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Seismic Design of Structures

Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

CE 4111

Seismic Design of Structures

School of Civil and Environmental Engineering Shiraz University of Technology

S.M. Dehghan Fall 2015

Steel Seismic
Force Resisting
Systems

Seismic Design of Structures

Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

 3 Steel SFRS Steel Seismic Force Resisting Systems will be covered in Five Parts: 1. Ductile Design / Structural Steel 2. General Requirements 3. Special Moment Resisting Frame (SMRF) 4. Special Concentrically Braced Frame (SCBF) A. Behavior B. Design 5. Eccentrically Braced Frame (EBF)

Concentrically Braced Frames - Design

Seismic Design of Structures

Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

Concentrically Braced Frames

Outline

6

Topics

Description and Types of Concentrically Braced

Frames

Basic Behavior of Concentrically Braced Frames

AISC Seismic Provisions for Special Concentrically Braced Frames (SCBF)

Seismic Design of Structures

Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

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References

ASCE 7-10, Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures

AISC 360-10, Specification for Structural Steel Buildings

AISC 341-10, Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings

NIST GCR13-917-24 Seismic Design of Steel special Concentrically Braced Frame

Concentrically Braced Frames

AISC Seismic Provisions

Seismic Design of Structures

Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

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AISC Seismic Provisions

AISC 341-10

Chapter F

Braced-Frame and Shear-Wall Systems

F1. Ordinary Concentrically Braced Frames (OCBF)

o Have a low R-factor:

R=3.25 for OCBF

F2. Special Concentrically Braced Frames (SCBF)

o Have a moderate R-factor:

R=6 for SCBF

F3. Eccentrically Braced Frames (EBF)

o Have the highest R-factor:

R=8 for SMF

F4. Buckling-Restrained Braced Frames (BRBF)

o Have the highest R-factor:

R=8 for BRBF

F5. Special Plate Shear Walls (SPSW)

o Have a high R-factor:

R=7 for SPSW

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AISC Seismic Provisions

Section F2

1.

2. Basis of Design

3. Analysis

4. System Requirements

Scope

4a. Lateral Force Distribution 4b. V- and Inverted V-Braced Frames 4c. K-Braced Frames 4d. Tension-Only Frames

Seismic Design of Structures

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AISC Seismic Provisions
Section F2
5. Members
5a. Basic Requirements
5b. Diagonal Braces
5c. Protected Zones
6. Connections
6a. Demand Critical Welds
6b. Beam-to-Column Connections
6c. Required Strength of Brace Connections
6d. Column Splices

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SCBF Seismic Provisions

F2.1 Scope

SCBF are a type of braced frames in which the centerline of members that meet at a joint intersect at a point, forming a vertical truss system

CBFs provide complete truss action with members subjected primarily to axial loads in the elastic range During a moderate to severe earthquake, bracing members and connections are expected to undergo significant inelastic deformations into the post-buckling range

Seismic Design of Structures

Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

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SCBF Seismic Provisions

F2.1 Scope

Common types of CBFs are

diagonally braced

X-braced

V-braced

(or inverted V-braced)

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SCBF Seismic Provisions
• F2.2 Design Basis
▫ SCBF are distinguished from OCBF (with R = 3) by
requirements for ductility

Seismic Design of Structures

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SCBF Seismic Provisions

F2.2 Design Basis

During a severe earthquake, bracing members in a CBF frame are subjected to large deformations in cyclic tension and compression

In the compression direction flexural buckling causes the formation of flexural plastic hinges in the brace

Braces in a typical CBF frame can be expected to yield and buckle at rather moderate story drifts of about 0.3% to 0.5%

In a severe earthquake, the braces could undergo post-buckling axial deformations 10 to 20 times their yield deformation

In order to survive such large cyclic deformations without premature failure, the bracing members and their connections must be properly detailed

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SCBF Seismic Provisions
• F2.3 Analysis

Seismic Design of Structures

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SCBF Seismic Provisions
• F2.3 Analysis
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SCBF Seismic Provisions
• F2.3 Analysis
▫ SCBF are typically designed based on an elastic analysis
▫ Expected behavior includes significant nonlinearity due to
brace buckling and yielding, which is anticipated in MCE
▫ Braced-frame system ductility can only be achieved if
beams and column buckling can be prevented

Seismic Design of Structures

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SCBF Seismic Provisions

F2.3 Analysis

There is a need to supplement the elastic analysis in order to have an adequate design

The required strength of braces is typically determined based on the analysis required by ASCE 7

The analysis required by this section is used in determining

the required strength of braced-frame beams and columns, and brace connections

In AISC 341-10 explicit consideration of the inelastic behavior by requiring a plastic-mechanism analysis

It is naturally desirable that engineers performing analyses of ductile systems give some thought to the manner in which they will behave

20

SCBF Seismic Provisions

F2.3 Analysis

The first-mode of deformation is considered when determining if a brace is in tension or in compression

the columns are considered to be inclined in one direction

consideration must also be given to the behavior when the columns slope the opposite direction

Expected Brace Strength

Tension

Compression

P et = R y F y A g

P ec = min (R y F y A g and 1.14 F cr A g )

Use R y F y for computing F cr per Chapter E of Specification

Post-Buckling P eresid = 0.3 Pec

Seismic Design of Structures

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SCBF Seismic Provisions
• Specification –
E3 Flexural
Buckling of
Members
▫ Nominal
Compressive
Strength P n
 Note use R
F
y
y
for computing F cr
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SCBF Seismic Provisions
• F2.4 System Requirements
• F2.4a Lateral Force Distribution

Seismic Design of Structures

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SCBF Seismic Provisions
• F2.4a Lateral Force Distribution
▫ This provision attempts to balance the tensile and
compressive resistance across the width of the building
 good balance helps prevent the accumulation of inelastic
drifts in one direction
NG
All braces in tension (or compression)

OK

the buckling and post-buckling strength of the bracing members in compression can be substantially less than tension

Ideally, the braces should be arranged so that about half of the applied lateral load is resisted by tension braces, for either direction of loading on the frame

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SCBF Seismic Provisions
• F2.4b V and inverted V-Braced Frames
▫ V-braced and inverted V-braced (chevron) frames
exhibit a special problem
 The expected behavior of SCBF is that an unbalanced
vertical force must be resisted by the intersected beam

Seismic Design of Structures

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SCBF Seismic Provisions

F2.4b V and inverted V-Braced Frames

The effect of this unbalanced load can be mitigated by using V- and inverted V-braces in alternate stories (creating an X-brace over two story)

Adequate lateral bracing at the brace-beam is necessary

in order to prevent possible LTB of the beam

The stability of this connection is influenced by the flexural and axial forces in the beam, and any torsion imposed by brace buckling or post-buckling

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SCBF Seismic Provisions

F2.4b V and inverted V-Braced Frames

To avoid hinge formation in the beam, and to avoid the potential for a soft story, the beam must be designed to resist the unbalanced forces from the braces

Design beams for unbalanced load that will occur when compression brace buckles and tension brace yields

Take force in tension brace

Take force in compression brace

R y F y A g

0.3 P ec

Assume beam has no vertical support between columns

Seismic Design of Structures

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SCBF Seismic Provisions
• F2.4b V and inverted V-Braced Frames
▫ The design forces for the beam includes
 the gravity load on the beam
L
 the unbalanced brace forces
w gravity = (1.2 + 0.2 S DS ) D + 0.5L
w gravity = (1.2 + 0.2 S DS ) D + 0.5L
( R y F y A g + 0.3 P ec ) cos 
( R y F y A g - 0.3 P ec ) sin 
0.3 P ec
R y F y A g
Unbalanced vertical force on the beam
produces bending and shear in the beam
Unbalanced horizontal force on the beam
produces axial force in the beam
simple framing
The beam must be designed as a member
under combined axial force and bending
These large unbalanced brace forces will
often result in very heavy beams
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SCBF Seismic Provisions
• D1.2a Moderately Ductile Members

Seismic Design of Structures

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SCBF Seismic Provisions
• D1.2a Moderately Ductile
Members
▫ Examples of lateral braces
in an inverted V-brace
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SCBF Seismic Provisions
• F2.4c K-Braced Frames
▫ K-bracing is generally not considered desirable in CBFs
 is prohibited entirely for SCBF because
 it is considered undesirable to have columns that are
subjected to unbalanced lateral forces from the braces
 these forces may contribute to column failures
K-Type Braces are not
Permitted for SCBF

Seismic Design of Structures

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SCBF Seismic Provisions
• F2.4c K-Braced Frames
• F2.4d Tension Only Braces
SCBF provisions have not been developed for use with
braces that only act in tension
 tension-only braced frames are not allowed for SCBF
 tension-only bracing is allowed for OCBF
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SCBF Seismic Provisions
• F2.5 Members
• F2.5a Basic Requirements
This is to assure that these members can develop their
plastic flexural strength, and maintain this strength
through large inelastic deformations without excessive
strength loss due to local buckling

Seismic Design of Structures

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SCBF Seismic Provisions

F2.5a Basic Requirements

An elastic analysis of a braced frame shows

that the columns and braces only carry axial force

so flexural strength and ductility are not necessary in the elastic range

When a braced frame goes inelastic in an earthquake

the columns and braces may see very large bending moments,

so flexural strength and ductility become important

The flexural strength and rotation capacity of the column has been shown to be a significant contributor to the stability of SCBF

It has also been demonstrated that SCBF can be subject to significant story drift, requiring columns to undergo inelastic rotation

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SCBF Seismic Provisions

F2.5a Basic Requirements

This slide shows why the columns may see significant bending after braces buckle

The column moments are not usually explicitly considered in the design of an SCBF

the requirement for seismically compact columns is intended to help allow columns to carry large moments in an earthquake

Seismic Design of Structures

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SCBF Seismic Provisions
• F2.5a Basic Requirements
▫ Braces will form a plastic flexural hinge in the post-
buckling condition, due to P-Δ moments in the member
 brace members with high b/t ratios will suffer local buckling
at these hinge locations
 high localized strains in the local buckle regions, may result
in fracture of the brace member after just a few cycles of
plastic hinge
▫ The requirement for seismically
compact brace members is
intended to delay the
local buckling, and delay
fracture of the brace at the hinge region
P
Δ

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SCBF Seismic Provisions

F2.5a Basic Requirements

Photo shows a laboratory cyclic loading test on a braced frame with HSS section

Note the plastic flexural hinge that has formed at mid-span of the brace and the local buckle that has formed

Seismic Design of Structures

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SCBF Seismic Provisions

F2.5a Basic Requirements

Photo was taken in a braced frame building following the Northridge Earthquake

The braces were constructed using HSS members

Photo shows a local buckle in the brace, that resulted in fracture of the brace

The brace has suffered local buckling at the mid-span hinge which then caused fracture

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SCBF Seismic Provisions
• F2.5b Diagonal Braces

Seismic Design of Structures

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SCBF Seismic Provisions

F2.5b Diagonal Braces

The slenderness (KL/r) limit is 200 for braces in SCBF

An upper limit is provided to prevent dynamic effects associated with extremely slender braces

Closer spacing of stitches and higher stitch strength

requirements are specified for built-up bracing members

in SCBF than those required for typical built-up members

this is critical for double-angle and double-channel braces that impose large shear forces on the stitches upon buckling

this is intended to restrict individual element bending between the stitch points and premature fracture of bracing

Bolted stitches are not permitted within the middle one-fourth of the clear brace length due to formation of plastic hinge

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SCBF Seismic Provisions
• F2.5b Diagonal Braces
▫ The required strength of bracing members with respect
to the limit state of net section rupture is the expected
brace strength
▫ It should be noted that some steel materials used for
braces have expected yield strengths significantly higher
than their specified minimum yield strengths

Seismic Design of Structures

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SCBF Seismic Provisions

F2.5b Diagonal Braces

A basic goal of SCBF detailing is that tension yielding of the brace gross-sectional area will occur prior to the occurrence of fracture limit states in the brace

At the end connections of a brace member, the effective

net area of the member is usually less the gross area

the reduction in effective cross-sectional area can result from holes in the members (bolts holes or holes made to facilitate welding) and can also result from shear lag

Reductions of cross-sectional area can occur along the length of the member if holes are made in the member

Although not explicitly stated, this requirement should also be satisfied when checking block shear failure in the bracing member

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SCBF Seismic Provisions
F2.5b Diagonal Braces
• The bracing members have fractured at
bolted connections
• The effective cross-sectional area is reduced
by bolt holes and by shear lag

Seismic Design of Structures

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SCBF Seismic Provisions
F2.5b Diagonal Braces
▫ Example - Check double angle bracing member for limit
state of net section fracture
gusset plate
double angle bracing member
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SCBF Seismic Provisions
F2.5b Diagonal Braces
▫ Example
P u = R y F y A g
• Required axial tension
strength of brace for limit
state of fracture of the net
section
• Critical Net Section
Ae = U An
Ae < Ag
• Bolt hole
An < Ag
• Shear lag
U < 1

Seismic Design of Structures

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SCBF Seismic Provisions
F2.5b Diagonal Braces
Example
P u = R y F y A g
P u = R y F y A g
• Limit state of fracture of net section
φ Pn = φ Ae (Rt Fu)
φ = 0.75
• Having no reduction in the
section is deemed sufficient
to ensure this behavior
Ae ≥ Ag
(0.75) Ae (Rt Fu) ≥ Ry Fy Ag
46
SCBF Seismic Provisions
F2.5b Diagonal Braces
Example
• Calculations show that the
effective net area Ae must
exceed the gross area Ag
• Ae ≥ Ag
• For A36 Angles
A
1.5 250 MPa
e
1.04
A
0.75 1.2 400 MPa
g

Seismic Design of Structures

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SCBF Seismic Provisions
F2.5b Diagonal Braces
▫ Example - Check block shear rupture of bracing member
P u = R y F y A g
• Design strength of the brace member
based on a limit state of block shear
rupture should also equal or exceed
the required strength computed
 P n = (0.75) U bs A nt R t F u + lesser of
0.6 A nv R t F u
0.6 A gv R y F y
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SCBF Seismic Provisions
F2.5b Diagonal Braces
▫ Reinforcing net section of bracing member
Satisfying Ae ≥ Ag, will generally require
reinforcing of the brace member so that
its effective net area is at least equal to
its gross area
This slide shows how the net section of
the angles might be increased by welding
reinforcing plates to the angles

Seismic Design of Structures

Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

F2.5b Diagonal Braces

gusset plate

49

plate along the slot edges.

The end of member is slotted, and then welded to a gusset

The slot is made longer than needed, to facilitate fit-up in the field

SCBF Seismic Provisions

Example - HSS bracing member for limit state of net section fracture

rectangular HSS bracing member

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SCBF Seismic Provisions

F2.5b Diagonal Braces

Example

Some examples of slotted HSS brace connections to gusset plates

Seismic Design of Structures

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51

SCBF Seismic Provisions
F2.5b Diagonal Braces
▫ Reinforcing net section of bracing member
• This slide shows how
the net section of the
HSS might be increased
by welding reinforcing
plates to the angles
52
SCBF Seismic Provisions
• F2.5c Panel Zones
▫ Welded or shot-in attachments in areas of inelastic
▫ Such areas in SCBF include gusset plates and expected
plastic-hinge regions in the brace
▫ Note that for the X-braced frame, the half-length of
the brace is used and a plastic hinge is anticipated at any
of the brace quarter points

Seismic Design of Structures

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SCBF Seismic Provisions
• F2.5c Panel Zones
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SCBF Seismic Provisions
• F2.5c Panel Zones

Seismic Design of Structures

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SCBF Seismic Provisions
• F2.6 Connections
• F2.6a Demand Critical Welds

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SCBF Seismic Provisions

F2.6a Demand Critical Welds

Groove welds at column splices are designated as demand critical for several reasons

the consequences of a brittle failure at a column splice are not clearly understood, may endanger safety of the frame

the actual forces that will occur at a column splice during an earthquake are very difficult to predict

the locations of points of inflection in the columns during an earthquake are constantly moving

In order to provide a high degree of protection against brittle failure at column splice groove welds, the use of demand critical welds is specified

Seismic Design of Structures

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SCBF Seismic Provisions
• F2.6b Beam-to-Column Connections
▫ Braced frames are likely to be subject to significant
inelastic drift
 their connections will undergo significant rotation
 connections with gusset plates can be vulnerable to rupture
if they are not designed to accommodate this rotation
58
SCBF Seismic Provisions
• F2.6b Beam-to-Column Connections
▫ The provision allows engineer to select from two options
 the first is a simple connection for which the required
rotation is defined as 0.025 rad
• An example of a
configuration tested
that effectively
allowed rotation
between the beam and
column

Seismic Design of Structures

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SCBF Seismic Provisions
F2.6b Beam-to-Column Connections
▫ The provision allows engineer to select from two options
 the first is a simple connection for which the required
rotation is defined as 0.025 rad
• A connection with
rotation capacity
outside the gusset
plate
60
SCBF Seismic Provisions
• F2.6b Beam-to-Column Connections

Seismic Design of Structures

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SCBF Seismic Provisions

F2.6b Beam-to-Column Connections

The provision allows engineer to select from two options

the second option is a fully restrained moment connection for which the maximum moment can be determined from the expected strength of the connecting beam or column

Such connections must meet the same requirements for beam-to-column connections in ordinary moment frames, as specified in Section E1.6

62

SCBF Seismic Provisions

Specification - B3.6 Design of Connections

Connection Classification

The basic assumption made in classifying connections is that the most important behavioral characteristics of the connection can be modeled by a moment-rotation (M-θ) curve

Implicit in the moment-rotation curve is the definition of the connection as being a region of the column and beam along with the connecting elements

The connection response is defined this way because the rotation of the member in a physical test is generally measured over a length that incorporates the contributions of not only the connecting elements, but also the ends of the members being connected and the column panel zone

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SCBF Seismic Provisions
• Specification - B3.6 Design of Connections
▫ Connection Stiffness
 The initial stiffness of the connection does not adequately
characterize connection response at service levels
 The secant stiffness, K S ,
as an index property of
connection stiffness
where
M S = moment at service loads
θ S = rotation at service loads

64

SCBF Seismic Provisions

Specification - B3.6 Design of Connections

If K S L/EI ≥ 20, it is acceptable to consider the connection to be fully restrained FR

in other words, able to maintain the angles between members

If K S L/EI ≤ 2, it is acceptable to consider the connection to be simple

in other words, it rotates without developing moment

Connections with stiffness between these two limits are partially restrained PR and the stiffness, strength and ductility of the connection must be considered in the design

Seismic Design of Structures

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SCBF Seismic Provisions
• Specification - B3.6 Design of Connections
66
SCBF Seismic Provisions
F2.6c Required Strength of Brace Connections
▫ Many of the failures reported in CBFs due to strong
ground motions have been in the connections
 cyclic testing of specimens designed and detailed in
accordance with typical provisions for concentrically braced
frames has produced connection failures
 typical design practice, design connections only for axial loads
 good connection performance can be expected if the effects
of brace member cyclic post-buckling behavior are considered

Seismic Design of Structures

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SCBF Seismic Provisions

F2.6c Required Strength of Brace Connections

Certain references suggest limiting the free edge length of gusset plates

The committee has reviewed the testing cited and has concluded that such edge stiffeners do not offer any advantages in gusset plate behavior

There is therefore no limitation on edge dimensions in these provisions

68
SCBF Seismic Provisions
F2.6c(1) Required Tensile Strength
▫ The brace connection should be stronger than the brace
▫ Note that using the amplified seismic load is not an
acceptable method to establish the maximum load effect
▫ In general, the braces in an SCBF can be expected to
yield in an earthquake, and so the brace connection must
be designed for the expected yield strength of the brace

Seismic Design of Structures

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SCBF Seismic Provisions

F2.6c(1) Required Tensile Strength

There are a number of ways one can determine the maximum force transferred to the connection, include

1. Perform a pushover analysis to determine the forces acting on the connections when the maximum frame capacity (collapse mechanism) is reached

2. Determine how much force can be resisted before causing uplift of a spread footing (note that the foundation design forces are not required to resist more than the code base shear level)

3. Perform a suite of inelastic time history analyses and envelop the connection demands

70
SCBF Seismic Provisions
• F2.6c(1) Required Tensile Strength
▫ Required axial tensile strength of the brace connection
R y F y A g

Seismic Design of Structures

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SCBF Seismic Provisions

F2.6c(1) Required Tensile Strength

Consider load path through connection region

P u sin

P u = R y F y A g

P u cos

When designing the brace connection, it is important to consider the load path through the connection

This is important not only for seismic design, but also when designing brace connections for any other type of load like wind

For the arrangement shown,

o

o

the horizontal component of the brace force must be transferred to the beam

the vertical component must be transferred to the column

72
SCBF Seismic Provisions
F2.6c(1) Required Tensile Strength
Uniform Force Method
There are many methods for
approaching brace connection design
• One of the more common methods is
P u = R y F y A g
the Uniform Force Method
This slide shows the load path for
transferring the vertical component
of the brace force to the column
o
V uc V ub
V ub
A portion of the vertical
component (V uc ) of brace force is
transferred directly to the column
through the gusset plate
P u cos 
o
V uc + V ub = P u sin 
The remaining portion of the
vertical component (V ub ) of brace
force is transferred to the beam,
and then from the beam to the
P u sin 
column

Seismic Design of Structures

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SCBF Seismic Provisions
F2.6c(1) Required Tensile Strength
▫ Uniform Force Method
• This slide shows the load path for
transferring the horizontal
P u = R y F y A g
component of the brace force to the
beam, as defined by the Uniform
Force Method
H
o
uc
H
ub
A portion of the horizontal
component (H ub ) of the brace force
is transferred directly to the
beam through the gusset plate
H
uc
o
P u cos 
H uc + H ub = P u cos 
The remaining portion of the
horizontal component (H uc ) of the
brace force is transferred to the
column, and then from the column
to the beam
P u sin 
74
SCBF Seismic Provisions
F2.6c(1) Required Tensile Strength
▫ Bolts and welds shall not be designed to share force in a
joint, or the same force component in a connection (D2.2)
P u = R y F y A g
• A portion of the vertical component of the
brace force is transferred to the column
by the gusset to column welds, and the
remainder is transferred to the column
through the bolted beam end connection
• Bolts and welds must share same force
component, which is prohibited by D2.2
P u cos 
• A portion of the horizontal component of
the brace force is transferred to the
beam by the gusset to beam welds, and
the remainder is transferred to the beam
through the bolted beam end connection
P u sin 
• Bolts and welds again share same force
component, which is prohibited by D2.2

Seismic Design of Structures

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75
SCBF Seismic Provisions
F2.6c(2) Required Compressive Strength
▫ Bracing connections should be designed to withstand the
maximum force that the brace can deliver in compression
 a factor of 1.1 has been adopted here due to the use of
conservative column curve equations = 1.1 P ec
▫ Expected brace strength in compression in F2.3
P ec = min (R
F
A
and 1.14 F cr A )
y
y
g
g
▫ Use R y F y for computing F cr per Chapter E of Specification
76
SCBF Seismic Provisions
• F2.6c(2) Required Compressive Strength
▫ Required axial compression strength of brace connection
1.1 P ec

Seismic Design of Structures

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SCBF Seismic Provisions
F2.6c(2) Required Compressive Strength
▫ Required axial compression strength of brace connection
1.1 P ec
• The required axial compression strength is
intended to assure that the brace
connection is stronger then the brace in
compression
• The required axial compression strength is
used to check limit states such as
buckling of the gusset plate,
o
web crippling of the beam and column
o
• The gusset will often result in a large
unsupported length that may be prone to
buckling when the brace is in compression
• Gusset buckling is often checked by
assuming the unsupported segment of
gusset behaves as a column
78
SCBF Seismic Provisions
F2.6c(2) Required Compressive Strength
▫ Examples of brace connection
elements have buckled
• Photos of steel braced frame buildings
following the 1995 Kobe Earthquake

Seismic Design of Structures

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79
SCBF Seismic Provisions
• F2.6c(3) Accommodation of Brace Buckling
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SCBF Seismic Provisions
F2.6c(3) Accommodation of Brace Buckling
▫ Braces in SCBF are expected to undergo cyclic buckling
under severe ground motions, forming plastic hinges at
their center and at each end
Plastic Hinges
▫ To prevent fracture resulting from brace rotations
 bracing connections must either have sufficient strength to
confine inelastic rotation to the bracing member
 sufficient ductility to accommodate brace end rotations

Seismic Design of Structures

Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

81
SCBF Seismic Provisions
• F2.6c(3) Accommodation of Brace Buckling
▫ Fixed End braces
▫ Connections with stiffness in two directions can be
designed and detailed
 test results indicate that forcing the plastic hinge to occur in
the brace rather than the connection plate results in greater
energy dissipation capacity
 brace will impose bending moment on connections and
Plastic Hinges
M u = 1.1
= 1.1
R y M p
R y F y Z brace
(for critical buckling direction)
P
M
M
 82 SCBF Seismic Provisions • F2.6c(3) Accommodation of Brace Buckling • Photos of buckled braced frame • An example of braced frame with heavy wide-flange braces • The end connections appear to in the 1995 Kobe Earthquake • The deformed shape of buckled brace indicates large bending moments that were generated provide a high degree of rotational restraint 1.1 R y M p-brace

Seismic Design of Structures

Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

83

SCBF Seismic Provisions

F2.6c(3) Accommodation of Brace Buckling

Where fixed end connections are used in one axis with pinned connections in the other axis, the effect of the fixity should be considered in determining the critical buckling axis

For brace buckling in the plane of the gusset plates

the end connections should be designed to resist the expected compressive strength and the expected flexural strength of the brace

note that a realistic value of K should be used to represent the connection fixity

For brace buckling out of the plane of the gusset plate

weak-axis rotation in the gusset is provided (pinned)

Satisfactory performance can be ensured by allowing the gusset plate to develop restraint-free plastic rotations

84
SCBF Seismic Provisions
• F2.6c(3) Accommodation of Brace Buckling
▫ Pinned End braces
▫ Flexural plastic hinge will form at mid-length only
 Brace will impose no bending moment on connections and
 must design brace connection to behave like a pin
P
P
Plastic Hinge
P
P

Seismic Design of Structures

Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

85
SCBF Seismic Provisions
F2.6c(3) Accommodation of Brace Buckling
Providing Fold Line
Buckling perpendicular
 The most common strategy
provide rotational flexibility
at the brace connection is the
fold line concept
to
to gusset plate
 Rotation of the brace end is
permitted by allowing a line of
rotation (the fold line) in the
gusset plate
Line of rotation (fold line) when
the brace buckles out-of-plane
(thin direction of plate)

Providing Fold Line

(2t + 20 mm) for erection tolerance

2t
A brace with a shallow
angle with the beam

2t

A brace with a steep angle with the beam

86

SCBF Seismic Provisions

F2.6c(3) Accommodation of Brace Buckling

The distance of 2t should be considered the minimum offset

In practice, it may be advisable to specify larger distance

Seismic Design of Structures

Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

87
SCBF Seismic Provisions
• F2.6c(3) Accommodation of Brace Buckling
▫ Providing Fold Line
 If a concrete floor slab is present, then the fold line must be
located so that the slab does not interfere with out-of-plane
bending of the gusset along the fold line
Concrete
Concrete
2t
floor slab
floor slab
2t
Styrofoam
88
SCBF Seismic Provisions
F2.6c(3) Accommodation of Brace Buckling
Examples of brace connections which are not provided
with a fold line
If these braces buckle out-of-plane, the brace end
rotations will likely tear apart the connections

Seismic Design of Structures

Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

89
SCBF Seismic Provisions
• F2.6c(3) Accommodation of Brace Buckling
▫ Example of brace connections which are not provided
with a fold line
• This photo is a braced frame building in 1994 Northridge Earthquake
• When this brace buckled out-of-plane, the absence of rotational
flexibility in the connection caused the brace end to fracture
90
SCBF Seismic Provisions
• F2.6c(3) Accommodation of Brace Buckling
▫ Examples of brace connections detailed with fold lines
• A laboratory cyclic loading test on a braced frame with HSS braces
• The HSS brace has buckled out-of-plane detailed with a fold line
• The gusset plate behaved as a pin" for out-of-plane buckling, and
permitted the buckling to occur without damage to the connection

Seismic Design of Structures

Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

91

SCBF Seismic Provisions

F2.6c(3) Accommodation of Brace Buckling

Examples of brace connections detailed with fold lines

>
2t
92
SCBF Seismic Provisions
• F2.6c(3) Accommodation of Brace Buckling
▫ Examples of brace connections detailed with fold lines
>2t

Seismic Design of Structures

Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

93
SCBF Seismic Provisions
• F2.6d Column Splices

94

SCBF Seismic Provisions

F2.6d Column Splices

In the event of a major earthquake, columns in CBFs undergo significant bending beyond the elastic range

after buckling and yielding of the braces

Columns in SCBF are required to have adequate compactness and shear and flexural strength in order to maintain their lateral strength during large cyclic deformations

In addition, column splices are required to have sufficient strength to prevent failure under expected post-elastic forces

Analytical studies on SCBF that are not part of a dual system have shown that columns can carry as much as 40% of the story shear