Sie sind auf Seite 1von 12

DESIGN AND PRODUCTION OF PRESTRESSED L-SHAPED BLEACHER SEAT UNITS

John B. Kelly, P.E.

Chief Engineer Construction Products Corp. Lafayette, Indiana

Kenneth J. Pike, P.E.

Division Sales Manager Featherlite Precast Corp. Lexington, Kentucky

Bleacher seat units, like any other unsymmetrical section, may develop unexpected stress concentrations if the design does not consider that the applied loads are not perpendicular to the bending planes. This paper presents a suggested technique for computing stresses realistically, and for locating the prestress forces to handle these stresses. It also describes the manufacture, handling, shipping and erection of the units.

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the design, manufacture, shipment, and erection of precast and prestressed con- crete L-shaped bleacher units for a college amphitheater. Fig. 1 shGws the general plan of one quadrant of the amphitheater and Fig. 2 shows a typi- cal secticn through several bleacher units. There were two basic shapes of sec- tions (see Fig. 3). The physical dimen- sions and service loads were estab- lished by the architect. The service loads were:

Vertical

Transverse = 10 lb per linear ft Longitudinal = 24 lb per linear ft

= 100 lb per sq ft

Spans ranged from 6 to 38 ft, with spans less than 11 ft being precast. Dead loads varied from 35 to 100 lb per sq ft and included the dead load of the unit itself and all superimposed dead loads such as seats and hung ceil- ings. Before the design of the section was begun much thought was given to the various possible methods of producing, handling, and erecting these segments. Because all of these bleacher units were required to have a very smooth and consistent walking surface and many of them would be exposed to view on the bottom, it was decided to cast these un'ts in the inverted position. The units

PCI Journal/September-October 1973ҟ

73

10

5 10 20 30 40 SCALE I"= 20

Fig. 1. Plan of typical quadrant of amphitheater.

would be stripped from the bed by using a vacuum lifter, rotated into their shipping and erected position, and then stored in that position. Erecting loops of galvanized aircraft cable were cast in the end of each piece. This method would ensure that no lifting or inserts would have to be burned off and patched causing undesirable blemishes in the units.

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

The design was based on ACI 318- 71, Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete. Flexure, shear, and torsion were investigated. The de- sign criteria for materials used were as follows:

f ci = 4500 psi

74

f = 6000 psi

Prestressing steel

1/2 -in. diameter strand with an ulti- mate strength of 270 ksi. Mild steel reinforcement: Grade 60

Stresses at transfer

Compression: 0.6 (4500) = 2700 psi Tension (during rotation):

7.5/4500 = 503 psi Tension (after rotation):

3/4500 = 301 psi

Stresses after all losses

Compression: 0.45 (6000) = 2700 psi

Tension: 6i/6000 = 465 psi In designing the sections for flexure, stresses were checked in the inverted and upright position considering a 25 percent dead load impact factor and

Fig. 2. Detail showing units bearing on seat angles at steel bents.

initial prestress. Stresses were also checked for in-place service loads with effective prestress. Three critical points (Points a, b, and c) were selected for the stress analysis (see Fig. 4).

Design steps The detailed analysis was done using the following steps:

1. Calculate the bending moments and stresses at Points a, h, and c due to

3 3/4"

dead load in the manufactured and erected positions.

2. Compute the bending moments

and the resulting stresses at Points a,

b, and c due to live loads (in-service position).

3. Determine the stresses at Points

a, b, and c due to prestress forces at each of the 25 possible strand locations designated A through Y. The location of the strand is determined by the

Fig. 3. Typical cross section of bleacher units.

PCX Journal/September-October 1973ҟ

75

IT Spa. At 2"

rl

Fig. 4. Cross section of bleacher unit showing strand location and points where

stresses are determined.

position of the form relative to the stressing header blocks. See Fig. 4 for the locus of strands A through Y.

4. Calculate the range of prestress

required at the critical points (Points a,

b, and c) for each condition of applied loads. The sum of prestress and applied stress should not exceed the allowable stresses. From Item 3, above, select the strand combination which will meet all prestress range requirements. 5. By finding the principle axis, check the ultimate moment criteria. The calculations for Steps 1, 2, and 4 above are summarized in Table 1. See Table 2 for a summary of the cal- culations described in Item 3 above. It was assumed for purposes of simplifying the analysis that the bleach- er unit is able to freely deflect under service loads and is only supported at the bent lines. This should be some- what conservative since in Section A of Fig. 1 the unit below the one being analyzed will be somewhat stiffer and

76

should provide some resistance to the deflection of the analyzed unit under service loads. In Section B of Fig. 1,

when all the units are the same length

it is improbable that all the units will

be subjected to maximum loads at the same time. Therefore, some resistance

to the free deflection of the unit being

analyzed will probably be provided In the longer bleacher units, handling points for stripping the products from the form had to be moved in from the end of the member to approximately 0.2L to control stresses in all positions.

Analysis of shear reinforcement was conservative in that the worst case was considered for design of all members.

A 38 ft long Type I unit was selected

and loaded with 100 lb per sq ft live

load. The member was designed as if

only the vertical leg of the section was carrying the shear load. As can be seen

in the sample problem, only minimum

shear reinforcement was required. Analysis of torsional reinforcement

Q

W

ro

^o

0

ti

CO

w

Table 1. Summary of stresses (psi) in 25-ft span Type I bleacher unit.

Stripping and turning

 

a

DL(1.25)

—704

— 503

Allowable

+2700

Prestress

+ 201

Range

+3404

Prestress pattern

V

B

U

+307

-2 39

x-170

+359

b

c

+518

—298

— 503

— 503

+2700

+2700

—1021

205

+2182

+2998

+134

— 59

—290

+536

+590

-}-236

—117

+682

+124

Handling after turning

 

a

b

DL

+563

—414

201

—. 201

Allowable

+2700

+2700

Prestress

— 764

+ 213

Range

+2137

+3414

+307

+134

+121

+536

+170

+359

+236

+682

c

+238

201

+2700

— 439

+2462

59

—290

+590

—117

+124

In service

 

a

b

DL+LL+SDL

+1248

918

Trans. LL

+ ҟ4

8

Longit. LL

Total applied

+1252

926

465

—465

Allowable

+2700

+2700

Prestress

—1717

+461

Range

+1448

+3626

+273

+119

 

+47

 

+107

77

+151

+318

-1210

+607

c

+528

+ 9

+537

—465

+2700

—1002

+2163

— 53

—258

+525

—104

+110

0.85 fc' = 5100 p.s.i.

a/2

Id

STRESS

T

C

Fig. 5. Stress block and orientation of unsymmetric Type I bleacher unit.

was based on those conservative as- sumptions made in the flexural analysis and checking the worst possible case, i.e., maximum span and maximum load.

It can be seen in the same problem

that the torsional stress is less than

1.5V- a criterion given for conven- tionally reinforced concrete members.

DESIGN EXAMPLE

The following design example is for

a 24 ft long Type I bleacher unit.

However, the shear and torsion in- vestigation was based on a 38 ft long Type I bleacher unit.

x

^

Fig. 6. Diagram showing sign conven- tion for calculating moment.

78

Section properties The section properties of this unit are:

= 5.277 in.

Y^.

Yy= 14.06 in.

I,

= 6780.48 in.

I,

= 33505.25 in.4

I5 ,

= —8564.84 in.4

I^y/1 6,

= .1.263

I'Y/I Y

= 0.256

(I.y)2/I 5 = 10818.775 in.4

(I"y)2/I y = 2189.403 in.4

The following sign convention (see Fig. 6) was adopted for calculating the moment:

Any moment causing compression in

a positive quadrant is positive. If M, causes compression above the x-axis, where y values are positive, then M,

is positive.

For calculating the stress it was as- sumed that positive values denote com- pression while negative values indicate

tension.

Stresses The general expression for calculat- ing stress at a point in an unsymmetri- cal section is:

Table 2. Summary of stresses (psi) at Points a, b, and c (see Fig. 4) for various strand locations (A. through Y) in 25-ft span Type I bleacher unit

Strand

location

tbi

a

Ifni

it It

A

+158

+142

+126

B

+134

+121

+107

C

+108

+ 97

+ 86

D

+ +

84

+ 76

67

E

+ 58

+ 52

+ 46

F

+ 34

+ 31

+ 27

H

16

— -F

— 14

13

1 — 42

— 38

34

J

66

— 59

53

K

92

- 83

74

L

—116

—104

93

M

—142

—128

—114

N

—166

—149

—133

O

—192

—173

—154

P

—216

—194

—173

Q

—241

—217

—193

R

—266

—239

—213

S

—114

—103

91

T

+

37

+ 33

+

30

U

+189

+170

+151

V.

+341

+307

+273

W

+493

+444

+394

X

+644

+580

+515

Y

{-797

+717

+638

* Stress calculated using Eq. (1) before losses.

j-

Stress after initial losses (about 10 percent).

t

Stress after final losses (about 21 percent).

f*

b

fEn1

tilt

—302

—272

—242

—249

—224

—199

—196

—176

—157

—143

—129

—114

— 90

81

— 72

— 38

— 34

— 30

+ 15

+ 14

+ 12

+ 68

+ 61

+

54

+121

+109

+

97

+174

+157

+139

+227

+204

+182

+279

+251

+223

+332

+299

+266

+335

+347

+308

+433

+394

+350

+491

+442

+393

+543

+489

+434

+596

+536

+477

+485

+437

+388

+373

+336

+298

+262

+236

+210

+149

+134

+119

+

38

+ 34

+ 30

tbt*

c

tfni

tf{t

+717

+645

+574

+656

+590

+525

+

5

95

+536

+476

+ 534

+481

+427

+

47

3

+426

+378

+412

+371

+330

+351

 

+316

+281

+289

+260

+231

+227

+204

+182

+166

+149

+133

+105

+ 95

+ 84

+ 44

+ 40

+ 35

17

15

14

— 78

— 70

— 62

—139

—125

—111

—200

—180

—160

—261

 

—235

—209

—322 —290

—258

—258

—232

—206

—194

—175

—155

—130

—117

—104

— 66

— 59

— 53

—ҟ1 ҟ1 ҟ1

74

67

59

+ 62

+ 56

+ 50

—185

—167

—148

+127

+114

+102

f= A+

Mx—Ms(Iv Ixv

y+

I (I^v) 2

a,—

Iv

M." — M. i jam) x

Iy_— (I Ix

(1)

The stresses are then checked at

Points a, b, and c (see Fig

dead load in the manufactured condi- tion, and dead load plus all live loads in the final, or erected position. These stresses are summarized in Table 1. The effect of the prestressing strands

4) due to

was calculated for each of the possible strand locations (see Table 2). More discussion of the stress calculations is given under "Design Considerations." For production convenience, strand

patterns were selected that would be

suitable for a wide range of span lengths. When the span lengths were increased to a point that a new pat- tern had to be devised, every effort was made to arrive at one that would match up with an existing pattern, with the unneeded strands being blan- keted. For spans over 30 ft, it was necessary that bond be broken to pre- vent overstress in the end regions.

Strength The ultimate moment capacity was checked. For this particular example it was found that the section had an ulti-

PCI Journal/September-October 1973ҟ

79

mate moment capacity equal to 978 in.-kips. This was greater than the load factored moment of:

1.4 D + 1.7 L = 737 in.-kips

and also greater than 1.2 times the cracking moment.

Camber Camber was investigated. The sec- tion under dead load and prestress in the final position was calculated to have a sweep of 0.02 in. and a camber

of 0.02 in. After the member was cast, a careful physical measurement of the camber verified these calculations by yielding "zero" readings. This was es- pecially important because "zero" cam- ber and sweep were considered a nec- essary architectural feature.

Shear reinforcement The design was checked for vertical shear reinforcement. The maximum end reaction occurs in a 38 ft span Type I bleacher unit.

100 psf x 2.83 = 283 lb/ft.

4in

nominal -- 5 1/2 in

CG

5.28 In

r

Fig. 8. Loadings for torsion analysis.

80

Vu = 1.4 (2.75 x 100) +

1.7 (2.75 x 100) 2

= 16,198 lb

It was decided. to use deformed wire fabric for shear reinforcement. The bars are spaced on 3-in. centers. If we assumed that the vertical leg only takes the shear:

16,198

_ Vu — 0.85 (5%) (15.45) = 224 psi

Using the PCI Design Handbook, this 'end shear is less than 250 psi. Therefore; only a minimum A„ is re- quired for shear reinforcement. From page 5-51 of the PCI Design Handbook:

BD = 5.5 (15.45) = 84.98 sq in.

Ap, f3,,, — 8 (0.153) (270)

60

f^ҟ

= 5.51

Use A„ = 0.05 sq in. every 3 in:

Use D 5/6 deformed wire fabric as shown in Fig. 7.

Torsion

Torsion was investigated for the longest span (38 ft) used on the project. The torsion-producing load was ap- plied as shown in. Fig. 8. Since the front edge of the walking surface is always supported by the adjacent unit, it was assumed that loads imposed in this region would be delivered to the supporting unit and so would not in- duce torsion. The calculations are as follows:

M = 283 (17 — 14.06) + 10 (5.28-4)

= 844.8 in.-lb per ft

T,, = 1.7 M (844.8)

= 27,288 in.-lb

Summation of x2y:

Horizontal leg 42 X 34 = 544 in.3 Vertical leg 5.52 X 19.3 = 584 in.3

1128 in ,3

By Section 11-16 of ACI 318-71:

V t"

_

3(27,288)

0.85(1128)

= 85 psi

By Section 11.7.1 of ACI 318-71:

1.5/6000 = 116 psi

This stress is greater than 85 psi, Therefore, effects of torsion may be neglected. The above analysis was done assum- ing the section was nonprestressed. Thus, the application of prestressing would make . the torsion analysis even more conservative.

FABRICATION

As was mentioned earlier, the design had to account for stresses resulting from the manufacturing techniques that were devised to provide the specified appearance. As bridge beam and dou= ble tee producers we were rarely con- cerned with turning over a prestressed concrete product that had to be manu- factured upside down, or with locating lifting devices so as to minimize the necessity of job site patching. The first problem, stripping without using loops or inserts, was solved easily. A two-pad vacuum lifter (see Fig. 9) removed the products efficiently and economically. Next came a tougher problem, i.e., how to turn precast and prestressed beams (that vary from 6 to 38 ft in length) through 180 deg 'and be con- .fident of not damaging them. Many

ideas involving vacuum lifters, motors,

belts, pulleys, sand beds, and compli- cated machines were advanced, but all were discarded as being expensive,

slow or uncontrollable. The method de- veloped consisted of using two two-part wheels that are clamped on the prod-

PCI Journal/September-October 1973ҟ

81

Fig. 9. Two-pad vacuum lifter remov- ing units.

Fig. 10. Unit being placed into roll-over assembly.

Fig. 11. Beam-wheel assembly being rolled.

Fig. 12. Unit being lifted with second lifter prior to being stored.

82

uct. The entire assembly was then rolled over, with the beam acting as an axle. Fig. 9 shows the vacuum lifter hold- ing the product as it is being lifted from the form. The Travelift then car- ries the lifter and product to the site of the roll-over process and sets the product (see Fig. 10) into the lower halves of the wheels. The upper halves of the wheels are clamped in place and the vacuum lifter is released to return to the bed to strip the next piece. In Fig. 11 the beam wheel assembly is rolled 180 degrees. In this case the wheels were located at the ends of the product, but the longer pieces re- quired that the wheels be located at the one-fifth points to reduce bending stresses. The rolling was done with relative ease and the assembly was balanced throughout the turn. This was assured by locating the centroid of the product at the radius center of the wheel. With the product upright a second Travelift (see Fig. 12) hooked into the lifting loops, the wheel was unclamped and the product was car- ried to the storage area and stacked on bearings. Concealed pick up points were pro- vided by flexible lifting loops. The lift- ing loops were made of galvanized air- craft cable and were used for all sub- sequent handling and for erecting. Fig. 13 shows end details before concrete is placed. The lifting loops are tied to the shear steel and exit over the header at what will be the bottom of the product. Note the header arrangement for making a skewed end. The lifting loops were concealed by a caulked joint when erected. Fig. 14 shows the placing operation. Concrete was delivered by ready-mix trucks and compacted with internal vi- brators. The uniformed surface was given a troweled finish and then steam curing was applied. The form was 220 ft long and pro-

duced am average of nine pieces per day. The stripping operation took 11/a hours and the entire daily process took from 8 to 10 hours. The project had a total of 17,200 lineal ft of product (740 pieces) and was completed in 80 production days. There were over 250 different mark numbers required for the job, so repetition was not common. Careful attention to dimensional and tolerance requirements resulted in a nearly flawless job. Only two pieces had to be remade and both resulted, from shipping or handling damage. A few inserts had to be corrected in the field, but this only took one man-day for the whole job. Credit for this per- formance belongs to the detailers, the bed leadman, and the quality control technicians.

SHIPPING

Fig. 15 shows products being loaded for truck delivery. Timber bearings were made to allow the products to nest together without touching. In Fig. 16 we see a complete load tied down and ready for shipment. Note the lift- ing loops in the ends of the products. Delivery was made at a rate of four truck loads per day carrying a maxi- mum weight of 42,000 lb of product. Loading time was 30 to 45 minutes per load. Drivers commented that the method of stacking made a very stable load.

ERECTION

Erecting proceeded without any ma- jor difficulty. The erecting subcon- tractor would unload and erect four truck loads (24 to 28 pieces) in 3 to 4 hours, with welding and removal of lifting loops being done concurrently. The job site was limited on storage space so erecting was generally done directly from the delivery truck.

PCI Journal/September-October

1973

Fig. 13. Reinforcement details prior to concreting.

Fig. 14. Concreting operation.

Fig. 15. Units being loaded for truck delivery.

Fig. 16. Stacked units ready for ship- ment.

83

CONCLUSION

At the time of the design of this project the authors were unaware of any literature that dealt with the de- sign of L-shaped bleacher units. Also, they did not have access to a com- puter but relied on the accuracy of a

desk calculator. Thus, it is possible that other more sophisticated methods of analysis might be available today However, it should be mentioned that since the amphitheater was con- structed, the bleacher units have shown no cracking or any other distress. Also, the camber and deflection were as pre- dicted in the calculations.

Discussion of this paper is invited. Please forward your discussion to PCI Headquarters by February 1, 1974, to permit publication in the March April 1974 PCI JOURNAL.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION

More complete details of the Numerical Example are available from PCI Headquarters at cost of reproduction and handling at time of request.

84