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Actividad de aprendizaje 15

Evidencia 5: Summary “Export-import theory”

Contar con los conocimientos necesarios para realizar un proceso de exportación,

requiere no solo de manejar habilidades lectoras para apropiar las normas y pasos
a seguir, sino también comprender y extraer los aspectos más importantes de
cada texto. Existen gran cantidad de textos referentes exportación e importación
en inglés, por lo cual es necesario fortalecer las competencias en dicha lengua.

Para reforzar lo mencionado, realice las siguientes actividades:

1. Lea el siguiente texto:

Export-Import Theory1

Setting up the business

Whether it is a new or existing export-import business, the legal form, or

structure, will determine how the business is to be conducted, its tax liability,
and other important considerations. Each form of business organization has
its own advantages and disadvantages, and the entrepreneur has to select
the one that best fulfills the goals of the entrepreneur and the business.
Selection of an appropriate business organization is a task that requires
accounting and legal expertise and should be done with the advice of a
competent attorney or accountant.

Ownership structure

Belay, S. (2009). Export-Import Theory, Practices, and Procedures. (2a ed.). New York: Routledge.
In this section, we examine different forms of business organizations: sole
proprietorships, partnerships, corporations, and limited liability companies.

Sole proprietorships

A sole proprietorship is a firm owned and operated by one individual. No

separate legal entity exists. There is one principal in the business who has
total control over all export-import operations and who can make decisions
without consulting anyone. The major advantages of sole proprietorships
are as follows:

1. They are easy to organize and simple to control. Establishing an export-

import business as sole proprietorship is simple and inexpensive and
requires little or no government approval. At the state level, registration of
the business name is required, while at the federal level, sole proprietors
need to keep accurate accounting records and attach a profit or loss
statement for the business when filing individual tax returns (Schedule C,
Internal Revenue Service Form 1040). They must operate on a calendar
year and can use the cash or accrual method of accounting.

2. They are more flexible to manage than partnerships or corporations. The

owner makes all operational and management decisions concerning the
business. The owner can remove money or other assets of the business
without legal or tax consequences. He or she can also easily transfer or
terminate the business.

3. Sole proprietorships are subject to minimal government regulations

versus other business concerns.

4. The owner of a sole proprietorship is taxed as an individual, at a rate

lower than the corporate income tax rate. Losses from the export import
business can be applied by the owner to offset taxable income from other
sources. Sole proprietors are also allowed to establish tax exempt
retirement accounts. (Harper, 1991; Cheeseman, 2006a)
The major disadvantage of running an export-import concern as a sole
proprietorship is the risk of unlimited liability. The owner is personally liable
for the debts and other liabilities of the business. Insurance can be bought
to protect against these liabilities; however, if insurance protection is not
sufficient to cover legal liability for defective products or debts, judgment
creditors’ next recourse is the personal assets of the owner. Another
disadvantage is that the proprietor’s access to capital is limited to personal
funds plus any loans that can be obtained. In addition, very few individuals
have all the necessary skills to run an export-import business, and the
owner may lack certain skills. The business may also terminate upon the
death or disability of the owner.

Establishing an appropriate business organization: pointers

 Does the entrepreneur intend to be the sole owner of the export-import

business? If not, how many people have an ownership interest?

 Does the entrepreneur need additional capital and/or expertise?

 What legal form provides the greatest flexibility for management?

 What legal form affords the most advantageous tax treatment for the
business concern and individual entrepreneurs?

 Which legal structure is easy and less expensive to establish and subject
to a low degree of government regulation?
 How important is it to limit personal liability of owners?

o Which legal structure is the most appropriate in light of the goals and
objectives of the export-import business? (Belay, 2009).

2. Elabore una lista de vocabulario sobre el texto, mínimo de 15 palabras y escriba

su respectivo significado en inglés.

Words Meaning

Profit A financial gain, especially the difference between the

amount earned and the amount spent in buying.
Government The group of people with the authority to govern a country.
Attach Join or fasten something.
Accrual The accumulation or increase of something over time.
Liality The state of being legally responsible for something
Skill The ability to do something well.
Upon More formal term for on, especially in abstract senses
loan A thing that is borrowed, especially a sum of money that is
expected to be paid back with interest.
Owner A person that owns something.
Judgment The ability to make considered decisions or come to sensible
Insurance an arrangement by which a company or the state undertakes to
provide a guarantee of compensation for specified loss, damage,
illness, or death in return for payment of a specified premium.
Debt A sum of money that is owed or due.

Inexpensive Not costing a great deal; cheap.

Sole One and only.

Transfer Move from a place to another.

3. El texto sugerido al inicio de esta evidencia cuenta con varios párrafos, y al
interior de cada párrafo se encuentran varias ideas principales. Por favor, lea el
material “Identifying the main idea” para conocer cómo se puede encontrar la
idea principal en un párrafo escrito en inglés.

4. Luego de analizar el material complementario, por favor escriba las ideas

principales de cada párrafo, en presente simple, en inglés. No haga
transcripción literal de los párrafos. A continuación, transforme la oración a
presente progresivo, también en inglés.

Simple Present Tense Present Progressive Tense

We discuss the strategy for main We are discussing the strategy for
idea. main idea.
We learn to understand the main We are learning to understand the
idea. main idea.
We read and understand what the We are reading and understanding
author want transmit. what the author want transmit.
We have ways if see the main idea We are having ways of see the main
The main idea tells what a paragraph The main idea is telling what the
is mostly about. paragraph is mostly about.
When you read a story ask yourself When you is reading a story ask
“what is this about”. yourself “ what is this about”.

The students make their first The students are making their first
sentence a main idea or topic sentence a main idea or topic
sentence. sentence.
Sometimes, we not understand the We aren’t understanding the main
main idea at all, sometimes isn’t very idea at all, sometimes isn’t very clear.
The author try to get across the Main
The author is trying to get across the
Idea for you. Main Idea for you.
You try to string most of the words You are trying to string most of the
together to come up with a Main Idea.
words together to come up with a
Main Idea.
You maintain the small details of a You are maintaining the small details
main idea. of a main idea.
5. Organice las ideas en un solo resumen, de manera que se conecten
coherentemente, en 15 líneas.

Nota: para el desarrollo de esta evidencia se debe tener en cuenta el material de

formación “Using simple present and progressive to export” y el material
complementario asociado a esta actividad de aprendizaje.

Desarrolle esta evidencia con la herramienta ofimática de su preferencia y envíe el

archivo al instructor a través de la plataforma virtual de aprendizaje en formato
.doc o .pdf.

Pasos para enviar la evidencia:

1. Clic en el título de la evidencia.

2. Clic en Examinar mi equipo y buscar el archivo previamente guardado.
3. Dejar un comentario al instructor (opcional).
4. Clic en Enviar.

Nota: esta evidencia es de carácter individual. Recuerde revisar la guía de

aprendizaje con el fin de verificar que ha realizado todas las actividades
propuestas, saber cómo desarrollarlas y entregarlas correctamente.
Criterios de evaluación
Realiza resúmenes de la información relevante y detallada de un texto técnico en