Sie sind auf Seite 1von 5

See discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: https://www.researchgate.

net/publication/296705888

CONVERTING SOUND ENERGY TO ELECTRIC ENERGY

Article · November 2012

CITATIONS READS

9 67,128

1 author:

Shalabh Bhatnagar
Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis
3 PUBLICATIONS   9 CITATIONS   

SEE PROFILE

Some of the authors of this publication are also working on these related projects:

Vehicle to vehicle communication and pre collision system View project

All content following this page was uploaded by Shalabh Bhatnagar on 04 March 2016.

The user has requested enhancement of the downloaded file.


International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering
Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, Volume 2, Issue 10, October 2012)

CONVERTING SOUND ENERGY TO ELECTRIC


ENERGY
Shalabh Rakesh Bhatnagar (SRB)
Pursuing BE at-RAMDEOBABA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND MANAGEMENT, Nagpur, DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION

Abstract - CONVERTING SOUND ENERGY TO ELECTRIC AS SOUND HAS ENORMOUS AMOUNT OF ENERGY
ENERGY WITH IT, WHICH COULD BE USED ...BY CONVERTING IT
We all know everywhere there is huge scarcity of energy IN ELECTRIC ENERGY
and for running most of our appliances and to carry out
daily work we need electricity. It’s really very difficult to I. INTRODUCTION
imagine our life without electricity, our life would really st
stop so there is high need, to produce electricity at faster
In this 21 century electric power has very deeply
rate and find some other feasible method to produce electric indulged in our society ......CAN YOU IMAGINE YOUR
energy. LIFE WITHOUT YOUR
On the other hand we see that in this modern world there COMPUTER...MOBILE...LIGHTS...AND OTHER
is lot of noise pollution in roads, airports, industries.... DAILY USED APLLIANCES ,IT IS REALLY VERY
Just think if we would be able to convert this NOISE HARD TO IMAGINE OUR LIFE WITHOUT THESE
POLLUTION TO ELECTRIC ENERGY....??? ELECTRIC APPLIANCES...and all these appliances
Yes this could be made possible let’s see how required electricity to operate. And as fast as these world
Scientific explanation:- sound is a mechanical form of population is rising and also due to the drastic progress of
energy which travel in the form of wave, mechanical wave mankind day by day the electric consumption is
that is an oscillation of pressure this pressure created by the increasing drastically on the other hand the production of
sound could be used to convert it into electric energy or electric power is limited it is not increasing to that extent
other form of energy. Also according to law of due to which there is scarcity of electricity not only in
thermodynamics mechanical energy could be converted into India or particular region but across the whole world as
electricity. Piezo material converts mechanical strain into
development is taking place in a very high rate ...
electric energy this property of piezo material could be used
to make a device which would be able to sustainably according to the METI long term vision ,proposed in
convert the sound energy to electric energy as piezo 2005 ,the final energy will be mainly supplied by
material convert sound energy to electric energy. electricity towards 2050 for a low carbonated society.
Transducer is also used to convert Mechanical energy to Actually today, the demand of electricity is continuously
electric energy i.e.it can convert sound energy to electric growing in this world and set to be doubled by 2030...so
energy the simple e.g. of use of transducer to convert sound it is necessary to increase the supply of electric power for
to electric and vice versa is in speakers, headset...also it that it is very essential for us to find other alternative
could be converted into electric energy by other methods methods to produce electric-energy...when we think of
which we will see in the paper.
another method we think of solar energy, wind energy,
Its uses:- it could be used in lightning the street lights by hydro energy...but we forget ...sound energy...
using the noise pollution made by vehicles, it could also be In this century the most common thing we encountered
used in industries ,airports runways(as the sound pollution everywhere (roads, airports, industries...) is noise
is to a great extent there, and the energy of sound here is pollution... so a point comes in our mind whether is it
very high so we will get pleasant output),also the electricity
possible to convert sound energy to electricity??? And
produce in nuclear power station could increase as the
sound produce during nuclear fission also will be used to get this waste form of sound could be converted and used for
more electric energy...it doesn’t get over here yet... suppose some productive purpose. Let us see about
your mobile phone get discharge u could shout at it and  SOUND ENERGY
then it will again get charged …for emergencies or it could  MATERIALLS WHICH COULD BE USED TO
also get charge in road by using sound pollution at road to CONVERT SOUND ENERGY TO ELECTRIC
produce electric energy...it doesn’t ends over here...there
ENERGY
are many applications of it. So it would not be wrong if in
future we see sound energy as new source of power .  EFFICIENCY
 IT’S SCOPE

267
International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering
Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, Volume 2, Issue 10, October 2012)
II. A IM: - T O CONVERT SOUND ENERGY T O III. P RACTICALLY HOW IT COULD B E ACHIEVED
E LECTRICAL ENERGY In our daily use we use many products in which the
SOUND ENERGY conversion between sound energy and electric energy
We all know sound energy is a mechanical energy takes place For e.g.:-mic , speaker , mobile phone
,transducers .However the amount of conversion is very
which travel in the form of wave, mechanical wave that
small and we require large amount of energy to convert
is an oscillation of pressure which need medium to travel
it…so the problem is how we could convert efficiently…
i.e. it could not travel through vacuum as it need medium.
As sound wave is a mechanical wave when it travels
Through liquid and gas state sound is transmitted as
longitudinal wave whereas through solid it could be through a medium it disturbs the particle of the medium
transmitted as both longitudinal wave and transverse these disturbance created by sound could be used to
produce electricity.
wave. Longitudinal waves are of alternating pressure
For example You have seen speaker or woofers when
deviation from the equilibrium pressure, causing local
sound comes from it its diphagram come forth and back
region of compression and rarefaction, while transverse
its movement is seen in these manner We could use this
wave (in solid) are waves of alternating shear and stress
at right angle to the direction of propagation. When disturbance of sound wave to convert it into electricity let
sound wave travel through a medium mater in that us see how we could make the system to convert sound
energy to electric energy.
medium is periodically displaced and thus oscillates with
sound wave. The sound wave displace back and forth METHOD 1 -Suppose we create a very thin curtain like
between the potential energy of compression or lateral diphagram which will get fluctuated by the oscillation
displacement strain of the matter and the kinetic energy and pressure created by the sound wave and a conductor
of the oscillation. As sound energy is a mechanical will be attached to it which will be placed between
energy it could be converted into electricity as magnetic bars these fluctuation in the curtain will create a
mechanical energy could be converted into electricity by movement in conductor which will affect the magnetic
the law of thermodynamics. Sound energy could be field of the magnet this will generate motional emf and
easily converted into heat energy which could be easily will generate voltage across it. As per faradays law
converted into electricity but it is not highly efficient as generated emf is given by
the loss in conversion will be more whereas the other Generated voltage = Emf =velocity of conductor X
method is converting sound energy to electricity by piezo magnetic field X length of conductor
electric material, piezo electric materials are the crystal Thus the oscillation created by the sound wave could
which converts mechanical strain to electric energy by be converted into electricity and as the frequency is high
such method. So we could see that sound is a form of the movement will be fast due to it we will get
mechanical energy and according to third law of appreciable amount of electric energy.
thermodynamics mechanical energy could be converted It would work similar as the working of turbine this
into electric energy. type of device could be made…
So it could be seen that theoretically sound energy But its limitation will be that it will be efficient only in
could be converted into electricity now let us see the place where high decibel of sound is available....for
practically how it could be made possible example nuclear power plant, industries using huge and
noisy machines.

268
International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering
Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, Volume 2, Issue 10, October 2012)
METHOD 2- In this method we could convert sound IV. P IEZO E LECTRIC M ATERIAL (1)
energy to heat energy as sound wave travel by oscillating Piezo electric materials are transducers its crystals
the particles of the medium so when sound energy travel could convert mechanical strain to electricity, The
through the medium it will disturbs the particle of the crystals are formed naturally e.g. quartz, bone, dna
medium these disturbance created by sound will be used ...whereas artificially ZnO , lithium niobatet Lead
to convert it into heat energy as when the particles of the Metaniobate the sound energy could be converted into
medium will be pushed by the sound wave it will electricity using piezo electric material. Let us see the
collides with adjacent particle of the medium this properties of piezo electric material.
collision will result in production of heat energy the
production of heat energy will be more in the denser
medium so for more heat production we will need a
material with very high density. This heat energy will be
converted into electricity.

(1)

V. P IEZO E LECTRIC M ATERIAL AND T HERE


P ROPERTIES
Certain single crystal materials exhibit the following
phenomenon: when the crystal is Mechanically strained, (here
sound energy) or when the crystal is deformed by the
application of an external stress, electric charges appear on the
crystal surfaces; and when the direction of the strain Reverses,
the polarity of the electric charge is reversed. This is called the
direct piezo electric effect, and the crystals that exhibit it are
classed as piezoelectric crystal

This method is less efficient due to more energy losses


taking place while conversion of sound energy to heat
energy and then heat energy to electric energy then the
other methods. As here the conversion is done two times
.you may think that according to Newtown’s law energy
can’t be created nor destroyed it could be only converted
from one form to another…so how there could be an
energy loss. So while converting sound energy to heat
energy there will be some loss of sound energy as some
of the sound energy would be converted into another
form also while converting from heat energy to electric
energy all energy wouldn’t be converted into electric
energy some of the heat energy would get converted into
another form of energy. And here as our main focus is to
convert sound energy to electric energy so conversion .
into other form of energy is loss of energy for us. Fig 1 . The direct piezoelectric effect
METHOD 3-Converting sound energy to electricity by Inversely, when a piezoelectric crystal is placed in an
piezo electric material (piezo electric materials are the electric field, or when charges are applied by external
crystal which convert mechanical strain to electric means to its faces, the crystal exhibits strain, i.e. the
energy) dimensions of the crystal Changes.

269
International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering
Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, Volume 2, Issue 10, October 2012)
When the direction of the applied electric field is  The electricity produce in nuclear power station
reversed, the direction of the resulting strain is reversed. could increase as the sound produce during nuclear
This is called the inverse piezo electric effect. (See fission also could be used to get more electric
Fig. 2). energy
 The noise pollution in industries could be used to
produce electricity and work certain low voltage
machine....its scope doesn’t end

VII. CONCLUSION
 As sound has enormous amount energy with it, it
could be used by converting it into electric energy
for various purposes
 Sound energy is a mechanical energy so according
to law of thermodynamics mechanical energy could
be converted into electric energy
Fig.2-The inverse piezo electric effect.
 Sound energy could be converted by different
So it could be seen that when the sound energy is methods
applied to the piezoelectric material it create strain in the Method 1-by creating apparatus using curtain
crystal then it reverse it and the strain is converted into (diphagram) magnet and conductor
electric energy.This direct piezo electric effect property Methods 2-by converting
of an piezo electric material could be used for making the Sound energy>heat energy and then heat
device to convert sound energy to electric energy. energy>electric energy or
Piezo converter (srb) -a device could be made using Method 3-by using transducers such as piezo
piezo electric material which will collect the sound wave electric material which converts mechanical
which are travelling near it and that sound wave will be strain>electric energy and vice4 versa
used to cause a strain due to pressure created by its  Piezo electric crystals are the crystals which
oscillation in the piezo crystal and that will create the converts mechanical strain to electric energy
disturbance in its atoms resulting in the flow of electric  The strain applied to piezo electric material by
charge on the surface of the crystal thus sound energy sound energy could be converted into electricity
could be converted into electricity as the piezo electric
 In this aspect lot of research is to be done but on a
material convert mechanical strain to electric energy.
positive note this could surely be done which could
And thus this sound energy could be used to perform
solve the energy problem of the entire world
various tasks by converting it into useful electric energy.
VIII. DEMERITS
VI. IT’S SCOPE
• Lots of work is to be done in this field.
 If we will be able to convert sound energy to
• Its efficiency is not that good so improvement is
electric energy efficiently it could help us to reduce
being required.
the scarcity of electrical energy globally and help in
the development of mankind and reduction of CO2 • It is bit costlier. As whole setup would be done.
as electric energy is one of the cleanest energy • It could not be used in the places where decibel of
 The noise pollution in the road would be able to sound is very low
convert into electric energy and lights the street REFERENCES
lightning ,signals and various other electrical [1 ] Piezo materials-(1.)Mael guennou- titzeff
appliances
 The noise pollution in runway could be used to
produce electricity

270

View publication stats