated by a
significant level of last-minute cancellations or “no-shows,” which have the effect of wasting
capacity. In this paper, we conceptualize such an appointment system as a single-server
queueing system in which customers who are about to enter service have a state-dependent
probability of not being served and may re-join the queue. We derive stationary distributions
of the queue size, assuming both deterministic as well as exponential service times, and
compare the performance metrics to the results of a simulation of the appointment system. Our
results demonstrate the usefulness of the queueing models in providing guidance on identifying
patient panel sizes for medical practices that are trying to implement a policy of “advanced
access.”

2.2 Effect of Waiting Time on Health Outcomes and Service Utilization

Johanna Hirvonen (2007): Although the principle of equal access to medically justified
treatment has been promoted by official health policies in many Western health care systems,
practices do not completely meet policy targets. Waiting times for elective surgery vary
between patient groups and regions, and growing problems in the availability of services
threaten equal access to treatment. Waiting times have come to the attention of decision-
makers, and several policy initiatives have been introduced to ensure the availability of care
within a reasonable time. In Finland, for example, the treatment guarantee came into force in
2005. However, no consensus exists on optimal waiting time for different patient groups.

The purpose of this multi-centre randomized controlled trial was to analyse health-related
quality of life, pain and physical function in total hip or knee replacement patients during the
waiting time and to evaluate whether the waiting time is associated with patient’s health
outcomes at admission. This study also assessed whether the length of waiting time is
associated with social and health services utilization in patients awaiting total hip or knee
replacement. In addition, patient’s health-related quality of life was compared with that of the
general population.

2.3Appointment Scheduling in Health Care


Diwakar Gupta, Brian Denton (2007): Appointment scheduling systems are used by primary
and specialty care clinics to manage access to service providers, as well as by hospitals to
schedule elective surgeries. Many factors affect the performance of appointment systems
including arrival and service time variability, patient and provider preferences, available
information technology and the experience level of the scheduling staff. In addition, a critical
bottleneck lies in the application of Industrial Engineering and Operations Research (IE/OR)

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techniques. The most common types of health care delivery systems are described in this article
with particular attention on the factors that make appointment scheduling challenging. For each
environment relevant decisions ranging from a set of rules that guide schedulers to real-time
responses to deviations from plans are described. A road map of the state of the art in the design
of appointment management systems is provided and future opportunities for novel
applications of IE/OR models are identified.

2.4 Using Operations Research to Reduce Delays for Healthcare


Linda V. Green (2008): The Institute of Medicine identified “timeliness” as one of six key
“aims for improvement” in its most recent report on quality. Yet patient delays remain
prevalent, resulting in dissatisfaction, adverse clinical consequences, and often, higher costs.
This tutorial describes several areas in which patients routinely experience significant and
potentially dangerous delays and presents operations research (OR) models that have been
developed to help reduce these delays, often at little or no cost. I also describe the difficulties
in developing and implementing models as well as the factors that increase the likelihood of
success. Finally, I discuss the opportunities, large and small, for using OR methodologies to
significantly impact practices and policies that will affect timely access to healthcare.
This tutorial investigates how the mortality risk of passenger air travel has evolved over the
last half-century. Much of the news is good: fatal air accidents in the first world are on the
verge of extinction. But a near-extinct species can stage a major comeback, and I discuss future
risks related to airport and mid-air collisions. I also discuss the menace of aviation terrorism,
which might pose considerably greater risk to future air travellers than all other hazards
combined.

2.5 Health Information Technology


Devon M. Herrick, Linda Gorman, John C. Goodman (2010): Although many proponents
discuss the perceived benefits of health information technology (HIT), missing from the debate
is an honest discussion of experiences with actual HIT systems, and the obstacles and pitfalls
of poorly designed systems …
There are different forms of HIT — many of which are widespread in the United
States. Electronic medical records (EMRs) are often cited as the technology with the greatest
potential to improve quality and reduce costs, but they are not in widespread use.
Installing HIT systems in a physician’s office or hospital is much more complicated than
installing software on a computer connected to the Internet:
 Privacy and security risks are a concern due to hackers, identity theft, unauthorized
access and corruption (alteration) of patient data.
 Although HIT systems may prevent common errors, they also have the potential to
introduce new ones. For instance, overreliance on the accuracy of EMRs can lead to
grievous errors if a patient record contains false information.
 But the potential advantage of storing patient records electronically is that, in some cases,
distance becomes irrelevant when consulting with a physician. In fact, many concierge
and other cash-based physicians already use the telephone and e-mail to communicate
with their patients.

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3.System design
3.1. Login flow chart

START

LOGIN

VALID No
LOGIN

IDENTITY USER
TYPE

USER No REDIRECT TO
TYPE USER ACCOUNT

REDIRECT TO
ADMIN ACCOUNT

LOGOUT

END

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3.2 Appointment booking

LOGIN APPOINTMENT

USE LOCATION SELECT HOSPITAL

DOCTOR

SUBMIT

LOGOUT

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3.3 Token

LOGIN TOKEN LOGOUT

3.4 Emergency

LOGIN EMERGENCY

HELP

LOGOUT

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4. Proposed method
4.1 Main objectives

• Online bill payment


• Online doctor appointment
• Online token registration
• Medicine search
• Nearby medical shops
• Emergency help desk

4.1.1 Online bill payment


This feature provided an online bill payment system, in which you can easily pay the bill
without standing in large queues. It will reduce the length of queues in the hospital. This feature
also helps you to save your valuable time.

4.1.2 Online doctor appointment


Taking doctor appointment is a common issue now a day. The existing way to take an
appointment is by phone call method. In the phone call method there should be a person to
attending the call and responding. Sometimes may not get the call due to line busy. In the online
method you should not have to wait for the call to be attended by the doctor assistant or any
one. And you can take the appointment on our convenience time.

4.1.3 Online token registration


By this method you can register the token online and can know the token count. By the existing
method need to wait the hospital until the token number is to be called. But by this online
method you can know the token count and reach the hospital only at the turn of the token.

4.1.4 Medicals
Search medical shops and medicines near you.
You can also search the medicine and its use, specifications, contents etc.

4.1.5 Emergency
It’s a feature not for the current use, if any emergency situation occurred then it can use. The
emergency situation may be flood, natural calamities etc.

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4.2 Security part

 Strict access control: 128-bit encryption and a virtual private cloud hosted in a highly
secure AWS environment.
 Cloud-powered technology to instantly back up data.
 Vigilant monitoring of server’s.
 Robust alerting systems.
 Block chain.

4.2.1 Cloud-powered technology to instantly back up data.


Cloud computing is the on-demand availability of computer system resources, especially data
storage and computing power, without direct active management by the user. The term is
generally used to describe data centres available to many users over the Internet. Large clouds,
predominant today, often have functions distributed over multiple locations from central
servers. If the connection to the user is relatively close, it may be designated an edge server.
Clouds may be limited to a single organization (enterprise clouds,) be available to many
organizations (public cloud,) or a combination of both (hybrid cloud). The largest public
cloud is Amazon AWS.
Cloud computing relies on sharing of resources to achieve coherence and economies of scale.
Advocates of public and hybrid clouds note that cloud computing allows companies to avoid
or minimize up-front IT infrastructure costs. Proponents also claim that cloud computing
allows enterprises to get their applications up and running faster, with improved manageability
and less maintenance, and that it enables IT teams to more rapidly adjust resources to meet
fluctuating and unpredictable demand. Cloud providers typically use a "pay-as-you-go" model,
which can lead to unexpected operating expenses if administrators are not familiarized with
cloud-pricing models.
The availability of high-capacity networks, low-cost computers and storage devices as well as
the widespread adoption of hardware virtualization, service-oriented architecture,
and autonomic and utility computing has led to growth in cloud computing.
4.2.2 Vigilant monitoring of servers
While an intrusion detection system monitors a network for threats from the outside, a
network monitoring system monitors the network for problems caused by overloaded or
crashed servers, network connections or other devices.
For example, to determine the status of a web server, monitoring software may periodically
send an HTTP request to fetch a page. For email servers, a test message might be sent
through SMTP and retrieved by IMAP or POP3.
Commonly measured metrics are response time, availability and uptime, although both
consistency and reliability metrics are starting to gain popularity. The widespread addition
of WAN optimization devices is having an adverse effect on most network monitoring tools,
especially when it comes to measuring accurate end-to-end delay because they limit round-
trip delay time visibility.
Status request failures, such as when a connection cannot be established, it times-out, or the
document or message cannot be retrieved, usually produce an action from the monitoring

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system. These actions vary; An alarm may be sent (via SMS, email, etc.) to the
resident sysadmin, automatic failover systems may be activated to remove the troubled server
from duty until it can be repaired, etc.
Monitoring the performance of a network uplink is also known as network traffic
measurement.
4.2.3 Robust alerting system
Robust system design ensures that future systems continue to meet user expectations despite
rising levels of underlying disturbances. This paper discusses two essential aspects of robust
system design: 1. Effective post-silicon validation, despite staggering complexity of future
systems, using a new technique called Instruction Footprint Recording and Analysis (IFRA).
2. Cost-effective design of systems that overcome CMOS reliability challenges through built-
in tolerance to errors in hardware during system operation. A combination of Built-In Soft
Error Resilience (BISER) and circuit failure prediction, together with on-line self-
test/diagnostics and software-orchestrated optimization across multiple abstraction layers,
enable design of cost-effective resilient systems.
4.2.4 Block chain
A block chain, originally block chain, is a growing list of records, called blocks, which are
linked using cryptography. Each block contains a cryptographic hash of the previous
block, a timestamp, and transaction data (generally represented as a Merkle tree).
By design, a block chain is resistant to modification of the data. It is "an open, distributed
ledger that can record transactions between two parties efficiently and in a verifiable and
permanent way". For use as a distributed ledger, a block chain is typically managed by
a peer-to-peer network collectively adhering to a protocol for inter-node communication and
validating new blocks. Once recorded, the data in any given block cannot be altered
retroactively without alteration of all subsequent blocks, which requires consensus of the
network majority. Although block chain records are not unalterable, block chains may be
considered secure by design and exemplify a distributed computing system with
high Byzantine fault tolerance. Decentralized consensus has therefore been claimed with a
block chain.
Block chain was invented by a person (or group of people) using the name Satoshi
Nakamoto in 2008 to serve as the public transaction ledger of
the cryptocurrency bitcoin. The identity of Satoshi Nakamoto is unknown. The invention of
the block chain for bitcoin made it the first digital currency to solve the double-
spending problem without the need of a trusted authority or central server. The bitcoin design
has inspired other applications, and block chains which are readable by the public are widely
used by cryptocurrencies. Block chain is considered a type of payment rail. Private block
chains have been proposed for business use. Sources such as Computerworld called the
marketing of such block chains without a proper security model "snake oil".

4.3 Database management

Data mining is the process of discovering patterns in large data sets involving methods at the
intersection of machine learning, statistics, and database systems. Data mining is
an interdisciplinary subfield of computer science and statistics with an overall goal to extract
information (with intelligent methods) from a data set and transform the information into a

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comprehensible structure for further use. Data mining is the analysis step of the "knowledge
discovery in databases" process, or KDD. Aside from the raw analysis step, it also involves
database and data management aspects, data pre-
processing, model and inference considerations, interestingness
metrics, complexity considerations, post-processing of discovered structures, visualization,
and online updating. The difference between data analysis and data mining is that data analysis
is used to test models and hypotheses on the dataset, e.g., analysing the effectiveness of a
marketing campaign, regardless of the amount of data; in contrast, data mining uses machine-
learning and statistical models to uncover clandestine or hidden patterns in a large volume of
data.
The term "data mining" is in fact a misnomer, because the goal is the extraction of patterns and
knowledge from large amounts of data, not the extraction (mining) of data itself. It also is
a buzzword and is frequently applied to any form of large-scale data or information
processing (collection, extraction, warehousing, analysis, and statistics) as well as any
application of computer decision support system, including artificial intelligence (e.g.,
machine learning) and business intelligence. The book Data mining: Practical machine
learning tools and techniques with Java (which covers mostly machine learning material) was
originally to be named just Practical machine learning, and the term data mining was only
added for marketing reasons.[10] Often the more general terms (large scale) analysis
and analytics – or, when referring to actual methods, artificial intelligence and machine
learning – are more appropriate.
The actual data mining task is the semi-automatic or automatic analysis of large quantities of
data to extract previously unknown, interesting patterns such as groups of data records (cluster
analysis), unusual records (anomaly detection), and dependencies (association rule
mining, sequential pattern mining). This usually involves using database techniques such
as spatial indices. These patterns can then be seen as a kind of summary of the input data, and
may be used in further analysis or, for example, in machine learning and predictive analytics.
For example, the data mining step might identify multiple groups in the data, which can then
be used to obtain more accurate prediction results by a decision support system. Neither the
data collection, data preparation, nor result interpretation and reporting is part of the data
mining step, but do belong to the overall KDD process as additional steps.

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5. Result
Screenshots

This is the home page in which you can make appointment and view token.

This is also the home page in which you can pay your bill and search
medicines.

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This is being the list of top rated doctors and can take their appointment

This is the option for emergency services

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6. Conclusion
The website was an outcome of the thought during the flood that had caused a huge damage
to the state, Kerala. The main problem faced during the calamity was unavailability of
helplines. The website provides the users with so many features. Some of them are online
token registration, tracking of token, bill payment method etc…The main attractive feature is
the website is providing its users with a 24x7 emergency desk which is the outcome of the
above mentioned thought. Coming to the technical side the website is using block chain, data
mining for the security part. The biggest advantage of the website is the users do not have to
waste their precious time waiting in the que or at the counter for paying bills. In overall view,
it’s a great website.

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Reference
http://shodh.inflibnet.ac.in:8080/jspui/bitstream/123456789/4170/3/03_literature%20review.pdf

image.slidesharecdn.com
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blockchain

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Data_mining

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