Seismic Design of Structures
Fall 2015  Shiraz University of Technology
CE 4111
Seismic Design of Structures
School of Civil and Environmental Engineering Shiraz University of Technology
S.M. Dehghan Fall 2015
Dr. Dehghan
1
Seismic Design of Structures
Fall 2015  Shiraz University of Technology
3 

Steel SFRS 


Steel Seismic Force Resisting Systems will be covered in Five Parts: 

1. Ductile Design / Structural Steel 

2. General Requirements 

3. Special Moment Resisting Frame (SMRF) 

4. Special Concentrically Braced Frame (SCBF) 

A. Behavior 

B. Design 

5. Eccentrically Braced Frame (EBF) 
Steel Seismic Load Resisting Systems
Concentrically Braced Frames  Design
Dr. Dehghan
2
Seismic Design of Structures
Fall 2015  Shiraz University of Technology
Concentrically Braced Frames
Outline
6
Topics
• Description and Types of Concentrically Braced
Frames
• Basic Behavior of Concentrically Braced Frames
• AISC Seismic Provisions for Special Concentrically Braced Frames (SCBF)
Dr. Dehghan
3
Seismic Design of Structures
Fall 2015  Shiraz University of Technology
7
References
• ASCE 710, Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures
• AISC 36010, Specification for Structural Steel Buildings
• AISC 34110, Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings
• NIST GCR1391724 Seismic Design of Steel special Concentrically Braced Frame
Concentrically Braced Frames
AISC Seismic Provisions
Dr. Dehghan
4
Seismic Design of Structures
Fall 2015  Shiraz University of Technology
9
AISC Seismic Provisions
• AISC 34110
▫ Chapter F
BracedFrame and ShearWall Systems
• F1. Ordinary Concentrically Braced Frames (OCBF)
o Have a low Rfactor:
R=3.25 for OCBF
• F2. Special Concentrically Braced Frames (SCBF)
o Have a moderate Rfactor:
R=6 for SCBF
• F3. Eccentrically Braced Frames (EBF)
o Have the highest Rfactor:
R=8 for SMF
• F4. BucklingRestrained Braced Frames (BRBF)
o Have the highest Rfactor:
R=8 for BRBF
• F5. Special Plate Shear Walls (SPSW)
o Have a high Rfactor:
R=7 for SPSW
10
AISC Seismic Provisions
• Section F2
1.
2. Basis of Design
3. Analysis
4. System Requirements
Scope
4a. Lateral Force Distribution 4b. V and Inverted VBraced Frames 4c. KBraced Frames 4d. TensionOnly Frames
Dr. Dehghan
5
Seismic Design of Structures
Fall 2015  Shiraz University of Technology
12
SCBF Seismic Provisions
• F2.1 Scope
▫ SCBF are a type of braced frames in which the centerline of members that meet at a joint intersect at a point, forming a vertical truss system
CBFs provide complete truss action with members subjected primarily to axial loads in the elastic range During a moderate to severe earthquake, bracing members and connections are expected to undergo significant inelastic deformations into the postbuckling range
Dr. Dehghan
6
Seismic Design of Structures
Fall 2015  Shiraz University of Technology
13
SCBF Seismic Provisions
• F2.1 Scope
▫ Common types of CBFs are
diagonally braced
Xbraced
Vbraced
(or inverted Vbraced)
Dr. Dehghan
7
Seismic Design of Structures
Fall 2015  Shiraz University of Technology
15
SCBF Seismic Provisions
• F2.2 Design Basis
▫ During a severe earthquake, bracing members in a CBF frame are subjected to large deformations in cyclic tension and compression
In the compression direction flexural buckling causes the formation of flexural plastic hinges in the brace
Braces in a typical CBF frame can be expected to yield and buckle at rather moderate story drifts of about 0.3% to 0.5%
In a severe earthquake, the braces could undergo postbuckling axial deformations 10 to 20 times their yield deformation
In order to survive such large cyclic deformations without premature failure, the bracing members and their connections must be properly detailed
Dr. Dehghan
8
Seismic Design of Structures
Fall 2015  Shiraz University of Technology
Dr. Dehghan
9
Seismic Design of Structures
Fall 2015  Shiraz University of Technology
19
SCBF Seismic Provisions
• F2.3 Analysis
▫ There is a need to supplement the elastic analysis in order to have an adequate design
The required strength of braces is typically determined based on the analysis required by ASCE 7
The analysis required by this section is used in determining
the required strength of bracedframe beams and columns, and brace connections
▫ In AISC 34110 explicit consideration of the inelastic behavior by requiring a plasticmechanism analysis
It is naturally desirable that engineers performing analyses of ductile systems give some thought to the manner in which they will behave
20
SCBF Seismic Provisions
• F2.3 Analysis
▫
The firstmode of deformation is considered when determining if a brace is in tension or in compression
the columns are considered to be inclined in one direction
consideration must also be given to the behavior when the columns slope the opposite direction
▫ Expected Brace Strength
Tension
Compression
P _{e}_{t} = R _{y} F _{y} A _{g}
P _{e}_{c} = min (R _{y} F _{y} A _{g} and 1.14 F _{c}_{r} A _{g} )
Use R _{y} F _{y} for computing F _{c}_{r} per Chapter E of Specification
PostBuckling P _{e}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{i}_{d} = 0.3 _{P}_{e}_{c}
Dr. Dehghan
10
Seismic Design of Structures
Fall 2015  Shiraz University of Technology
Dr. Dehghan
11
Seismic Design of Structures
Fall 2015  Shiraz University of Technology
23
OK
the buckling and postbuckling strength of the bracing members in compression can be substantially less than tension
▫ Ideally, the braces should be arranged so that about half of the applied lateral load is resisted by tension braces, for either direction of loading on the frame
Dr. Dehghan
12
Seismic Design of Structures
Fall 2015  Shiraz University of Technology
25
SCBF Seismic Provisions
• F2.4b V and inverted VBraced Frames
▫ The effect of this unbalanced load can be mitigated by using V and inverted Vbraces in alternate stories (creating an Xbrace over two story)
▫ Adequate lateral bracing at the bracebeam is necessary
in order to prevent possible LTB of the beam
▫ The stability of this connection is influenced by the flexural and axial forces in the beam, and any torsion imposed by brace buckling or postbuckling
26
SCBF Seismic Provisions
• F2.4b V and inverted VBraced Frames
▫ To avoid hinge formation in the beam, and to avoid the potential for a soft story, the beam must be designed to resist the unbalanced forces from the braces
▫ Design beams for unbalanced load that will occur when compression brace buckles and tension brace yields
Take force in tension brace
Take force in compression brace
R y F y A g
0.3 P _{e}_{c}
▫ Assume beam has no vertical support between columns
Dr. Dehghan
13
Seismic Design of Structures
Fall 2015  Shiraz University of Technology
27
Dr. Dehghan
14
Seismic Design of Structures
Fall 2015  Shiraz University of Technology
Dr. Dehghan
15
Seismic Design of Structures
Fall 2015  Shiraz University of Technology
Dr. Dehghan
16
Seismic Design of Structures
Fall 2015  Shiraz University of Technology
33
SCBF Seismic Provisions
• F2.5a Basic Requirements
▫ An elastic analysis of a braced frame shows
that the columns and braces only carry axial force
so flexural strength and ductility are not necessary in the elastic range
▫ When a braced frame goes inelastic in an earthquake
the columns and braces may see very large bending moments,
so flexural strength and ductility become important
▫ The flexural strength and rotation capacity of the column has been shown to be a significant contributor to the stability of SCBF
▫ It has also been demonstrated that SCBF can be subject to significant story drift, requiring columns to undergo inelastic rotation
34
SCBF Seismic Provisions
• F2.5a Basic Requirements
▫ This slide shows why the columns may see significant bending after braces buckle
▫ The column moments are not usually explicitly considered in the design of an SCBF
the requirement for seismically compact columns is intended to help allow columns to carry large moments in an earthquake
Dr. Dehghan
17
Seismic Design of Structures
Fall 2015  Shiraz University of Technology
36
SCBF Seismic Provisions
• F2.5a Basic Requirements
• Photo shows a laboratory cyclic loading test on a braced frame with HSS section
• Note the plastic flexural hinge that has formed at midspan of the brace and the local buckle that has formed
Dr. Dehghan
18
Seismic Design of Structures
Fall 2015  Shiraz University of Technology
37
SCBF Seismic Provisions
• F2.5a Basic Requirements
• Photo was taken in a braced frame building following the Northridge Earthquake
• The braces were constructed using HSS members
• Photo shows a local buckle in the brace, that resulted in fracture of the brace
• The brace has suffered local buckling at the midspan hinge which then caused fracture
Dr. Dehghan
19
Seismic Design of Structures
Fall 2015  Shiraz University of Technology
39
SCBF Seismic Provisions
• F2.5b Diagonal Braces
▫ The slenderness (KL/r) limit is 200 for braces in SCBF
▫ An upper limit is provided to prevent dynamic effects associated with extremely slender braces
▫ Closer spacing of stitches and higher stitch strength
requirements are specified for builtup bracing members
in SCBF than those required for typical builtup members
this is critical for doubleangle and doublechannel braces that impose large shear forces on the stitches upon buckling
this is intended to restrict individual element bending between the stitch points and premature fracture of bracing
▫ Bolted stitches are not permitted within the middle onefourth of the clear brace length due to formation of plastic hinge
Dr. Dehghan
20
Seismic Design of Structures
Fall 2015  Shiraz University of Technology
41
SCBF Seismic Provisions
• F2.5b Diagonal Braces
▫ A basic goal of SCBF detailing is that tension yielding of the brace grosssectional area will occur prior to the occurrence of fracture limit states in the brace
▫ At the end connections of a brace member, the effective
net area of the member is usually less the gross area
the reduction in effective crosssectional area can result from holes in the members (bolts holes or holes made to facilitate welding) and can also result from shear lag
▫ Reductions of crosssectional area can occur along the length of the member if holes are made in the member
▫ Although not explicitly stated, this requirement should also be satisfied when checking block shear failure in the bracing member
Dr. Dehghan
21
Seismic Design of Structures
Fall 2015  Shiraz University of Technology
Dr. Dehghan
22
Seismic Design of Structures
Fall 2015  Shiraz University of Technology
Dr. Dehghan
23
Seismic Design of Structures
Fall 2015  Shiraz University of Technology
Dr. Dehghan
24
Seismic Design of Structures
Fall 2015  Shiraz University of Technology
• F2.5b Diagonal Braces
49
•
plate along the slot edges.
•
The end of member is slotted, and then welded to a gusset
The slot is made longer than needed, to facilitate fitup in the field
SCBF Seismic Provisions
▫ Example  HSS bracing member for limit state of net section fracture
rectangular HSS bracing member
50
SCBF Seismic Provisions
• F2.5b Diagonal Braces
▫ Example
• Some examples of slotted HSS brace connections to gusset plates
Dr. Dehghan
25
Seismic Design of Structures
Fall 2015  Shiraz University of Technology
51
Dr. Dehghan
26
Seismic Design of Structures
Fall 2015  Shiraz University of Technology
Dr. Dehghan
27
Seismic Design of Structures
Fall 2015  Shiraz University of Technology
56
SCBF Seismic Provisions
• F2.6a Demand Critical Welds
▫ Groove welds at column splices are designated as demand critical for several reasons
the consequences of a brittle failure at a column splice are not clearly understood, may endanger safety of the frame
the actual forces that will occur at a column splice during an earthquake are very difficult to predict
the locations of points of inflection in the columns during an earthquake are constantly moving
▫ In order to provide a high degree of protection against brittle failure at column splice groove welds, the use of demand critical welds is specified
Dr. Dehghan
28
Seismic Design of Structures
Fall 2015  Shiraz University of Technology
Dr. Dehghan
29
Seismic Design of Structures
Fall 2015  Shiraz University of Technology
Dr. Dehghan
30
Seismic Design of Structures
Fall 2015  Shiraz University of Technology
61
SCBF Seismic Provisions
• F2.6b BeamtoColumn Connections
▫ The provision allows engineer to select from two options
the second option is a fully restrained moment connection for which the maximum moment can be determined from the expected strength of the connecting beam or column
▫ Such connections must meet the same requirements for beamtocolumn connections in ordinary moment frames, as specified in Section E1.6
62
SCBF Seismic Provisions
• Specification  B3.6 Design of Connections
▫ Connection Classification
The basic assumption made in classifying connections is that the most important behavioral characteristics of the connection can be modeled by a momentrotation (Mθ) curve
▫ Implicit in the momentrotation curve is the definition of the connection as being a region of the column and beam along with the connecting elements
▫ The connection response is defined this way because the rotation of the member in a physical test is generally measured over a length that incorporates the contributions of not only the connecting elements, but also the ends of the members being connected and the column panel zone
Dr. Dehghan
31
Seismic Design of Structures
Fall 2015  Shiraz University of Technology
64
SCBF Seismic Provisions
• Specification  B3.6 Design of Connections
▫ If K _{S} L/EI ≥ 20, it is acceptable to consider the connection to be fully restrained FR
in other words, able to maintain the angles between members
▫ If K _{S} L/EI ≤ 2, it is acceptable to consider the connection to be simple
in other words, it rotates without developing moment
▫ Connections with stiffness between these two limits are partially restrained PR and the stiffness, strength and ductility of the connection must be considered in the design
Dr. Dehghan
32
Seismic Design of Structures
Fall 2015  Shiraz University of Technology
Dr. Dehghan
33
Seismic Design of Structures
Fall 2015  Shiraz University of Technology
67
SCBF Seismic Provisions
• F2.6c Required Strength of Brace Connections
▫ Certain references suggest limiting the free edge length of gusset plates
▫ The committee has reviewed the testing cited and has concluded that such edge stiffeners do not offer any advantages in gusset plate behavior
▫ There is therefore no limitation on edge dimensions in these provisions
Dr. Dehghan
34
Seismic Design of Structures
Fall 2015  Shiraz University of Technology
69
SCBF Seismic Provisions
• F2.6c(1) Required Tensile Strength
▫ There are a number of ways one can determine the maximum force transferred to the connection, include
1. Perform a pushover analysis to determine the forces acting on the connections when the maximum frame capacity (collapse mechanism) is reached
2. Determine how much force can be resisted before causing uplift of a spread footing (note that the foundation design forces are not required to resist more than the code base shear level)
3. Perform a suite of inelastic time history analyses and envelop the connection demands
Dr. Dehghan
35
Seismic Design of Structures
Fall 2015  Shiraz University of Technology
71
SCBF Seismic Provisions
• F2.6c(1) Required Tensile Strength
▫ Consider load path through connection region
P _{u} sin
P _{u} = R _{y} F _{y} A _{g}
P _{u} cos
• When designing the brace connection, it is important to consider the load path through the connection
• This is important not only for seismic design, but also when designing brace connections for any other type of load like wind
• For the arrangement shown,
o
o
the horizontal component of the brace force must be transferred to the beam
the vertical component must be transferred to the column
Dr. Dehghan
36
Seismic Design of Structures
Fall 2015  Shiraz University of Technology
Dr. Dehghan
37
Seismic Design of Structures
Fall 2015  Shiraz University of Technology
Dr. Dehghan
38
Seismic Design of Structures
Fall 2015  Shiraz University of Technology
Dr. Dehghan
39
Seismic Design of Structures
Fall 2015  Shiraz University of Technology
Dr. Dehghan
40
Seismic Design of Structures
Fall 2015  Shiraz University of Technology
82 

SCBF Seismic Provisions 


• F2.6c(3) Accommodation of Brace Buckling 

• Photos of buckled braced frame 
• An example of braced frame with heavy wideflange braces • The end connections appear to 

in the 1995 Kobe Earthquake • The deformed shape of buckled brace indicates large bending moments that were generated 

provide a high degree of rotational restraint 

1.1 R y M pbrace


Dr. Dehghan
41
Seismic Design of Structures
Fall 2015  Shiraz University of Technology
83
SCBF Seismic Provisions
• F2.6c(3) Accommodation of Brace Buckling
▫ Where fixed end connections are used in one axis with pinned connections in the other axis, the effect of the fixity should be considered in determining the critical buckling axis
▫ For brace buckling in the plane of the gusset plates
the end connections should be designed to resist the expected compressive strength and the expected flexural strength of the brace
note that a realistic value of K should be used to represent the connection fixity
▫ For brace buckling out of the plane of the gusset plate
weakaxis rotation in the gusset is provided (pinned)
▫ Satisfactory performance can be ensured by allowing the gusset plate to develop restraintfree plastic rotations
Dr. Dehghan
42
Seismic Design of Structures
Fall 2015  Shiraz University of Technology
•
▫ Providing Fold Line
(2t + 20 mm) for erection tolerance
2t
A brace with a steep angle with the beam
86
SCBF Seismic Provisions
F2.6c(3) Accommodation of Brace Buckling
The distance of 2t should be considered the minimum offset
In practice, it may be advisable to specify larger distance
Dr. Dehghan
43
Seismic Design of Structures
Fall 2015  Shiraz University of Technology
Dr. Dehghan
44
Seismic Design of Structures
Fall 2015  Shiraz University of Technology
Dr. Dehghan
45
Seismic Design of Structures
Fall 2015  Shiraz University of Technology
91
SCBF Seismic Provisions
• F2.6c(3) Accommodation of Brace Buckling
▫ Examples of brace connections detailed with fold lines
Dr. Dehghan
46
Seismic Design of Structures
Fall 2015  Shiraz University of Technology
94
SCBF Seismic Provisions
• F2.6d Column Splices
▫ In the event of a major earthquake, columns in CBFs undergo significant bending beyond the elastic range
after buckling and yielding of the braces
Columns in SCBF are required to have adequate compactness and shear and flexural strength in order to maintain their lateral strength during large cyclic deformations
▫ In addition, column splices are required to have sufficient strength to prevent failure under expected postelastic forces
▫ Analytical studies on SCBF that are not part of a dual system have shown that columns can carry as much as 40% of the story shear
Dr. Dehghan
47
Viel mehr als nur Dokumente.
Entdecken, was Scribd alles zu bieten hat, inklusive Bücher und Hörbücher von großen Verlagen.
Jederzeit kündbar.