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Name : Nanda Dwi Anggraeni

NIM : 5213416055

Statistic

1. A psychologist was interested in whether different TV shows lead to a more positive outlook
on life. People were split into 4 groups and then taken to a room to view a program. The four
groups saw : The Muppet Show, Futurama, The News, No Program. After the program a
blood sample was taken and serotonin levels measured (remember more serotonin means
more happy)! Carry out a one-way ANOVA by hand to test the hypothesis!
The Muppet Show Futurama BBC News No Program
11 4 4 7
7 8 3 7
8 6 2 5
14 11 2 4
11 9 3 3
10 8 6 4
5 4
4
Mean 9.43 7.67 3.33 4.75
Variance 8.95 5.87 2.27 2.21
Grand Mean 6.30
Grand Variance 10.06

Answer:
Descriptives
95% Confidence
Interval for Mean
N Mean Std. Std. Lower Upper Min Max
Deviation Error Bound Bound
The Muppet Show 7 9.4268 2.9921 1.1309 6.6614 12.1958 5 14
Futurama 6 7.6667 2.4221 9888 5.1248 10.2058 4 11
BBC News 6 3.3333 1.5055 6146 1.7534 4.9133 2 6
No Program (Control) 8 4.7500 1.4880 5261 3.5060 5.9940 3 7
Total 27 6.2963 3.1722 6105 5.0414 7.5512 2 14
ANOVA
Serotonin Level
Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig
Between Groups 151.749 3 50.583 10.588 0
Within Groups 109.881 23 4.777
Total 261.63 26

2. Four brands of flashlight batteries were compared by testing each brand in five flashlights.
Twenty flashlights were randomly selected and divided randomly into four groups of five
flashlights each. Then each group of flashlights used a different brand of battery. The
lifetimes of the batteries to the nearest hour were as follows. At the 5% significance level,
does there appear to be a difference in mean lifetime among the four brands of batteries?
Which brand would you recommend?
Brand A Brand B Brand C Brand D
42 28 24 20
30 36 36 32
39 31 28 38
28 32 28 28
29 27 33 25

Preliminary data analyses indicate that the independent samples come from normal
populations with equal standard deviations. At the 5% significance level, does there appear to
be a difference in mean lifetime among the four brands of batteries?
Answer
Hypotheses
𝐻0 : 𝜇1 = 𝜇2 = 𝜇3 = 𝜇4 (𝑇ℎ𝑒 𝑚𝑒𝑎𝑛 𝑙𝑖𝑓𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒𝑠 𝑎𝑟𝑒 𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑎𝑙)
𝐻𝑎 : 𝑁𝑜𝑡 𝑎𝑙𝑙 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑚𝑒𝑎𝑛𝑠 𝑎𝑟𝑒 𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑎𝑙
Significance Level
𝛼 = 0.05
Critical Value and Rejection Region
𝐹𝛼(𝑑𝑓1=𝑘−1,𝑑𝑓2=𝑁−𝑘) = 𝐹0.05(𝑑𝑓1=4−1,𝑑𝑓2=20−4) = 𝐹0.05(𝑑𝑓1=3,𝑑𝑓2=16)= 3.24
Reject the null hypothesis if 𝐹 ≥ 3.24 (𝑃 − 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒 ≤ 0.05)
Construct the one-way ANOVA table
𝑇1 = 168; 𝑇2 = 154; 𝑇3 = 149; 𝑇4 = 143
𝑘 𝑛𝑖 𝑛𝑖 𝑛𝑖 𝑛𝑖 𝑛𝑖

𝑇 = 614 ; ∑ ∑ 𝑦 𝑖𝑗 = ∑ 𝑦1 𝑗 + ∑ 𝑦2 𝑗 + ∑ 𝑦3 𝑗 + ∑ 𝑦42 𝑗 = 19410


2 2 2 2

𝑖=1 𝑗=1 𝑗=1 𝑗=1 𝑗=1 𝑗=1


𝑘 𝑛𝑖
(𝑇)2 2
6142
𝑆𝑆𝑇𝑜 = ∑ ∑ 𝑦 𝑖𝑗 − = 19410 − = 560.2
𝑁 20
𝑖=1 𝑗=1

(𝑇1)2 (𝑇2)2 (𝑇3)2 (𝑇4)2 (𝑇)2


𝑆𝑆𝑇𝑟 = ( + + + )−
𝑛1 𝑛2 𝑛3 𝑛4 𝑁
1682 1542 1492 1432 6142
𝑆𝑆𝑇𝑟 = ( + + + )− = 68.2
5 5 5 5 20
𝑆𝑆𝐸 = 𝑆𝑆𝑇𝑜 − 𝑆𝑆𝑇𝑟 = 560.2 − 68.2 = 492
Source df SS MS=SS/df F-statistic p-value
Treatments 3 68.2 22.7333 0.7393 p-value>0.1
Error 16 492 30.75
Total 19 560.2

Decision
Since 0.7393 < 3.24 (p-value > 0.05), fail to reject the null hypothesis
State conclusion in words
At the 𝛼 = 0.05 level of significance, there is not enough evidence to conclude that the mean
lifetimes of the brands of batteries differ.
3. Manufacturers of golf balls always seem to be claiming that their ball goes the farthest. A
writer for a sports magazine decided to conduct an impartial test. She randomly selected 20
golf professionals and then randomly assigned four golfers to each of five brands. Each
golfer drove the assigned brand of ball. The driving distances, in yards, are displayed in the
following table.
Brand 1 Brand 2 Brand 3 Brand 4 Brand 5
286 279 270 284 281
276 277 262 271 293
281 284 277 269 276
274 288 280 275 292

Preliminary data analyses indicate that the independent samples come from normal
populations with equal standard deviations. Do the data provide sufficient evidence to
conclude that a difference exists in mean weekly earnings among nonsupervisory workers in
the five industries? Perform the required hypothesis test using α = 0.05. (Note: T1 =1,117, T2
= 1,128 , T3 = 1,089 , T4 =1,099, T5 = 1,142 , and ∑5𝑖=1 ∑4𝑗=1 𝑦 2 𝑖𝑗 = 1,555,185 ).
Answer
Hypotheses
𝐻0 : 𝜇1 = 𝜇2 = 𝜇3 = 𝜇4 (𝑇ℎ𝑒 𝑚𝑒𝑎𝑛 𝑑𝑟𝑖𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑎𝑟𝑒 𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑎𝑙)
𝐻𝑎 : 𝑁𝑜𝑡 𝑎𝑙𝑙 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑚𝑒𝑎𝑛𝑠 𝑎𝑟𝑒 𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑎𝑙
Significance Level
𝛼 = 0.05
Critical Value and Rejection Region
𝐹𝛼(𝑑𝑓1=𝑘−1,𝑑𝑓2=𝑁−𝑘) = 𝐹0.05(𝑑𝑓1=5−1,𝑑𝑓2=20−5) = 𝐹0.05(𝑑𝑓1=4,𝑑𝑓2=15)= 3.06
Construct the one-way ANOVA table
5

𝑇 = ∑ 𝑇𝑖 = 5575
𝑖=1
5 4
(𝑇)2 5,5752
𝑆𝑆𝑇𝑜 = ∑ ∑ 𝑦 2 𝑖𝑗 − = 1,555,185 − = 1,153.75
𝑁 20
𝑖=1 𝑗=1

(𝑇1)2 (𝑇2)2 (𝑇3)2 (𝑇4)2 (𝑇)2


𝑆𝑆𝑇𝑟 = ( + + + )−
𝑛1 𝑛2 𝑛3 𝑛4 𝑁
1,1172 1,1282 1,0892 1,1422 5,5752
𝑆𝑆𝑇𝑟 = ( + + + )− = 458.5
4 4 4 4 20
𝑆𝑆𝐸 = 𝑆𝑆𝑇𝑜 − 𝑆𝑆𝑇𝑟 = 1,153.75 − 485.5 = 695.25
Source df SS MS=SS/df F-statistic p-value
Treatments 4 458.5 114.625 2.473 0.05<p-value<0.1
Error 15 695.25 46.35
Total 19 1,153.75

Decision
Since 2.473 < 3.06 (p-value > 0.05), fail to reject the null hypothesis
State conclusion in words
At the 𝛼 = 0.05 level of significance, there is not enough evidence to conclude that the mean
driving distances of the brands of golf balls differ.