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Greek civilization/Roman civilization

Geographical comparison between Greek and Roman civilization

 Both Greece and Rome are Mediterranean countries, similar enough
latitudinally for both to grow wine and olives. However, their terrains were
quite different.
 The ancient Greek city-states were separated from each other by hilly
countryside and all were near the water while Rome was inland, on one
side of the Tiber River, but the Italic tribes (in the boot-shaped peninsula
that is now Italy) did not have the natural hilly borders to keep them out of

Art of both civilizations

 Greek art is considered superior to the "merely" imitative or decorative

Roman art; indeed much art we think of as Greek is actually a Roman copy
of a Greek original.
 Goal of the classical Greek sculptors was to produce an ideal art form,
whereas the goal of Roman artists was to produce realistic portraits, often
for decoration
 Not all Roman art imitated the Greek forms and not all Greek art looks
terribly realistic or impractical.
 Much Greek art adorned utilitarian objects, just as Roman art adorned the
living spaces.

Similarities and Differences between Greek and Roman

 The most obvious similarity between Greek and Roman architecture is the
use of the Doric, Ionic and Corinthian orders.
 Though the Greeks developed the Corinthian order, the Romans seemed
to have favored it more and constructed more buildings using that order
than the Greeks did.
 Roman architecture borrowed heavily from the Greeks, but the Romans
eventually made a unique name for themselves in the architectural world
with their innovative use of domes, arches and vaulted ceilings.
Economy of both civilizations
 The economy of ancient cultures, including both Greece and Rome, was
based on agriculture.
 Greeks ideally lived on small self-sufficient wheat-producing farms, but bad
agricultural practices made many households incapable of feeding
 Both Greece and Rome worked mines. While Greece also had slaves, the
economy of Rome was dependent on slave labour from the expansion until
the late Empire.
 Both cultures had coinage. Rome debased its currency to fund the Empire.

Social class of both civilizations

 The social classes of Greece and Rome changed over time, but the basic
divisions of early Athens and Rome consisted of free and freedmen,
slaves, foreigners, and women. Only some of these groups were counted
as citizens.
 Greece

1. Slaves
2. Freedmen
3. Metics
4. Citizens
5. Women


1. Slaves
2. Freedmen
3. Plebeians
4. Patricians

 The Athenian woman was not a citizen. The Roman woman was legally
subject to the paterfamilias, whether the dominant male in her household
of birth or the household of her husband. She could own and dispose of
property and go about as she wished.
 Roman woman was valued for piety, modesty, maintenance of harmony,
and being a one-man woman. The Roman woman could be a Roman