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CIVILEN 4350

HW6

Problem 1 f'c ≔ 4000 fy ≔ 60000 β1 ≔ 0.85 Es ≔ 29000 d
Problem 1
f'c ≔ 4000
fy ≔ 60000
β1
≔ 0.85
Es ≔ 29000
d
≔ 0.375
cover ≔ 1.5
stirrup
(a) Vu and Mu
wu ≔ 1.2 ⋅ 1.5 ― = 1.8 ―
L ≔ 30
Pu ≔ 1.6 ⋅ 15
= 24
wu ⋅ ― L 2 + Pu ⋅ 10
2
R
≔ ―――――― = 35
R ≔ wu ⋅ L + Pu - R = 43
r
l
r
L
Vu
(
|
(
|
(x
) )
≔ if x ≤ 10
R - wu ⋅ x ⋅
Mu
(x ) )
≔ if x ≤ 10
|
|
2
l
|
(
|
(x⋅
) )
|
R
x
- wu ⋅ ―――
|
else if
l
2
|
|
‖ ‖ R -
7.5 ≤ x ≤ 30
-
wu ⋅ x ⋅
Pu
l
|
else if
7.5 ≤ x ≤ 30
|
|
2
(
|
(x⋅
) )
R
x
-
wu ⋅ ―――
- Pu ⋅
(
)
(x - 10 )
|
l
2
|
10.556
30
51
42.5
34
25.5
x1 ≔ 10
17
8.5
Vu
(
(x1 ) )
= 0
0
Vu (
)
(x
) )
( (
)
-8.5 0
3
6
9
12
15
18
21
24
27
30
(
(x1 ) = 10.556
)
-17
-25.5
-34
-42.5
x
Mu
≔ Mu
(
(10.556 ) )
= 340.278
max
340.278
10.556
30
350
315
280
245
210
175
140
Mu (
(x
) )
( (
) )
105
70
35
0
0
3
6
9
12
15
18
21
24
27
30
x
Simply Summported beam and ln ≔ 30
h
―= ln 22.5
<
h ≔ 20
Therefore, the deflection check is required!
min
16
2
2
d
≔ 0.375
A
≔ 0.11
d
≔ 1
A
≔ 0.79
#3
#3
#8
#8
Guess ValuesConstraintsSolver

Non-Commercial1 of 10Use Only

CIVILEN 4350

HW6

(b) Check the Design Strength Both End Section (Between L1) b ≔ 14 h ≔
(b) Check the Design Strength
Both End Section (Between L1)
b
≔ 14
h ≔ 20
3
d
#8
2⋅
+ ―⋅
d
+ 4 ⋅ ―
#8
⎝ 1
2
2
d
≔ h - cover - d
-
――――――――
= 16.958
d' ≔ 2.5
#3
6
d
#8
dt ≔ h - cover - d
-
= 17.625
#3
2
Design Moment Strength ( ϕ ⋅ Mn )
2
2
As ≔ 6 ⋅ A
= 4.74
As' ≔ 2 ⋅ A
= 1.58
#8
#8
Equilibrium Equation: 0.85 ⋅ f'c ⋅ a ⋅ b + As' ⋅ fs'=As ⋅ fs
(
(As - As' ) ⋅ fy
)
a
Assume that As and As' yields.
a ≔ ―――― = 3.983
c ≔ ― = 4.686
0.85 ⋅ f'c ⋅ b
β1
0.003
ε ≔
――⋅ (d - c ) = 0.008
(
)
>
ε
s
≔ ― fy = 0.002
Es
threfore,
fs ≔ fy
ty
c
0.003
ε' ≔
――⋅ (c - d' ) = 0.001
(
)
<
ε
≔ ― fy = 0.002
threfore,
fs' ≔ Es ⋅ ε' s
s
ty
c
Nc ≔ 0.85 ⋅ f'c ⋅ a ⋅ b + As' ⋅ fs'
Es
Nt ≔ As ⋅ fy
c ≔ 2
0.003
0.85 ⋅ f'c ⋅ b ⋅ c ⋅ β1 + As' ⋅ Es ⋅ ――⋅ (c - d' ) = As ⋅ fy
(
)
c
(
(
)
) = 5.25
Redefine values
c ≔ 5.25
a ≔ c ⋅ β1 = 4.463
0.003
ε
≔ ――⋅ (d - c ) ) =
(
0.007
fy
s
>
ε
= 0.002
threfore, fs =fy
c
ty
Es
0.003
ε' ≔ ――⋅ (c - d' ) ) =
(
0.0016
fy
s
<
ε ≔
= 0.002
threfore,
fs' ≔ Es ⋅ ε' = 45.571
c
ty
s
Es
a
N
≔ 0.85 ⋅ f'c ⋅ b ⋅ c ⋅ β1 = 212.415
z1 ≔
⎝ d - ―
= 14.727
C1
2 ⎠
N
≔ As' ⋅ fs' = 72.003
z2 ≔
(
(d - d' ) )
= 14.458
C2
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CIVILEN 4350

HW6

0.003 ε ≔ ――⋅ (dt - c ) = 0.007 ( if ε < 0.002
0.003
ε
≔ ――⋅ (dt - c ) = 0.007
(
if ε < 0.002
|
)
ϕ ≔
= 0.9
t
t
c
|
0.65
|
∴ Tension Controlled
|
else if ε > 0.005
t
|
‖ ‖ 0.9
|
|
else
|
Mn ≔ N ⋅
z1 + N
⋅ z2
=
347.441
⎛ ―――― 0.9 - 0.65
fy
|
C1
C2
‖ 0.65 +
⋅ ⎝ ε - ―
t
|
Es ⎠
‖ ⎜ 0.005 - ― fy
|
⎝ Es ⎠
|
Maximum Moment in L1 is M ≔ max
(
(
(Mu (7.5 ) , Mu ( (30 - 7.5 ) ) )
)
)
= 271.875
u
M
u
ϕ
⋅ Mn = 312.697
>
M =
271.875
O.K.
I ≔ ―― = 0.869
u
ϕ ⋅ Mn
Design Shear Strength ( ϕ ⋅ Vn )
λ ≔ 1
ϕ ≔ 0.75
(normal weight concrete)
2
A
≔ 2 ⋅ A
= 0.22
s ≔ 5
v
#3
‾‾‾ f'c
A ⋅
fy d
v
i) Vc ≔ 2 ⋅ λ ⋅
b
d
=
30.031
Vs ≔ ―――= 44.77
s
ii) Vn ≔ Vc + Vs = 74.801
ϕ ⋅ Vn = 56.101
‾‾‾ f'c
d
Since Vs = 44.77
<
4 ⋅
b
d
=
60.062
,
s
≔ min
⎝ ―, 24
= 8.479
max
2
iii) The spacing of stirrups s = 5
< s
=
8.479
, therefore
OK
max
‾‾‾ f'c
b
b
2
2
Av
≔ max
⎜ 0.75 ⋅
, 50 ⋅ ―
s
= 0.099
< A =
0.22
OK
min
max
v
fy
fy
‾‾‾ f'c
iv)
Vs = 44.77
<
8 ⋅
b
d
=
120.124
therefore
OK
d
L - d
V
u
ϕ
⋅ Vn = 56.101
>
V
≔ max
⎝ Vu
――
⎟ , Vu ⎛ ――
= 40.456
OK
I≔ ――= 0.721
u
⎝ 12
⎝ 12
⎠ ⎟ ⎠ ⎟
ϕ ⋅ Vn
Center Section (Between L2)
b
≔ 14
h ≔ 20
1
d
≔ h - cover - d
-
-
――
= 16.625
d' ≔ 2.5
#3
d #8
2
d
#8
dt ≔ h - cover - d
-
= 17.625
#3
2
Design Moment Strength ( ϕ ⋅ Mn )
2
2
As ≔ 8 ⋅ A
= 6.32
As' ≔ 2 ⋅ A
= 1.58
#8
#8

Non-Commercial3 of 10Use Only

CIVILEN 4350

HW6

Equilibrium Equation: 0.85 ⋅ f'c ⋅ a ⋅ b + As' ⋅ fs'=As ⋅ fs
Equilibrium Equation: 0.85 ⋅ f'c ⋅ a ⋅ b + As' ⋅ fs'=As ⋅ fs
(As - As' ) ⋅ fy
(
)
a
Assume that As and As' yields.
a ≔ ―――― = 5.975
c ≔ ― = 7.029
0.85 ⋅ f'c ⋅ b
β1
0.003
ε
――⋅ (d - c ) = 0.004
(
)
>
ε
threfore,
fs ≔ fy
s
ty
c
0.003
ε' ≔
――⋅ (c - d' ) = 0.00193
(
)
vs
ε
≔ ― fy = 0.002
Es
≔ ― fy = 0.002
threfore,
fs'
is very close to
fy
. Let's check!
s
ty
c
Nc ≔ 0.85 ⋅ f'c ⋅ a ⋅ b + As' ⋅ fs'
Es
Nt ≔ As ⋅ fy
c ≔ 2
0.003
0.85 ⋅ f'c ⋅ b ⋅ c ⋅ β1 + As' ⋅ Es ⋅ ――⋅ (c - d' ) = As ⋅ fy
(
)
c
(
(
) = 7.161
)
Redefine
values
c ≔ 7.161
a ≔ c ⋅ β1 = 6.087
0.003
ε
――⋅ (d - c ) = 0.004
(
)
>
ε
≔ ― fy = 0.002
Es
threfore, the assumption (
fs ≔ fy
) is correct.
s
ty
c
0.003
ε' ≔
――⋅ (c - d' ) = 0.00195
(
)
v.s.
ε
≔ ― fy = 0.002
Es
threfore,
fs' = 45.571
is close to
fy
.
s
ty
c
a
N
≔ 0.85 ⋅ f'c ⋅ b ⋅ c ⋅ β1 = 289.734
z1 ≔
⎝ d - ―
= 13.582
C1
2 ⎠
N
≔ As' ⋅ fs' = 72.003
z2 ≔
(
(d - d' ) )
= 14.125
C2
0.003
ε
≔ ――⋅ (dt - c ) = 0.00438
(
if ε < 0.002
|
)
ϕ ≔
= 0.847
t
t
c
|
‖ ‖ 0.65
|
∴ ϕ≠0.9 and should be computed
|
else if ε > 0.005
t
|
‖ ‖ 0.9
|
|
else
|
Mn
≔ N
z1 + N
⋅ z2
=
412.674
―――― 0.9 - 0.65
fy
|
C1
C2
‖ 0.65 +
⎟ ⋅ ⎝ ε - ―
t
|
Es ⎠
‖ ⎜ 0.005 - ― fy
|
⎝ Es ⎠
|
Maximum Moment in L2 is M ≔ Mu
= 340.278
u
max
M
u
ϕ ⋅ Mn = 349.715
>
M =
340.278
O.K.
I ≔ ―― = 0.973
u
ϕ ⋅ Mn
Guess ValuesConstraintsSolver

Non-Commercial4 of 10Use Only

CIVILEN 4350

HW6

Design Shear Strength ( ϕ ⋅ Vn ) λ ≔ 1 ϕ ≔ 0.75 (normal
Design Shear Strength ( ϕ ⋅ Vn )
λ ≔ 1
ϕ ≔ 0.75
(normal weight concrete)
2
A
≔ 2 ⋅ A
= 0.22
s ≔ 8
v
#3
‾‾‾ f'c
A ⋅
fy d
v
i)
Vc ≔ 2 ⋅ λ ⋅
b
d
=
29.441
Vs ≔ ―――= 27.431
s
ii)
Vn ≔ Vc + Vs = 56.872
ϕ ⋅ Vn = 42.654
‾‾‾ f'c
d
Since Vs = 27.431
<
4 ⋅
b
d
=
58.882
,
s
≔ min
⎝ ―, 24
= 8.313
max
2
iii) The spacing of stirrups s = 8
< s
=
8.313
, therefore
OK
max
‾‾‾ f'c
b
b
2
2
Av
≔ max
⎜ 0.75 ⋅
, 50 ⋅ ―
s
= 0.097
< A =
0.22
OK
min
max
v
fy
fy
‾‾‾ f'c
iv)
Vs = 27.431
<
8 ⋅
b
d
=
117.763
therefore
OK
V
u
ϕ
⋅ Vn = 42.654
>
V ≔
max
(
(
(Vu (7.5 ) , Vu ( (30 - 7.5 ) ) )
)
)
= 29.5
OK
I ≔ ―― = 0.692
u
ϕ ⋅ Vn
(c) Comments
1.
h
Deflection Check: The deflection should be checked since the depth of the beam is smaller than
.
min
2.
Strength Check: All design strengths ( ϕ ⋅ Vn and ϕ ⋅ Mn ) are larger than the member forces under
ultimate loading conditions along the whole length.
3.
Cost-cutting: Since the current design shear strength is large enough, we can reduce the number of
stirrups along the whole length.
a. For L1 range: #3 @ 8 is enough. (since ϕ ⋅ Vn with stirrups of #3 @ 8
> Vu )
b. For 10 ft <x <16.689 ft, stirrups are not required. (since Vu < ――= ϕ ⋅ Vc 11.04
)
2
10
30
- 16.689
x3
≔ 12
――= 15
―――――
= 19.967
8
8
= -―― ϕ ⋅ Vc
Vu
(
(x3 ) )
Therefore, total 16+21 = 37 stirrups (#3) are required.
2
(
(
)
) = 16.689
10
16.689
30
51
42.5
ϕ
⋅ Vc
34
――= 11.04
11.04
25.5
17
2
8.5
-11.04
0
Vu (
)
(x
) )
( (
)
-8.5 0
3
6
9
12
15
18
21
24
27
30
Vu
(
(16.689 ) )
= -11.04
-17
-25.5
-34
-42.5
x
Guess ValuesConstraintsSolver

Non-Commercial5 of 10Use Only

CIVILEN 4350

HW6

fy ≔ 60000 f'c ≔ 4000 b ≔ 16.5 d ≔ 18 β1 ≔ 0.85
fy ≔ 60000
f'c ≔ 4000
b ≔ 16.5
d ≔ 18
β1 ≔ 0.85
2
2
≔ 0.875
A
≔ 0.6
d
≔ 0.5
A
≔ 0.2
L ≔ 24
d #7
#7
#4
#4
Beam Section with 6 -#7
a ≔ ――― As ⋅ fy
a
2
As ≔ 6 ⋅ A
= 3.6
= 3.85
c ≔ ―
#7
0.85 ⋅ f'c ⋅ b
β1
0.003 ⋅ ( (d - c ) )
ε
――――
= 0.009
> 0.005, therefore
fs ≔ fy
and
ϕ ≔ 0.9
s
c
a
M
≔ As ⋅ fy ⋅
⎝ d - ―
= 289.348
ϕ ⋅ M
= 260.413
n1
n1
2
Beam Section with 4 -#7
a ≔ ――― As ⋅ fy
a
2
As ≔ 4 ⋅ A
= 2.4
= 2.567
c ≔ ―
#7
0.85 ⋅ f'c ⋅ b
β1
0.003 ⋅ ( (d - c ) )
ε
――――
= 0.015
> 0.005, therefore
fs ≔ fy
and
ϕ ≔ 0.9
s
c
a
M
≔ As ⋅ fy ⋅
⎝ d - ―
= 200.599
ϕ ⋅ M
= 180.539
n2
n2
2
Beam Section with 2-#7
a ≔ ――― As ⋅ fy
a
2
As ≔ 2 ⋅ A
= 1.2
= 1.283
c ≔ ―
#7
0.85 ⋅ f'c ⋅ b
β1
0.003 ⋅ ( (d - c ) )
ε
――――
= 0.033
> 0.005, therefore
fs ≔ fy
and
ϕ ≔ 0.9
s
c
a
M
≔ As ⋅ fy ⋅
⎝ d - ―
= 104.15
ϕ ⋅ M
= 93.735
n3
n3
2
‾‾‾ f'c
3⋅
2
≔ max
⎜ ―――, 200 ⋅ ―――
= 0.0033
As
≔ ρ
b d
=
0.99
ρ min
min
min
fy
fy
2
2
As
ρ
b d
=
0.99
>
As = 1.2
OK
― ⎟
min
min

Non-Commercial6 of 10Use Only

CIVILEN 4350

HW6

Define Mu(x) Mu ≔ ϕ ⋅ M n1 max w u n1 Since Mu =
Define Mu(x)
Mu
≔ ϕ ⋅ M n1
max
w
u
n1
Since Mu
⋅ L 2
――
ϕ ⋅ M
⋅ 8
, w ≔ ―――
= 3.617 ―
max
u
8
L 2
w
⋅ L
u
R ≔ ――= 43.402
2
2
(
(x ⋅
) )
Mu
(
(x ) )
≔ R ⋅ x⋅
- w ⋅ ―――
u
2
a1 ≔ 5
a2 ≔ 2
Mu
(
(
(a1 ) )
= ϕ ⋅ M n2
Mu
(a2 ) )
= ϕ ⋅ M n3
(a1 ) = 5.354
(
)
(a2 ) = 2.4
(
)
a1 ≔ 5.354 ⋅
= 64.248
a2 ≔ 2.4 ⋅
= 28.8
64
= 5.333
28
= 2.333
2.4
5.354
18.646
21.6
24
270
240
180.539
210
180
150
93.735
120
90
60
30
0
-30 0
2.5
5
7.5
10
12.5
15
17.5
20
22.5
25
x
Mu (
(x
) )
( (
) )
Define Development Length
Ψ
1
for bottom bars
t
Ψ
1 for uncoated reinforcement
Ψ ⋅
= 1
< 1.7
OK
e
t Ψ e
Ψ
1 for #7 bars
s
λ ≔ 1 for normal weight concrete
d
1
⎝ b - 2 ⋅ 1.5
- 2 ⋅ d
-
#7
#4
d #7 ⎞
c ≔
min
⎝ 1.5
+ d
+
, ― ――――――――― ⎟
= 1.163
: bar-spacing factor
b
#4
2
2
5
2
A
≔ 2 ⋅ A
= 0.4
s ≔ 9
n ≔ 2
tr
#4
40 ⋅ A tr
≔ ―― = 0.889
s ⋅ n
d ≔
d
= 0.875
b
#7
Transverse reinforcement index
K
tr
c +
b
K tr
――
= 2.344
2.5
OK
d
b
3 ⋅ ― fy
Ψ ⋅
t Ψ e Ψ s
l
≔ ――――⋅ ―――
= 26.555
l = 2.213
d
d b
d
‾‾‾
f'c
c +
b
K tr
40 ⋅ λ ⋅
――
d
b
Guess ValuesConstraintsSolver
Guess ValuesConstraintsSolver

Non-Commercial7 of 10Use Only

CIVILEN 4350

HW6

l | d ϕMn ( (x ) ) ≔ if x≤ ― | | ‖
l
|
d
ϕMn
(
(x ) )
≔ if x≤ ―
|
|
|
x
a1 = 5.354
a2 = 2.4
ϕ
⋅ M
⋅ ―
|
n3
l
d
|
|
|
l
a2
|
d
else if ―≤ x ≤ ―
|
|
ϕ
|
⋅ M n3
|
a2
a2 + l d
|
else if ―≤ x ≤ ――
|
|
a2 ⎞
|
⎝ x - ―
|
ϕ
⋅ M
+ ⎝ ϕ ⋅ M
- ϕ ⋅ M n3 ⎞ ⋅ ―――
|
n3
n2
l
d
|
|
|
a2 + l d
else if ―― ≤
≤ ― a1
|
x
|
|
ϕ
⋅ M n2
|
|
a1
a1 + l d
|
else if ―≤ x ≤ ――
|
|
a1 ⎞
|
⎝ x - ―
|
ϕ
⋅ M
+ ⎝ ϕ ⋅ M
- ϕ ⋅ M n2 ⎞ ⋅ ―――
n2
n1
|
l
d
|
|
|
a1 + l d
else if ―― ≤ x
|
|
|
ϕ
‖ ‖ ⋅ M n1
|
2.4
5.354
12
275
l
= 2.213
d
250
225
200
a2 = 2.4
175
150
125
a2 + l = 4.613
d
100
x
75
50
25
a1 = 5.354
a1 + l = 7.567
0
d
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
ϕMn ( ) (
)
Considering the development length,
(x
(
) )
L
L
x1 ≔ ―- a1
=
6.646
x2 ≔ ―- a2
=
9.6
Mu (
(x
) )
( (
) )
2
2
--> x1 ≔ 6.667
= 80
and
x2 ≔ 9.667
= 116
l
≔ max
⎝ d , 12 ⋅ d #7 ⎞
= 18
add
L
L
Cut-off considering the shear effect, x1 ≔ ―- a1 +
l
=
8.146
and
x2 ≔ ―- a2 +
l
= 11.1
add
add
2
2
In practice, x1 ≥
8.167
= 98
and
x2 ≥
11.167
= 134

Non-Commercial8 of 10Use Only

CIVILEN 4350

HW6

M n SCI section 9.7.3.8.3: l ≤ ― + d l a f'c ≔ 4000
M n
SCI section 9.7.3.8.3: l ≤ ― +
d
l a
f'c ≔ 4000 ⋅
fy ≔ 60000
V u
2
(a) Find l d
d ≔ 17.5
b ≔ 14
d
≔ 1.128
A
≔ 1
#9
#9
2
Ψ for bottom bars
1
≔ 0.375
A
≔ 0.11
t
d #3
#3
Ψ for uncoated reinforcement
1
e
Ψ for #9 bars
1
s
λ ≔ 0.75 for lightweight concrete
2.5
1
c
min
, ―
(
(14
- 2 ⋅ 2.5
) )
⎟ = 2.5
b ≔
2
: bar-spacing factor
2
≔ 2 ⋅ A
= 0.22
s ≔ 8
n ≔ 2
A tr
#3
Transverse reinforcement index
K
tr
40 ⋅ A tr
≔ ―― = 0.55
s ⋅ n
d ≔
= 1.128
b
d #9
c +
c +
b
K tr
b
K tr
――
= 2.704
≤ 2.5
therefore ―― = 2.5
d b
d b
3 ⋅ ― fy
Ψ ⋅
t Ψ e Ψ s
l
≔ ――――⋅ ―――
= 42.805
d
d b
‾‾‾
f'c
2.5
40 ⋅ λ ⋅
M
n
(b)
Find ― +
l a
2
As ≔ 2 ⋅ A
= 2
l
a ≔ 5
V u
#9
a ≔ ――― As ⋅ fy
0.85 ⋅ f'c ⋅ b
= 2.521
a
M
≔ As ⋅ fy ⋅
⎝ d- ―
= 162.395
n
2 ⎠
6.5 ― ⋅ 14
V
≔ ―――――= 45.5
u
2
M
n
― +
= 47.829
l a
V u
M n
l d =
42.805 <
― +
= 47.829
, therefore, the use of 2-#9 satifsies ACI 9.7.3.8.3
l a
V u

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CIVILEN 4350

HW6

(a) If flexural reinforcement is cut off according to the moment diagram, the flexural cut-off
(a) If flexural reinforcement is cut off according to the moment diagram, the flexural cut-off point is
the point in the beam where the remaining steel not cut off is just adequate for the moment if
stressed to . Due to the effect of shear, this point actually occurs about farther away and hence this
point is critical.
(b)
is the reinforcement location factor. For top bars (horizontal bars) that are placed more than
Ψ t
12 inch above fresh concrete during the cast, there could be the formation of entrapped air and
moisture underneath of the bars, resulting in partial loses of bond between concrete and the top
bars. Therefore, this condition ( Ψ ≔
1.3 ) requires a longer development length than the other case
t
( Ψ ≔
1.0 ).
t

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