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For JEE (Main & Advanced)

& ALL OTHER ENGINEERING ENTRANCE EXAMINATIONS

I G. R. BATHLA PUBIICATI0HS PUT. LTq.


II HEERUT.BEIHI.IIYDERAnAD.l(olltaTr'HUHBAI
Chapters

a Exercise- I : Only One Correct Answer I


a Exercise-2 : Linked Comprehension Type I l1

a Exercise-3 : More Than One Correct Answers t8


o Exercise-4 : Match the Columns TYPe 23

o Exercise-S : Integer Answer TYPe 27

a Exercise- I Only One Correct Answer 38

o Exercise-2 Linked Comprehension Type 51

o Exercise-3 More Than One Correct Answers 57

a Exercise-4 Match the Columns Type 6l


o Exercise-5 Integer Answer Type 66

a Exercise- I Only One Correct Answer 81

a Exercise-2 Linked Comprehension Type 95

o Exercise-3 More Than One CorrectAnswers 105

o Exercise-4 Match the Columns Type 116

o Exercise-5 Integer Answer Type t22

a llxercisc- I : Only One Correct Answer 146

o Exercisc-2 : Linked Comprehension Type 1s8

o Excrcise-3 : More Than One Correct Answers 162

o Fxcrcisc--l : Match the Columns Type 166

o I,xcrcir.i-5 : Integer Answer TYPe 168


+'
(x)

a Exercisc-l : Only One CorrectAnswer 176

o Exerc,se-2: Linked Comprehension Type 184

a Exe..cise-3 : More Than One CorrectAnswers 187

a Exercise-4 : Match the columns Type 188

o Exercise-S : IntegerAnswer Type 190

a Exercise-l : Only One Correct Answer 196

a Exercise-2 : Linked Comprehension TYPe 221

f Exercise-3 ; More Than One CorrectAnswers 234

a Exercise-4 : Match the Columns Type 245

a Exercise-5 : IntegerAnswer Type 2s4

a
a Exercise- I : Only One Correct Answer 282

a Exercise-2 : Linked Comprehension Type 298

a Exercise-3 : More Than One CorrectAnswers 317

a Exercise-4 : Match the Columns Type 325

a Exercise-5 : IntegerAnswer Type 328

a Exercise-1: Only One Correct Answer 347

e Exercise-2 : Linked Comprehension Type 3s5

a Exercise-3 : More Than One CorrectAnswers 360

a Exercise-4 : Integer Answer Type 364

a Exercise-l: Only One Correct Answer 368

a Exercise-2 : Linked Comprehension Type 377

o Exercise-3 : More Than One CorrectAnswers 382

o Exercise-4: IntegerAnswer Type 384


413-421
422-428

iii:t,:i
:' :t: ,,
;l .:: : i,,,:I ::

l
&
g
H
&:
-S* L

Functionsi L

Only One Correct Alrswer


f3,
1. wehavef(r)=l;,_, _8,
x <o R)
!
+ r,.ri(Asss"(e-')=1vre
Ciearly f(r) is many one.
For r > O, f@) is decreasing, hence range of fk) fot x > 0 is
(- *, 3)
.'. Range of the function flr) is (- *, 31, which is subset
of R'
Hence, / is neither injective nor surjective'
Ans'

2-LeLr'- x2+2x+o ...(i)


" *' + 4x +3a
(3aY ...(ii)
=(y -1') x2 + (4Y -2)x + - n) = 0
If range (ii) must be real for all y e R.
of Eq. (i) is -R, then roots of Eq.

=(4y -D2 - 40 -1)


(3cr.Y - a)20 v Y e R
...(iii)
=(4 - 3a) v2 - 4 0 - a) Y + (1 - a) >0 v Y e'R
Now, Eq. (iii) is true V y e R,if 4 - 3a > 0 = o'+3
and16 1-d2 -4@ -3a)(1 -o.){0
If 12 + 2.x + a = 0 and x2 + 4x +3a =oi
I

.=>a(a-1)<0 have a comrnon root then o = 0, 1.


I

So, range of/ is not equal toR. I


l

Hence,weget0 <o<1. Ans.

Sincef12+t)=f(2-t)
Function is symmetric about the line r =2
=
2 GRB Proble ms irt Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

Also, 12 + bx +c =0 is symmetric about


x=-bl2
-b2=2=b=-4
f(x)=x2 -4x+c
Now, 3 graphs are possible.
In (1) and (2)'c' is positive and in (3) 'c'is
negative.
flO)=c
Let c is positive.
Now, fll)=c-B
f(2)=c-4
f('4) = c
say c =3
then /(1) = 0; f(2) = -r; f'(3) = 3 f(Z) </(1) < /(B)
=
Again c is negative. Let c = - 3
f(t) = - f(2) = - 7; f(4) = -
6; 3

f(2) < f(r) < f@) =(B) Ans.


Also, if c = 0 the statement'B'is true.
Note: If musthave minimum value rr.x=2 as l is closed to 2 orcomparetl ro 4
=B
4. Given, f(x) =
"fl:!1)
I, x_9 )
Clearly, domain of f(x) =[-7, -) - {9).
rk
flr) - (r-9)(.,fx -la (Rationalise)
+7
Now, = -4.-
+7 +4\
",lx+7 +4
So. range of f(r) is
[r, ; ] {;}
Hence, range of y =sin (2/(r)) is (0, 1l Ans.
{#}
b. fG)= sinx;0 <x<I
2

,2 <x <2n
=1:I
8(r)=0;0<r<n
Functions D

= sinr ;Tt < x <y


2
o-
=-1:!'sx<2n
2

h(x) =0;0 ax <!


-o-
=11-1 <f<9"
22
^3n
=l'Y)-
2

Hence, the range of hk) is {0, 1, 2}.


6. Wehavel2.x2l+*-n=O
+ r has to be an integer.
:) n =2x2 + x = x (2x +1)
.'. rL car,be 21,36, 55, 78 corresponding to x = 3, 4, 5,6.
Hence, sum of all possible values of n is equal to 190. Ans.
Note : If x is negative also rhen ansu'er is 435.

7. Wehavey =py-xzy+!=x- 1=x2y+x-y(p+1)-1=0


p-.
As, r e .8, soD >0 =L+ 4y ty@ +1) +il >0 + 4y'(p +1) + 4y +120
Since, t *lr ,, -1.1
Al

So,4y2tp +7t + 4y+1 <0 o y. [-r, +-] =(2y+1)r + 4yz p.O


L3l
+ .,<-1-l('z-r:]l'o''-L l-l
zy .J r. [-r.-'B_l
+7t! |

o. -{2Y
Hence.
\ 2y )1,,,,,
Now, max. value -lT)' o..rr= at y - - l and is equal to
-1-
4

p.-J=rg Ans.
4 GRB Problems in Calcultts (Hints & Solutions)

8. we have, f(x) = 4 cos4 (;l) t#l - 2 cos

=12 .o,,
I
l=li'
t+nz))
-, .".[#) = t,. *.i.r#)l' -, .".(#)
"/x-n\
=1+cos'l-l
\2i )
Clearly, period of f(x) = ,-U
=rn'
2n2
9. fk)=(lnx)2+31nr+2
( 3 -1
Inx=rxe lo,e .l-r.l--, -3 I 1

\l\ T)
f(x) =t2 +3t +2

'f(x)=ir*9\'*z-?
\ 2) 4

' ftxt=lr*3)'-'-
\ 2) 4
.'. Range of ftxti. [ -1, -
l4' I
)
qo
l'txt =-]when t = :t
, lrt x = --t = x. = g-3/z
4 22=
Graph of f(x
Now,y=(ln*)2 +3lnr+2
(1nr)2 +3ln x+2-y=g
3t,E-4t2-y)
v -3t[+y*1
ln-t= =
2
+1
lnr= -B -.,14y
-3- +1

/is[r,, ,
^,i4y
:=) x=e 2
[...oo-ui,or ]
-3-.,!4r.+L
|-1 -(x)=e
5
Functions

, I -\
+ '' zJz
Jz. sin
I0. /r1t= - ;- lr )*
' t"rom- 1 to 1
... f - Range of function =fnE,3.tEl.Clearly, /will be one-one also, if
=U,r_n] Ans.
"
.r2*-r*,'
11. Let "t'= l--
xz+Zx+r
-? (y-1) x2 +('2Y -1)r+c(ry-1) =0
As r is real, so D >0.
= Qy - 1)2 > 4c (y _ t)2
...(i)
= 4(c -1)Y2 + 4(l-2c)Y+(4c -1)S0
But we are given
a0 +12v2 -28 v+15 So ...(ii)
(6y - 5) Qy -$
getc -l =L-2c = 15-l
4c
.'. On comparing Eqs. (i) and (ii) ' we J
3
c=4 Ans.
12. lt f(x) is surjective then range of f(x) must be [0, -)'
2 4x + h +1+ 10 e [1, *)
.'. Range of aiSr -
= Range of 3x2 - 4x + fr + 1in [0, -)
D=0
l0 -t2 (ft +1) =0
4-3h-3=0
-1
k-- Ans.
o
J

r"B. wen*"",(#)= r=,. Ans.


[;,, )
,2 <I
4:O<x
-1t
-r,r<.r<77
14. f(x) =
O:rc<x<-3t
2
o-
,2
-2:!!<x<2n
.'. Range of f@) = {- 2,0, 4}
GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

,5. r"c,[+ .

,l
tog2trtx)l =
],* [, rffi]

= Iog zlf(il:= losz 3. log .


[, ffi ,

f@):,.ffi=fG) ,(:) ={i) + f@)

= f(x) =L * x'
'f(x)=1 110" =1001
+ +10 " = 1000 + Positive sign must be taken and n = 3
f(x) =1 + r3
f(x)=1 +(20)3 =800L Ans.
16. r=2sin21,y=2cos20
f(x' Y)

, -';--;il;*"'
.'. Range of f(x, y) is [2, 6] . Ans.

[ r<-1
''
17. Let fk) =1, - 2l- l* + 1l = l1 - Zx; - l< x < 2
|. -u' x>2

.'. p € (- 3, 3). Ans.


18. Let St*t= xF' * o* - rfrT* O-t

... [(xt = #(on rationalising]


,,l1-+{olxt +,f7+(Ux\
Functions

rxz
f(r)rr"- =o-b
Hence, K = 5. Ans.

',lx + 2l- 3i = { -',rr;u;


1 G-z-2)(r+6)t :+ t)
2) (.x
19.
'* [, x'+ 4)(x +r6)
(x (x o\

il 1l)
1
x*2,-4,-6
lx+21-31=ss"lt-1.
\ x'Z +1-l,)
2
ltr
llx +21-31=1=lx +21-11
ll-3=+1
t-
= lx +2|1=4,2
+ X *2 =+ 4,+2
x=2,-4,0,-l-66 Ans.
=
20. (p' - 4) (p' -9)= o= p = L2, Irf!-rf
lY-'1=o=2ap<4
lel _.1

lzp-\=0=)2P-1=n,'L.NCI
n
n+l
,2
I)=-

Possible values of p are 2


.'. ard .f.
Ans.
=+ Required sum = 5

21.
[1bl)
'cll 1.1].J='
1+x2 <15=*2 <14
.'. Number ofintegral values of x ate 7 . Ans.
22. slx)= 1t.r-' lrl+ 1 =sgn{S(r)} = 1
2
sin23r -cos22x=l
sin23 r =1 + cos22 r which is possible if sin r =1 and cos'r = 0'

sinr=]lrx=2nfi+:2
Hence,-10n 32nn*!<ZOn
2

--2122<zn<9
--2744<n<ry=-5 <n<9
Hence, number ofvalues ofr = 15. Ans.
B GRB Proble ms in Calcultts (Hints & Solutions\

1
J_
*4 -r2 _x
23.
." -*t - .r''e^1
+2-
x3
x- 1
x- 1
.r x 1
=-6 Ans.
(*-7]'*r+1+Bf'-1) 3(, -1)*s(,- 'l
\ r/ \ x) x) \ x)
24. x =a-lxl3*xeI
o=*3 +*
7 i
Io=I.'*I.=l 17x8\2 *
,2 L9 =784 +28 =812 ;tlrs.
r I r-I \ /I 2

,l
=lrrj
r-
+x+t/x'+7-x-t2 Jr'*r
\2

J
-x"
o

= ii- ln l2,f xz +7 x2)


2"
An even function hence neither one-one nor onto. Ans.

4xG2 +l) \' x)


+(r*r\
26. y=
*2 +(x2 +Ll2 , I rtz
t+[x+-J
Let x +L =t
x
For x>0,t>2
4t4
" l+t2 1*,
t
For t >- 2,t n 1= !
t2
o
0<y<3and"v=0forr=0
b

.'. Range of ftxti. [0, 91 Ans.


L 5l
9
Functions

27. f(*) = {r} + 1, *llx


t_ rt -
r , ll rJ--[ "
Ix*l-ll +..... li
tt
.I .l

ll+ x',)l ]l l^
' t-
l' r * 2"
l t1+ eex'z.]l
=1(00 {rl) ('.' {r +,m] ={xl,meI)
f(J5) = roo) (0.7 32) = /,1 o.z
.2
Ans.
tf(."6ll = 7.)
I.)
t)

28. A A

Ans.
fof:A-->A
29.
2o
.,f, - ,f' x<-5
r+]" -5<r<-1
30. /(r) = (p - 7) ( l1- r l+ l1 +rl) -1Sr<1
x +6 l<x<5
3-xZ x>5
x 2o-o -v1-5=x)_.5
-x+x -5<-x<-L+1<r<5
f{- x) = Q-7)(11+rl+ 11 -rl) -1<x<l
-x+6 1<-r<-1
J-X x<-5
0 x<-5
)" +6 -5<.r<-r
f@) + f(- x) = -2$-D(11 -tr1+11+rl) -1<r<1
)" +6 7<x<5
0 x>5
For f(r) to be an odd function
f(x)+f(.-x)=0Vre-R
)" = -6 andp = 7,+(X+pr) = -6 +7 =l Ans.
lq_

ffi
GRB Probtems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

31. Grcrups 1,1,1,3 or 1,1,2,2 f


614!
Number of mappingr = 911] *
3!3! 2t2t2t2l
= 480 +1080 =1560 Ans.

32. k2 -Bk+2=0,1t2 -1=0, k2 -6k+ 5=0, l?z -zl?*1=0


and h2 - k = 0 must be satisfred simuitaneously.
So,A=1.
Hence, number of reai values of ft is one (i.e.,lz = l"). Ans.
Y

From graph
/(r) is one-one, -l < f(x) <l
B(r) is one-one, - 1 < g(r) < 1
Thus /{g(r)} and s{fk)l both will be one-one.
I
f tS(xll = ltan-r {grxt}
7t

-1<g(r)<1
n
--J'q trurr-l {g(rt} <
4-4
_l .?run-r {gtxt) . -] tnr. /og is into.
2 n2
_ f(x)
s{fQ)} = (t\ " kt as-1<f(x)<1
"f(x)
* s-f
"f
(n' -o' ei +e I )
s{fQ)} e
L _,- , p+e 1 l, thus golis also into. Ans.
\e -e )
Functions 11

34. f'(*) =3x2 - ]]x + 7 = (3r - 7) (x - l)


(1,4)

So many one but onto. Ans.


Graph of fi:x) = lx - 2 | ; shift the graph on r-axis by
2 units.
Graph of f lfrxtl = ]lx - 2l-2'
Graph of ftf lfk)ll=lll, -21-21-21
Obviously, if the equation 9(r) = h,he (0,2) has 8
distinct solution, lhen n = 4. Ans.

fG) = 4x (l- x),0 < x <l y=flflf@))l,0Sr<1

Ans.

Linked Comprehension TyPe

Paragraph for Question Nos. 1 and 2


Since minimum value is zero hence ! = f(x) touches the r-axis and mouth
opening upwards i.e., a >0 given f@ - D=f (2 - x)
x-->x+3
f w-1)=f(- l-x)
f(-t+x)=f(-1-r)
t2 GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)
Hence, / is symmetric about the line x = - |
f(x) = a(x +7)2
Now,given f(x)2xY x
f 0) >-7 . ..(i)
r u 11t2
and /txr
'lel < | i-l' I in r0, 2l
\!/

F(1) < 1 ...(ii)


From Eqs. (i) and (ii), f(1) = 1
Now fQ)=a(x+l)2
ftll=4o=7-n=' 4
Ans.

^ (x+1)2
l(x)= nowproceed.

Paragraph for ^
Question Nos. 3 to 5

8-76-54-321

(1) Atr=5.12=f(x)=x-4
Now, f(5.12 ) = 5.12 - 4 =7.12
lf 6.tz)l =0.72 = {/ (788)} Ans.
(2) Atx = 9, centre ofthe circle lies on f(x) = x _ 8,then/(9) = 1
So, centre is (9, 1) and radius = 1
Hence, required equation of circle isr2 + y2 -llx -2y + 81 = 0

(3)

From above graph, clearly number of solutions are 7 . Ans.


Functions _13

Para$raPh for $uestion Nos. 6 and 7


fQ -2) = f(x +6)
fG)=/(r;+8)
f(v\=)
l3x. 0<.r<l
t--
14_r. 1<x14

(i)Required area=2 *! x +x 3 +2 * l't x 3 =15 Ans.

(ii)/(-89) - / (-67) + f(46) =f(-1) - f G$ + f (-2) =3 -t +2 = 4 Ans.

Paragraph for $uestion Nos. 8 to LO


(i) CIearlY, S{/(r)}is not defined
lf-2+a >8andB+3>B
=+ cr>10andB>5
+ cr, e (10, -) and B e (5, *)
Ans.

(ii)Ifg =2,9=3then
- l2x+2, r>-1
f(xt = l^ +3' x<-1
1or2
Ans.
So, range of f(x) e [0, -; =Range ofg{/(r)} =14,121
(iii) For r e [1, 3] and cr = 3
Now, f(r) + g(x) =72

) Bx=E-*=2 t)
Ans.

Paragraph for $uestion Nos. 1I' to 13


Two cases are possible for PQ w'r't' diagotalCA'
I : When x = AR< AS, i.e., x el O, *"lz1
Case
I I

Triangle ARP is an isosceles right angle triangle'


Hence, AP=iix=AQ
t4 GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

= Area of segment i.e.. fkt = @* = x2 , x.


[r, #]
case rI : when x = AR > AS i.e., . .lfr,
""f

J2 diu *l
P

ts

= CP = CQ = ji tnl1o - x)
f- I
Area of segment f(x) = a2 -t'F2a - x)2. *.ll3- , Jzol, LJ' .l
i.e. f :[0,
^li al -+10, a2)
a(_;a
J2
1x 1a

, til<a ..12

f(x) < a2

o',a<f 1(x)<nli,
,12
=+ lJia-f-ri)12 =a2 -x
+ nll
"- f-'lil =t E=
+ f '(*)=Jio+x@;
Neglecting positive sign since , ,-, G) < J2 a
#
Functions 15

f(x)=Ji"-
2
o <x <9-
2
2
A--2
2
-1f40
Hence, domain of f -1(r) is r e [0, o2 ].
For a =2
^.
t\w'
/(r)
[*2.
=..1
osx<,,ti
l+-eJz -x)2, Ji 3x<2
-'^ , liG, o <r <2
'-'-lrJr-F-x, Ji<x<2
r---.
DomainorJ/-'(il - f(x) is when f-r(x) - f(r) > 0.
CaseI z03x<Ji-
G -*'>o
=+ JI tt - *3/2) >o
=+ 0 Sr S1
CaseIIzJ2<x<2
(x) = Ji i.e.,f -r (*) e [21/n , J2]
f
-1

and f(x)= 4 -QJ, - x)2, f(x)e12,8d, *D)


Hence, f-t(x) - f(x) 2 o v r e 0
Hence, domainoff (r) = lS-ttil - fk)isr e [0,77fara=2. Ans.
The equation /(r) - f 'k) = 0 has exactly three solutions
t,
tx -
g<36< 3-
'llr) = lla2 -(Jza-xt2, L<*<o
"lz

t "12
2

l,n, g<vaa
2
/-1{xl = 1
o2,
la"-xF=. I
2
-<N<Q"

Exactly three solutions exists if +qlo = a. i.n., o = Ji


- \L
Ans.
16 GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

Paragraph for Question Nos. 14 to 16


Graph of /(r) is

(i) y = f(f(f(.e@))))
From the graph it is clear that domain of g(r) is [0, *) and range of g(r) is
[-1, -).
fI(f(g(x))))
I
[0, -1 I l,-) [0. -) [2, -)
Hence, range of fffff@(x)))) is [2 , -). Ans.
(ii) For the domain of y = S(S(S(f(r))))
e@(f(x))) e [0, -)
::) g(fk)) € (1, ".)
= f@) e 12, *)
=) re [1,-)
(iii) 'Ihe solution of equation f(x) = g(r) is sarne as solution of the equation /(r) = r.
(r - 1)3

= *2 *2*+7=4(x_2)
= *' *6x +9 =0
= (x-3)2 =0
:= X=3 Ans.
Functions
7i

Paragraph for Question Nos. 17 to 19


(i) Given, /(r) = 0= l*1' - l*l - 6 = 0
+ (trl - 3) (trl +2) = 0
- lx7= -2 or 3
So,r e I-2, -t) u [3, 4) = A Ans"
(ii) Every solution of set A satisfies the inequality g(r) > 0
3kx2 +2x+4(1 -3fr)>0Vre A
Case I zlf k> 0 here, 9(- 2) = 0
L,
2a
-z
-2
= 2.3k<-2=L.z
3k

) Pl=L
6

a.lo.!l
'6-]
\
Case2:If&<0
f(4) >0
48k+8+4(1-3fr)>0
= t2 +36k>0
= 1r.1.. a.
3 [],
L3 )
o)

Case 3 : For fr =O,2x + 4 2 0'=x 2 -2


.'. h = 0 is also the solution.
a=[l.ll
L3
=to,at
6.1

6b-3a=1-(-1)=2 Ans.
_1
(rtt) h r o
-..)
g(r)= -x2 +2x+B
Range of g(r) is
whenxeA
:-l- 2, - 1) u [3, 4)
[0, 5) Ans.
1B GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

More Tl'ran One Correct Answers

l. f@l= min (e', 2 + e2 * x,8)


From the graph it is clear that
maximum value of /(r) is, cr =n2
.'. [a]= ln2)=l
x (x -7)
<0
x2 -7x +L2
x(x-7) <0
(r-3)6-4)

Ans.

, (A)-1<lxl-7<4
=0 <lrl< 5=-5 <r <5
(B)/(lrl+1)
Range of f (lxl + 1) is [0,21

(C) Range of f (-lxl) is [-1,0i

(D) -1 <lrl <a

- xel-4,4) Ans.
oo
J. f(xt= 4+r-+r*
:;S(r)=9+x2; h(x)=-*2 -3* +h
(A) Range of / is (0, 81
Fun<'tions
19

(O h{f@)l > 0 and h {s?)l <0


h(6>0=+fr>0
fu(B) > 0
=- 64 -24 + k > 0 + k > 88
h Q) <0 +- 81 -27 + la <O + ft <108
Number of integral values of ft is 19
(D) Maximum value ofg{f(r)} is g(8) = 64 + I = 73 Ans.

4. /(r) = 10 {r}
Now, verify the options- Ans.

D. fr (r r = hls lftx)ll = rD{-.,


8-x-
Domain of klx) is R - lO, + 2, t2'[rl
Range of h,@) is (--, - 5)u (0, -) - {5}
or E - (t- 5, 0l u {5})
A is[5,0]ur {5} Ans.

6. P=lPl+fi,Q =[8]+ fz,R=[ft] +fa


h=|fi+fr+fs) 0sfr+fz+fz<3
Possible value(s) of k are 0, 1, ancl 2 Ans'
=+
7. (A) Let N -+ Nsuch that /(r) = 2x.Clearly f is one-one but not onto.
f :

Note : If / is a one-onc mapping fiom set e o,

(B) R -+ R such that f(x) = x3 - x2 - 4x + 4.


/:
Clearly, f(-Z) = f (:2) =f(1) = 0.
Hence, / is many one but since it is an odd degree polynomial, therefore its
range is -8, hence it is onto. _
Note : If .l' is a ()nt() mxPPillg frorn set ,4 to ,4 tlren is one-oue onlv if',4 is finite set.

(c) suppose / is not one-one then there are atleast two real numbers
x17 x 2, e R, x1 I r, such that f(r1 ) = f(x 2)
s{f@)l = s{f(x2)}
i.e.,gof isnot one-one which is a contradiction to the given hypothesis that gof
is one-one.
Hence, / must be one-one.
(D) Clearly, total number of functions from A to B =2 x2 x2 = B. Ans.
20 GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

8. (A)sgn(lr] +1)=1VreR.
(B) sin2 (ln r) + cos2 (ln r) = 1 V x e R+ .

,
(C)irsin
7T
' {r}
LJ * cos-t {r}r=1v;u e R.

(D)sec2 [{r}] -tan2 {[r]]= sec20o _ tanz 0o =1vx e R. Ans.


9. y = fG) = 1-1{x)
=x
NowY=ax.+b
a="-vb-
aa
-lY) = L\) - b
|^-1
a -a'
|^-1xb
-tx)
aa .. .(i)

and f(x) = ax + b . .. (ii)


Now in order that (i) and (ii) coincide
1
A=- ...(i)
d
!=-b ...(ii)
ct

1a = 1 or - 1
tr'rom (i), a2 =L
Ifa=-1,b=b=beR
Ifa=*1,then2b=0+b=0
Hence, (- 1, .R), (1, 0). Ans.
10. (A) We have / : A --> B,
g:B --sC
and gof : A --> C

#
(Rlr ) r --l--f-
./\/r->.----.----+\
)
t----r-:--=--=--,

Clearly, golis one-one but g is many one function. Ans.


11. Clearly, f(x) =, (, - 18), whenf = 12 - x * 2l
=t2 -18f =(t-il2 -81 =(*2 -*-80)2 -81
27
Functions

f(x) =t(r - 6) (r + 5)12 - 81

f(6\=fGil=-81
andf*i. =-81
Now. verify alternatives' Ans.
12. See graph y=f(il=llrr-4x+81- 2.,t=* is a horizontal line with
intersection points, from which the r-values have different signs, only if m
> 2'

Ans.

13. Total functions = 34 = 81

m
Now, into functions = Total functions - onto functions
4l
=81-1!1!2 ! .!xs!
2l
=81-36=45
(A)r +y +z =ll(x,Y,ze N)+Y'4 Y'+z'=8
... C , = 45 + (A) is correct.
,o

(B) 10<2
-8

'o C, = (B) is correct.


= 45
(C) 3! x 4! = L44
= (C) is incorrect.
(D) 3600 =24 .32 .52
... Total divisors = 5 x 3 x3 = 45=
(D) is correct. Ans.

14. (A) f\xt=.i., '[log, t'l . : I ]ll


I \r"+r+I/l
- . .:'|l
f(- xt= sin -' [,o*-"\x'--t+l))
,14 = - ,,,,
L
22 GRB Probtems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

/r.)
\r/
= r.,t=-t't-x)
z (x2 -t)
lB)f'(x)=-.,
' I ' , r'-, *rlf '(*','o*,'
-x +1)
,

(x2 + x +l)2

V \ '["*..')) l,"*r+rJ
"/r - |
rog

*" -'t * 1
Sin." . ,l
r'+r'+1 [1,
l3 "l
-l 1

^ I- n
f\.rt=l
;r-l
,.rt max. at
I
min. at
x-' I
Ans.
15. /(-rt = a(x - 2)2 + 1"

f(l)=2.'.a=l
f(x)=x2 *4x+5
g(lnr) =*2 -4x+5=(x-2)2 +l
8(r) = \e'-2)2 +l
r e (- *, ln 2) =+ g(r) e [1, 5)
+ g(r) is invertible function.
!=(e'-2)2 +l
e, =2 + "lT-L,z _
Ji I
r = ln (Z - "[y -l) as.r € (- *, ln 2]
.'.g-1(r)=ln(2-f-1). Ans.
16. Ans.
17. Given, f(x) = log[ax3 1 (o + b)xz + (b + c)x + c]
For f(r) to be defined
a*3 +(a + b)x2 +(b + c)r + c >0
+(axa +bx2 +cx)+(axz +bx+c)>0
= x(ax2 +bx+c)+ax2 +bx+c>0
(x +t)(axz +bx +c) > 0
=
= (r+1)>0 [..'b2 -4ac<0and a>0,...axz +bx+c>0forallrealrl
= .r>-1
Hence domain of/ = (- 1, -) Ans.
40
18. -,' =
x2-4x-b
= x2y-4xy-5y-40=O
'.' r is real .'. D>0
23
Functions

l6y2 +4y(5y+40)>0
gy' + 40y >O + y(9y + 40) > 0
( 40 1
-'-;
"[ -]uto'-)butY+o
r
y€l-*,-+40)
" \. 9l lu(0,*)
Integers which are not included in the range are - 4, - 3, - 2, - 1' 0
5
<*aiC;-t 6Cr +7Cz + 8Ca + eCn
Now, ) =\Co +
i=1
o IOCU
= =,OCU
24v=10+4or10+6
=14or 16

x+9 [-4,-B)
?-x+L2 l-3,-2)
19. gof @) = g -2,2)
t
12 - 2n, lzg)
9-x [3,4]
234
graph of got(x)

[x
+e [-].0,-8)
fog k) =lt [-8,-4)
[-a- x l- 4, -21
-8 7 6-54
-l Ans.
graph of fog(x)

Match the Column TYPe


2
*
1. (A) We have f(x) = e' '', x e [- 1, *)
ClearlY, f('71= e2 = [(7)
also x2 +lx1>0Vre [-1,-1
+ R1 =[1 ,-)
:. f(x) is many-one into function t (Q), (R)
24 GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Sotutions)

(B) We have, f(x) = lO -2x + x2

f(x) =

y:(x-l )2+9

Clearly from gr:aph, Rf = (3, -) and also f(r) is one-one.


fk) is one-one into function =+ (P), (Q)
(C) We have f(x) = tan5 rc[x2 + 2x + 31=
f@)= 0 V r e R
:. R, = {0} (as tannr=O,if n e I)
Also flr) is periodic function (As every constant function is periodic with
fundamental period)
= f(x) is many-one into and periodic function = (e), (R), (T)
(D) We have.
f(x) =lr - 1l + l* - Zl+ lr - Bl +lx - 41, x e lg, 41
f(x) =(x -1) + (x -2) + (x - g) - (x - 4)
=(3r-G)-(x-4)
f(x) = 2x - 2, which is increasing function
So Rf =[4,6)
Clearly, flr) is one-one onto function
= (p), (S) Ans.
(A) Let * sirr, * .P n"or* = t
ie VB
f,-u" =lT;tmin=-fi
fk)=cost;te[-r,n]
f(x) e [- t' t] = (P)' (Q)
Trigonometric function is periodic.
:.f(x) is many-one (R) + (A) + (p), (e), (R)
=
(B)Letlsinrl+1=r
t e ll,2l
f(x) =logrt + f(x) e [0,1]
fl.r) contain only one positive integer.
Domain is E
= (P), (Q), (R)
25
Functions

(C)trl+[-r] =0 xe I
=-L xe I
.'. {trl + [- r]] = 0
.'. Domain is (- -, -)

Range contains only one integer and also constant function.


f(r) is many-one obviously + (P), (Q)'(R),
(S)

(D) We know
le" le
(0, -) V r e -E
{ le'l} e [0, 1)
t{'le'l)l e toi
f(r) is constant function.
Domain is ,8.
Obviously /(r) is many-one + (P), (R), (S)
Ans.
S. (A) fsn@) = r ;Domain = 'B - {0, 1+ (Q)
(B) /(r) =t - x2 +lf{2)l= 3 + (R)
(C)r=1=(P)
4.
Ans.
o.

Ans.
't

(l + x)".
f'(r) = --j
6. (A) > 0.'.one-one

f '(x) --> 1 as r --) @.'. not onto = (Q)


1
(B) l''(x) =1 + 4, flr) increases both fot x >0 and:r <0
x'
/(1)=fl-1)=0
.'. f(x) is onto but not one-one. + (R)
1
(C) f'txt =1 - +
x
changes sign
26 GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)
not one-one
.'.

flr) is not onto since f(r) > 2 and f(x) < - Z


(D) f' @) = 2 + cosx > 0 .'. one-one

f(x) --> *- as x -+ * -.'. onto. Ans.


I
7. (Al frxt =l* r-l t 1l
* I l+l* -' l+ 2l- xl
2) . I 2)
Clearly /(r) is into as it will not take non integral values.
Nowwrite[xl=x-lx]
' .lt.l- l*
I 1l / 1\i-t.r-1
ii+l.t- i 1r
\ - 2/
fl.r)=1,
{
+
2l \ 2l I z)l+Z(-x -{-.r}r
-

I 2)t-J"-'f
=-Jr+'-
i 2l -zr-,r
This is periodic with period 1.
So function is periodic, many one and into + (e), (S)
(B)/(r)=.r3 + x2 +3x +sinr
Clearly onto and not periodic.
Now, f'(x) =3x2 +2x +3 cosx
=3x2 +2x+2 + 1+cosr
D<0 ,l*.y.*rr"
so always +ve
So /'(r) is always + ve so one-one, onto =+ (p), (R)

(C)
,r
'o-r
flr)='e' +- e-'
Now, if r is < 0 then /(a) = g.
So many one
[0 r<0
I

f(x\=le'-e' r>0
l--
le* + e-,
Soforr>0, f(x)=n':-1
e"^ +l
Nowinr>0
Functions 27

r.=-=--r-
e2* -\ e2* +L-2 1

"
+l e2' +ln2r n" +l
So 1<e2* <*
2<e2* +1<-
11
->'->u.
2 e2' +l
1 , :-> 0 + t, -3- > 0, so range is [0, 1) hence into.
ez, +l ez* +l
So many one, into + (Q), (S)
(D) f{r) = nsinrrl * s;ri I rf l
\2 ) f

r
Clearly into as e "i'l'i and [rl both bounded and periodic with period 4.
"t1 2
So many one
i.e.Maiy one, periodic, into = (Q), (S) Ans'

lnteger Answer WPe

1. Range of f(x) is [0, 7)


Hence, d =7.
Now, one root of P(*) is less than 1 and other root greater than2.
Hence, P(1) < 0 =2L -3m <0 +m >7
and P(2) < 0 + 24 - 2m< 0 + m >t2
Hence, m >12.
.'. Least integral value of m is 13.
+ (&-5)=8. Ans.
2 r2+ p 36
2. Case I :When P -
2
f(2) =8
+ 4-2@-2)+3P-2=8 +P=2
CaseII:When P-2 12=p>6
2
_D
=g = -(P-D2 -4tgP-zl -r
4" 4

-p2 -4p+4-l2p+8 =-oL


* p2 -16p + 44 =O
rc t.F56 -t76 _16+4.,i5
p= =gt2Jb
2 2
p =8 +2J5
p =B - 2JB (rejected)
2B GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

.'. Sum of values of p is


2 +8 + 2rB =10 + =m +,,1i
n "80
=20 =2 Ans.
m10
3. We have, /(r) = x(x + 1) Q (r) + (ox + b) '..(i)
qi"iil, .'',lRJ*ild",'
Put r - 0 and x = -l in equation (i), we get
b=0 ...(ii)
and -!=-a+b ...(iii)[As/(O)=0andl'Gl)=*ll
.'.rr=1.6=0
So, r(r)=axtb=x
Hence, r(10) = 10. Ans.
j
4. frt, = 3*' i-lli'It t n: J :f(xt =s + ** + n :
l+x' l+x'
.,_Qrmx*tt-3
- 1-l-'
for y to lie in [- 4, 3)
mx+n-3<0Vre.R
This is possible only if m = 0.
-a
When, m=}theny=3+ " "-
l+x"
Note that n -3 <0 (think !)
n<3
If -+ -,.Ir,.,.* J 3
r
Now y,o;r, occurs at x = 0 (as 1 + n2 is maximum)
./min =3+n-3=n+n=-4 Ans.
72n -!n2
Alternativr) r y = .

-t2
x2(y -B) - mx + )t - n =O
xeR
D>0
*'-4t.y -g)(y-r)>o
*2 - 4{1,2 * tly -3y +3r) >0
Ly' - 4y (n +3) +12n - *2 <0 ...(i)
Functions
29

Also given (y+4)(y-3)<0


yz +y-L2<0 ...(ii)
4 4(n +3) ]r}n - m2
Compare Eqs. (i) and (ii), we get = - =
i , --12

:+ m=}andn=-4 Ans.
5. /tfl=a+b+c
f(-D = 4a -2b + c
Hence f(D - fG21=$(b - a)
u=t##=Tay*r=;rta
/(1)
Hence, ,Err;.,. occurs when l'G2'l =0-
Hence, En i.,. = 3 . Ans.

Aliter : f(x) >0 V r =o >0 and b2 - 4ac <0

".91
4a

a+b+c)a+a*b]
4a
4a2 +4ab+b2
a+b+c2
4a
Since b-a>0
a+b+c 4a2 +4ab+b2
b-a 4a(b-a)
_(2a + b)2 -
4a$ - a)

a(b - a)

Using A.M. > G.M. on 3a andb - a


,3a(b - a)
-, Ans.
ab-a)
Equality holds when 3a = b - a
4a=b = b=c=4a.
30 GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

6. For tangency, x2 - I = x -4,


x-
,
9l:lx al
1J,-L- u2 - u + a -9 -0
PutD=0=1 -4a+36 -0
37
A=-
4
_J'qry
lilty A=-
4

...For4 distinct solution. ,.(


uruLrurr,--[ -!,n r -g1l, (-B,B)., f a, {'\
, \ 4)
Hence, number of integers are 17 . Ans.
7. We have f'(x) =3x2 +6x + 4+ b cosr - c sinx
Now, for to be one-one, only possibility is
/(r) /'(r) 20V r e ,8.
i.e.,3x2 +6x + 4 + b cosx* csinr >0 V r e .B
i.e.,3x2 +6r + 4 >c sinr - b cosr V r e R
i.e.,3x2 +6r+ +>^lU' +"2 v xeR
r.".,rfr* <B(x2 +2x+L)+1v xeR
i.r.,^p ** s3(x +1)2 +1vre .E

= 6";7 slvre .B

= bz +c2 <l-vre .B Ans.


8. Since range contains exactly 3 distinct values

ffi)
(t ( i)
5:
UV
.. 'c,
"
[_i! 1 + !l , r!= 1500.
lM!3!2! |212!21)
_
So, N =-- 1500: Ans.
300 300 =5
----[*]
e. case t zrf x < 0 then [9'l .ru [+lt. - ve hence [9-l -,. [4-l can never be equat to S
L*l L*.1 Lrl
CaseII:Ifr>0
Functions 31

we have
3-
r
.!.f ; [ql [t
LJ_l= Lx l
I

Since or[!l ,"d [4j is an integer.


"u.r, lrl Lx_l

.'. 3 possibilities are there :

,,, = o and
[:] [i] = '
= land = - A"[ql*[1] =s
",[;] [*] L*,1 L*.1

,r,[:] =2and[1] =,

+o<3<r
lrl =o
No*,.ir[l] =0.1.1 =x>3
x
- 141 - - -4 ^ 7 x -\ 2 -4
Lr-l x64535
These two equations are not possibie. Hence no solutions in these cases.

-'""'--Lr,l=r
No*.r[9-] -t<1.2
x =!.1<r
2 3 =].r<s
2

and l!1=+ =4<!.s


x 5 44 -!.r<t
=!.*<L
Lrl 5

not possible simultaneously + no solution


.)
Againif[q-l =2
=2a1.3 =+1.:=1
--o-'Lrlx332 =1<x<92
/-
and [1] =B +s<!.4
x =!.,'<!
4 43 =1<r<j
Lr-l o
J

Commonsolutiont.*<!
r)
r t-l
Hencerell.:l
I ol \ .)_l

.'. a =1,b = 4, c :3; .'. a + b + c + abc =1+ 4 + 3 +12 =20 Ans.


10. Product of tw<l integers is prime if one of them i-' 1.

No* - [,L.- 1l
2)L[, * 'l i= to be prime.
2)

case r : Let[, - f'l =r and [x * tl =z


- L 2) 2) I
ao GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

1<x-l22
.2rrrd2.*+L.3
!=*.!u,d1=r.!
2222
Hence. r. [q. q) ...(i)
12 2)
CaseII : Let[x - ll =
l2)'1 -1and[, 2) -,
*'--] = (we will find no solution)

Case III : Let [, n ll = t and [* - L) =, (we will find no solution)


|2l L2)
Case fV : Let [, * !-l = -l and[* - ll = - z
l2)lz)
- i-ax+l.Oand-2<x- 1.-r
22
-9.r.-lurrd-1=r.-1
2222
' [-q. -
Hence.r. ll ...(ii)
12',2)
FromEqs.(i)and(ii),re [-1,-1t i3 5\
L 2 z)ulz'r)
:. *l + xl + *2, + xZ =?r.I*? *'i =T =r, Ans.
11. fk)=lVxe R
g(1)<0Vxe,R
2-3(k+L)+3k2 +k<0
= 3h2 -2k -t<0=(3A +1)(ft -1)<0
t_1
= a.[-l.r]
\3') Ans.

12. :_*!-t'*(gra
R,a)=ax+b
Hence x2oo7 - ek) .@2 - Bx + 6) + ax + L
x2oo7 - e@) . e -2) (x - B) + b ...(i)
"::B (r)
NowR(0):b=?
Putr=2inEq.(i)
2a+b*22007 ...(ii)
DO
Functiorts

Putr=3inEq.(i)
3a+b-32007 ...(iii)

Eq. (iii) - Eq. (ii) gives


o2007
A=,7^2007-/.
Now b _22oo7 _2a=22007 -Z{Bzoo7 -22007)=22oot +2.22007 -232007)
=3.22007'2.g2oo7 = 6 122006 - 32006]
I = ab (a" - b" )
2006
__
Z .g 122006 _ 3

Hence a =2,b =3;c = 2006


Ans.
.'.a + b t c =2 + 3 + 2006 =20LI
f3. f(1) =l+b+c
f(S) =25 + 5b + c
f(g)=81 +9b+c (i)
Now f@ -2f (9) =32
(5) + f ...

Since l/(r) I<8 for all r in the interval [1, 9], we have
l/tti 1< 8;l/(5,tI < 8;l/(e) l< 8

Now from Eq. (i),


32 =l /G) - 2 fG) + f(e) | < I F (1) | + 2 | fG) I + I f(el I < s2
f(1)=f(9)=8;fl5)=-8
i.e., b+ c +1 =8;9b + c + 81 =8;5b + c +25 = -8
The only pair (b, c) that satis{ies the condition when b = -10 and c =
17
Ans.
+ 1 ordered Pair.
14. xlxl - 5x + 2x - 2lxl* 6 = 0
lrl(r - 2)'3(x -2) =O
(trl - 3) (r - 2) =0 )x =2 ot[x] = 3 =r e [3, 4] U {2}
(a_ 3)x2 +2(a+3)r-Bos0
,*' -3x2 +Zax+6r -Bo <0
o*' -Zax -3x2 +6x + 4ax -84 (0
ax(x -2) -Zx(x -2)+ 4a@ *2) <0
(x -2)Lx(a - 3) + 4ol <0

Caselza-3>0=+a.>3
-4o a4=- 4a>1a-lZ
a-3
8a312-o=12
No solution
d+ GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)
CaseII:o-3<0
-4a <2
-a-3 =-4a>2a-G
6>6a+a<1
.'. Greatest integral value of a is 1.
.:

15. f(d = ,G** , ; i-"rr'; - !tr# ,;Zs"',


= r[-', n 4 - 4 .i"', - nG{. i4;P;
=2 -sin2 x-(2 -"os2r)=cos2r -sin2 x=cos1x,
g(sin 2/; = .irr, + cosf
(g(sin 2t))2 =1+ sin 2f
= g(sin 271= ,[1+ si2t
g(x)=.,[-" -1<x<1
Now, g{fi)\ = g'(cos 2 11 = u[ + cos-27
= ',4lcosr l

.'. Range of S{/(r)}is [0, "E]


a2 +bz =2 Ans.

(y secr - sinr)2 = sin2, + I


2
y2O. +tan2 x) -2ytan* =L
2
y'tun'x -Zytanr + y2
"2-L =O

tanre R.'.D>0
4y'-4 -u'(n'-!'l
l" el =o \ -/
t-(n'-1)
\" ,I \. -/ =o
,'-9'o
-2
( t,>\t ,{D\
ly-I llv+f9 l<o
f" 2)\" 2)
fr;t;
ttdtd
'- L Vt'!t
ar- I I
-

Hence, number of integers are B i.e.{- 1, 0, 1}. Ans.


lylrtylt JJ

17. Let x_r__F_r_t._+,E


2..,6! z.'6X zJs! z.ls
*=LrF-==>!2x'+r*6=o
X=
-ttrtt+288 -1 t17 16
24 24 24
2
""3
r ) \ , t\
. f'r. n,,'rl-7 "> [ ll.an
3.65 + log*"''3r I -:2)l=1 - f t3.15t =]
l'(3.15) = f(3.15 -2) = f (1.15) - f(1.15 -2) = / (- 0.85)
But f is odd function.
/(3.15) = - f(0.85)
/(0.85)=-/(3.15)=-1
18. m-'C^.4t=5t=Total
When exactly 2 elements of A maps to itself l.e.
I
f(3) = 3, f(4) = 4 I 2
2 J
From 5,6,7 select any 2 in 3 C, x2t = 6
.'.
J 4
When exactly one element of A maps to itself say 4 5
6
fl3)=3
Now 4 can be map in 3 ways and remaining elements 3 x 2 = 6.
'cr*3x6=36
Total =36 + 6 = 42 = 5!- 42 ='78 = m
n ='c, .'c, .'c, .2ct =lG. Ans.
19. For r-intercept rr = 0

ll*-rl -ol=3
l* -21-o= 3or -3
=) l*-21 =o+3oro-3
For 3 r-intercepts
a+3>0ando-3=0 ...(i)
0r al3=0andcz-3>0 ...(ii)
From Eq. (i) o = 3 and Eq. (ii) is rejected.
Hence, sum = 3 Ans.
GRB Problems in. Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

20. N = l1q!1)'- [r*l?]. [trq,];. . . .. [rr]:r,.l.,


-- I [-r+3]
...(i)
35 I L ss L ss l I
L_35 L 35 l
rY-rru
,nr = [rs _
itl [r,
*'L'"-_ ts tzt] E91
-f"--rr,a
* [r, -
B5_] 85 _]

+
1B(38)l t_^ rsts+r_l (ii)
frs-=, ]+[ts-=-]
From Eq. (i) +(iil+ 2N =(18 -1) + (18 -1) +....... +(18 -1) =17(34)
34 times

= N =17 (.17) =289


21. f

n(S) = 53
For n(A):
2trOt)+
o *O r J
-)+Q' ))(
/':\
e
t-Q
.r-@l
1 (-,"
(9-r\G
\:./ I
c,-@<: \.:
t

. €)l].
o-t_G
3\
3-. o
o< @
o
o-c @
o
a6)
\:-/

Similarly when 1 is associateci with (2) then number of such functions are 10
and when 1 is associated when (1) then number of such functions are 15.
Totalfunctions=1+3 +6 +10 +15 =35. Ans'
nnI
r)
Functions
mx+n-3
3@2+7)+mx+n-3 :ftxl=3+--_--
22. f(x) = ,
l+x2 l+f-
mx+n-3
",-Qr
v I
-u
l+.r'
Forytolisln[-4,3)
mx+n-3<0VxeR
This is possible onlY if m =O' ^
n-6
when,m=0thenY=r*r;
note that n -3 <0 (think !)
<3n.
-, .Irr"* J 3
if r -+
maximum)
.ro* y*,r, oc.,rr. at' x = 0 (as 1 + lr2 is
Ans.
=3+n-3=n=n=-4
Jmin
l2n - m2
AlternativaZY= _n
*' (Y -Z) - mx * Y - n =0
xeR
D>0
*2 -4(v-3)(Y-r)>o
-4(Y'-rY-3Y+3r)>o
m2
...(i)
4y'-4yh+3)+12n-mz <o
Also given (Y+4)(Y-3)<0
y'*Y-t2<0 .. .(ii)
4(n+3) lln - m2
get ! =
compare (i) and (ii) we -1
-t2
Ans.
+m=0andn=-4
.. .(i)
23. f(x+9=2'f0)+4Yf(x) ...(ii)
AIso, x) =2Y f@) + 4' f(Y)
11y +
Now, 2' f(y') + 4Y f(x) =2Y fG) + 4' f(Y)
f@)
4' -2' 4Y =2Y
= fu)
=u

f(x) = h.(4' - 2* )
f(l)=2=k.2 +h=t
f(x) = 4r -2"
f'(x) = 4' ln 4 - 2' ln2
f'(2) =16 ln 4 - 41n2 =281rt2
Ans.
k =28.
2
Inverse Trigonometric
Functionsi

Only One Correct Answer


. i ---------l-
1. tan 1 *- - {tan ' .u5 r tan-1 ,[i) = ft Ans.
.) ,'12
cos 'x = I
6
=x e l- t. llandf e i0, nl
Iog,o ,51 a, *;log,o r 2t +B)* 1 log,o 5= t(r > lurrdr=-ql
5 2)
logls ((5/ - 1) (2t + 3).5) = 2
(5t-l)(zt+3).5=100
(5t-1)Qt+9=20
l0t2+13/-S=20
t0t2+2Bt_ t}t_ 28=0
t(10t+23)*Qjt+28)=0
ZN
ft - 1)(10, + 23) = 0 =t = Tort (rerected)
10
cos-1r=1=>r=cos1 Ans.

Hence, tw-o solutions


Ans.
39
Inuer se Trigonometric Functions

4. '.'sin-1is defined for [- ]-, 1l


a=A
x * y = sin-1 1+ .o.-1 1- tan-1 l=I4
Clearly, image about r axis will be x- y=! Ans.
4
t."4 ..6 * ( I tz\-
.rl)L
r" - L -'".....1u
s. sin ' ir'
\.
9 1 B
.o.-' l'o - 3 -
1 o19
J)

X Y
Now, X=Y
x-,4 = x n
J
O^- L
d-l 4
=9 + 31 =9x2 +3xa
.=>x2 =l
, x-,4 ----
. ir -Bnr2 3+x'
I+ oQ
I+
ou
=)x=0, 1or-1 Ans.
.'. Number of values is equal to 3.
...(i)
6. Wehave bsin-r r + b cos-r * =)
2.
...(ii) (given)
andosin-1r-bcos-1r=c
.'.On adding (i) and (ii), we get (o + b) sin-1 * =9! * "
2
bn afi
1.l+c
**= 2 - t
=sin-r o+b-.similarly"os-l d+b
nab + c (? - b) Ans.
Hence(o sin-l r + b cos-l *, - a+o
7. Wehave f(x)=t-cot-l r-tan-1 r+"ec-1 x=n-22 +"ec-1 *=!+sec-lr
2
As dornain of f @)is (- *, - 1l u [1, -)
(As cot-1 (-x) = n - cot-1 r)
' [. nl\ ( 3rc1 Ans.
... Range orf(ilis[i, " [" ZJ
,( 1
8. we have /(r) = sin-l
t*-h .
=
'i" l-" - r7
I x' -|3x +
"]
[ -l
\4

,--,
=sin-'l----
,
lr 3\'- *-t7 9l
I

[l'-r) n- n)
40 GRB Probtems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

(')
. ,l
=srn.i 1 |

" I

[[.-;)".,j
Hence, ft.rr e
[0. ;], ""
co-domain = ranse fa.,, -u *!=f
4 \ -:2)l'
, *z.rz-il
'-'
[ )
Also y = - \2x + 17 is many one function.
4x2
Hence /(x) is surjective but not injective. Ans.
,r=i, zrl-
9. Given expression
- = i:{2- cos r(cos 2,1I - Jl-
tz sin l1-
lz cot rrcot 4)|
- l

- lZtl - tan -r(tan +,f * {l - cosec-l(cosec


LvLtE! u,l
\LUDEL u/[ - lllZ - oLL
.".-ir.". 6rl
\-EL w'J'

= sin-'r(sin2) - cos*1(cos2)
- cot-1(cot4) + tan-1(tan4)
+ sec-1(sec6) - cor"c-l (cosec6)
=(r-2)-2+(4-r)-(4-x)+(2n-G):(6-2n)=x-4+4n*12=Er-L6 Ans.
*:.r=1= ("=* 1)
2 1+x2 - 2--1- x2+\ < lvr e .B+c+1>0
10. wehave *=*'

So, c>-land ".*1 sl


x2+7 2
x2 +L>2c+2
So, ' 1c2 *(%+ 1)20vreR=4(2c+1)<0
_l
c<--.
2
Hence."=-l
'2 Ans.
11. Clearly, f(x\ = t=I-----
1+ 'tan-tx
N
Now, domain of equation 2(x) + (sin-l
f r)2 =o,isreI 1, 11.

(2t^n-'r+1-rl (
Now,nr)=;h-""*
L+?",.n-t x
]=;[, It
So. f(r)l-," =t"tx=-l
f(r)l-,,=rafa=l
41
Inuerse Trigonometric Functions

gs, (f(r))2. [o,4landminimumandmaximumisattained atx =0andr = -1.


4l
L
AIso (sin-l '{l
r)2 e I o, +
-1',4l I

2
.'.o-u* = x = - land o*ir =0 atr = 0'
T "t
ft- 7Iz1 I

So, ael0.-l
LI -l
L
oirtug", - 0,1, 2.3, 4
ofo = 10' Ans.
Hence, sumofintegralvalues
12. ': f is onto
_t
.'. Range of tan-1 (2x - x2 + r) should b" [#, 0]

= --. 0l
Range of ?-x - x2 + )-should be (

Ans.
Hence D = O=4 + 4)" =0, hence i = - 1'
2"-1 + rj
tB. Wehave. Iim * Al= lim
I), cot-'12'.'*T) ----- f,
./-tcot-,f,
-,i-*Lt "ot_r(2,.,
\ 2r) n-*-, \ * )
( qr \ n
= Iim
n
'i tar-l| *" -(I t 2r+7-2r
lim ) tan-l1
uo" ---!--- .zl l= ,'T: -- - l
* z''1 '2'
|

n-* ,4, tilF ,)- 3, )

= nlr*" i, (turr-'rzr+11- ta,-, tz't)

=,Ii1(tan-l(2'+r; - tan-1 D=;- tan-1 2= cot-1 2 Ans'

14. we have2n=$*2tan-r(x2 +x+k\ *=;' "tR)


[e",tu'-tcr+cot-l
=+tan-l (x2 +x+k)=L=*2 +*+k=l*xz
+x+(fr-1)=0
.'.For required condition, put D > 0'
+ 1 - 4(h -1) > 0=5 -4k>O=h' !4 Ans.

15. As, f sin-l (sinr) | = lx.l, forr e


l;, ;)
.'.From above graph, the equation

lsin-r {sinr) I = cos r has two solutions' * [+ , --t ** i;)


l2 ;]
r.)
GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

16. '.'-^.. .ir,-lx, sin l t,, sin-lz.I


--2
2
r
= +8',8s (sin r)3, (sin-1y)3, (sin-1 ,)' =t
.'. Given equation holds good iff
srn ^r=sln'y=srn'z=_
.-1.-1.-rft
2
x-y-z-l
2x-3y+42=2-3+4=3 Ans.

17. S,, ='t'.r.,'l-'


,7n \n2 +r(r+71)
l

,,-t I n 1 )
S,, =y tan-rl
,'?, lt*'+1 rl
I

\ n n)
( r+l
-.- r \
n-7
I n - -
S..=! tan-rI n |

" 3o lt*111.rl
I

\ n n)
s,, = 5' ta.,-r ir + 1) - tan-r r
3o\z) n

s,
; - r)* (tu.,-,
= ?- t^n-,]). (*"-, 1 - tan-l
[t",,-' +)
.'. S, =Sroo =1. Ans.
18. For f(r) to be surjective.

Range of fG) must be il, ^l and hence range of y =-*2 +r +o must


\2 _l
be

(*-, -11 V r e (--, - 11.

t * _ a) = _[[,
= _ @2 _
;)' (, . i)]
_ _

))'= a.; 1- r - ]r'2


€ (--, a - 2] [Maximumvalueoccursatr = -
{'- e) =t, 1]

a-2=-1=o=1 Ans.
Inu er se Trig ono m etr ic Functions 43

te. f(x) =L* "tlxl'2) r e [-1,1]

Equation f(x) = n" =f,+ ful - 2=k


o
lxl=k+ie[0,
2
I
o<k+-3=t = -l=r.-1
_a
222 _1

22
2lai+ 4lbl= 5 Ans.
20. For r e (0, 1) ,l
y:sll1 x
sin-l r >r > tan-1r > cot' - -
; ..v: x
cot-1 .r -n=-(tan-l r) Ans. Y
: titt-trx
2
21. [{r}] =0
'" """ 'Y : - tanrx
1

flxl = (3 - x7 )7
1

tr -
=ll3-(3-r't7 | | =,
f(f\x)t
, 't''')'

[ ))
fff(d=x-1-r{x)=f(x)
/-t(so) = f(50) and /(f(100)) = 100
/-l(so) - /(50) + f(/(loo)) = 1oo Ans.

zz. s=cot 1l.9.l*.ot-,


--- I.El..ot,f 1?€-)*...-
i,zl l+t \a )

*"-'(^21=,.,,-'t-=l= tan r 4-tan-.


4 = cot-l[?]=
\2) le/ \1+4x2l
2

rz = corl(3Pl= tur,-'la-l= an'( --L tu.,-'8- tan-l 4


\4) \33/ - l=
\1+8x4J
T, = tan-t 2n+r - tan-r 2"
Sn=LTu =tan-1 2rt+t -tanr 2
As n-)@
S-=;-tan-l 2=cot12 Ans.
l-t GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)
/-\ '/.x
2s. sin_11 ,l = I*,
Ir+x'j 2

CIearIy, there are 3 solution of the equation {- 1, 0, U. Ans.

24. *3 -6*2 +3px -2p=o<:'.


-\*3

Lr:21
A.M. =
33":- =9 = 2
HM =r, +=*, =\f,;{;'='
ir* *r*
A.M. = H.M. =r1 = *2 = xJ = 2

=i,,-, | 1-*al*"o., If *f,r)]-tun-'


- [1*1]=-1
xt) 2
*o- 4n = 4T Ans.
[r, *r)'""" [*, lre
25. f(r) =cos 1(x2.cos1+.irrf -rn 1=lcos' (*') -cos-1 (cos1) 1= lcos
-'t*\ -t1
(even function)
Domain of f(x) is [- 1, il.
Range of fG) is [0, 1].
b-a=l Ans.
[t-o,oe[0, 1]

Aliter: f(x) =
-r r. l]
1u [r
Range of f(x) is [0, ].1.
AI

Inuerse Trigonometric Functions

,[-j-l=o,-'[' 1
l=t*-'[,nI2)l-tu, '
26. tan
\ +r'+3,
[r,
-; J
/ 1\llr-
"l=,u,,' 1+lr+
\ 2/\
/ 1)
2) I ' r)
[.- t)
4 )i' = I tan-' rln+-l1\ -tan ,- -l1)
' tan,(I _=- (
) \+r'+3) \. \ ,l 9l
r=l
e/

+ €-^-'f 4 l= cot ,1 ^- = (tan ' 2)


(
_1

lr'un [-4r'*BJ- 2
Ans.
tan (tan-l 2) ' -9
27. Graph of y = 4 {- 1,1)
graPh
"o.-t
it is
From the
Clear that h e (%\ 4nl Ans.
.'. Integral values of h, ate 7 , 8,9, 110, 11, L2
1

28. *2 -lB* +o>0Vre -R Ans.


1a>81Vre,B
-,4 , _(n -
8n )l= tan -12
' t((n + t)2 1)2)
29. tan-r | ,-?- -
lrn - 2n2 +5)

- tan -'r'l*
!.u,,
n=l
l

I 'rqt2l I -'(n+7t2 - '-1 , r


tan' t - i'l.l
{tu"-'
22 -tan-' l;l i.' +]tan-' l, I I I, Jl
| ..2- I Ans.
ti* ]tun-l [1+l
= n*-l. -0f = .,1 = tur-t 2+ cot-t 2
\ z ) | a
30. Let f(il=x3 +bxz +cx+l
So, /(0) = 1 > 0, f?t) = b - c <0'
So, - 1 ( o ( 0, therefore tan-1 ct+ *"-'[*l
= tan-1 ct + (cot-1 cr - n.)
fi-T Ans.
r6 GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

31.

Ans.

32. Domainoff is[-1, I;f(x)=sina'+cos.r+tanr+sin 1r+cos 1r+tan-1 r


t'''@) =cosr - sinr + r".2, + O +
-_ -l-
L:J L7/''71
Hence, f'G)>0 = f is increasing = range is [/(-1), /(1)]
/(r) l*; = f(-l)=- sinl+ cosl-tan1-I2* n- I =I *cos1- sinl- tanl
44
qI * cosl+ sinl+ tanl
f(r)1,,,, = f(I)=sin1+ cosl+ tanl+ i*
244!=
::)M+m- =
fi
-i + cos 1=(A) A.,s.
22
|,1*1) .-.
BB. we have. tan 1 I + tan-r rr" ,
i= run-r l i+ l= l*)
t- ii)
r7 * 1)
Asain,trn-,
" a + ran I 1 = tar-, iU= l=tur, i 4!l =tar-, 4
tl 5 lr_7 | 148/ 24
\ 55i

..tan ,1--=tan-r-1-tan' ,23-=tan' r

Ans.
n24

34.

'fl'::l ,i[ql.]rl
r,, =Lan
tr 2 )rl-tun
) \\ z ) )

So, s, = tan-r ((t=lrl- tu,,-,,


\\ 2))
=,lrgs, =! - tun-'r =cot 1 r = l(Given)=r=cot1 Ans.
Inuerse Trigonometric Furtctions 17

BE. Let.irr-r f(r) - u (As /(r) c [- 1, 1])


2 =e€

"t
s(r)=sinrl2 f(x)
t

zl
-' (ti" 2o) + \ = 2o+ ft
,o
J.J

, (/rx)) r
= 2sin
I 2 ,l*3
/ r -l
-
/t nl/Ll- lLl
B(r) = 2sin-l ry.l-r,,,. [,
(-;) -, 3,zl \6/l-r 3l l

2n-l
e,
t 3l -,
"s(x) = [0,
aS f is onto hence.
r 6t
Alternatively : when f(x) =- 1+g(r) = sin-l I -* z) | = -;d
\

When f(x) =1=s(x) = sin-t


[fl=;
lr n. n\ i r + -n\-1. e
f^ 2ry1 Ans.
Hence 8(r) e [; ))t'e's\x)
L[-; i,1, L'' I
=

wehave H(il=|ry;+#] =
[,
-#I]L-'.,+ rfu = = *]

So.

Also, ,FI(r) is an even function on ft, so graph of H(x) is symrnetrical about y-axis.

Graph of H(x)
-18 GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

8 ,.-
Note: H("r I = 3ran-'(3 -
"l L l*1,
|
2

AIso for lrl , 2, 3 - lrle 1- *, 1), so

H(xt e: t#, !)=,- +, zt

only one point i'e' x = 0'


From the above graph, it is clear th atH(x)is drscontinuous at
Range of H(x) is(- 4, 2l u t3)'
Hence, number of integers {- 3, - 2, - 7, o,l, 2,3)+ 7 integers' Ans'

87. Given expression = ,.1#)"


lLu t
=L,;#= ( * ) .l*)'.[* )'
+ .. @terms.
a=l n=1,

Sum is finite if ]- .l= o '!


(L \
ael-.-l
\r' l
. nln+Ll n(n+t)(2n+L)
38. We have, D
26 =

l=3k 2n +
n
^;^. 1' ({3k+2n\$k-2n)'\-^,--r1-
-
. ,(gt'-4n'\- sin
.'."r" '[ffi j=
srn
1 n ,l= ,= 6'
Ans.

"r1,.

39. -l<e'<1 + -(r(0


-L<x2<7 = -13x<l so-1<r<0

(not acceptable) and one is negative. Ans.


e, = x2 one solution is positive
\
,l [r - .,-=
/rx) = tan-'l tl ----t? I * *' l = turr-r (tanl +x2)
' tltl+cosz/ ,
,

From the graph it is clear that /(r) and g(r) intersect at three distinct points La at
A, B and C.
Inuerse Trigonometric Fuructions 49

4',l
41. 'f(x)=rir-' It4+x2 =rin 'l__.-l=sin-'lgl
)

['.'* ,J
['..;)

Ztan-L L n - 2tan-L L
2 2
x_
:<-1 L21
2
-1<1<1
2 2
x<-2 -2<x<2 x>2
, (^li -q\
ft"!l-2)=2tan-'|"'
''r' 2
"! r: fi - 2=06...1
[ )

=2.!-r=o
2

J =(sin'1(sinr).r2 - sin-i(sinr) = [sir-i(sinr) - *]'


2) - +
\ 4

.'. For maximum value of y, sin-l(sinr) =+.2


/- ',r2 1 *
Hence, .Imaximum =l;";) -;=;(n+ 2) Ans.

,rr-' l.r*irg
3x422"'? =:-
1+
tan ' tan- tangent on both sides.
23+
3x..rQ4 i ,1'\^ 8+9r 4
=cotj tan'-l=2-1
aau
-t-
\ 2) t2-6x =2-x .)
3x4 -
- , -,( ?a.^l)
ZLarr'x=tt+tan'l (Asr>1)
\7-*")
n+tan'l-l
.( - 2+\

[_tan ,-lr-24\f
\z )
_ ll - 24
tanJ
L \7ll .I Ans.

24 +7 =3L
GRB Problems in. Calculus (Hints & Solution's)
50

11. ' - E-i = cot-lttant1'7 - x )) - sin-' ,'=


1}
,ru,
'lt5l=-1s*<11
i

fordomain 2-x>0 =sx<2 f -r<'<r ...(i)


'r:
o=+<1+-r<"t<rj
I

,l

sin- ,
E -,tT-x =[-tar 'rtan{.PI))-cos 'l? l{T;
,'1+",+cos-,-\il14 -\io
sin- -{ rll
-,[r-=n 1 - tun-:ttant",!i- xt't ,/ l
2 2 './l - -
1(tanr) =r
tan, ' tturrr^p -, 11 = n[z -i which is true' Now tan-
r- when

.. _ (-r n)
'\ z 't)'
jtel I

- o<2-*.+ :+ -2<-x<.I--z
z

o<Jr-<:
'2:
C
4
*a
2-t<x<2 ...(ii)

."t it - Ans.
Froom (i) and (iil, the complete solution +,t7
Iz
45. Let,tf(x)=x3+bxz+cx+1.
/(O) = 1 > 0,
'2Lan- t(co"".
f(- 1) = b - c < 0 so, cte (-1, 0)'
So,,, cr) + tan-1 (2sincr sec2 cr)
') I
1 I * tun r[ zsino z[.ur, '[--f) + tan-1( srnc).1
= 2tan-'f
\sincr/ =
[ sin ]
'stt
[1-sin'a/ ct

= z(- !\ n (as sincr < o) Ans.


\ ,l = -
\ !,

sec(Stan-
1x)
= 1or- 1 and- + . 3 tan-t*' *
22
1x=0,1t,-n 1x r r =0,J5,-rE Domaine{0,J5,-J-g}
=3tan- = tan =0,:,---
.lo
=+ =
1r)) + cos-1(cosec(3cot-1r))
Now, f(r) = sin-1 (sec(3tan
1(sec(3
tan 1x))
* .o"- t | .o."" ] - s,urr-' rll))= I2 + 2 sin-
1(sec(3 tan- 1r))
= sin-
\---- \2 |.

fen -
4,. Ans.
Hanse€
" l-.
12- 2t
47. By using A.M. - G. M. inequality, we have
51
Inu er s e Tr ig ono metric Functio ns
1-r
gsi.-1, * Scos
, =+ f(x) > 2
2

3n Ans'
Hence, logrm ='*
4
1x)3 +3sin-1r cos--1r (sin-1r -cos-1r) + sin 1r cos-1'
48. L.H. S. (sin-tr - cos
(sin 1r - cos 1r)
1r) * 4sin-1 r tot-'']
[{sln-1r -
cos-1
=(sin-1r - cos ')' 3

=(sin-' r- cos-l rl [rsin-' * + "ot-' *''] =


lu
23
= (sin 1r - cos-1 t+ =!-
416
sin-tr-cos'*=I 4
sin-lr+cos'*=I 2
2"or-' * =
L
,c = cos-
1l Ans.

Linked ComPrehension TYPe

Paragraph for Question Nos' 1 to 3


1(sin 10) + cos- 1(cos 10) =(37. 10) +(4n - 10) -'7n - 20) Ans.
(i) We have f(10) = sin- -

(ii) Clearly , f(x)= (n - x) + x = nY xt [:,


12'^] -l
2
It 7l
Ans.
So. area = --XI!=
22 -

[,.*.[0. I j
(iii) As ,i.r-'trir,rl =
| ' ?
^' ,* \

ln-r,*.lr,,l
l(cosr) = x, x e L0, n)
Also, cos-
GRBP::!Wrt
ft
*.1r,
lu, ; )
Now, f(x)={ -
I ln )
larelr,n
lL'/ I

f(xl e linx 2"2I


As e (0, 3) r,
=x = 1,
So, number of values ofr are three. Ans.
Paragraph for Question Nos. 4 and 5
f(_.x'l=fG)Vre.B
=+ /(r) is symmetrical about y-axis (even function)
f(x)=(x2 -4)2 -4
=x4 -8x2 +12 g(t): t'-8t + t2-k
t
f(x) = k
(i) xa -Bxz +L2- h=o
Put tc2 =t,t2 -&+L2-k=o ...(i)
For four distinct real roots.
Both roots of the equation (i) must be distinct and positive.
(1) D > O *64 - 4(12 - k) >0 - 12 + le > 0 =16 =k > - 4
b
(2) - 2a,o=-!-=4>o
2.1
(3) c(0) > O +12- k> 0*k <12 Ans.

(ii) )_
-Br2 +t7 )-
n.

tan ,I (r+2)2 -(r-2)2


)
.lim r=1 L+(r2 -4)2
=
ru + 2)2 - tan- rrr - 2)2)
i,rurr-
,IA r=1
= (tan-132 - tarr*1 1
,lim
l
+ tan- '42 - tan- o
+ tan-1 52 - tan-t 12
+ tan-r 6' - tan '2'
+ tan- r 72 - tan- I 32
+ tan-'8' - tar_-' 4'
+ tan- | 92 - tan- 1
52
Inuerse Trigonometric Functions 53

+ tan-1 102 - tan-162

+ tan-1(n - 2)2 - tan-r(n - 6)2


+ tan-t(, - l)' - tan-r(n - 5)2
+ tan-r n2 - tan-r(n - 4)'
+ tan- rfu + l)2 - tan-t(n - 3)2
+ tan-r(n + 2)2 - tan-1(z - D2)
=((tan-'(n-1)' +tan-rn2 + tan-1(n+1)2 + tan-l(n+2))
(tan-l 12 + tan-102 + tan-t 12 + tan-r 22)

lim
.'.
,,te7=, i
[1tri+sJ \+ - I4
-\z) -(+.0
,u,'-'l ,, ?' ,l= nl:) * + tan-r4i={,+ - tan-'+') e,,".
)\2 )

Paragraph for Question Nos. 6 to 8


o = tu,,-'(f,). *"-'(i)=;

0= (tu.,- '9 * *"-' 9) + tan-'[#) = "


,'.2, - lare roots of equation x2 - a* + b = 0.
7a

So,o=landb=-Z Y
lz'*
(i) tu,,-'[,". (*,-'(,i"]))- ,)= tan-'d: -r,=; =
g. Ans.
4
(ii) f(x) = cot-1(rz - ?nc) = cot-1 ((r - t)2 - t)
so, range of fk)= [0. 9-l 1.
--' -----o- Ans.
[-' + -]

(iii) We have sin-1r = & (Su" graphically)


2
So, number of solutions = 3 (-1, -nl2)

Paragraph for Question Nos. 9 and 1O


Putting 2r = sin0, we get
GRB Probtems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

Paragraph for Question Nos. 1l to 18

6) y=

yl-,-
"mrn = *g = ,= o { '.' At x =1 nrm"r.tor is min. and denominator is max.
[ 2----------
t.t
'-ii
"
L
|
(1005 - 3) (1005 - 2) (1005 -
6 --
1) (1005 + 1) (1005 +2) (1005 + 3) I

-Ll
_ [0. rrroos)2 - t)((1005)2 - 4)((100s), - g,-l

=lulr-__1_lir_l
- llr_ , ll
L- l rroosr' l' rtoosr' l' ,r00bf l]
,l J

-5
.'.u+B=7 Ans.
(ii) /(r) = tan-l(sin(ftcosx))

- 1< sin(Acosx) < 1 - of f(x\i.[- l,l]


] ...Range
t l4'4)JI
costr € [- ]-, I
kcosxef-lz,k]
but fr cosr .l-;,or)=u."
.'. Least integral value of fr is 2. Ans.
15.4*-*, ll
[,.lta,l"ot-1 '""*-* )

*""'l'""1"'
tiii) g(x) =logrr1,
;l\l "ll.I

= logu(r + tan(cot-1(5 + 4x - x)D)


.9
- locT(, *,",r(.ot-r (e -A - ztrt))
s(r)l-." - loc*(z * tu.,(cot-l orJ= togr(2.1)= r^, x =2

B(tr)l-^,
'r'd^
= losrr[snruril]l=-",
-;
\ \2)
x =b
)
55
Inuer se Trigonometric Functions

Ans.
.'. Range is [1, -;.
Paragraph for Question Nos. 14 to 16
f,-)=.,"_,[ffiJ
. -r(s@a + ?'tc2 + 1) - 4\

"' '[pL *+rlr"t P:


= = sino=e = cosec-l(1+ *2) =

e.[o.r
['2 ]o,.*
= sin-1(3.irre - 4sin3 0) = sin-1(sin30)

(i)
1
3n
tt"t15. = (2 + J5)d , 1=g(t6otw) =
2
1

rvGirls =[
v'E - r it < L=gt{Ginlrr =n
l.4 )

Ans.

S(h/*D=nYxeR
Domain is .R and range is {rd.
Ans.

(iii) tan(cot '[l*l) = tan(tan-1l+xl) =l4xl, x +o


56 GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)
g(x) =l4xl
-Both 3n
curves intersect at 4 points. 2
.'. Number of solutions is 4. Ans.
Paragraph for Question Nos. lZ to 1g

f(x)={+cot-1 x-tan-lx
= !'t - 2tan-L x lf.'r > 0ll
4
sgn(/(r)) = 1==+ flr) >0
+ !-Zt n-rr>0 :+ tan-1 *.I
------8 =) x<nD+L
4
Possible positive integral val,ues of x are 1,2.
Hence, at =landa, =2
(i) P(x)=x2-4px+3h2
P(r)<0V,re(a1,a2)
P(D s 0 and P(D <0
1-4k+\lf <0and4 -8k+gkz <o
- 1) (k - L) s 0(3& _ D (k _ 2) s o
(3,t

e. [1,1.l ...(i) n.l?,21 -l ...(ii)


13', J Ls'
.'. Intersection of (i) and (ii) is h el ?. 21. Ans.
13', l

(ii) g(a) = '""[[,ir] ^)


-,(2.i l+cos- ,( , -3')
sec'l
Ir - 3/ 2) t,

""([,:n]"J 1C+ 3 -1s'-3<1


2
2cos-1 [t
\2) ']
-2< x -SS2
1<.r < 5
l-e*l
L _ l= anintegerV* e[1,8] -{0}
'L* - 3-l
Inuerse Trigonometric Functions 57

g(x)=0Vrell,5l-t0)
= g(r) is discontinues at r 3 only. =

(iii)

Clearly, D(r) is differentiable at all r e .8. Ans.

More Than One Correct Answers


1. sin-1 r-cos-1 r=2sin-1 x-n/2
f(r) :/{zsin-t x - nl2) so 2sin-i x - nl2> 0+sin-lr > nl 4

So domain of, fk) , < l similarly g(r) = ,^n- * - O) , tar-t * ,;


fr=l, J(,
Sodomainof,g(*):1<r < -similartyh{x)= sec-r, -}) , """-t ..;
J(,
So Domain of, t{x): (- -, - 1l u,[J2, *) so domain of f(x) + g(r) is 1 only.
For g(r) + h(x), domain will be {J2, *1,
For D(r) + f(x),domain will be null set
Forg(*) + hlx) + f(x),domainwill be null set. Ans.
f,yl=!=x=].1,,!2\t4
)c
For x=*1, !4,2!l)
For x, = * 2, t Z Zt Zf =O GPs are possible.
For rc=*4, t\Zt4)
Set of values ofyis[- 4, -g) w l-Z 0) u tl, 3) u [4, 5). Ans.
.9
f@) = tun-t (*n - x2 + ! -z*tan-l .r) = t^r-' l( *' --l1 \- +tan-l *-2)
\+l[\ 2) )
For'f to be surjective, tan-1 a - 2 = - 1= cr = tan 1
Now, verify the options. Ans.
a. f@) = tan-1 (z + 1) - tan-1 {n-L}- (tan-r (z+3) - tan-1 (z+ 1))

L ft"l =tan-l 2-tan-10-ttan-1 4-tan-r2


n=1
+ tan-1 3 - tan-1 1 + tan-1 5- tan-1 3
+ tan I 4-tan-1 2 + tan-1 6 - tan-1 4
+ ................
5E GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

+ tan*l(n + 1) - tan-1 (n - 1) tan-l (n + B) - tan-l (ru + 1)l

2, ft"l = n - tan-l 1- (n - tan-L 2- tan-l g) = {2 Ans.


n=t
Itur-'?.
I x'
x>o
t_
b. str) =]1, x=o
l'l- tan-'_,2:.
I r' r < 0
For x >O,h(f(il1=L = h(g(il\

For x <O,h(f(xll =f,, nfS.J,) = Ans.


t
6. 2tan-1) = tan-l r + tan-l z = tant-: (=:.l
\L-xz)
,un_, (_21_] _ .ur,_,Ir L)
l2v=x+z]
[r_y,, \t-*)
2y = 2y 2Y ^t 1 - 1 I = o
1 - y' T:;= lr - y'z 1 - xzl
y2 = xz i x, !, e are in G.P.
Now, 2y=x+zA.P.
Y2 = xz G.P'

Y' %'
y = -ry" ==) = x+z =. *, y, z arein H.p.
y -

^c+z
Hence, #=T=. - z =o-tc =z Ans.

'1.

Ans.
59
Inuerse Trigon ometric Functions

8. we have f,(il= r^,,1ffiJ ' r,,,f #] =

l'*!, **,)
2 3 zo s
Let .r = co" 2o where -a f,.

[o"#=e={)
... f,(x)= *,-'[];*H)= ru.,-'*{; - r)

= r - o = I - tur,-'tEl = fr(x) [o.-15s<l


\.-* 4- 4 =!<I-u=i)
4 4
4 4 [.ir+rrJ
2)

Also, f{x) =; ;cos-lrz


= fr(x)

and rda=;-1"o.-'(*\=I-i(;-'* -'.')=i,sin-1r =fn@) Ans.


z

Wehave x2 + 2x + 0t' -10) > 0 Y x e R


1(sin9) 1(tan9)
['.'sin- =3n-9 and tan- =9 -3ru
.'. sin-1(sing) + tan-1(tan9) = 3n - 9 + 9 - 3n = 0l
.'. Discriminant < 0
0=n Ans.
+ 4 - 4(n - ]r0)< 0+1 - n + L0 < > 11

1O. ct = 3tan

+) -l * t*?Ll =4tan-,13'l=*
o=n[r.,,-,7 -tun,q.l=J*,-,4] Ans.
P-tLUarr \25l
L 4.1
11. Let f(x) = xs +3x - tan2
realroot
f,(x) =Bx2 +3> 0 V r e .R=/(r)isincreasingandhasexactlyone
/(0)= -tar.Z=Positive
f(- t) =- 1 * 3 - tan? - - 4 - tan2 =negative
.'. cr lies between (-1, 0)
Now, cot-1., * cot-l1- i = cot-1o + n + tan-1ct' - 2= n'
cr 2-- 2
60 GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)
12. Here, x € [0,4]
Now, we have
. -rl nG\ / r\
srn t lr.o"'l9l*tan-rv=?".-r,= 1
\2) 12) 3 fe
.'. Maximum value y2) = 16 + f =
of (xz + "33 49

and minimum value of G2 + y2) = (0)2 + *=l Ans.

Ir- * l

13. ftxt=tur,-tl3-4 l=rnn ,1--tan , f.,0.rr:rj


-- -
3I1+'
\ sJ5/I "b
Hence, f(x) =o"-' af f(x)," Ans.
[f)=ranse lo, fJ
L4. 2''o"'.u G;-5+-- 21.ir, 1p 12= 1

2."rts-r
x)2
a/ tr"r"- yf - rlt' * r = r
Now, 2("o"*1',' ,lura a[Gi.,
,l >1,

. i, ,2 \2
2(cos-1r)2 G;rr; , 1_2tcos-t x)2
=1and lIsin-r t) -L) +1=1
[\
,1
(cos ' x)2 =0 and(sin-l y)z ='L+x =!andsin-1y = t
= 1

/ = sinl or - sinl
x - ! =1+ sinlorl --sinl = (C) and (D) Ans.
15. When x 1- l,
,[ ,[ , - ,1
I * tu,., -g.:)
""" ,[
-?-'] * .o,
"i., It+x2l Irnrzl'""" lil;rj
= - rr - 2tari*l x * 2tan-r * + n + 2tan-1, = _ Ztan-t x
When - ;r < 0, then sum of the above three terms
1<

= 2tan-1 x - 2tan'l r + 2tan-r x = Ztan-r x


when 0 < r < 1, the sum of three terms =2tan-11 +2tan- tx +ztan-rr
= 6tan-rr
When ;r > 1, the sum of three terms
- ir- 2tan-1r + 2tan- i r + 2tan-l x - n= 2tan-t x
So. a=6,2,-2
Ifrvecheckatterminalpointsatr = + 1,0thenweget o
=6.Z Ans.
Inuerse Trigonometric Fmr,ctions 61

16. ' f...,)=tan-'f 1--l,o*, < 1, - 1<-:i' <0,0 <t-x <1


t1-rj
Ranse of f(x) =l;,;1. r., _t; . -

of g(r) 11) (cot-L 2, rl4).


Range = (cot-1 2, cot-' = Ans.
tan-1r + cot--1r) = sin-'f { n .or-'rl
17. sin-l(cos-1r +
(z )
Fordomain- 1s I + cos 1r < 1+- l-- I..o*-1r <1* 1
222
But0 S cos-lr ( nso no solution.
Similarly for cos- l(tan- r
r + cot - I r + sin- i x) = cos 'f | * .ir, ' *'l
\'2 )
n
- l s-I+ sin-lr < 1=+- - 1S sin-rr < 1- I
222
- Iq9a rirr-lr <1- ^* - l< x< * cosl
sin-1(sss-1r)=+- 1< cos-r x <l=+0 ( cos-l x 3L +cosl S x<1
cos-l(sin-1r)=- 1< sin-r r < 1=- sinl < r < sinl Ans.
rercise4
Match the Colurnns Type
1. (A) Consider ) cot '(r2 +n+ 1) where n = 1, 2,3, 4.

)tan-r1 t rriru+1)
1

I ]1" lll= tan l(n + 1) - tan"l(n)


)tan-'[]"
\1, rr{n+71)
S =4 +Tr+To+Tn
= [trr,-1(2) - to,, ' ttiJ *(tun' (B) - tan'rzl)*[tr,' (4) - tan''rsl)n
\
(tu, 'r$ * tan lral)
1, --,5-1
= tan-l(5) - ta n '(l,l = tan 1+5 tan '23--
... zcot(-,-'i)= 2.1=3 + (P) Ans.
2
62 GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

,((
(B) Wehavetanltan-'l t )l+tan-'i
-,i 1 - \l+...+tan-'l -,( 1 ^ ))
ll
l. \1+1'2i tt+2.3] \t+1e.20))
( ,l 2-t ) , I 3_ 2 ) ,( 20-19 \)
I U + 2'7) \1+ 2 3] \t+r9'20 ))
l
= tanftan-r 2 - tun-l1 + tan-13- tan-r 2 + ...+ tan- 20 -tan-1 19]
1
= tan(tan- 2o - tan 1 1)
( 20-1))| I - 20-r = 19= m.^.
= tanl tan'l,/
[ \.t + 2o.t)) r+ 2o -2t -(Grven)
n
.'.m-19,n=21
-- -
Hence (m + n)y"us = 40. Ans.
(C) Using,tan(cr +p) = rtalo + tlnp:andtan(arctan
a)=aY ae R,wehave
1 tancr tanB -
tun( ur"tur, 1 *
I r .r" tarrl
\ tura10/I
y)I = tuJu..
11
.+
=*.110! =a=(r*10)(y-10)=101
t-
xy
The following four ordered pair of integer numbers are solutions of this equation :
(11", 111); (111, L1), (9, - 91), (- 91, 9) 4 ordered pairs Ans.
=
(D) We have sin-'(si.r12) + cos 1(cos12) = - (4r - 72) + (4r - 12) = 0
.'. ln - 2)x2 +8r + n + 4 >0 V r e .R
:+ (n-2) >0=n>3and(8)2 - 4@-2)(n+ 4') <0or n2 +2n-24>O
=) n> 4+n> 5
So,zsmaltest=5=(R) Ans.
2. (A) fz@) = f(f'(xD = fk) =x
fzk)=fffz@)=f(x'))=x
=) *3 - 25x2 + l75x - 375 = 0
(r-5)(x2 -2Ox +75)=0
(x-5)2(x-15)=o
= x=5, 15 = Q,S
(B) Range of f(fff@))) is [4, 17 ] Q, R, S
=
Domain of f(x) is [- 1, il.
(C) Ifr € [- 1,0), /(r) =8(r + n) + 5x + 4x - x =l6x + 8r
/(r)e[8r-16,8ni
If r e (0, 11,/(tr) =8r + 5x + 4x - x = l6x
f(x) e (0, 161+P, Q, R, S
(D) re[-1,0]
Inuerse Trigon ometric Function s 63

l+x2
X+-=-'AX
2

x2 +6x +1=0=x=
-6t€6- = -3t2J'
2
x = 2J2- 3+l10al= O - rol = s0 - 2oJ,
[po ] I

re[0, 1]

,y' +
l+x2
=',/A
2

-
l+x2 =2x=x =1=l10al=10
lroal = ro, lzoJz - sol

tltooll = 1, 10 P,R Ans.

3. (A) -B<-8.s=-10
23 <a<2 ax2+[x+o:0

ae {-3, -2,-1,0, I+PrQrRrS


(B) f@)=xz -Ix+b
,in-'[/tfl) r
\.4/ i. d"r,r"d
gof(x)= by v

-1af@)<lvr€t-1,11
4
-4<x2 *3x+bs4Vre[-1,il
f =f(+1)=b-2
/mln I
f^*=f(-l)=b+4
=b-2>-4 and b+4<4
b>--2 and b<0 = bel-2,01
b=-Z-1,0 = P,Q,R
(C) f :R-->[-&-), fG)=x2 +6x+b
frni. = f(-3)=b-9
b-9=-8=b=1=S
(D) [*ir-'i]'
h(x) = fog(x)= (-tr-';)' * 3 sin-l L+z
\ 4) 4
T. n)
h(t)=tz +3t*2,t=sin-r{,f e I -
4L r'r)
=lr*1'l'-1
\2) 4

h(t)l^u* occurs when / = ! andHf) l*i, occurs when f'=-3


2

h(l) l-;" = - 1"d h(f) l'u* =


+ .+ +2
...Range orfog k)=
t-i
,f .+ - r)
.'.Possible integers are 0, RrS Ans.
1
=
64 GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)
S,, = 1!+ 2!+ 3!+ 4!+ 5!+ 6!+ Tlwhere I be an integer.
S,, =873+71
!i= tz+.tt * t =+ [q"l = L24 + r
7 L7 )
,[+l =868+ 7I =s,,-
" ? []l +7D -(868+ 7r) =B
L7) l7) =(8zB
Now, sin-l(sin5) = sin-1 (sin (5 - 2x)) = 5 - 2n + (P)
cos-l(cos5)=cos-r(cos(2n-5))= 2n-5 (Q)
tan-l(tan 5) = tan-l(tan (5 - 2n)) = 5 - 2n
=
:+ (P)
andcot-1(cot5) = 96;-1 (cot(5 - x)) = 5 - n + (S) Ans.
[{r}] = 0 I
(A) cos0=rlreR
I

logl=0J
(B) f(x)=0forreR.
r€(-1, 1)
12 e (0,1)
lx21=1xn1...... = o
fk\ =0
(C) fk) = cos-l (le*1- 1) + sin-r([e'])
For domain [e'] e [0, il or r 6 (- -, ln 2)
le'l=0or[e'']=1
f(x) = n
f(x) = *s + *2 + x + L* f'(x) =3x2 + 2x + I
f'(x)>o,vreR
* f(x) is increasing
s(x) -- -2+
l+x"
Range of g(r) is [- 1, 1j.
h(x) = 2(sin-1r + tan-r x) - n

Domain of h(x)is [- 1, il and range of h(x) ' [ - s't "l


'=L 'rj'z
(A) Range of f(g(r)) is
tt'(e G 1), l'(g(lt.tl
=t/(- 1), /(1)l =+[0, 4]
a*b=4 = (S)
(B) Range of eff@)) = Range of g(x) = t- f" il
Number of integers in this range is 3.
= (R)
(c) I\{aximum value of g(r) occurs at r = 1.
hk)t" [+,
and range of
l2 :.l
2)
e(h(x))l-u,=1+ (P)
(- -5n
(D) Minimum value of rt.(g(/(r))) = minimum value of h(g(a;; = ft(g (-1)) = h 1) =
2
Ans.
lAl= s = (T)
,l
r\2(J5-1) I

7. We have f(x) = tan-' --


l*'* ;'
I l

*21
\.f/
o-
Asr2 + -\>zJs (Using A.M. - G.M' inequalitY)
3C

+ *2 +a*z>2+ZJB
lc2
1
a
u
z t'r: - ul atr2 -
1)J 2
f(r) l*.* = tan-l I = =M, which occurs I =x-34
t2(JB + t2 x.-

/(r) f.1, = O = rrl,which occurs atr =0


(A) sin-l(2./T) = gtan-'
#)=; [t..,
2^li.=a=8r=1 = (S)
J'
(B) cos-1'T + cos-l y = 3[tu"-'[tu"]i24) * tu" -,(o *,""T)l =,1H. ?]=
L \
s l19r) = z^
\24 )

*2 -x*g=o("
'B
ct+B=l
CI,p=3
Hence, u0-(a +9)=2 = (Q) Ans.
f(x) = a(x + L)'+ b

f(l) = 5, f(-t) = t
L- t-) GRB prottems in. Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

f{x) = (x + l)2 + 1 = 12 + 2a + 2
(A) /(r) > 1=+[sin-1 (ftx)))= [+l = 1 (Q)
12) =
(B) [1+ sgn (f@))] = 2 (It)
=
(c) [t*,,-'l-Ll-l=o (P)
L t f\xt )l =
(D) [z .ot-' [ ' rl (s)
I
Lzr"'ll=S =
Ans.

9. (A) We have, f(x) = Vr + sin-lr


Clearly, domain of f(x) = [-l 1]
Also, /(r) is increasing so /(r) is one-one function.
(B) /rrr =.* [1-.8
r+
t t

\ l.r l.,J

Df=R
Rf = {-'1,0, I even function
(c) For domain of f{x), we must have 8 - ?.tc - x2 >0
x2 +?-tc -8<0
+ (x+4)(x-2)<0
= x e[- 4,21
Rf = [0,3]
o-[x]
(D) fk't=1-
2t.Y
t
-2lxl-2x -21'l=0Vr<0 Ans.

Integer Answen Type

1. ltanr - rE l* l4 sin2tr -gl*lrur(tan'rr, -;i=O


tanr = JE,"irrr, = tan(tan-1r) _ I =0
i
.'. x - Ic i. ttt" solution of the inequality.

(r
d.

ll.lo r)
tan ji.", ; ;) t." \[*t-'[ *P" +r))= tan(tan-I(lO
cot'l n)) = 10 n
t [ro; '-"'))l=
(
i
I

[10 n] = 31. Ans.


Inverse Trigonometric Functions 67

(r
l+l 1)
lx vl =tan'l-l
, / 1\
''
o"-'[]). tur-'[1)
\ v./
tan,-'f1) = tan.-1
V) l=l
\
\7)
*v)
x+y _l >7x +7Y=YY- 1
xy-7 7 =l =(7 - y)x =-7y-t

x= 7v" +l =77( y -7 +7) + 1 50


+ y -7 -x-'l+- y -7
y -7
Here, y= 99,L2, 17, 32, 5'7 are satisfyt. Ans.
E
- aor-'r, 4=,
n-o
cos-lr + cos-'
2 2 =t

-'r*.o"[f ,* -!6
3. /(r) = cos 1- 3
4
f-7)= €, - r=, €
cos-lx + cos-r, - cos-l
2' = 2

=Zcos-r-)c--6
- Tl

:1,[,-(+)')=,(*).,(#).,[#).
.r(H)
*n *I*......+I=1oon =50.n
=n666663
p-16q=50-16x3=2 Ans.

o2

sgn (cot-1 o) sen(1 + lbl)


-l
1 -- - L2+b2)
-zb-b-[
- -sa*s*[
oz - " trA_- bz ' -lr*, _,
sgn (cot-1 o) sgn (1 + lb l)

Here, t--t^l = [--t "-l =0, sgn(cot-r o) = ssn(1 + lbl) = 1


lz*"') lz+a')
o2 - 3o+3=b2 -3b+3=1
(a = !, b = l);(q = \ b =2);(a = l, b = 2);(a =2b b = 7)

Hence, number of ordered pairs (o, b,\ are 4. Ans.


68 GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

-r . -1 Il
5. tan'tr+srn'x)-
2
tan-1r
' ) cos-1r
0B
ozp-
tancr 2 tanB
tan2 cr > tan2 B
tan2cr>sec2p-L
*'>4-t
x'
t+x2 >)
x4+*2-1>o
.-
liG
xel^l-
'

L! '-1'']
(1.+P;
=5+2=7 Ans.
6. We must have, 4sin2 0 + sin0 = - 1 + 6 sin 0

,4
=sin0=L1+6solutions. Ans.

'1. $ ,ur-r[ r+r-a )


fr, [1+&(le+tt)
10

) tan-l (ft + 1) - tan*1 (&)


h=1

4.=tan-1 2-tan*L!
Tz=tan-r 3-tan-1 2

4o = tan-1 I-1- tan-1 1o


12
S = tan-1 11 - tan-l 1 = tan-1 19 = .o1-r
12 10
cot(cot-r U)= 1? =6 =o =+0 + b=rr Ans.
\ ro) L0 5 b

8. We have o, = tan-1 t' +3n-1-)tun-' f\ --^-j- l


1+(3ru + D(3n-D )
\9n'=-l=
= tan-, r:gle_glr'l
[1+(3n +DBn-D)
= tan-1(3n + 2) - tan-l (3ru - 1)
Sum of first 10 terms =I ,, = | ttuo-t (3r + 2)- tan-1 (3r - 1))
r=1 r=1
Inuerse Trigonometric Functions

- (tan-l 5 - tan-1 2) + (tan-l8 - tanl 5)+....... +(tan-l 32 - tan-l 29)


= tan-1 82- tan-L 2 = tan-, tan-1
l#*)= |l = *",(*)
= cot-r IE']= [4)
\n/
\6/ "ot-'
m=13andz=6.
Ans.
Hence, (2m + n) = 32
9. For domain of function,
- x2 + 5r +6 20+r2 - 5r +6 <0
+ (x-2)(r-B)<0
x elZ3l
= 1 [s 10.l
Now, [=.,+;=n.Lr,T.]
So, integral
"1"2
value of l. is 3.
Ans'
Hence, =9.
'(t
rk=cos-r[; r @\
Lo.
d,.ffi)
Let *=1.rd y=#[cos-rr-cos-1 y="o.-t(rv *^ffA [-l4)

[-7 - 1/--1k2 F=
t?
"l&-nc]n
k

Ft- 1-f- &+t)2


t ,lG+tt'-L-JhG+D
h+\ k+l
?p isinformofcos-' t*y+ $:A 'Sll= cos-1 (v) - cos-l(r) ('.' y < x)

4 = cos-1 - cos-1 (i)''"o"t"uting ru = 2'3' 4 """


t#)
T2 = co' ' [*)- *' ' (;)
79 =
"ot ' (1)- -'-' (*)
:::
?-
'n = cos-r I
-Ll-.o"-' \n) |,1 I
[ru+i]

sum =
,r,j:
*. '[#]- "o,-' [])= -,-',0) ""'-i (;)
-
70 GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

^TCItlt
DLIfi=---=-
236
. a _n_t20r
"6k
Jn
-- k, = 720 Ans.

Alternativ ely:Tp= cos l(L+ @


I Ha+u r+.{[-D(TrXkE)
Now, y2 = hz(h+ 1)2 - ft + G - t) t{,k + t) (h + \) + 2@ I

=(k2 +k)2 -l+(k2 *t)(hz +zal+z@1


=qh4 +k2 +zk3)-t-Itn +2ler -k2 -2h+z@1
=G+1)(h-l)(h2 +2k)
=2h2+2h-t+Z@
=(k2 +2hl+Ut2 -D+z@
nz = 6{4k + D)2 + (fa - r) ta +r)>2 - z@
y2 = GIH.n + D - {k - r) (k + tD2
y={tdk+D-{E-DGTT
4 = tarr-'I |TF;a - lT-Xr;l \
t + t,fu - rxa + Dl q[Un + at )

Tk = tan-tr,fWa al - tan lt{n - txn + ul


Tz = tan- 1
dr q - tan- 1(J5)
?s = tan-ltJdG) - tan- reEZl

T, = tan-ltrFtrn + nl- tan-;1r;--;


Sn = tan-1t1Ri+ zl - tan-r(16l
TTITI
I? -) @.D.-- =- - - =_
236
^''6hit l20n
Jn
-- k=720 Ans.
-

11. f(*)will be minimum atx = 1=g(r) = n


2-2
7L
Inuer se Trigonometric Functions

= cot-1.r +sin -1r = sin-1 --_:1


=) sin-1r + tan-1 " =X,*sin-1r Jt+rz
1 *2) =7=xa x2 -1=o
- :( = - =xz(l+ +
Jt *'
+

4y2=
- 1t !T-+ 4 = -' !& = rlli;1) = r"{# =. = \E=*rl]
2 \10/
)

),+h,=12 Ans.

t2. lVtrethod-I

^)
2nn
::::
=
2
- f(x\ = nr - fG)
g(r) will be maximum when f(r) will be minimum
g(r),ou* + /(r),oir, = nTt= 8n(given)
n=8 Ans.

Method-II
Let S(r) = sin-1r + sin-1r3 + sin-115 + '.'+ sin-1 *Zn-r
and C(x) =cos-1 r2 + cos-r x4 +cos-1r6 +'.. + cos-1'r2"

f(x) =S(r) + C(r) and s(r) = ," (:)- f@) = nn - f@)


\z)
Clearly, S(r) is monotonically increasing and C(r) is M.I' in [- 1, 0) and m'd' in (0, 1] '

.'. C(x) will be maximum at x = 0 and minimum at r =*1


f(x) = S(r) + C(x) will be minimum at x = - |
l--\
/(r)6,, = S(r)*i, C(r)*i,
+ =
"l;)* o=
+
(- nn\ lnr
g(r)-,* = rlft- /(r)*;n = nn - l. , )= ,

/{r)*,n + g(r)-u* =ry2"= ut=Bn(given)


n=8 Ans.
T2 GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

rs. (r"srrf?"ot-'., - r)) n orcsrr(r- tan-rxJ-, + a=o

=(,,u*[icot-rr.,J)' .,[.*,,[, r.)+a=o togu,2=-t)


=!)-
= (,"*r,[ ? "ot-', . r))' * o(roru,(, - ? ru,-,, JJ
+a=o

=[,"*,( ?cot t, . r)) *,[ro*,,( r-ilf,- cot',)).). r=o


t /, ,1r ,t2 /
=
[,"*,,[icot
- r))- *, +?cot-,,)) * a = o
[rosr,(r

= y' n ay + b= o where , =(rorrr(i*rt, - ,).)


Now it is given that equation y2 + ay + b = 0 has no real solutions so the roots of
*2 + o* + b = 0 should not lie in range of y.
So, ifr1, x2 ateroots ofr 2+
ax + b = 0 then these should not lie in the range ofy
(zcos
r.e., togv2[- 'r+r).)
xylx2erange ottogrr(?cot-1r + 1)

*(logur 3, logy2 1)

e\ogyr 3,0)
As 11, x2 both are (- ve) integral roots and e (togy2 B, 0)
So x1, )c2 e(- *, - 2l

Now, a=-(xr+x2)
omin. = - (max. of (xt + x))
Maximum ofr, + xz = - 2 - 3 = - 5

ominimum=-(-5)=5

14. a= tim i ,ur-rJ rorzn + u I


,-- #r ltz, +l)4 - 4en+1)2 +161
r
= ,--lim ltan-l
4-
n= L

2
{Using ; n4 - n2 =(n2 - d(n +n)l

= lim i f,",-' {[,.;)' * (, * 1)]- *" '{(".;)' (".;}]


,=tL
{using: tan-1 tan-1r - tan-1v v r' v > 0}
tA)=
,
= lim 'r=1L\ll
fr
!L/ lltan-
r+ 2)
,rg.l) -tan-' \4 * {,u,,-'(T.l)-""-'[?-;)]
f?-;)l
.{*,-'(? .r-*,-'(?-1)}. .
. .(, . tan- ,{[, . - .
{*"-,(, ;)' ;} - ;)' [. ;)]]

=l*[{*,-'('f)-*"'(i)}.{""'[T)-*"'(f)].{*"-'(T)-*"'(T)}
* *{*"-'('.;)' -t.,-'('.;)}.i*'-'[," .;)' -(,"., ])]]
*"'(:) ='"'(:)
=
J,*[{*"'('. })' . ('. ;} - *"-'(1)]=; -
a
E
(a2 + b2)i"u"1 = 42 + 52 = 16 + 25 = 4l Ans.
:'
15. tt"," .o,-'(i) - *"-'[#) =,
,,
-x'y- +"x'v"
f4] =oov.,- l----
49 36
= CoS0
71 GRB proUtems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

o, *1Y-^'
=t - 4 -
r' * *'r'
rY coso
3634936 -
+ cos2,

or gxz -lLry cos0+ 4y'=36(1-cos2e)=B6sin20 Ans.


16. As, we know that
Drrr
sin-r *=lz'il
r. I
I-1,
"o.-'
ye [0,nlandsec- 12. [0, I] rl 1 -l
=, L'2) t2'n-j
So, sin-1r + cos-1 y + sec-', n+n=
= 5,+ T.
Also, / 2 - Jzrt +gTt=t2 - z^E t * 51 5r
I - ! *en=(t- El' +_>_
't222(,'\z) 22
Hence, the given equation exists if equality holds, Le..
L.H.S. =R. H. S. = +2 =x ' ! = - 1, z = - t,t = ^8.
=1,
\z
Now, tan-1r + tan-1y + tan- l z + tan'' (9r\=n - n - n + I=0
[Jnl 4 4 4 4
So, sec(0) = 1 Ans.
17. As,[o] +t-ol=lo',if aeI
l-\ifaeI
= fil + t-
"J
iq d"Iiryq qnly for integral values of o.
.irr-t1r[o1 a 1- a1; = 0
Also, S- l"l> 0=lol<B =-3 < o <8.
So, a=L,2,3(Given, ae R*)
Now, the given quadratic equation becomes
sx2 -%lx +fl=o
Clearly, discriminant=D=4a2 _ 4 8!6_H =4(az _sfll
.'. for cr, Be B, D > O =a = 2and1.
Hence, the sum of all values of a = 2 + B = 5. Ans.
Let !' =,
x" +l ...ffi
+
x2-yxz+y 0t
,e
x--ytc'=y
q\/

l- y
ye[0, 1)
ft-. It
-</(.r)<-
42
7t

b_z_n
*___z
a1l Ans.
4
19. For x 10,

-'l, 1 r"o"
\.Jz e + sin o)l =
)

[, 1'].}, e I.
4 l-], -l
\-"-\.-- +))' -
"o.-'[.o" \4'4)
l- :r\ l
lH - - l= - - tan-lr
= - 4)
\ 4

[r - t.n-t x:x <o


f@)=14
[trr-'r; r >o

From'the graph, it is clear that equation /(r) = A has exactly two roots then
n.l ! .'2)
I) = to, b).
t4
r1.1) (+.2)_-:a :
'[; . ;Jlt = [; * )x n = 6'
Hence Ans.

+ *'_- tl - (r_' * ul = - cos-1(zr2 -


f(x) = ,rn-r(?-n = .irr-r[t2r' ]i * 1)
[ 1+r" / \ )c'+L ) z
.r = col o=ifxe[0,il=e.[o,i]

ifxe[-],0)=r.[;,^]

f(x) = !' 1(cos


2o) =
"or-

Ir
l,) - 2e,2se [0, n] = e. [0, . e 1]
;)- [0,
ln - (2n - 2s), %t - 20 e 1,,, za *u . rr,, . (;,{ =, e [- 1, 0)
tt [;,,.]
ro GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

[1-2"o.-'*, o<rS1
f@) =l2
z"i"-t x,- t < x <o
L f,-
a+b+p+q=!-z-!-z=-+
22
la+b+p+ql=4 Ans.
21. Domain = [_ ]" 1l

lr ('
fe) =1 t.in + cos-lx + tan-'' r) * - *-1)
lt (r + D2 +9

/-,, =ftrr=]*fr= fi=u *E2,Iu[=47 Ans.

lo/
22. S= $ lrurr-l 1 + tan-l? + tan-'9 *...+ tan-r19)
n n n n)
,,Ar\
Now consider

i{ tur-11+ tan-'1 * t.rr-t I *....... + tan-1Ig + tarr-r


turr-t 1 = g-vJ A
#, n 2 3 10

10o
i{ t".r- '?=tur-r? +tun-l?+ tan- 1? +tar-12+ tan- '? * ....... + tan-rZ
,7, n 7 3 .2 4 5 10

10o
i{ trr-'
s
= tan- 19
+ tu.r-'9 + tan- 1! + tan- 19
+ ta.r- 19
+ ....... + tan- 1a
#rnL234510
:: :

10

$ ,urr-' 10
n I 2 3 ---
= tan-119 + tan-119 + tan-'19+ tan-1
10
4 *....... + ,----,10
tan-119
,7,
77
Inv er se Tri gono me tr ic Function s

s =(ro -' z)*[t",-11+tan-1 a).(t'"-' * *"-'n) +"""'


i).(,*-'1+t",, ]

[45 such pair each pair have value equal to nl21

s=E
-222*45n=u9n =Zstr =+ k=25 Ans'

23. !---a.J
sin h-tc +(t+ cos2r) + cosr
!--J
>0for *t(0,{)' U""t"no solution'
2)
*r> \'
>0 >0 >0

m=0

m.+n=0+L=1. Ans.

24. f@)= tu"-'a)


ni,(.o,-'|-
r -1
= j["ot-' a" -' hl/lLl= !tan-l k + n - tan-r h= nn
ul_,(*r-'i
- ta,,-'a) +
l- k=-n
zeto
As fr
"ot-11=ta.-1
10 10
Ans'
I
= n=2 (nn+(n-1)n)= ltz"-1)r=99n
n=2

f'(*) =gxz -3=3G2 -l)


/(-1)./(1) = (1 - 3 + sin-1 (a2 - 3a+ 2)) (- 1 + 3 + sin-1(o2 - 3o + 2)) < 0
(a2 -3a + 2)) <0
= (sin-l (a2 -3a+2)-2)(2+ sin-l
J T
always negative always positive
but -1<a2 -3a+2<l
{, .?l'-[YFl'.0
\ 2) \2)
^ [s+vb]l[, _r=,6'll.o = [s-G s+"El
+aeL
_l
"'1"-["#llL \ z /.]
_
,'i)
[s-G a*,[l-|o=r Ans.
=aelra-),, ,- o
78 GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

26. After rationalization.


n-,
S, = | sin-l

. -1- 1
fr =sin-1 1- sln = sln'-,1- - sln-,1
^-andsoon
z,tr
-1
S, = sin-1 1- stn ' f1 l=r-sin-,t-Ll
\n+ t) z [n + r.,J

cosS, = cosSr, =
*, #
100 cos See * 1 Ans.

27. wehave g(r) =1,


- *sirr-' k ["irr-, -4-1
L t+x,lI =, * L
=
t+x2)
As,
.
stn-1
- 2rc tl[-n nl
r*rz r'il
[.i,r-' 4-1= -2b - L,o,r
L 1+*')
Range of g(r) = {0, 1, 2, 3} for f(S@D < 0 V reE
+ /(0) < 0 and /(3) < 0
Now, /(0)<0=o-2<0+a<2
and fl3)<0=9-6a+a-2<0
a>-7
5 f(x): 2ax -a-2
/n \ ^:-
!. zl
".1\b )
n
Hence, lr, =!.k,=2
l)
.'. +3k)=14+6=20
(10 fr1 Ans.
*'=] sin-r (sr:: ])=
lim sin ' - Ii\?*r + 5) l, 12 + b j
o as.r-+-sin-rIr+3]-n
\%+5) 6

rim sin-r f ox'+ bl- n.


A=-
1
x+- [12+s] 6 2
Now,
Inu er s e Tr igano rnetr ic Functio n s 79

*ir-'fql = tan-1 1- tan -r 3 ="irr-r[!l=


4 sin-1 f +]
\5/ \5/ \Jsoi
b=L .'.b2 =!2
'Jz
a+b2 =1 Ans.

29. f.,\=f *-'1l'*rcsin-ra2\-f sin-ri)'*


2) *r*' +6x+8)
\--_ 2) t2
-tx nz
-rr)('--'r - -'sin-'-rr)
n
=("o.-rl*2 sin-'aJ[cos-'7 - + +6x+8)
\ ;)* "sin' -\x-
=Ico.-,
x
-Tcsin-l1+nsin-r !* -tO2+6r+8)
2'"-22-'--2---2L2'
I + sin-r +6x +at =!. + 6x +8)
=
X(.o,-' L).*,.2 $o2
Domain of f(x)isl- Z 4.
f(r) is increasing in|- \ 21.

- 2(a + b) = r(1*
... Range of ' .gt1
f{u)t'L; 4 =
lo.rcz , btr2l =
X)=
u Ans.
)

Givencr=sin-r [ *x"-l,ret-l1]
\l+ )
a=2tan-1 xY xet-1"11
f-- rl
Hence, range of c is , ...(i)
lZ i)
, 13 cos v - 4 sin v\
'"' {-
F = cos-' -:-:::j. el0,2rc1
l: ),t
Now, Scos rr - 4 sin Y € [- 5, 5]
t- e-] ...(ii)
... Range of p is
I ; ,'l
Also y = 2tan-1 (22 - 4z + 5), ze R
y= 2tan-r ((z - 2)2 + t)
[- \ .(iii)
... Range"rri.[j,^) ..
80 GRB Problems in Caleulus (Hints & Solutions)

IfB + yis minimum, then 0=


I and Y =
;.
AIso, cr, p, y are angles of a triangle'
Now, o=;,B=fandy=I
a = 2 tan-r *= = tan'{r= Z -
t-r "fZ
3 cosY- 4 sin Y 1
"b = !=+cos B- -
3'---r 10 2
Scosy 4sinv < i , n 4
5-3 -L
Y + 0 = 2n * Y = 2rc - 0 = 2n- tan-' jd
r- I
)
.,
'
-,
- r-r-'Ztan-r
= -
--O+z=2
\zz 4z +5\

z- -42+5=l+(z-D2
r+tany +z=(2-Jel*[+'].l 2=4-*-"tZ-8-9"'r5 -8-F - fi
Now, - 3 3
i3/ 3 =o c

a=8,b=27,c=3
d+b+c=38
i
#_e
*3

Limits, Conainuitr:
and DifferentiabilitY
lExercise-il I

Only One Correct Answer

. ,,( ,x2+br+c) *b * n
c b ,r+c\
ct(llx-+
2 srn"l
-'^^ |

t 2 I

)tox) +bx + c)2


; lim ^'(.' , /\ cl a)
1. rlim r+0 4(x - a) (r - ct)
-+0
l,r{\: I,):--+tx-atz
[z)
-. 02(r - cr)2 (x
-P)2 ,,^ o2 (u
lrm ; ,^ Ans.
lrm r+0
- B)2 ==>C
r+({ 2(r-a)' -; z

z. AB = ff; zrh - h' = ,E;i


P = 2'l2rh * 2.,6i n'
--.
P=2l16h.tEh-h')
2,Trh-hz 1
A= r- 2 --:=nlzrn-n2
hx6;-
- h' Ozrz ^ffJ
_.4
hm ]i11
- ;'l'o
=
h:0 p').=
lim
thrt2 lu6 - ,Ei ' nf
lflll
rr
-o g |'t6h - ,lzrt - t'l'
-_
-_--'
rtr =
1
=(C) - Ans.
8.8 (2r) (2r)u2 128 r
Alternative : Note that as /z --+ 0, b = |2 or 2b = a
L _ ab(bt _rUsins R=ob,
p3 4R.(a+2b13 "
I
Hence, 4L
82 9'l@J:o.9_!Spp-.i*"..c""g!:t4y.l._(Hints&sotutions)

2b3
= 1 Ans.
4R64b3 t28R =(C)
a).
f(x)=L9YxeQ
As, /(t) is continuous, so
f(x)= 19 Vr e I {/(r) isconstant}
evk))= \im + /'?d =.mT Bo1 = 2o v x e R. Ans.
4, Let /(q) = b* 1:1161= s
(q, f (o))
f(s, + h) = b - k*
f-r(b - k) = a + h
f(a - h) = b + k+ f-l(b + k) = s - 7,
Now L.H.D. of f -1(x) at x = f (a) = b v= f(x)

(f-tl,rb-)
- = lim
f-rtu - tzl - f -1 tu)
,.^ a+h-s,
- n-+of(a+D-f@)
(h-b\-h
h+0 {b-ti-b h.+(

=
,. 1 1 1
i'\ 1r" * n1- 1^, = ,,-.r= r
h
ill/y Now R.H.D. of f -1(x) atx = f (ci = b
/ t1* o] - /. to' = Ii- (a-h)-a
(f -1)'6* ) = li* f-'(o+k)-f-'(u)
h+o (b - k) - b h+o f (a - h) - f(a)

=lim,---* 1
^= f,(a-)=lI
n+o f(a - h) - f(d
Ans.

-h
fiter : Verification by taking an example
j=I\x)=l [-a*, forr <o
l- 21c, for r > 0
f,(o_) = -3= I
f'(0*) = -2=r
t _",
for y>0
8\J)=1=l - -\Y)=
1- -
l-r.,
t_.,
for y<0
l;,
g'(0*) f'(o*)=-1=1 v: f(x)
= '31
_1 1

8'(0-) = '2r Ans.


B3
Limits, Continuity and Differentiability
1
rlc ]
'f-l
Note : If / urd r are positive, then L.H.D. and Rl-H.D. of and if / and r are
I 'inJ t'
II
I
L.H.D. and R.H.D.
i. tfni*l
negative ttren are end

a.o=r=1
81' 9
5. Clearly, f(x) = x2,L<xsL
x4rx>l

Clearly, /(r) is non-differentiable ut * = *, 1


I
Sum of dquares ofreciprocals = 92 + I = 82

=,lim /(r - 1) = f(- 1) = f =


6. (1) 1
As f is continuous

Also,
,hnq
S(-r) = ,lijl B(r) = 3
Now, verify alternatives. A:rs.
7. CIearly,
-. fths+3h+2)-fQt ,. f'(h2+3h+2\'t3h2+3) - 6'3 I
limr#=hI11+=-='
i':in Seh-Zhz +1)-fl1) i'-o 1'Qh-2h2 +DQ- 4h) 4'2 4
(Using L'Hospitai RuIe.) Ans.
(1 +P(r))v" -1r (Using binomial
8. / = rtrm expansion)
-0 X

2
+og*3 +.. ,]
=o'1.
x t1.

9. Since, /(r) is continuous V r e R.


log(x2 + lzx + k + L)>0 V r e .B
and x2 + lz+0Y x e R
x2 +kx+k+7>1Vre -R

and k,>0
x2+kx+k>OYxeR
D <o=h2 - 4t?<o
lz e 10, 41

But h>o
(0, 4l Ans.
8.1 GHB Pygblgm-s in Calculr1g (/{-iry-{s A_,S9!.u!i9ns.)..

10. /(r) is non-differentiable at x = a, F,0, Y, 6


and g (r) is non-differentiable at r = cr, 0, o, - 2,2=(B)
b
11. This limit will not exist, when sin ' l+ x'"=-1,0, 1

.= - L (two values of x) y=ni2


v: I

Also, sin-l t-?-\Z=o


+ x' I
(one value of x)
x:1 x
It v:' I

\ ' (two varues of x)


., - 1

12. Consider a general triangle


-1)2
(APn * r)2 - {AP;2 = (PnPn *1)2 = (2"
Put n = 1,2,3, ......., n
(AP)2 *(AP)2 =(PtP)2 =l Pn+ 1

(Ah)2 -(AP)z =(P2Ps)z =22


(APiz -(Ah)2 =(PsP. t2 =(22)2 2n-l
:::: Pn
(AP, * )2 - (AP,)z = (PuPn *t)2 = (2n -r1z
(AP,,*)2 -(AP)z =l+22 +(22)2 +(23)2 +....... +(2"-112 = 22"-l =-4" -l
\-w-
_1
22 -t 3
G.P. with common ratio 22

(AP,,
4u , 4"
-1 +1= - +2-=(AP,*r)=rl
*r)2 =
33!
Now, sin 0 =
lPnP,*rl 2'-r 2" JE
lAP,,,tl la12 {a, * 2 z
Ie lo
AS =1=sin0=v'aSn-+-=0=tr Ans.
23
-.
lim laxz +bx
' "-"+ cl"r 1= lim la(x-cr)+(r-F)l
13. '*"-
x+tn ax2 +bx+c = x)nL aG-cr)(r-0)
If o < 0 and o < m < pthen
a(m-cr)(m-p)>0
+Limit is one
=C Ans.
Limits, Continu ity an,d Differentiability 85

14. 2f(x) f(y) = f(x - y) + fG + y)Y x, y e R ...(i)


putx=Q=y,weget
2f2(o)=2f(o)=/(o)=1 (As /(o) * 0)

Put r =0 in (i), we get


2f(0) f'(y) = f(- y) + f(y) =+ f(y) = f(-y) v y e fi
f'(y)=-f'(-y)
Puty = l,weget f'(l) + f'(-l)=O Ans.
15. From the 1"t graph if r e (- a, a) then no value of y and hence f(r) must be
negative in (- o, o). Also from the above two graph if r e [- b, - a)vla, b] then /(r)
is positive and hence from the given graphs, graph of fk) is as follows.

Clearly, f(r) is discontinuous at 2 points in [-b, b] and non-differentiable at 3


points in (-b, b). Ans.
16. (r - o1)(r - o1)(x - a)(x - cts)......(x - ct,,) =xn*r -5x2+6r-3
(x - a2)(r - a3) .......(x - o; =t -5x2+6r-B
(x - a)2
*n+t - 5x2 +6x - 3
(o,1 - cr2) (cr1 - cr3) ....(ot - crn) = J Iim
+01 (x - a)2
(n+7)x'-10x+6
h= I lim
+01 2k-a)
lim n(n+l)x"-1 -10
k= IrGl
2
n(n + 1) oi-1 - 10
h=
ru(n + 1) 0l-1 - l0 = 2k
n(n + 1) cri-1 - 2k = lO Ans.

17. lim
(r - f(x)) (t + f(v1 + f2(x)) = 9 rio' [t
- /rxt)
c-+0
-(sin2*) , 5r-o[ *2 )
cl , l'x-
\ .r- )
86 GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

3 .. / 1- cos2r.cos4x'cos6r'cosSr'cos10x'\ 3 f +42+62+82+102)
=bJTil- J=b[. 2 -J
22

=?zrll2
+ 22 + "' + 52)
=
q, 5'6'11
- 66 Ans.
5-[ 2 ) 5 6

18. In vicinity of x = 0,lsin-' ,l , Ei


sin-
""'
1
r^ > l, in vicinity of r = 0.
= x
l=13+23+33 +...+n3
_(n@:L)l =1oo + n=4 Ans.
[2)
Note : f(x) is discontinuous at x = 0,
19. For limit to exist,
x -lx1=x,atr = cr + hota-h because r1o+y = o, but r(o )<: i
+h]=s l]i]. I- 3
,rrj)[o
oe(0, 1) Ans.

(f@t + f{zh)\ _(f(%\ */0))


,. t, 2 )[ z )
h-+o h
_,r^f(2h) - f(o)
h+a 2h

f'(x) = f'(o)
f(x)=f'(0)x+X
As f(o) = s
= f(x) = f'(O)x + 5
Also l'' Q) = f '(0) = f'(5)=/'(0)=-1
+ f'(o) = t
Hence, fG)=5-x Ans.

2t.o=liml- =n l'
' n--[14-Js+2sino)] G-Ji+2sin0)2
87
Limits, Continuity and Differ entiability

r )"

'=J'el ltr*"*
[2+sine- z)
If 0 e [0. l)=sino. [0, f]+p
\'3l z/
e> st.
does not exl
I
rr oe (;, ;) = sin r. r) = r =o
[*,
... For existence of limit e=
fi =p
=i = *;b L

.n+cosg=1a9os9=1+19,) I Ans.
Hence,
pp2

f(il =Iog,(ollrl + [- r],,'


[+'l
l"-- I I

a+or'r
I ]

I" o'lg--.I
t ')
I log,
_-?,
' 'o /-28-5\
I ts+o.
r 2 -o)
) *lo ., I r>o
[3+o"
I
J

r(x) =l,o*, o'l+1, .o ,,,e.


;.,
/ Zr-5 \
tdt^
f(x) = xl -._._l
[3 + o-'* /
I<U

Ilo t3+o') r=0 0 r =0

I -2h-5\
h({::\-o
\ B+aun )
-nl?
\.r+o
,,^ l-o
f'(0")= lt5f .!a =0aso>0:f,(0-)=Iim
/r +o -h
)
=0aso>0

Ans.
Differentiable and continuous atx = 0'
Area of the parallelogram outside the circle
= Area of parallelogram - Area of sector
OPQ

(1. ""'- z - !.0 = sino - 9 = ftg


=
\2 "ire) )- z 2
88 GRB Problems in. CalcultLs (Hints & Solutions)

t'to-'=e
Hence. Iim49) = li* 1-1= I Ans.
e;o o+o 0 0 2 2
11 o
" . 1= 7 ooints. Ans.
24. f(il = [4 sinrl - 7; f(x) is discontinuous, when sinr 4' 2' 4'
25. P(r) is an even function. Ans.

So,it is symmetrical aboutY-axis.


P(- 1) = P(1) = land Pe D = P(2) = - 5

Graph of P(x) showing minimum number of distinct real zeroes


26. S, = 1+3+7 + 13 + 2l+...tt,
S, = 1+3+7 + 13+ ...*t,-r *t,
0=1+2+4 +6 + 8 + ...+ (t, -t,r_1) - t,,
tn =l+ 2 + 4+ 6 +8*... +(/, -t,,-r)

=1*'-112x2+ln-2tx21
2

=l+(n_ l)n=n2 -n+l


n2 -n.+l-n2 =_12 Ans.
lim(Jn2 -n+l -z)= iim
DJ@
n2 -n+l+
1 1
27. f(u) = u(r) =
u -ou +l1u-G
=
(u-L)(u-2)(u-3)' as x
1
So, f=
[]-,)t] ,j[]-,J
/is discontinuous atx =r,i,*,0. Ans.
89
Limits, Continuity and Differentiabilitl'

28. We know that lim r" = 1


r -o'
Iim(r'-1)=0
* -+0
-
*,,' - 1) +(** o"' *'"
..)
p(xr -1) [, u-,"'
- rr
vv' lim L=-----a^
So. 2\r _ l)2
= lim
_0. A. -tl' (r' + 1)2
, _O- ttr x

.' -_ .- + (r'
(x* - 1)2 .- -- --. - +...
1)3
/ 1) 11\ 1
2t DI Ans.
=r lim - [2.,][+] I
--+ 0+ a. -tl' (r' + L)z
1(cosr)}
f(x) = max. {sinr, sin-

points'
Clearly, f(r) is continuous but non-differentiable at infrnite
,2
tf(xlt2 -le* + e*'\ ftxl + e* .e' <0
2

ff(x)-e')ffG) -e')S0
2""
e*" < ftx) < e* ;Y x e (0, 1)
2
e* < f(x) 3 e*- ;V r e (1, -)
2
lim(e' ) = e
Iim(e') = r+1
r+1
Ans.
Hence, /(r) = e by sandwich theorem'
rISr,

31. (A) As, sinr <rVr >0=sinr ---\' 2)


-r =0hasnoroott"(,O':)
(B) tanr > xV xe[,,;)=tanx -r =0hasnorootin['';)
(C) The statement is true by extreme value theorem'
(Property of continuous function in closed interval)
given statement is
(D) The function g(r) is not given continuous in [3,5] so the
Ans.
not alwaYs true.
90 GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

11. 15
32. Atr = o.-q.1.
'2'2' 2' 2

f(r) continuous.
is integer and g(r) is Ans'
33. Sincef(rr) = f(x)Y x1,x2e R
.'./(r) must be constant
Hence, p2 -]-=o=+p=t1
q2 +2q-3=0+Q=-3, 1

.'. Largest possible value of ltr + Ans.


d= 4.
ln(sec(ex) sec(e2r)' sec(e3r) ... sec(esor))
84. lim
r
-+0
1"':' -
(e2- 1).2(1- il .*,
-"2"o"* z-2cosr 1oq
x2
ln(sec(er) sec(e2r) ... sec(e50r))
= lim oo
r -+0 e'x "
ln(1 + sec(er) sec(e2x) ... sec(e50r) - 1)
= rIim no
-r0 e'x'
sec(er) sec(e2x). sec(e3r)... sec(esor) -1
= rlim ,,
-+0 e'x -
Apply L'Hospital Rule, get

-=T
- n2 + e4 + e6 +... + eloo - - l) = ,'oo - 1
"2((e2)50
2e2k2 - t) z(e2 - t)
Ans.

(pz-t)(x-2)-2; -2<x<-l
35. f(Y) = -2(p'-l)-2; x=-1
e' + e-')
(
sl+l+lPltr-1);
)
-t<x<2

- t) - z= ' 2(P2 - r) - 2= - ,,r,


-s(p2
4{l#l
+ P=t1,q=0
l-z; -2<x<-l
ftil=l-Z; x=-l
Lr-r' -r<x<2
{{i+)))=,[{#))= r,-,
= Not defined. Ans.
Dffi renti:gl@! 91
Limits, Continuity and

I r(r - 1) 2V + 2) 20151
36.Given, O,=1 r I -6
l r' 4r ol I

rake r common rrom r,.:,lf"r1l1ti,lTru,


L'=r2l' 1 1 -e I

11 4 o I

lr2t, - t) 2r2(r + 2) 2015r2l


A,=] 1 1 -6
lt 4 o I

-rt" 2213 + 4:r'z zors:'r'z


Now, r=1
io, = lt"
| r 4 0 ]

t$^) 11 I ol
Hence,
t*l+;l=il I ;i=u(, -il=B Ans

t l'" "l J
37. As, (r + sinx -.r cosr - tanx) = x(l -cosr) + ti"'[f
*)
= I (1 - cosr) - tanr(l - cosr) =(x - lanx)'(1 -
cosr)
(x - tanx )(t - "gry)
I t )\ *z )
So,,Iirlg = exist and non-zero,
,, -,
So, n'=5 Ans'
-
88. wehave, "-=ll+J-.'-t#)]
- * r-l-' *'l ' [[,.,- +l' - rl-'
-l. m
=(*
(d*)il- =IS-LJ-*'
m, - *
L\ ] ) *) -l
l\-
'[[,. '
*)- -,] - r,-' An*
),:J,^)'- =;T{,.;)
= 1 (e =
]
1
39' Let f(x\=x*
t,t^.\ =-".irt.r,
r- -1)
= l'\x) ,,
[ ,)
92 GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

lfx > e then f(x) is decreasing


2010 > 2009 = fQ070) < f(2009)
11
(2010)2010 < (2009)2ooe
=
(2010)2ooe < (2oog)2010
=
( l:
nm ] trzooo;2010;n + ((2010)2oon,' I
n +_[ ]

-;1':'-"""' {r.' [ggg::]"]]


= rim(200e,,0,0
lrzoogrro,o ,l
= (200e)2010 Ans.
l^ I

40. L= Iim f
cot-rtlnrrlll-t"' ,r-,
x+o-[ r )

,,- Ito,-tln(x)-nlr-tn*r I.* .ot "-ln'',In..,


r I n
=er-o+l -"x-o'
ri 1 l
tan -l -
\ tn*,1
- llm l)tr
,-';. II -r
_e lnxl
=gft
/ r 1, l

L.H.L.=ft0-)=er Ex -e n

_1
/(0*)= f(0 )=e n =l? Ans.
41. In right vicinity of x = n cotr -+ + @ = 2cotx ,3cotx, 5tot' --; -
In leftvicinity ofx = n cotx -+ - @:+ zcotx )gcotx, s"ot' -+ o
/2\tot'
I I +ti3)"ot*
I - 2
-b+
i. s,t \ 5/ 5 cotr -5
.'. R.H.L. lim
x -)n* / 4 \tot't / 3\"ot " 1 -1
I s,]
I I +l-
' (s,t l
-r* 5 cotr
ocotx
z ocotJ
t o 5.5"ot* + 2
L.H.L. lim - ?= 2+l = D.N.E. Ans.
x -)fr 4cotx *2utx _ 5cotr *1 1

42. Put x=X +h


!=x
lfu + h) - f@)l<lhl3
fi.r, f(x
+ b-f@)l<u*a,
i-+ol
I

h I a-o
l/'(r) l< 0
93
Limits, Continuity and Differen tiabilit'y

lf '(x)l= 0 = f@) -- constant


/(r) = 100
Ans.
Hence, f(20) = 100
43. '.' f(x) = ln g(r)
f(x+1)=ln8(r+1)
:.f (x +1) - /(r) = 1n g(r + 1) - In g (r)
=118(r+1)=h(r+1)
g (r)
f' \x + tl - f'tx\ = 1--
- ' x+l
Putting x = 1,2,3......-n and adding, we get
1
(f' (2) -f'(1)) + (f' (3) - f' (2)) +"""" + (f' (n + * 1 *...... *
- f' h))= 123
1'11
n+l
-
1-
- f'(D =I2*I3*.....'*n+l Ans.
= f'(n+1)
44. fJ. %) f(x) (Given)
=
e'u _L e'-l

-f(x) =,[;) ='(n^) = . . ='(h)


!
e* -! ' '"
e2-l e2" -\ e2" -l

"(
*\
) f(D '\z;')= t!y= f'(o)
e* -l
lim
= ,-* _Iim- 4+=.rim
i'--onn -t h+o h !y,t9;t9=
_,
"),
f(x)=e* -l
* 1

ri* [ e'x-t 1l - o,"''0"' *)-


H- [I!1)] = r+ol
9
= e' Ans.
x 'o\ x ) l

+l
- 6f2(x)+ 11 f(r) - 6 = o
45. 13(x)
->-
l uay
,l
ffzk) - 3f (r) + 2) (f(x) - 3) = o ,f-jluv

-
(f(il - 1) (/(r) - 2; (f('x) -3) = 0
f(x)=1or2or3
(i) If L.H.L. + R.H.L. * /(0)
-+-
Then number of such functions = 3l= 6. (See diagfam)
(ii) If any two of L.H.L. /(0- ), R.H.L. /(0n ) and f(0) are equal and third one is not
2C, 1g
zx
3C
equal then number of such functions - 'C , ^ = '
94 GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

Number of such functions = 24 Ans.


Alternative: Total number of functions are=33 = 27
Total number of continuous functions = 3
Hence, total number of discontinuous functions = 2l - 3 = 24. Ans.
lL-zt
l- t<o lfk-t\.0sr(1
46. Givenf(r)=.{1, 0 s, s
--1+g(*)
o\--7=.1"'-'"
r- ;--; [3-r, t<x32
lzt-t t>t I
l3-% osrSl
=) g(x)=tr_r, l<x<2
.'.The function g(c) is discontinuous at r-t as

lim g(r) does not exist.


x+l
So, g(r) is non-derivable atr = 1. Ans.
0, x=-l
x2, -1<r<1
47. ?-x -1\ l<x <2
x2 -\ 2<x<4
0, x=4
Clearly, /(r) is discontinuous at r = - 1 and x = 4 in[-L, 4lbut f(x) is derivable
everywhere in (- 1, 4).
.'.m=2andn=0
Hence, m* n=2 Ans.

,3 - 1 forr<0
1
48. f@) =l - i4 t l* - 2l+ lx + 2l) for0< r < 2

f,U*-ri+tx+2l)
7 -xJ forx>2

flr) is continuous every where but non-derivable at x = 2 only.


:.p=flandq=1 Ans.

49.'; ! a a. I=+€. rirA < landM . sinsA < 1


3228
0< sinA - sin3A < landsinA + sinsA > 1
xeQ
'f(*l={o*'' xeQ
l\x-b,
Limits, Continuity and Differentidbility 95

/(r) is continuous aL x = 2 and 3.


arr2 = 5x - bshouldhave roots 2 and 3 =o*2 - 5x + b =0

1= 5+a= land b =6+b =6

,'.b-a=6 Ans.

.'.F(r) is differentiable in (0, *).


-x
60.
Hence, must exist and is finite'
Jgift.l
.'. = f(x) must have a horizontal asymptote as
, r -) * then
only,Iim /(r) will exist.
1

If f@) has an inclined asymptotes as y - ,c - a)Cthen xlim


--s*
/(r) --> -.

/(r) has a horizontal asYmPtote


l,
Hence,

=
)]y*f'(r)
+
(C) (also see figure for
0

e.g., Take the examPle given


/(r) = tan-1 r)
^l\-.
" |
_)€ l"rz

(i) Let f(x) = r sin


j
1
which is differentiable in (0, -)'
"'*l=tun-'*
x
111
f'(*)=sin:--cos-
xxx
( ( 1 cos-1l
fk\ + f'(x) =lx sin:1\I + I\ sin x1
- - x- x)
r r/ I

"1*-t ,']y*-o
Hence, lim /(r) = L and lim l"(r) = 0 Ans.
IJ@ I-)@

(ii) f(x) = tan-l r in (0, -)

Linked Comprelrension TYPe

Paragraph for Question Nos. 1 and 2


(i) lim(flr) + 2) =0= !"rQ
lim f(x) = - 2
X+6
96 GRBProbtemsinCatcuty'*!!ti::!**..8e!Y".!"i^o-np)

- 2=- Zlog2a = - 2=a = 2 Ans.

(ii) g(0*) = 0, g(0) = 0 and 8(0-) = - 1

g(r) is discontinuous at r = 0
= Ans.
s(o-) * g (0n)
Paragraph for Question Nos. 3 to 5

The equation will satisfy if a = 2, F = t 1'

osI- 2<l+6<y<9
3
(i) cr= Z9=!1,T=6,7,8
Number of ordered triplets (cr, F, y) is 6. Ans.

Ans.
t"'
(ii),,,,r l[""u'-l * ['i"z'.1 * [=t"t'11 = b + 6 + 7 = 18
*'1'blrl , I L , I L , ),
(iii) P=2
lrr\ .r
r tannl I

l44)
ls -2tan -.x,)
ti.,.,
1l
-e )"

r *2 \
I

8 )
ti- l3-2tm n, \
-1 ) ta
tan
rnL
lrr\I
\44)
l
r ,Z\ 8 '=eL )"
e

)"= lim z(t- rc\


It
tant---xl),,tan -x
1l
l
8) )
I

x-2 \ 8 4 )
\ .4

(tn) (n\
2ta1n
rnl tx + tan
nm z11-
r)
tan--x ) It8) = lim
Ir.Jr -9
= x-2
8 ). x+2 l-\
I z( n) t+tanlllr
r-tarr2lI],
s.] I \8,]

Paragraph for $uestion Nos. 6 and 7


Pk)=@2 -4)((x2 -t)(x2 -g)+1) =(*2 -4)(xa - 1012 +10)
sin P(r) P(x) ,. (.r 2 - 4\ txa - 1Ox2 + 10)
tir -.
lim .' llm =-14 Ans.
"' ,'liz p(x) (x2 --=- 4) ''3lz *2 - 4
Limits, Continuity and Differentiability 97

r_\ *'-(*n
,.*,-ll*' - Jrn - ror' * ro
l_ lim -1012+r"o) Ans.
" ,.rr* 1 I
xc
2
- 1012 + 10
[ )
Paragraph for Question Nos. 8 to lO
(i) If cr -e -, then a --> 0
P(x)=bx+c
Now, P(2) =2b + c =9andP'(3) = b= 5*c = -l+PG) = 5r -1
tF .rtr limr5r-1-5r*i), 4

Now, tr- formr = e' '-r 5r -5 ' = n5 Ans.


-t=: [ff-i]
(ii) When ct, p -+ - then a, b -+0
P(x) = c, but P(2) = 9 =+P(r) = 9
JPt') -g = li* 3-3 =o [sirr."
Now. x,,* sin Exact zero
=ol e,".
-s (r -3) -3
: sin k -B) tending towards zero L

(iii) For cr = 0, P(x) = a (x - a)2

AsP(2)=9+P(2) =a(2-a)2 =9 +a
(2- a)'
9
..(r-u)2
Now, fir,
'=t [r-
L
tan2 1,n -t*
\4 - ",]"1(e'-o
))
- 1)
-.9
= 116
(x - s)2
x+a ()- s)2
--. 1+ tan (; -,, - ",)l [, - ,,, [; -,, - t,'- "
*r)] _1)

Puttingff = cr + h,we get


9 h2
-=lim
i"j', \2_ d,
|-r;r 1 _olm;"1 o ;*,1
,, _
L \4 ))L 14 ))

-.
o
J h2
llm
-+o (2
n
- u)2
z(r-t-tanh)rr, -r,
-
[ 1 + tanh)
lim
o
" h2(l+ tanh) 9
lim " 9o
n-+o (2- o)2 .z ztay! .ko r) .n, 4 (2 - a)2 u+o{(2-a)2 = 1.6 Ans.

hh
98 GRB Problems in Calutlus (Hints & Solutions)

Paragraph for $uestion Nos. 11 to 13


P(x) = *5 - gxn * p*3 - 27x2 +qx + r
'.' P.l-) is divisible by r 2

Q=r=A
P(r) = *" -gxn * p*3 - 27 xz

ItiJ = r, - 9r, * p* - zi ,11;


xt \.,
cr,p,ye.Rn
a+B+^l*9,tt-fiY"=27
A.M. of cr, B, , = !t1P t-l '= 3
d

G.M. of u, B, y = lupy)1ti3 = i27;\t3 = i7

'.'A.M. = G.M.
= a - 0- y

3U=9::ifcL=3=0=Y
P=c;"F+0Y+Yiu=2"i
(i) p+qtr=27+0+0=27 ,\ '

(ii) o * 1= 2,p+3 = 6,l, + 7 - 10


.'. S,, = 2 + 6 +10 + ........to nterrns = 2(I +3 + 5 +......to nterrnsi =, )n':

,,--,: yS,,'S,,- r,i.lz,,'2 .2tn - Ii2 2,,1rn(rt - 1) 2,r1r\' rt -7 n )

1r1 1 1 1 \ 1

ztt 2 2 3 """' ) z
ml=-
=-l---+---..+. Ans.

(ur) .. /r 1 1 1l
hm l_+____ + _- +......+____| {'.'s=r=0}
, ,,- \27 t27)2 t27 )r r27 )n t

=
1 1 1 br_=\
= Ans.
-+ (rrf* eTrt*""'6= za ^.
-r:!27
Paragraph for Question Nos. 14 to 16
According to given information, we must have /(r) a polynomial of degree 4 with
leading coefficient 3.
So, f(x) =3(x - 2) (r - 3) (r + 1) (r + 6) + (x2 + l)
(i) /(0) = 109 Ans.
Limits, Continuity and Differentiability 0Cl

(ii) -. f(x\- "-


lim ''"- 12 -1-=
lim
3(x-2)@-3)(r+1)(r+6)
=(-8)(-9)(-5) =-360 Ans.
r+-6 3(r+6)r;6 3(r+6)
(iii)We have B(r)= j+-= (r 2
1
2
+ 1) -3(r - 2)(x -3)(x+ 1)(r +6) -(r + 1)

= 3(x -1
- 2)(r -3)(r + 1) (x -:-x€-0,-1,2,8
+ 6)
f -- --

+, I l, so points of discontinuous are three i.e.,x = - 6,- 1,2,


Butrel
t_2.2) Ans.

Paragraph for $uestion Nos. 17 to 19


tt-t= 41
.lr-) = .f1)
/l;| 1 . 1-2+t2--and
- --+r=-
11 ,.11'l
I l-;i= P
'\2) \.-) 2 4 4 \Lr
As, / is continuous at x = !2, ,o O =*.

Now, /tl ) = t''$) = pand /'t1' 1 = q t 4


11- 16 -
' !] - +- 4 -q=
5
As,l'is alsocontinuousatr - !so p = q+ 4=+q_
4 4

I..--**s.
I..--**S. --.r.1-2
--.r.1
so, rt*r=l!1.
fi*t=J!, 1.r.1
1.r<t
'42
A
"x+4 1<x<*
l+

y : 1ll4
,:*2-1+3
lq
5

I
1

Graph of f(x)
As,g(x)iscontinuorrsatx = 0, so*lim =, -, ...(i)
['t#YJ
100 GRB Problerns in Co.lculus (trIints & Solutions)

As, above limit exist, so d+b=0


=b = - a
(t- cosr\
+ o ,-.
lim | -,- l=a-7
-o\ *2 )
9=o-l=a=2ct-2=)a=2
2
.A-_9

l'2 (1 - cosx)
^ I -.2
So.s(r)=l .r+U
JL

[1, r=0
le Graph of h(xt
and i(r) - ]r'+ 1' r < 1

[*' + I x > 1 [Note: gtx)=0 = cosr=1 + x=2nn,


nE I. But S(0) = tl
Now, verify alternatives. Ans.
Paragraph for Question Nos. 20 to 22
h(f\x)) 2(4sin2x-1)+1 8sin2r-1 - 2
" gtf(x)l 2\4sinzx-1)-1 8sinzr-B gsin2r-3
i" i- 1 L I Z. - l.
Hence. ranse -.'s.l -Ls' I
Arite* y" = 4-l!\t - 2(4 sin2r - 1) + I = ? tl"lt - 1 =8sin zr. - r =8( sinzx \y - By
g( ftx)\ 2(4 sin2x 1) 1 gsin2x _ B - -
]t),6s-31:1
= 3y-1=8sin2 x(y-l)=sinz *= 8(3,-1, .1
8i.y-lt
Now,
3v-1
...(i)
8(y - 1)

...(ii)

t
1,€l--.-lt_tl
'ol
r1 t 7 -l Ans.
\ J-.,] a
I

L
I

(ii) ,.
Irm f(sin 1.r) 4 sin2 (sin-1r) - 1 linl 4"2-1
-' -: = Iim
1 o1y)
- hrrr
7 9. 't (?-x +l)=2 Ans.
x- no x- 1 ?a: -1 J+ oo - - r+
1
t*ry:lt:,9"tittyit-t, art . ::i ,
, iiobilitl, 101

(iii) f(sin 1
kx) -3 4 sin2 (sin-lfrr) - 1- B
lirn j---- = IIm
x) -1
2
h@) , -.i ?-x +l

=,T'
-. 4k2x2 -
z- .I
4

Here,Nrmustbezero, k2 - 4=0= k=t2.


-. 4(4x2 - lt Ans.
*--l 22 ?.lc+l *-ll
Paragraph fgr [fuestion Nos. 23 and,24
(i) Ifr e (-20)thenr+1e (-1, 1)=(r+1)2e [0, 1)
(x +l)2" -+0as n-)@

rr* *2 +"?tr + 1)-2' = :'


f(x) = ,--J(r =f(xt= 1- -1
+l)2'*r +x2 +l x2+l x2 +l
I a\ [-- -l
/tx) e € (-2,0)
Io,i,]- li,,;)as,.r
^"2
-:-;x e (- 2,0\
x" + t
fG) = J -r(- -, - 2) u(0, -); f@) =tanl ...e = tan*l (/(r))
r+1
! x =0
a.o
u)L-a

= s(x) =*"[;,a-1ffi])=r,,, = *"(; 2tanl /{,))../(,) e [0, 4)5)


= fG)
I L\
So. range ofgtxt,.iO. Ans.
; J

iit Ifr < - 2then, * r. -1and (x +7)2'' -)€as n)@


*2 L')
x2 +2(x+l)2" (x + l)2" 2
Iim Iim
;;:(n +1y2"+t + x2 +l = x +l
r+1+ x2+L
G + \)2"
f(x) e G 2, 0) asr e (- *, - 2)
102 GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

If r e (- -, - 31, then f(x) e [- 1, 0)


t't \ c)
o
=
) fk) x+7
l.Ztan-t ltxtl=
So,g(r) = tanl
\2
Ifr e (- 3, - 2) then /(r) e(- 2, - l)
(r n- 2tan-' \ tanl(ri + tan
.'. g(r) = tanl
\z*r-
1tilll = -
) (2 'rt*l) = cot(tan -t 1tx))
[.
=cotl-n+cot'
11 1 .r+1
/r"rrJ f(rr 2
Norv, lirn !]1t, rileli
':-t-3 x2 + 4x +3
.. * 3)sin(.r 2 1
hrn
r-r-B-(r +3)(r + 1) (r + 1) ,
and lim sin(r+3) .r+1_1 Ans.
x+-3+(r+3)(r+1) 2 2
Paragraph for Question Nos. 25 and.26
(i) Let P(o cos 0, o sin 0) then OQ = b + o cos 0
=1+ ocos0 (as bis 1)

So, 8R = e(1+ ocos0)


So,
-. e(l+ocos0).
hm -
..
,.e..'0)0
Irm
1+acos0
0+0 0" 0'1
Clearly, a=-l
n _ l=2i.e.,n =3and l=7/2
So, a+n+t=-l+g+1=2aL-=1
2 22
(ii) Let m be (c,0).
So MN = C sin0
Also, QR = 0(b + ocos0)

So, lim ilb+acos0)+Csin0


0+0 e3

0l
I

b+
I
o *o ]l*cl 0- e3+ e5)1...
O I t\

"[t_
\ 2t 4t)) 3! 5t)
lim \
t
- 0+0
e3
103
Li rnits, Continuity and Differ entiability

0(o+b+c) * t'( -21


q )* eul" * c) ...
-g3!) \4! 5!/
= llp=..-----__--
e+0 e3

Now for limit to exist o + b + c= 0 and limit is -(z.z)

Ans.
So b = ZsoC = G 2 - a)i.e,pointis(- 2 - a, 0).

Paragraph for Questlon Nos. 27 to 29


f'(x)=gMTP
-. f@)
= IlI[ .-
+ f\h) - 2-xh + (e' - 1) (et' - 1) - fk)
h+o h

ri*[ fth) +(e, _ 1) tefr _- 1)'l_ zr


= t-o( h
h )

=f'(0)+e'-1-?rc
=l+e'-l-%c=e" -2x
f(x)=e' -x2 +7"
flO)=1-0+1.=1.=-1
f(x)=e'-x2 -l
it ftz)=e2 -4-l=e2 -5
{fe\="2 -5-2=ez -'l l'.'7 < ez <81 Ans.

,. eb -4x2-l+4x2-% ,,-'b -2x-7


rir lim,fQ^i+4x2-T,tc
"'r'l'b -- ,' --=lim-
x+o
-- =llm--
r..o x'
o
*2 *2

,.
l+?^x*9'+...-zx-7
2t
= IIIII -9 Ans.
r +o- *2
iii ) g(x)=f(x)+x2 -2=ex -x2 -l+*'-2
-
8(r)=e'-B
sraph = ls(lr l) lis -
GRB Problems in Calculus Hints & Solutions)

:y
x

Now the I st lr l) l= & hrs four roots.


ke(0,2) Ans.
Paragraph for Question Nos. BO to 32
(i) Forr <0
fk) = n-)*
lim )H-
n
{r2 +r+e' -1} $ e*
fl,r + L)
=Hm
n+*2r(r+1)
r=l

('..12 + r - 1is anintegerand{r * m) = {r}where, m e I)

i,e--1 ri-[f t-t)*[1-l)*....(l- 1 ])


=e'rim
,--3r Ir r+t)l=,,
" ;-:[(r 2) '\, a,/-"'-l.;-
".1))
= e'
Forx >0
( pxc q
+e-'-il)
f(x) = lit
rml
--[ i!. +r4 r+1)
n '=1
)
_l +1"= n^l Uf
n--(2fi
(r2 + r - 1) +te-'ll * r.
(r+1) )
(
(o* n ((r+1)-1) *
(r+1) l*^ ('.'forr )
lim l-
=
n)d
I
't
"lIn r
,
=l )
0, €- e (0, 1),...[e-,] = 0)

,1 n (-
-/pxln-lirlm
tm- tt --- 1 ) =prrimli[r-[1 - ']')*,
+* fL
r=1 [ (r+1) )*n n+@n4r\ lr r+t))
Limits, Continuity and Differentiability 105

rim !("-[r--L)].^
=pr n+-72[ 1 n+l))
=pr n'@n(n+l)
lim a\=px+)v
-t
l"', x<o
Now, flr) =.1
I

g, r =0
[r*+], r>0
I

Since, flx) is differentiable in.R.


.'.continuityatx =0
t=q=1'
and derivable at r =0
, t=p
p+q+)'=3 Ans.
ln*, r<0 [Inr, 0<r<, l"-,
r <0
iii) /(r) = ]! x = 0; gkt = f-ltrl = lO, x=l ;f'(r)=11, r =0
[r+1 x>0 lr- 1, r>1 lt r >0
'\ r,1]
f' on2)* f'I * 'l.
2) f'[r"-1]
22)
* r'[r"4'] + ..6
\ 2')
s=1+1*a*a*...-
2 22 2:l
s113
-={-*-*-*,..rc
222223
{=1+ o+Z*Z*...*
22223
s-11 1
-=I*-+-*...o=-=2
2222 11
,-
2
S=4 Ans.
iii) g(r)=lnr 0<r<1
E'\x) = -
x
1
=+ r'(i)=, Ans.

More Than One Correct Answers

1, /(0-) = 2, f(0*) = 2, f(0) = 2; f'(0*) = zf' (0-) _-,


f(1*)= f(l)=f(L-)=e2 - L(each)
Also, lim [/(a)] = 2 Ans.
r -+0+
106 GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

1
1

n*(kn -
1i*[/(-l))) =n-' = r+0\
z. :+0\ Bx7 + Cx2 -Dx+E n-3
lar / b,3 I' =

A
= 2
=-3+A=-6
So, f(x) = (- 6xa - ?nz) Ans.
3. At x =2,
R.H.D. =5+11-rl=5+1=6
L.H.D. = 5
So, f(r) is continuous but not differentiable at x = 2.
Aliter:
[5x+1, x<2 lbr + l- x<2
l2
f(x)=li ,.-t)dt+i{++t>at, x>2 =
1t* +* +1- , x>2
Ans.
[o I lz
4. r=tan0,y=sece
(A) yB -x3=sec30-tan30
(B) lim (seco - tano) = li*
1- tilo
=o
o-tr22 o+r cos0

(c) lim (sec2 0 - tan2 0) = 1


^tr
H+
2
(D) lim (sec3 o -tan3 o) = D.N.E.
H+ fr
2

5. lrl>irl Y xeR = f(x) =max.{lrl,cosr}


v:lxl

x Ans.
Limits. Continuity and Di,fferentiability 107

6. (A) Iim g(f(x)) = lim B(r) = D.N.E.


r +1' r +0-
(B) lim g(f(g(x))) = lim Sff@)) = Lim 8(r) =0
i r+0- x--+2-
'"2
(c) 1i- flg(r)) - o
x-z* f(x) - 2
(D) 11* s(/(r))_ = Iim g(2-x) _

* -o' \flx) -2)' x +o' (2- x - 21"


= lim
[2*xl-cos(2-x-2) = Ilm 1 - cosr Ans.
x +0+ x-, r -r0- x'

7. f(x) =
1 - cos{r}
*2(*2 +ax2 +bx+c)z
xB +axz +bx+c=(x, -1)(r -2)(x -B)=r'-612 +l1x-G
a+b+c=-t
1- cos{r}
f(x) =
*2((x - 1) (r - 2) (x - B))2

Now,
.1
l=-.m=-andfL=-
1 1

8' I 72
-19
.'. l+m+n=-.
72
8. Graphofy=91*1
From the graph it is clear that
(A) range of g(;) is [- 4, -)
(B) lim [g(r)] = - 1
r +0-

(C) B(r) is continuous at x =0


(D) g(r) is continuous * = -=3
^t 2

but discontinuous atx =!2


.'. Options (A), (B) and (C) are correct.
9. Clearly, f(x) = 2',so a =8,b = 2+ 8= 10, c = 8- 2=6.
Clearly, l = 1(g) (6) = 24
2
A24 _ .t

s12
108 9ff ?rs 9 lsry: "in -QsMy p".
t!!iu:*& -&-!yt!p r e)
A
--*--2, . 2tare- -
Also, tanA=!=
3 1-hn24 =trrr42 =12 Ans.

1 1

10. As lim(1+ lnr .ln G2 + ZS))il:i = lim((l+ lnr. lnllzz + 25))r i


x+7 x -r1
1ln ln(h2 +25)
lim
r -l +25t
-nr'-'t = nlnrhz - h2 + 25
h,2 + 25 = le(2sir2 cr + ScosB + 5)

= 2sin2cr+3cosp+S=n+.4-
'k
.25
" k - - * ?!
k+
. .ln.zJ =h >to
2\hk
But L.H.S. < 10
So. both L.H.S. and R.H.S. should be equal to 10.

= sin2 cr = l and cosB = 1

sinlo cr + coss B
Hence, Ans.
sin2 cr + cosp

11. /'(r) = rlim


fG+h)-fG) = lim
+0 h n-+o

fo r(t. !)- r,o


lim
= h+0
h

ftxt|/l1*hl-1l
\ xl
r*h (h e(t l'l-,
x\
r+gl(h\
_
[ ) \x )) lim-"\ri-f(x\
I

= lim
i+0
= f(r) lim =ftx). l-o
x x

f' ti =
fk) 7-
= + f{x\ = cx
x =frGl
f(xl x
As/(r) = 1=c=1
Hence, f(x) = x Ans.

12. Given,
ln(2 + *2) - *2" sin(*2)
/(r) =,lim
I-l.^ -
Limits, Continuity and Differentiability 109

2),
- sin(r -m(tr(-1
ln 3 - sinl
[lr, (2 + ,'), <l *2 , r--1
-.
for0 S
1

2
lkr3-rirr1 forx2 =1
Now, l(x\=l o , = ln(2 + x2), -1<r<1
In3-sin1 x =l
[-.ir,lr't, for12 > 1
2'
- sin (r2), 1<r<-
Now, verify alternatives. Ans.
Note: /1r) is an even fitur:tion rrlso.

(A) As, f(x) and g(r) are continuous for every r e -B and fog (x) is defrned, then
obviously f@(x)) is also continuous for every x e R.
(B) As, /(r) is continuous on .R such that lim f(x) = 0 and lim fG) = 0, so clearly
r r- @
/(x) must be bounded
(C) Let i@) = cos (nr) - 3r + 1
Clearly, f(.x) is a continuous function in [0, 1]'
Also /'(0) = 1 - 0 + I = 2 and f(1) = - I - 3 + 1 = - 3 =+ /(0) f(1) < 0
So, by intermediate value theorem, the equation f(x) = 0 has atleast one root in (0, 1).
Note that f'G)=-nsin(nx)-3<0Vre[0,il * f@) is strictly decreasing
function on [0, 1].
Hence, the equation f(x) = 0 will have exactly one root in (0, 1).
(D) We know that every continuous function in [o, b] is always bounded.
So, there exists some c e la, bl where f(r) attains its maximum value.
So, by extreme value bheorem, f(c) > f(x) Y x e la, bl.
r4. a,,, b,r, cn atethe roots of t:) - (2n + 1)t2 + (2n,- 1) f + 1 = 0
Hence, f = 1or t = tt -{"\lort =nn rff nt
Since, ct, > b, > c,,
r ^---
o,=ft+r/r'+7>l>n-

on=
t_
nLI+
\
/;ll"') (B)
Now, lim Iirn =2 .-+
n IL

lim
or=
n
lim
"[,- F+
n
=0+(C) Ans.
110
_*qBPft _,gl-ertingplqylyp.*(lrfu!t*Fglylelg
-I - cosZ *
____
15, h = lim x
-1
.f, -+@ -I + -,---
sinx .

lc

lz lim z'l
' = h-o* Jo hz-!-d* lim I zlt^r-, Llt = rl''
= = n--r- Ans.
+ x2 l- n-*-' h)o_
Not,f ,n =, ,r428s7.and z= 3.i4tse2e]
l?
16. Given, f'(t) = e' (cos2 t - sin2t)
.'. Integrate both. sides with respeo to f , we get
f(t)=et cos2t+C
But, /(0) = 1+C=0
So, f(t) = e' cosz t
Clearly,
[As,--q1 <0so0 <e' < land0 < cos2t < 1=0 <e, cos2t sL=fisboundedin
(-*,0).1
Note that / is neither odd nor even function.
Also f(t) = et =e' cos2[ = st qcos2, = 1
.'. t = 0, n, 2n e 10, 2nl . So, 3 solutions exist.
1

Also, 1-,0
lim (/0lrr (l-form) er, where z = lim cosz t - t)l,9
,""*]
=
ifolle' t )l,g'".",,J
e'(cos2 t - sin 2f)
= li1m = e' (UsingL'Hospital rule) Ans.
,++0
t-
Ir
lri*i- 1-n-2.
t ; ,"
t)
+.....+(2n-1)).,
_ ltxl, x+)
r
17. f(x't=],,*11+n2 ,f
"' n+n" ) 2
I
ft
L, X=-
t 2
13 (2n
\.n-L) ( =_-;_
(2r I * _-;:J (2n-1)
+... + .-.- - :. <- 1
I-I- (2n 1)
"' + _q
. I - '
n+n2 n+12 (n+
(n- n2) l+n2 z+"2
(rt
1n.+nz) --'- l+n2
+_-r 3 r
(2n -.7)
7+nz l+n2
n2 <____J__I g
-_ I a \2n-t)
+.....+,-'' . n2

".-_2", 1;;* u n,
,
+rr u ;
lim t' .. lim
=1and ,r-*7+n2, =1 n
n'*n*fi"
Limits, Continuity and Differentiability 111

-. ( 1 s (2n-1))
lim l----:-+--: " +.....+ "- r' l=f
,--[l+n" 2+n" n+rt" )

* f(x) is unbounded'
Now..,atr = I

Clearly, L H;. = R.H.L. = r= i l; j

But /(r) is discontinuous ar aII integers as [r]is discontinuous at integers. Ans.


18. (A) As lim r' = 1
r +(,

lim [x" -t')=(or -1)=-1


*-o* \ l

G) lim r' l.r.E = t h* xzlnx 19; -)form


x+o' !r 2 x-o+
-1..116 Inx (-\^
l- ltorm
- 2 ,-;o- 1/x2 [-/
llm Llx
1 ..Irm x2
=--1-.
2 ,--;o- -21x3 4r+o*
=O=(B)vanishes.

-=- +lnl= lim - 'lnr::: ; [-]ro"*


(C) Let l= lim nrn(a+1)
r -ao* r +o* (ln (r + 1))-' \- /
1
x (r + 1) In2(r + 1)
=r lim =r Iirn
+0+ -1 X
1 +0+ -x
ln2(r + 1) (r + 1)

,,*
lrm [ln(x+1)'l
=_ .;o;I l___ xrtr+1t
x )
=-(1)2 x0x(0+1)=0
Hence l= 1.
-r)/2. -r)
(D)
x+0
2' 5'
lim 10* - -
.r+tan.f,
+ 1' lim
= r+0
,
t,s''
[ ]1. * ,)* =0 =(D) vanishes. Ans.
lr
( * '""{l
r)
712 GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

19. Let %3 -(hn-1r)3


Z= iim
;;; j tci,",,l
-8tr3 cot-1 lkxl+ k2x6 sin J, - en*'
lt
/ i \d

e_ltan'.r l
I

= L= I+6lim
^ t?'.i., 1 2
8"ot-1
ltzxl+ ,*t -Bk
x';
Now, if ft = 0, then , =?+ =;
;',
And,iffr *0,then L = _=]= h2 -3k- 4 =0 *k= 4, _ !_
=-*
0+k2-Bk 2
Now, verify alternatives. Ans.
Let x e[m, m + 1) where m e I then f(x) = x + [x) - x + m.
': f'(x) = 1 > 0 Y x e(m, m + L):. f(x) is strictly increasing
;...f -t(x) exists.
y - f(x) = x + mlx = y - nl.
but m4x <tn.+L...2m<x +tn<2m+L,..2m< y <2m+I
ly)=2m .'. m ='+ . = y - m = y -t+= f-t(y)
f-'(*)=, - I2 Y x e[2m, 2m + l)where rn e.I
f. Vxe[0, 1)
Now, f'(x)= x +[x]=.], * 1 Vr e[L,2)
which is discontinuous at *"l;"r""J;:';r?,
Consider, f*1(*) = * -l4where x e l2m, 2m + lj.
lx Vre[0, 1)
]*-r vre[2,3)
l* - z V -re [4, 5)
clearly,. f-'(*) is continuous y x e[2m, 2m + r)where z e.I considerins
-rtx) only R.H.L. exists and is equal to
,lim f f-L(zm) f -i(- ir;;;ri"";;: ..:.

Y x e[2m, 2m + 1)(m e I) i.e., f -'(*) continuous in its domain.


Ans.
2]^. Clearly, /(r) is continuous every where
but non-derivable at 3 points uiz. x = 9 JJ N+e
2
Now verify alternatives from graph.
' r+ s(n.0)\
y=
Also, range of f(x)i. "= :
[- -, ry)
t
Graph ofy = f(r)
Limits, Continuity and Differentiability 113

22. (A) f(e) = l;f(e*) = l; f(e-) = L


(l,l)
(B)Here, u=13,t--l3 ;soo +
1=
rr. = 13 - 3 = 1o
x: _1

I r*]
l,-*', x<o
(-1,-1)
(C)f(.r) =r'sgt, = 10, r =0
l*', r>o
(D) As, is continuous on [-1, il and f e 1) = 4, f(7) = 3
f
= there exists a number r such that lrl
< 1 and f(r) = n .
25. f@) = max. (x, x2, x31 Ans.
(c
l*'r -rc(r(0
= 1*, 0 < r < L
l"', 1(t<- Ciraph of y: f(x)
Now verify alternatives.
Note : ,f(ru) it continuous V re R but non-derivable at 2 points viz. x =0,L.
24. (A) l'(x) = r - cosr ;/(0) < 0, f(nl 2) > 0
(B) /(r)=x*sinr-1
,r(0) = - 1< 0; f'(rl6) = * n 1- 1> 0
62
(C) f'tx) = a(x - 3) + b(r - 1) in [1, 3]
f(t) = - 2a < 0; f$) = 2b > 0 = fk) =0 in (1, 3)
(D) h(r) = f(x't - g(r)
hb)=f(a)-g(o)>0
f(b) * e$) <0
h(bi) =
Hence using IVT all the four have at least one root in indicated interval. Ans.
(A) Incorrecb. For example,
[2, x =o
gtr)=lx, O<x<2
I

lo, x=2

Onto but discontinuous. Onto and continuous.


!*1_l .G!H|B- Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

(B) Incorrect. For example g(r) = I V, e[0,2]


2

Continuous but not onto. Onto and continuous.


(C) Correct.

As range is bounded, so g must be bounded.


(D) correct. By extreme value theorem, if g is continuous in[a,
b]then g must be
bounded. Ans.
l-t' -e(r <1
26. h(xJ=ftxl+ g(r)= ),a+4-Zx, l<x<2
l"-b-1+x, 21x<*
I

.'. Wemusthaveeithera=-B,b*LorS=\a*-B
Ans.
p cos.r
i +Jr

27. lim ex
==L=o=s€E-{o}
r +0+ 1+sinx u+q
I + q cos.r
er
+1
pcosx+xex
lim =P=0
r+0 1

1+sinx+qcosxer
p=0,s€R-{0} Ans.
115
Limits, Continuity and Differen tiabilitl'

28 .rr31 'r(+#l ;[t'-:)" -['-#)")


t-r( 1 1)
" [, +z- n) 1. ,.
=-lna- lrm
nk-l (- z)
Ino ,r-,'
lim . 2 ,i.'* nh+2)
,l" *lr- 1
(t _ n)
.y2
I
I n + 2/
Ans.
Now analyse.
Zg. f@)isdiscontinuouswhere (sin2x - sinr - 1)(sin2r + sin.r + 1) =0.
('.'sin2r + sin x +l= 0hasnorealroots')
= sin2r - sinr -1=0
. ^:-..-1t€ or sinr=LS ('.'-1<sinx<1)
=Srnf=- 22
graph of sin r +

There will be two values of r between n and 2n for which sinr = +2


.'. For 4 points of discontinuity, z can take the value 4 ot 5' Ans.

Pr1)
I gI Dr+3r
30. lim ro 4'=
f(x)= xlim t
lim''",'=0
r. >o' -@ et-
n)^

(As we know !---n = o, n e N) = Jr$ f@) = /(0) =0


.lim
r
'"(l,r
)
Pv-3)
'n'=lim
I

f'$)= lim - o Ans.


' h-.0 r tr€ e'
he hn
Exercise-4
Match the Columns Type

1. (A) f(x) = (x + 1) l-r ^


l-2 - -,.
Ls x>l
I -.ll=.1
' lt-*'; x <l

(B) /(r) = min. ( lrl, 1- lr l)

o (0, o)

(C) /(r) = {r} + 2[x1= x +[xl


At xel,
L.H.L=I+(I-D=21 -l
R.H.L=I+I-%=f(t)
.'. Not continuous, hence not differentiabre at integrar points.

z. (A) /r+o 1i_ {!3"o.h*a.i"A-A-l(D


f tTeh -5seci + 4l - f(2) (3','*)
(-3sin h + 4 cosh) f' (B cosh + 4 sin h 2)
-,.*
= IIITI
h )o (.3ett
-
+"19=qs =4=4 (p)
- Sseclr tanh) f, (Bet, - Ssec h+ q) 3 f'(2) 3x2 6 =
-
(B) Ji* fQa hll -t2al = 4(Given)
f' (?a1.*)= A+0 +

2at)-rr^f G2a+4)1[J-2a)- (2a-h)- f (%.)


Now, /'(- lt+o ,r^ f
2h h _; o 2h
('../ is an even function)
y^ t'(2a + h) - f (Zo) f' (2a*) +
=
h:o 2h -= - Z -=r=2=(S)
-
Lirnits, Continuity and Differentiability tt7
(': f{x) = f(Aa - x)V x el2a,4ol\
lP,rt* =Za+h. I

f W"gut f Qa+h\=f t2ct-ht ]

(C) We have F(r) = f(e') =+ F' @) = n' 1' ,"',


and G(r) - ,f(x\ =G'(x) = ef &\ f '(x)
. c'(o)
- =t:q!: _ f '(o) "t'ot = 31' = 3
= (R)
F,(o) eoy,1eo) f'(t) "3

(D)

f(x) is non-derivable at
2points x=xlandx=l

.'. Number of points of non differentiability = 2 (S) Ans.


=
3. (A) ir;,\ =[4-l "*(x2 - x + 1)
Lft] V:]
l<
r tt2
*- . lwhich i, > I
o
*2 - * * t=(
\2) 1l- 44
Clearly,
H

=sgn(*2 -* +1)=1
-3 ; -2sx <-rl2
-Z i -nl2<x<-nl4
:+ -1 ; -rcl4<x<0
fr.j,) =[gl=
Lr_l 0 ; 0<x<nl4
I ; nl4<x<nl2 H
2 ; rl2<x<2
Clearly fr is discontinuous and hence non-derivable at 5 points uiz.
1r,I^]T7T
x=--.--.U.-.- 42
2'4'
Also.E6 = {- 3, - 2, - l, O, l, 2}=(A)-+P, Q, R, S, T Ans.
118 GRB proaZems in Calgulus (Hints & Solutions)

(Bt f2tx\= cos-,["4.,"=' .)), ..."o.( n= (."-;)= sin nr


T) "o.
= f2G) = cos-1 (sgn(sinrr))
'0 x=-2
1 -2<x<-7
0 x=-L
-1 -1<x<0
_N-lo M sgl (sin nr) = 0 r =0
graph ofy' : sin rx 1 0<r<1
0 r=1
-1 1<x.<2
0 x=2
n/2 ; x=-2
0 ; -2<x<-l
n/2; r=-1
n ; -1<r<0
+ f2\x)= cos-l(sgn(sin rr)) = n/2; x=0 (0, rl2)
a a
0 ;0<r<1
r/2', x=t
fi v:0
; l<x<2 ---#-o__ v:0
rc/2 ; x=2 -2 -l
Clearly, fz@) is discontinuous and non-derivable at 5 points uiz. x
=-Z-1,0,1,2.
Also Rf, = Io.r J
l'z J

(B) -+P, Q, S, T
Ans.
(c) fs(x) = max (k), i- rl)
:l
= 1t2

x
U2 tu U2 | 3,2 2
-2 3t2 -t
Clearly, /3 is discontinuous at 5 points uiz. x = 2, l, O, l, 2
- -
- - - l, - ! , 0, !, ,,2,
and non-derivable at 9 points r-tiz. x = 2,
Z,
, Ans.
Note: as fi is discontinuous atr, = -2and2so f, is non-derivable atx = -2 and 2 because
continuitv is mr-rst necessarv for derivabilin,

Also Rf, ={o},


[1,
r)
= (c) +P, r
119
Limits, Continuity and Differentiability
( 2,6)
(D) f+(r) = ^[*2 +lx)z o (2.6)

[-x+4 -2<x-l
]-,*r -1<x<0
0Sr<1 2().3\
=lrl+lxlz =\x ,/.t'x+l
lr+1 l<x<2 (1.3)

^"_4,
f-a
Iu

4 points uiz' x = -1"0' 1' 2'


Clearly. fa is tiiscontinuous and non-derivable at
Also, fG2)=f(2)=6butf[-;)=9"'d4])=]
=+ /a is many one but not
even'
Ans.
(D) -+P, Q, S, T
4. (A)Clearly, l*'-91* l*'-41= 5= l@''9) -(r'- ql
So, (r2 -9) (x2 -+)<0(Aslal+lbl=lo-bl+ob<0)
= re [-3, -2)v lZ31

Graph of y: f(x) Graph of y: f(lxl)

Clearlv. Rrrr"rr =l- 4,21


f(lxl) = I
I \ l--t'

.'.Number of intirgers in the range of function


(P)
Now, crearly )\'*$yry=.ris *=## o = =

"['-i' . )*o.lr*i,*r]'* )-*,


(c) L= lim (r /sinr
r+0 I -r -
-tanr))^.1
tr
[ ,' ,3 )

- o\
x (q + b) + x" (b +B) *r""(h
i 2_ 6l*.....
L=6lim--
r+0 X"
-L=6(q-g)
\2 6)
+ a +b =0andb + 3 = 0+b = -3' Alsoo =3

-\ 2-:'l= rr.Hence, l':! )= +9 =9=3 + (R)


L =61-: 6t - \ o 3
1.20
$f[l31!kn2 1y1^ _C*g!c
yl u s (H i n t s & S o I u t i o n s)

(D)Wehavel-, I =L- 2 -tzz +k-2-(k+2)(k-:t)


u*rc, ' 0z+t)k k(k+1) - (lr.Dk
Hence,
'.={J_T fr,#1;zi ##)t3: z ffi)

a).

[sinr x 0
<

(A) f(x)=ltanr ' o<x<2n


lcosr , 2n1x<3n
i-1 , r=3r
Clearly, f (x) is discontinuous at I,,n = B numbers.
*, = (Q)
(B) f(x) = 2-kk - 3) + 2(x - 7)) * u- 2(x +l)(x - 2) +k
(r-1)(x-2)(r-B) (r-1)(x-2)(r-3)
)Y'rfo=k-6
Astan rrr=('unnl"--,asn-)-.Hence
\ y ) f(2)= n =2
-----''-' nl2
atr = 2.
Now, /(x) is continuous =+ (S)
Hencek-6=2=k=8.
I ic<-2
(c) we have r/( rrr) , <r
-2 <0
r=,*r- z= Iti x, 0< x <2
t;- I xg) 2
:|, -21
'y
2-x 1 -x

(-2,0) Q,a)
So, we have to check differentiability at only 3 points. i.e., lc = {_ Z 0,2} =r (e) Ans.
Limits, Continuity and Differentiability 121

6.
[_sin_r, r <0

(A)
llll. o<x<2n
f(x)={l 3l'
l-"o.r, 2rc3x <}rc
I

[-1 x 23n
Clearly, f(r) is discontinuous at 3, 6,2rc*3 points. = (R) Ans.
(B) ,. ln(l + x + x2 +...+ x") \x + x2 +...+ x") .
llJIl_._=I.
:+0 (X+X2+...+X") nX

lim
L+x+x2+,..+x"-l=1=1
*+0 n5
= z=5= (T)
(C) 8(r) = ixQ.tc + L) (?-x - 1) | cos(rr)
So, g(x) is differentiable at, = +, 1.
2'2
6(r) is "oririrr,rorr* at x =0, but non-differentiable at r = 0.
+ Number of points equal 1.
4)_
(D) ri*[ f(2+3h fQ-5h4 _ r.^({ frz*snot- flzt\*r( fo- 5h4) - f(2)
ft +o[ h' a -o[ [ ghq (.
,, - 5h4 ))
')
=8f'(2)=t(i)=2+(Q) Ans.

( -,n )
r-sinr-cos'["',J
7. (A) lim
-+0
* x',

*.-,[,
-14
2
z; )
(B) lim J-, , ""-'I t**i) =-1=(P) Ans.
r -+0 x'
2-x - sinZ-x - *" ,[r?r,)
(C) lim (Q) Ans.
r+0 3
,c-
722 QRB- Ppplryq trsgkyly_(HiryE & Sotutions)

- *J
(D) lim
; [""'[*,-'[r 3,))J,*"-'[, T-z.r
22a Ans.
I+@
[t*"o.t) IE

t 2
llt
"o.-tl
[r)
I

7 , ., tu. 1-.

,-{,_1J] "'(-o)
8.(B) LetL=limln-

tnL= lim tana I !:- l= u- 2lnn - ln(n - L) t-l


,,,6 Jn lz_1) u,._ (rt
coU
(Jrl
-I
Prt n=t2 = lim 4ln/ - ln(r2 - 1) = lim
-+-
2(t2 - 2)
l 1) l+-
"o,fttrl
tG2 - L) cosec2 f'))\t2
f 1)
\t )
1
-. z(t' - ,,lti" l' =o
=ti*Hl-t'1
''-ttf''-1)[
; )
tr=1= (e)
(C) sin2r=t€
2
2-x e (0, 4r)
Hence, 8 solutions.
(D) Since g(r) is differentiable V x e R
/(r) must have the factor x(x - l) (x - 2) atleast once.
minimum 3 roots of f(x) = 0 =+ (R)

Exercise-5
lnteger Answer Type
(n
cos-r(1 - n').(cos-r(1 -h))z
. [r-
l. 'fl0-)=lim\' ) fi
lim
(cos- 1(1 - hD2 r0j
h --:0 2h .(l - h2)
A
t It +O lo/
Put cos-1(1- /z) = e

=rli,r( ,' l=r*z=r


4o-o*[1-cos0J 4 2
L_iy:!', c",f!y:yt_l t23
",ldlj[tg!l!!,"!l!ity -
tr=ptGiven)
f(0.)=
,2
2
- (1 - h)2) (cos-l(1 - $- DDz -- 7I ..lrm sin-1(t-(t- h2)) = It_=Q
1(1 2
sin-
/(0- ) =
8 n-+o (1- (1 - rr,2)
rlim 2(7- h)(t - (r - D2) 8

(Given)
( nn\ r/2
'':- xfi=4 Ans.
lt"l=
Iq/ n'18
/ / -r\
= tanlsin-'l*'a,J,]

"18 "6
,l*'-Br+1
- tc =3r2 - 9r + 3
1^
*3x2 -10r+3=0 + (3r*1)(r-3)=0 + x=-.6
3',

.'. (8o + zB - s0) =8/3 +23 - l=2+8- 1=9 Ans.


( * !g:' 5-!9!1 12n + 1 t cosr
)
lim rrrle 2 'e 2' 'e 2t ...e 2n
"o'
3. fk\ = n'e I

[ ,l

( 3 cosr
cos.r+-*-i...-l- 5 cosr (2n + 1) cos.r
Itm
= ,-{2
22 23 2"
cosf, Scosx Scosr
l\x)= 2 * 2, * ,, +...€
1 ^. . cosr Scosr +... + €
,l\xl =:zr-
*
z,
1 ^. cos.r 2cosx 2cosx
\*' --- + - --+ --- +...6
t(x)=
2t 2 22 23

f(x) =costr + cosr + :;1 * tS' *...-


4L

=cosr * tot1 =3cosr


1-1
2
tr Il=[cosx]
g(r)=1./trt
LJJ
Hence, number of values of x in [0, 2rc] where lcosr] is discontinuous is 4, i.e.,
!t.
22 zn.
o . 1. Ans.
124 GRB proUtems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

a. f@) = sgin((r -2)2 + ft2). Clearly flr) is discontinuous at exactly one point i.e.,
x=2fork=0.
tan-t k+ cos-1 + cosec-l( zk_ t) = o n
i: (#)
& =o

5. S, = f.rr.,- ,(- ztz' - tl l- , -,( 2t2r - L)


+
Zt 1a * l;FC:fr -\)
r7rz - 2, *y)= ,!r'^n
( 2r-r ) f ,2 _r,-D2 \
= iru,,-'i- --,
,4, - l= i,r.,-'l , .l
' -,,-y
-rt)2 3,*-
l, . t .(r ) 1r.,, )
(r
= i[*r- , -,r,r-r
r=I\-2) +
-1t2 I

s, = tan- '+ =cot(s, ) = 4


s, - r = rurr- '[('' -- r)' ) 2
\ '-)=cot(S"-r)=,,r-Y
cot(S,-1) - cot(S,, = -
*+ 3
;* - cots,) =,]*,I
(* 3)
i(cot(s,,)
"lr z 2\'1-3)-r |-jr. r z z)l
_lt

"' ))
rim(z-Z\=,
= ,--\
nr)

_
=
r:*
IIITI
zt2 -t -l-(t2 -t +l)
''*trlzt2 -t -1*,,p -t l:*t.tt,D,-tl
t2 -2 1
=----=----=
G,ll+Dfii-u
Now,llr - ! - Gl = &has four distinct solutions if &e (0,6).
.'. Number of integral values of &is 5.
Ans.
Limits, Continuity and Differentiability 725

^' - - v r 1
7. f(xy)=f(x)+f{y)+*'' vr,y>0
x,y

f'(*) =
+ h) - f(x)
t5'rc h

h\*
f(x) + r(t +
\ x/
Iim
= h+O
h
h
f(r*ol-rrl x+ *(r*h
h,,l \ x/ +
x Ix
,-.rl h
h,c .(r + h)
\ x/
fr)-
(
r(r * roi
lim I

o -o x'..1
I x
*+ r..f'(r)=21
f'G)=1xx'
f(x\=l.tr-1+. x,

Putting r = 1

f(1)=- 1+c + c=0 t.'/(1)=-11


f(x) =1" -1 x
lteroo) = 1oo -+ =[fleloo)] = 99 Ans.

l+cnz
-' lim
As,
;;;(2n+B+2sinn)z 4' 4 2
in

'l' ,\-
Now both roots lies [2, -).
D > o.
'2a
-*!. z and
*l 'u
f(2) > 0, where f(x) = *2 - 2p* + pz
D = 4p2 - 4p'+ 4 >0
=lr9 =p>2 ...(i)
2a
f(z)=4-4p+ p2 -l>O =p2 -4p+3>O
:+ (p-1)(p-3)>0 ... (ii)
(i) n (ii)
= p >3.'.p,,i,, = 3. Ans.
726 GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

r - *.(r - *{; -,))


9. f(x) = r >0
x'
l"sin4r
r <0

r-.or[r-t"J,.-r))
\4
119+; =,lim
t o
))
x'

=!

,'- isin4x
f(o-)=r+0- X
=2-)"=!2
/(0) + 2)"=3 Ans.
10. As sin-1 a, + sin-' *, ... + sin-l an - U
2

= sin-r cr1 = sin-1 a2 =-,,= sin-lcr, =!(...-I."i.r-t.,<I)


2\ 2 2)
+ Gl = 02 =...Ct, = 1
n
So, p=ff (1)'=1
r=l
[ *v3 - (B- 2ifl4 , x+l
'
Hence, f(x)=1 ,
*._*
lh, x =l
Clearly, f(r) is continuous at x = l.
, *L/3
R=__ - (B - 2n)u4
x -x
o+h)il3 -(t-2D1t4 (Puttingr =1+
= lim h)
h+o (1+h)2 -(7+h)
115
326
--a_---

/x
Hence, 6G+d=619+rl=rr Ans.
\o)
Limits, Continuity and Differentiability 727

\ -1 .g= j
l.(1+cos20+cose)=-
)2 2
/ - / ar3
l,E.o.l"-ell
i \4 )) -2^{,
and limtr
(coso+sin0)3 -2J, (*
L-sin20 \
0'+
4 1 - cos [; - ,n.J

- 2Jrir - .o*''
[X
- r)
2 sinz (; - .)
)

PutfI-e)=r.then
\4 )
-. ( - ,12 tt -cos3
, t) ,. ( - "E tt -cos t) (1 + cos f * .o.'r))
)
=lrm!
r-o[ sin2, )
I=
lll1 tr - .mrrrr . .". tl t
.'.m- -3J' - 3
2 ^1,
So.l2 + *' =? *9- =27
'424
Hence, U2 + m2l = 6 Ans.

12. Wehave f(d= 1-13 and95(r)= 111


+ +..... +
f(xt f(.%) f (5x)
o
1-
11+ ..... +
Now, u* 1- s:(r) = ;*0
1i- l'(r) _f
(.5,x)

;:;i) ,3 x'1

(1-r'l*( 1 -rl+..*( 1 -rJ


= *lim
l/("r ) \f(%) J (/t5rr )

-+0 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 l
x'l,( 1 + (2r)
f tlx) ft4xt ft5,rrti
l

[/trl f
(1-f(x))
' +$-fl%c)t+...... +
(1-f(5-r))

= lim f(x) fQ-x) f(Sx)


r+0 5x3
13+23+33+43+53
728 GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

[5t5+1))2
2 )
=\ 5
=4s Ans.

13. Note that lengths of the direct common tangent on two circles, tzingent to each
other.

Now between C1 and51,


PR = 2t[iRr
and PQ = 2.[iR2
but PQ=PR+RQ
2.[roar=2,[iRr+2{aR,
r=E* J' (Dividing Uy /n,,B, I
,lR, JE;

1= 1* 1
...(i)
J; "tR, ,tR,
but Rt=Rz=1(Given)
L=z=r,' = 1

Jt, 22

Againfornextcircle, : = .L . + [From (i), we have.Bl -+


J; ,TR' ,E 4l

=1+2=3
1
oo2
o
1
llVv fn=
(n + 1)2

)[; +- 1 + ..... * r,,1 I


Iim
12 ) 22 +32 + .....+h+1)2
= lim
,3 n3
h+l)2 *l
u*I
,r-- n3
1
Ans.
Limits, Continuity and Differentiabll4Z
t29

14. LeL,1,, = -i ,t + cosr)2 d/ =,lim(1+ cosr)2 = 4


,liTo ' i o

andLr=,Iig ,t + cosr)2 d/ =,li11i cosr +r::9:Z)dt


ii i t'+
+ 2cos, * 1.o, z,)a, =|
=,rig ii l;
-\- . *l= 11 Ans'
Hence, Lr) = 2[n
'"2, z) [])=
2(L, + z
\2)
f(il, -L<r<1
g(r), r e (- -, - 1) u(1, -)
15. F(r) = /(1) + g(1) ^" _.1
2
ft-1) +g(-1) *__1
2

continuousatx=1 = f(1-)=F(1*)=F(1)

= ftt-)=s(1-)= llf!.i
) 1(1+b) -5+a-+b
4+a=L+b=(4+o) 22
b-a=3 .. .(i)

continuous atx =-l = f'(-1-) =F(-1+; =F(-1)


(4-o)+(b-1)
= b_l=4_a= 2

= b-l=4-d=3+b--a
2

a+b=5 ...(ii)

From (i) and (ii),


+ a=7,b=4 + a2 +b2 =17 Ans.

16. Since, f(r) is derivable ir,G Z 2)'


Derivability of f(x)atx = - f-is possible onlywhenb - 2=o=b=2.
{'.' lr + llis non-derivable at x=- l'l
similarly, derivability of f(x)atx = f.is possible onlywhen c + 2=O=c = - 2.
Now, f(r) becomes
130 GRB Probtems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

ln(1- x) + atan-l x + 2, - 2<x <0


f(x) = 2, r=0
l'1] ," [n
ek _e \ l2l/_ 1

x
o , 0 <x <2

ln(1- x)+atan-7 x+2, -2<x<0


f(x) = , r=0
eb -?*,- | o <x < z(...0q I q 1 =lll = ll
x 2' \ 2 lzl 2)
..
= lrm "b -2r-1. -.4=1X4=2
1

: -0r 4x' 2
lim ln(1 -r) + o tan-l x + 2= 2
: +0-
ln(l+ h)+atan-I (- h)+2-2
f'(0-)
' =.lim
h+o -h.
,. a tan-L (- h\
b -r ---------------
ln (1 +
llm ----------:- = - 1+o
h--->0 - h -h
e2h -2h-l
'=- --" o
- Z
f'(O*) = lim fr" = lim
e2h-zh-l-2h2
h-+0 h h--+o h3
-47
.'.A-L=*=O=_
33
ga2 +b2 +c2 =g.9+4+4=b7
= 9
fi. ffolcan be taken in 2 ways{-f(0)
=1
" _:/t0)=_1
-l
llllyatx=1,2,3,4 Bpossibilities -. -.
think !
and at r =b only one possibility_.1
.'.Total number offunctions = 2 x 84 x L = 162.
f or
18. Letf'
I !2ll_>,Ebe
afunctiondefined as f(x) =l}x)-{Zx}.
'lO,
fk)=terl
f
-{2r}
or
, e I O, 9 ldiscontinuous at
I 2,)

-r
1214
=3. -. :. --. 1 Ans.
3 2's',
Limits, Continuity and Differentiability 131

19. b2 +c2 =a2 ...(i)

also 2mo = o,
(median to the hypotenuse is half as along as hypotenuse)'
a.ho =bc = L;A = 90o ...(ii)
A
2bccosll \l rx,
and uro
2 = _ ZOc ...trul
b+c b+c

No*.zmo-2ho -2a'mo-2a'ho = 9''2b"


"""'i*, - 2h, 2a.wo - 2a'ho ,l? ob, _ ,u"
, b+c
I

(b2 + c2 -2bc)(b + c) (b - c)2 (b + c)


- + c) zb"l@$' . A
"u" -2bc(b
zJ-z - ta + c)]

(b-c)2 (b+c) W;A +(b + c)


2bcl2(b2 +c2)-(b+c)21 2bc

ra+crI $E;e+{b+c)]
lim
6+c 2bc

b-+ c=9=t -->l


c

(,t* 1'lI
lim
( r,/L "8l:.4 +0+D] 212 + 21
Ans.
t-7 2 I

20. Given an+t - an = 4i +3

h-l
Now o7, -ar= \(an+t - &n) = \n* + s) = 4(t? - rrg + Ytt? - t) = 2k2 + h - 3
n=l n=1

= ap=2k'+k-3

So, lim E* *n-s* 2GIi2 +@k)-3+...+ -3


2(4ro b)2 + (410i?)
k+* 2QH2 +(2tt)-3+...+ 2(zto k)2 + (zto k) - 3
732 GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

E*!- 1 * 2(4)2 + 2(410)2_1'1


k
_1
Iim \khz
= h-->* tz'
/,f;1 3* +l- -k32 o10

tl-' n- h2 z{z)2 2e1o)2 +; -n'3


1(+rt - r)
3 = 683 Ans.
2"', -1
=

r)
"',t [' 5)= fr-t-"{ = y-t# "# D,:: +:.l"n-O=ou
lae+d=ap*r)
=

lao or a, r\(a2 at o,*r


t"' l=lgnllo,,, l=lenllL,l,o,,oo at _ dt
% ,l=[,, ll
=
for a2 % )1", ", ,]=[*,,r ", )
"
ot+(n-l)d
l=,- o
\-..-_.w-
zero as n -)6 )"'
13d83
butl-4 =-+:=-:---'-
A1 44a1 4
-d
Hence d = 6. Ans.
22. subtracting equation (ii) from (i), common roots are the roots of r 2 * q - r =0
which has two roots say r, and 12 such that 11 + x2 - 0.

= lr1 + x2 + a"= - 2and xr + rcz+p= - 1

cL=-2, 0=-1
, ln3
-n"t"n-nt
L.H.L. = lim
h -s0
e = nlns = B=/(0-) = f(O) = 11 =g
r;
R.H.L.=b lim ln(l+eh' -t+2Ji).("h' -l+z'li) 'tro:=2b=b=3
h+o no'-l+znli Ji tan,lh 2

Hence, 2(a + b) = 9. Ans.


23. We expand the numerator in series
1. ,
(7+ x)v* -, + ?= n;''tt*'' -e+-ex
2 2
133
Limits, Corutinuity and Differ entiability
/2\ x2\-
lr-{*{
l23lex *...1
!_ +
2 3'l /
I

ex
=e -e+--e. ,I -e+- 2
- o-l
.rlclt 2 \'|
t r-ll
2'3 "'l
l- ( * ex f1 1\, +...
I

x2 I

=pl I+i--+ -+-l.r-


I t2 3 J- 2tI 2 \38)
-=e.l
I

l
I

The limit = I +
1) l1e
"( \3 E)= %
24. Putn=1
v
1
hrl '.y l -2
[1+r)r -nz !t
ltrrflr12 e
2 \r-Y
!
t

\1l--vy ) o .- e -1
ti-[1-YJ.
y ,o
=]i-J
y-o .2,
hm---
-- =€" y-0 y."
.yz v-
rJUl-z
It - v,/ -1
,
lim
=e' y-+o 2
v
,( 2\ 2e2
=Ulil=?=a=2; b--3

Ans.

25,

Let tan-7 x =t
tant - nta"fl)
\n)
L=lim
--)0
i
""{;) -
t'ant

IIt+--+ 2 -) (t f 1 )
t" -:+51-nl:+r---+...1
lo
\o 15 J [" n'3 )
= lim ^\
I -+0
+t5ol- +...1 I

4:.*'r. ) t .))
734 GBq pjQ{gry4 .C*qlglilttg (Hints & Solutions)

-r,1,).
-,-u[]
'-0,'[- 'lr"';)- -'-r2"\
=l['-,1) -=-,(:._,)-_1 S

t
i- ,b). l(' ] )
f(n)=-r*j-
' 2n2 +l

2n2 +1 l+ f(*)
2n2 =
3
- -1=2-f(x)
L+ f(*) l+ f(x)
f, ?-
,1tl+ftnl -,,?,"
t:,",' =r$ ,z -2(to(!1)Q1) =10x
6
L1.x7 =770- Ans.

sinr < *,*.(o,Il=sin(sinr)


=sin(sin...sin(r)) -+0as n)@
t 9t < sin.r
n times
+
Also, lt
asf € ;(J2"os* + 2) <3
-4

lim

:' f(x) =
(" 'l'"o.,
lim ^' I .i.,sin.....sin(r) *r*[
\2+J2cosx) 3
- lz*Ji"or*) !vD4

[2+ J2 cosr ]
/- _ \
* el:, 1 * a I rairia"a by B, )
\4'4 )
, . (n - u;)(divided
^ n\ bv dZ
cos x + 2)")
[;
, 0,ret-,-+ot
_tn n -\
|
flx) =.1 I, \,4 4 {=hm
----'f(x)=g=l
I tn - n\
l--:-'x€l--d'-l r--''
lsrn.r \4 4) 4

lim_ flr) = Ji = rn
r+--fr
4

12 + m2 = 2. Ans.
Limits, Continuity and Differentiability 135

tan-l r + tan-l' - ta.r-1 3


sin-1(y - 2)
27. L = (x, t)lim
+(\2) (r-1) (.y - 2)
1
x+
v
tan- 1
- tan-13
1- 1-

v sin-1(y - 2)
=(r, y)lim (1, 2) (r-1) (y_2)
-r
.(rv+1)
tan
y-x
= riml 'f.
v) '11.2lt (r-1) (y-2)

Ltoexist tan-rU
s] = tan- 1
3 (Important step)
J'-x
xY+l
.-=L)
o
y-x
xy +1=3Y -3x
*-- 3v -ly
3+
'lx.) = 3r-1
t^-r..
3+x
-1
llm' f-l(r) =-=- 1
3 Ans.
..^'-igr_t
'-z ^ 10
'*5
28. fk)=(20<x<7
{o r = 1
11 r > 1
I

.'. Range of f = 19, l, 2l = A. (For surjective)


Ans.
= NumberofelementsinA = 3 lo
29. vE sinn0 + cosnO = 0 or tan n0 =
#
-n (6k-l)r
n0--+krOf0t=---
6"6n
^DO. 0u Gk-!)n
2 l2n
n
Let A= ) cos 0u=i.o.(6fr-l)rc
k=t 2 u?, l2n
136 GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

multiply with 2sin-A


4n
1)n=-sin n
i z.i.r1.r*(6&,-
4n l2n ----
6n*"'rr(3n+l),'-.o,
-" 6n -"" Gn ^ -sina
*--'6n
u?,
1I
cos- - srn
TE

Then A- 6n 6n
1l

4n
nh sln nh
cos_ - __
Itcosl--- rhl
ri* [a. 66 = liml h. 6- l-o = tim h
, -OL i+01
I ZsrnnhlI ft +0^
nh nh
J STN zsin'-'-
4 I 4-) 4
..
=llm--=-
1 2
Ans.
h+O^ nh Tt n
Z cos
44
1 I
(1+3r +2-x2)i - (1 + 3r - 2tr2), r0)
S0. .L = lim
r -+0 xr [o']

* * u,tl -,,1-[,r. * - *,,i - ",)


= lim [".
r -+0 x
1 I
(1+3r +2ac2)i -eg (1+3r -?,tc2)i -e3
= lim - lim =Lt-Lz
x+0 x r+0 X
ta(l + 3x + ?s2 )
,** _xt3+2x)2
e ' -eS e 2 -eJ
Zr = lim = rlim
r+0 JC -+0

u -{-$*u)2
= ti., -11_-rl" el_-5^,
x+0n'[9
t
-
'2- -13 "3, L = 4eB =k= 4.Hence l2k =
and L2 4g. Ans.
3L. Given aL =11a2 = sina, = sinl
dB=sino2=sin(sin1)
04 = sinos = sin(sin(sin1))
au = sina4 = sin(sin(sin(sin1)))
= at = \ d,21 ag;..., o, is a decreasing sequence
Limits, Contin uity and Differentiability 737

and hence as /l _).@, Iim a, =6


Letan = Y
.',as n --9 -, y -) 0
22t -^2r)(Bv)+BzY -. (2t -gt)'
.'.lim =- lim v _ 2) + (L_ cosy)
y+0 coSJ +l-eY -e-Y y+o(el - e-

(z:-.'1-1' -lt-;
,2
I=
-=- iTi,(et \lz) =__o_=-11"-=e=-
-2-,2 z

-e-, -2)_f r-1o.1) -1333


r+,
t- ,,--t I y, )
2

.'. h -, Ans'

!x +r).ln-! :.:rl*[,,']' *'l* *l '2*2 *' * nl


fk)-lxzx'+r u'+r 3x2 +t ] [-;-
BZ.
I | .]I L I

=[r.-=l*[r*'l' + -l*[r*=+-l*
u'*r-l s,'*1.] *[,.-+ .l
[- ,'*i.] [- L "*'*1.j
=t+2+ + n-[=r].["-].[n-]. .[,,+=]
Forr >0,
x11
x2+l **! 2
x
11
2tc2 + t u *r 2"li
)c

x11 -2"[i
nx2 +l n**1
.l=...=[--j-.1=o
, ,
tc

[ r.]l=[lu2 r) lnx2 t)
f*'z + + +

Now,

l
138 GRB Probtems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

Ans.

n1
33.S=t jtu, 't ,r=n
fr, 2" 2tt-t 4
Since tan x = cot x, - 2 cot ?-x ...(i)
11
:tanx=-cotx-cotb
22
1xlrc1
-tan-=-Cot --cotx
2222222

ar"., x, =1.ott'-:'l--f:.ot[, .']


2" 2"-t 2n [2, -, ) Z"-r -"- l2n-2 )
("ot(] I )
I lon-l
'o /
'-cot2xl
I

S=l
lz'l
\)
s=fAtan--I-:-cot2r)
\ 2, 2n-r )

n+6
lims =(!. * =.1.oti-i-) -cotzr)
\2 2r-t x \2"-t) )
S=* -cot?-x,outx=[
9
S=a
1l
I
(100r)L=100n.4=200 Ans.
7T

,4 r I ro.n-1+1-]
' (2r-D(2r+il 16lt2r-1){2r+1)]
f=-=_l I

r.=!lr+r'-ut+r'*u+t-l= r lrnr,*,* 1 I
' 16 1 +r2-t ] tol (2r-r)er+7))
= !1,+,r+r)+1(Qr
+7) -Qr-L'll=1
nr, *r*1[ 1 - t ]l
'-'2[tzr_rl
16 1 2\r2r-ror+ri/_] 16 I1^' er+i))
..-s--1t.rnayr+Ayf 1 1
,, 4L. 16L_ B2L\2r_l - 2r+l)
I
Limits, Continuity and, Differentiability 139

n.tn+t)(2n+t) * L *_L[tr_1]*r1_1.i*....* (=] ._,".1))


1_l-l
4.6 16*32ll'-5,J*l,5-51 \z'-t
n l(.
2n3+3n2+n.-r-+-ll--l 1 )
24 16 32[ 2n+t)

=t*t*V*
t2'8
tl, I =t-*t*u!*l!(Given)
48 16[22+1J A B C D
So, A=12,8=&C=48;D=16
Hence, A+B+C+D=84 Ans.

Bb. fkl=fo*'*b' <r<1-cL+b=-2+l


[2.o.n+tan-lx !<x32 4

l3o*', ocr<l
f'k)=l-zn.i,,n *J
I ^, l<x<2
L+x''
11
',JA=--A=-
26
b=!-z*L=n-13
4646412 =n -?6
) kt - 6,hz - 12 .'. kz - h, --6 Ans.

L,= li* sin('j* = lim [*.l=


s6. - x-l
J1-*./1+r r-1 -=1-
,/1+r[",/1-r] "
1 - cos x) ,. ,' (cos 1 r)2 / 1 \
(n cos-l
o x+t (1 -r)(1 +r) x+7 2 (1-x) \2)
-n2
,_
'2
Lo_-

Given
n23
22
-+n=-
... n2 + 2n =3=n2 + 2n - 3= 0 =(ru + 3) (ru - 1) = 0

n=lotn=-3
Since, n.e N.

.'. n=l = Sum = 1. Ans.


140 GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

37. Li^ nPnF *Sr' * 2r * l - (n + 117 a1n1.[; - 2n ag -(n - l)l

.. fl{(n3 +3n2 +2n+1)-(n+1)3}


Iim
= i+*62
+3n2 +2n+l)il3 +(n+1)(n3 +Bn2 +2n+1)u3 +h+l)2
,. nln2 -2n+3-(n-l)21
rr^ru-
n+@
lr'-2n+3+(z-1)
n(-n)
= ,ilim
rZ 6z + Bnz + 2n + l)2t3 + (n + l) (.n3 + Bnz + 2ru + 7)t/3 +(n+l)2
n(2)
+ lim
11 +s
,g-2".s+(z-1)
-1 2 1_2
T _=
--*I=-
1+1+1 1+1 oo
dD

38. Letcr+p+y=Q
Hence, cos (cr + p) + cos (0 + y) + cos (y * ct) = cos (0- cr) + cos (t -Bl + cos (0 - y)

= cos 0 )cos cr + sin 0 )sin cr

=2cos2Q+2sin20=2
Hence, a = 2
ln
-
.'. x-z.,fx-2+rl
lim -:!--!-: =z Ans.
x-rl2

n<x<n+*1
39. r(x,=1,F1-+Tf 1
2

'+1-x n+-<x<n+I
| 2
.'. Graph of f(xt will be

v:ll2
x
2 -l
Clearly, f(x) is continuous in ,E but not differentiable at x =, + I2 .rd nV ne L
.'. Not differentiable at 19 points in (- 5, 5).
Also /(r) is periodic with fundamental period 1.

= 19 points Ans.
Limits, Con tinuity and Differentiability l4L
(e
fk) =7*'^- *, * al,e\*) -{*2 - "*'
* 32 g(x), x e R
40. Given u,,d.hkr = fk).
lx'-ax, r>1- lx"-4x, x>2
landx =2.
Now, define ft(t) in the n.b.d. of x =
1 urrd h(x)={t,x2 -ax)(x2 -cx)' x<2
h(x)=f(x).s(r)={('2
+x)(x2
, cx),'s
l{x2 -ax){x2 -cx), x>l l.(r' - ax) (x2 - 4x), x > 2
Note : (r) is discontinuous V a e {1, 2,3, 4, 5, 6l
"f

B(r) is discontinuous if c + 4.
Nr : Given both f(r) and g(r) are discontinuous
Hence, o--+6waYs Nr=6x5=30
c + 5waYs
N2 since g(r) is discontinuous.'.c * 4'
Now, h(r) is continuorrs at r = 1.
h(7- ) = lr(1* ) + 2 (l - c) = (l - a) (1 - c) =+ (1 - c) (1 + o) = 0

l-c=0(a*-1)(Given)
=+ c=l
Also, given h(r) is discontinuous at r = 2.
(4 - 2a) (4 - 2c) * (4 * 2a) (* 4)
(4-2a)(8-2c)*0
(2-a)(4-c)*0
Since c = 1
q,*2 = o-+5waYs
c + lway
. 7\r
_ utr
rY
- 2
Now, N3 given h(r) is discontinuous at x = l.
= (1-c)(o+1)*0 c*L
and given h(x)is continuous atx = 2.
= (2-a)(4-c)=0
ifc=4theno-+6ways
ifa=2thenc-+4ways
Total 10 ways.
Nt =30
Nz=5
Na=10
Total Nl + N, + Ns = 45. Ans.
aL. f(x) = lxz + (a - 2)lxl-2al = l( lrl - 2) (lxl + o) |

AIso /(r) is an even function and fG) is not differentiabie at fn e points. So


l@ -2) (x + a) lis non-differentiable for two positive values of r.
142 GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

=+ Both the roots of (r


- 2)(x + o) = 0 are positive and unequal.
Hence, a<O,a+-2
.'.e.€(-*,0)-{-2} Ans.
42. Let fk) = y
y2-4y+3>0 (y-1)(y*3)>0 ...(i)
y2 -6y +8<0 (y-4)(y-2)<0 ...(ii)
y3-sy2+loy-12<o (y-3)(y'-2y+4)<0 .. . (iii)
Combining (i), (ii) and (iii), we get f(x) = 3 i.e., Constant function.

Y:X
,Z-v:3
(3. 3) '

A:912

Hence, 10A = 45 sq. units. Ans.

43.

^5
2222'22 2

.L = Number of point of discontinuous = 7


M = Number of point non-differentiability = l{
Hence, (L + M) = 21. Ans.
Limits, Continuity and Differentiability 743

44. ,.^ nzft*' -kft*t*1 e2 cos(x -


+ 7\ 7,
=-e
x+t sec, (r - 1) - 1 2

Here limit exists. Therefore as r -) 1, Nr + 0 ('.' Dr also tends to zero)


e2f$ _2.s..nf{tl +e2 =0
@f(r) -e)2 =O=.nf.O =e=f(1)=L
2.e.ef k)
(x)
Iim
u2f - - e2 (l - cos (r -
+ e2 1)) 7,
-e
x+1 tanz(x - 1) 2

gf {xt - d2 - e2(L - cos (r - 1)) 7,


Iim -e
x+l 2

_. (rr(rf,*)-1 _1)2 (1-cos(r-1) )) 7z


IlmI .(ft*t-t\'-n, - -e
, -r
[ (fkt t\2
_ \ , -1 / (x - 7)2
)
e2.7.ry'{l)l' - e2 \=1r'
22
(f'(D)2'4=f' (1) = + 2 = f'(t)=2 {'.'f'(x)>ol 3,q
Now, equation of tangent at (1, /(1)) is
y-l=2(x-1)
2x - y =1
a=1r1x1= 1-1=+. Ans.
224L
45. fyi) = ,r e i" an odd continuous function.
fz@) = b sin r is an odd continuous function.

d(e* -e ^)
(e' + e-')
. (e-'-e*)
fnt-x)=* +e^) =-fn@\
k^
.'.f +(x) is odd function and continuous V r E rB ( '.'Denominator is never zero).
.'.f(r) will be an odd continuous = f(- x) = - f(x)
...F(b) = - band f(zl = + A /(0) = 0
Ifo > 0, thenwhen x -) - *, f(x) -+ - @andwhen x ) + *, fG) -+ + @.
144 GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

Clearly, f(x) =0 will have minimum frve roots. Ans.


+2x -t+4
f(il = 28 - 2-x2 -%-
#
Range of f(x) is = [7, 23).
Now, g(r) =
[fl4-]wil be discontinuous at all points
- where /(r) ', an integer.
Ltt_l p

when v>2lthen0 .ftx). r=[44]=o o r e .Rand.g(r)becomes continuous


p Lp.l
in.B.
When 1< p < 23 then /(') b".o*es integer at some values of r and g(r) will be
p
discontinuous at these value ofr.
.'. Sum of all values of p is
I + 2 +B +...... + 22 = 22' 23
- zsl Ans.
2
47. We have
tre(-*,-1) r-1e(--,-1)
[0, [0,
/(x) = {
l1+r, r e [-1,0] a. l1+(x-1), x-1et-1"0I
r, -I)=l
- f\x
l, -,,
re(0,il 11-(r-1), r*1e(0,il
[0, re(1,-) fo, x - le (1, -)
r <0
fo,
or f(x -, =
0<r<1
l;' -x, 1<x<.2
lo, x>2
Limits, Continuity and

Io' r+1e(--,-1) x<-2


fo,
lt*(r+1), r+1et-tr01 12+x-
orf(x+1)=l -2<x<-l
Also, f(r + 1) =
lr _ tr + 1), r+1e(0,I l-
x, -1<r<0
[0, ,*1.(1,-) l.0, 0<r<-
0, x<-2
2+x, -2<x<-7
-x, -1<r<0
Now, g(r) = f(x - 1) + /(r + 1) =
x, 0<r<1
2- x, l<x <2
0, x>2
Clearly,
It is easy to check that g(r) is continuous V r e R and non-differentiable at
x = - \ - 1,0, t 2and differentiable elsewhere.
Hence, number of points of non-differentiability ofg(l) are 5. Ans'
Methods of
Differentiation
Exercise-l
Only One Correct Answer

1. f'k\=llrr'
cos.x - sinr
I lu, - sinr - cos.r
6 -1 0 l:f"kt=lA -1 0
locl
lr p' p" I l, p' p'
l6 -cosx sinx
f "'rxt =)6 -1 0
lp p' pt
16 -1 ol
= f "'.0) =16 -1 0 l= 0 (Two identical rows) Ans.
lo p2 p'l
2. -o
y=(2x-3r)5 *!**"or*
d

_dy = c(Zx _Brta 4


+--srntr
dx .f

.'. s'(y)= dx 1
-=
dy
5(2x-Sn)a+4-.iru
.)
D

When ! = 2n
)t - (9r -3n)5 + tr n """^
3'" "o.,
* =3n is the onlv solution
2"
Methods of Differentiation 747

g'l2n) = -]= =2 Ans.


t*2 .)
7

Alternatively z(gof)(x) = x
+ S'ff@)).f '(x) = I
'f'k)= J
g'\flil) '

Putting fk) = 2r
2tr=(2x-Bn)5 + !**"or*
-----
3--
3n
= x=- (It is only r = ur/ is one-one function)
2 *
/ o-\
'fl!!l=2x
\2 )
:+ 7 7 (.'f'(x)=5(2x-Bn)a +4/3-sinr)
g'(2n)=-+ . =:=9 Ans.
rP+\
\z) 3

cos1.ora.o.a....o. ti'1 .
Given that
2'"" 22 """ 23
"' - ' = ...(i)
2n Z" ,i.r[ , )
\2" )
Taking logarithm to the base 'e' on both sides of equation (i) and then
differentiating w.r.t. r, we get

i +tanjl =l+cot\-.ot,)

Hm
n+*2.
n=t.
$
ctfl
'i,'^"^^r:,,-i':,.
9n n-*l x
;
U, |
jl_
."-l = [] -.ot,))
\,
t '' ,, )
[1-.otr. re(0.^)-]I]
We have ft*l =)* 2
*=, nr,
[ ;'
Clearly, limf(r) = tirr,f l-.ot*l= ?
= f [+'J
,j' 22 *-n\x ) x'\2)

Hence, /(r) is continuous atx = !, Ans.

P'(x) = f(x)g'(x) + g(x)f '(x)


P'(2) = f(2)e'Q) + SQ)f '(2)
1+8 GRB Problems iru Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

-- (1) (2) + 4(-1)


_.)
g(r)f '(xt - fk\g'k)
e,\*) =
g"(x)
g,(2) =@) Gt) -(t) e) = _ 6 = _q
-16168
C,(x) = f ,(g(x))g,@)
C'(2) = f '(+)'Z=3'2=6
5. y = (A + Bx) e*' + (m - l)-2 .e'
y 'e-*' = (A + Bx) + (m - 11*2."tt-'t'
e**'' y7 - my + e-* = B - (m- 1)-1'
"-(m-t)x
. e-* ' !z - !te-*' .m - mle-** .!t - !e-* .ml - g-(m-t)x

e-* 'yt - filzlte-^t + my.e-*' -


"-(m-l)x
Yz-2mYt*mY=sx Ans.
6. Nr. = cos6r + (1 + 5) cos 4r + (5 + 10) cos 2r + 10
= cos6r + cos4r + S(cos4r + cos2r) + 10(1 + cos2r)
= 2coslx cos.r + 10 cos3r cosr + 20 cos2 x
= 2cosx [cos5r + 5cos3r + 10cosr]
...Denominator...
dY
"u = !'Dr.= 2cosr .'.
dx
= -2sinx Ans.
7. Given 1'1y1= g@)
g'(x)=fiz)=f"(x)
Let , = Stxs)
dv
:L = f ,(xB).9*2
dx
,,
1-Y" = 3l3x2x'.f "(*t) + 2.-f '(xs)l
dx'
=gx4 f "(x3) +6xy'{*3)
= gx4 . f(x5) + 6rg(1
3)

= tzx" f(xb) + pxg(x" )


(k+ p +a +b +c) = 9+ 4 +6 +6 +3 = 28 Ans.
8. (A) %, + Zyy' = g
=+ y' = -*-
v
v'GlD=-1=A=-1
Methods of Differentiatton
149

(B) cosy ' y'+cosff = sinr 'cosy'y'+ siny'cosr


When X=y=lt
-y'-1 =0+0
- !'(n) = -l=B = -l
(C) 2etv(xy'+ y)+e'evy'+ete* -e* -e!y'= e'e'v(xy'+ y)

at x=l,Y=1
%(y' +7) + e2Y' + e2 - e - eY' - ez(Y' +l)
eY'+e=0
v'=-l=C=-l
Hence, A+B+C =-B Ans.
1-x Il -'l
g. dY ' +xz +x+l
=4 +1+r +x2 =2n\ '
dxz ",
g \y) =
dx1
dY -l r-'l
ze\ 2)+x2+x+1
,7

When y=-Lthenr=1
6
dv111 Ans.
d* ),=-r,u 2+3 5

Alternatively: We have (gol)(x) = x


E'ff@))f '(x) = 7
When f(.r\=-\=*=t
b
/ -\
+ E,l_Llf,rrr
"\ 6)'
=r
1- 1 Ans.
Hence, r'( -7)=
'[ 6) f i) = b
-

10. /(r) = sin-l{[3r + 2]- {3r + @'{Zx})\l


,. l,0. a)
\' 72)
= u.(0,!).'.tut
(6, = *
and e, . lo, I'l
\ 4.)
f(x) = sin-1{2- tSir -r}} = sin-1{2- 2r} (As {2- Zx1 =l-Z'x)
f(x)=sin-1(1 -?tc)=J
= l- ?-x = siny
150 GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

)c=1-sinv" =t--r.-(y)
2

1-1tx)=lj-=s(x)
g'(il = 1"or*

,,1,r.1=_1rJ5)__v5
'[oJ zlz)- 4 Ans.

11. limx' = ! let I = tc" hence as n -+ 0, x' -+ |


L=(0)'-1=-1 Ans.
12. LeL P(x) = x" + ax +B
As 11, x2, xg, ..., xn*l be zeroes of P(x)
P(x) = (x - x )2 (x - x ) (x - x s) (x - x ) ...(x - x n-1) = )cn + CI, + B
Let P(*)"."
Q@) =(x - x2)(x - xs)(x - xa,)...(x - xn-1) = ..
k-x)'
Then Q@) =(x1- x)(x1- xs)(x1- x)...(x1- xn_t)
As Q(r) is a polynomial function hence it is continuous and differentiable at x = x r.
xn + ax +9
8(r1) = lrg.J?n= Ig
,rt (X - Xt)z r+r1 (X - X)2
Applying L'Hospital rule twice or otherwise
t'
QGr) = "'T *r-2 = nc
z'x!-2 Ans.

rB. /(or =I're-TP


( t- tt-ttl
l-;'"[,*J ltt)
(t-
tt_
h\uh
f'(0*) = lim [t+a]
1

n2 f
" )-l"u )
h+0 = lim
h+0
h
M
th rL1)*2
1 eh \1+i/ _1
q
e'

\n(r- h\ * z
1
,
e' (ti*# r\+)=i I* h \t+h)
Me tho d s of Diff er e ntiat io n 151

n(L h\*zn
1 ..
llm \L+h)
=
-.
e2 h+o h"
1 -.
llm
ln(1- h) - In,0+ b +2h
=
-.
e2 h-+o h'
12
-n
h- h3
\-(o-4'2 *h'3 -
2 ,f ]1, ).,0
,2h h'

Ans.
llVv /'(o-) =o
Ans.
14. Using L'Hospital's rule 2 times, we get limit = 4'
15. Given, cot 1r + cot 1 y + cot-t(xy, ='# ...(i)

Put r = 1, we get
cot-1 1+ cot-1Y + cot'-l t =#
- -1 (ttn n) 8n
2cot'V-l---l=-=-
2n
" [12 4) t2 3

cot-1 Y = I
.1

= t=|" 1Vd

So, P(* =','", = *'l


\. ^13 )

Now, differentiating both sides of equation (i) with respect to r, we get


-1 _ 1 .dy_ t (.42*r)=o
"
l+xz l+y' dx l+x2yz \ dx )

Put r = l, ! =],lo *e g"t

_r
r)r)
_l r -l 1
la,
!o

lf ,.!! *1'l= o
2 lt*1ld"r lr*rl\ ax Jsl
\- gi \ 3)
-l - llal= 2" I l4)
z +\Je) 4 \dx )

(zJ*+s)-s1ayi
[ +Js ) z\ax.t
1,52 GRB Problems in. Calculus (Hints & Solutiorus)

dy -z(Ns+s\ -1 t (L ,
a"=;[ 41g )= s-l./s=-[5*rts)=') Ans.

16. Puttingf = tan0,we get


sinr = sin20
and coty = gs12g
x = nrE+ (-1)" 20
and y=mn+20
dx
= Gr\'2
de
and fu=z
ds

*a)/ = f o" -1 [But for given 0 it will have only one value]

*dy" =o Ans.

17, Let lim ((r' +(tanr)'o'""' +(cosec r))t'"' )


* --r 0+

= h + lz + lr, where /, = liTr. r" (0')


+ ln/, =,r1T. r.lnr(0 x -)
,1o1:)= rim
= lim I i at,
=o =1
x+0+ \ -,/ x+0* -I
xx2
Now, /z = lim (tanr)"o""t* = 0 (0-)
: +0*
Also, ls = lim (cosec rltanx . (-o)
r +0+

+ lnl, = lim (tanr).ln(cosec r) x-)


x +0+

,.
= llm
ln(cosec r)
r+o+ cotx (=)

to""t'' ---**x .cotx)


--1 (- cosec """*'= ,
= lim timfg=".',=0-+/o=1
- -r
r+o+ -coseczr --0,'[ tanr J
Hence, (1, + l, + ls) = 1 +0 + 1 = 2. Ans.

18. '.' /(cr) =


"o*
["ot-, t'--:gry-]l
I t cos2a))
J1-
Methods of Differentiation

= *, COS C[

[*.-'I fiost"+Gcosr") )
fi11
-<ct<-
42

. dfkl) _-l Ans.


-t
d(cot ct)

-. hca +Bx3 +1 c (9ro.*)


lrm--
19.
x+1. (36 - 1) sinru
=
\o)
A+B+1;0 ...(i)
Prtx -L= h
*x=h+L
A(h + l)a + B(h+ 1)3 + 1 A(h + l)a + B(h+ 1)3 + 1 (o^
to'* )
Iim = Iim
h-+0 h+O -xh2 [o ]
n(__zit4)^n
Inft )
By L'Hospital's Rule

=
-1r.* 4A(ft + 1)3 + 3.B(& + 1)2 0
*r-)
n h+0 2h [as'i" 0

So, 4,4 +3.B = 0 ...(ii)


Solve equations (i) and (ii), we get A = 3, B = -4.
-1.. 72[&+t)3 -(a+t)2] -1,,-6t3(h+ l)-2(h+l)) -6
rlm - =-rill-r-=- Ans.
n i-ro 2h v h--+o 1 rr

2O. fG) = e* + Zx
f'(x)=e'+2
/'(ln3) = 5
As, s'Q)=ft,
+ fitf'r*rt=h
+ fiV-'all l,=1rmar=
,,h = Ans.

21. Given, \Lt'y' = (r + y)s


As, the given curve is represented by homogeneous equation in r and y, so
dyy-
7 = "x,
dxc
(alwaYs)
t54 GRB Probtems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)
,2
o- 1,
and = o (always)
-l
dx'
,9
H"r,.",d-{l -o Ans.
d*" .)p,rl
22. Given 8(r) = (f(2ftx) + 2tl2
g'(x) = 2f(2f(x) + 2).. f '(2f(x) + 2).2f '(x)
So, g'(0) = 2f(2 + 2f (U) . f '(2 + 2f(D 2f '(0)
= g'{0)=-4 Ans.
23. Replacing r by 2-x and y by 2h in given functional equation

l'(x+ht=t(n:-f(4
2
y^L@} \-IQ) y^f(%) + fQD -
h+0 h
=
h-+0 2h 'rr*, ...(i)
In given relation put y = 0
^(
/l-l=' x\ ftx)+-1
= '\91\ !/
e e
r, f(2r) L
= l\x) =
i*i
f(2'x) - 2f(x) = *l ..'(ii)
Using equation (ii) in equation (i), we get

'f '(x) = /r-0


\rftz\^t2h -' = f '(ot

f'kt=-l
f@) =l- x = f -'(x),i.e., inverse of itself. Ans.
24. As f(-x)= -f(x)
= f(x) is an odd differentiable function.
-f '(-x) = -f '(x)
+ f "(-x) = -f "(x)
Put r = 0, we get
2f "(o) = o
So, f"(O)=Q Ans.
Note : Domain of function = (-1, 1)

25. L'(x) = 0 = A(r) = constant (differentiate row wise)


Degree = 0 Ans.
,U. ,._[g(2+ sinr) - g(2+x cosr)].f sinr -r cosr)
*-ol sinx -.,r cos.r I I x - sinr )
Me tho d s of Diff er e ntiatio n 155

=s,(2)I$(ry#*)[3)
= s,(2\
ls[r:ffi )=
zs,tz,

27. x = -1 is the factor of 1st row, 2nd row, Srd row and 3rd column'
Hence, ?(r) contains (r + 1)4.
T"'(_l) =0 Ans.
h(x)=g2(x+f(x))
h'(x) = Zg(x + f(x))g'(x + /(r))(1+ f '(x))
h'(5) 2g(5+ f6De'6+ /(5))(1+ /'(5))
=
f(5) = Z sg) = 4, f '(5) - o, g'(7) = 3
h'(5) = 250)S' g)(l+0) = 2 x 4 xB = 24 Ans.

We know t}rat{L = !
-----dv
*
-glrl
d,* - ,lal 4u(chainrure)
dY' dYl I d.l dY I
dY dY
\dx ) \dx )

-1 (0"\l o=',
=
li,,r li* )l\ dx
la-)
_dry d'y (dv)'
. d'2x
= d*c : dx2 -- -ld. latl
idv)' - -ld.l g'ttt
I An".
dt, - (qr:'
Hence, = -(
d\ ) lt \f'ft\)
la* ) dy' \at )
dy
Alternativelv- ,4=!!--g'(t) ' d''y = d ( p'(t)\ dt d'z'v f '(t)g"(t)- g'(t)f "(t)
d.x #= f.i;l' d*r=Ail1r) )'a*= d*r= (f '(tD3
dt
dx
4t = f'\t)
q: a ( f'al\ at = s'(t\f"ftt - f'ft\s"ft)
And,4L
dy= d.y s'Gi - dt'-= drl{@)' do @
a
. (a"\ l(g!.) = _ f g'o) 13 Ans.
la*' )l lay' ) \ f 'ttt )
156 GRB Probtems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

3O. f '(*) = 3(Iogz il2 ! +3*2


x,

f(x)=9=x=2
!r-ro:l
d.x' '*'1,=, =J-l ==r =2
- f1*)1,=r-fir- n Ans.
2
31. y'=3hx2 -x3 (Differentiatingtwice)
3Y'Y, =6hx -3x2
y2 yt = 2hx - x2 ...(i)
zyy? +y2yz=2(k-x) ...(ii)
(rr, 2kx x2
.rrom eqn. tt = -
;
Substitute in eqn. (ii),

y2yz -L
+rnl*u -*'f = rru-*,
Y' -]

rz- 2(2kx - x2 )2=2(k - x)


y yz

lz+
zekx - x2)2= 2(k- x) y" e

; s--
- x2)z 2G - x)
tr*ff=T'(3kx2
2(2kx
-xB)
.)
y, + ll+kzxz + x4 - 4lzx3 -Bhzxz + hx3 +Shx, - rnl =0
v"
y,+t!
v
=o

= n=2k2 Ans.
32. lf(x)l<|"' -
"21v
*, o
Vfzll<O=f(2) =o
l/(r) l< l"' - n'l

= lftxl - ftzr,. 1.- lr'tr'-' - ttl


I x-2 | x-21 x-2 I

= lf 'Q)l< e2

= ll2a, + 4b + cl< e2
l=e2+lll=7 Ans.
Methods of Differentiation L57

33.'"' S(h(xD =v s g'(h(x))h'(x) = l

--1=. 'h'|il = I
1+ (h(r))"
h'(x) = 1+ (h(r))3
=
+ h"(x) = 3(h(x))2 h'(x)
h,,(x) = 3h2(x) (1+ h3(.r)) Ans.

34. tans =
.. ln/ - ln2
[m-----
t+- 1+- t-2
Using L'Hospital rule
li*1/f (t, l! 0
=
t-r- 1 -o
Hence, when the situation is limiting
BP -+ BP' (along horizontal)
and AP + Aq
= 0-+I-B=cos0
2
/\
coso -+ .o.l 1- 0I
') = sing
\z
1
But tanP =ln2
lim coso =
J-- ,-+- t'+lim cos
- Bl =
\2 ' )
sinp = +
Jf +1n22
Ans.

(t -t)2 + 1+In2 2-[(lnt -ln2)2 +(t -D21


Alternatively: t)*
Iim cos0 =

t*f +* - z + ! + t + lffi-lrT- lffi


+2\nt.ln* -4+4t
lim r-------------;
h+ln\;;; 2llln't +ft -l)"
1 ..
- f-1+ln/.1n2
= ---: IIITI
,h*lr-'2'-* t
Inr12*ir_1)'
\ t ) t, t,t

1 ..
1-1+tr,z.l1'
= --p IIITI Ans.
J1+ lrr' 2 t--

0
158 GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

35. We have, /tr) =.r3 + 2,tc2 + 4x- r*(T)

f
,(il = Bx2 + 4x + 4 + !.o.[I1']
2 \2) = /'(1) = 11
Also, /(1) = 8
so, s'(8)=,|,=+ Ans.
f{x) g1:) h/u-)
I |

36. '.' 4tr) = 11111 g'k) h'@l


)f ",*l s"(x) h"k)l

lf
't*t g'k) h'\x)l I ft*t e(r) htx) | | ft*l s(x) h@
g'(r) =lf 'tx) g'txt h'(x\l+lf ,,{*l g,,(x) h,,k)l*lf ,til g,@) h,{il1
|

=
lf"t*) g"(x) h"k)l lf"(r) g"(x\ h"(xtl lf,,(*) g,,(x) h,,k)l
lf@ e{.l) h(x)l
=0+0 +lf 'ol g'k) h'G)lf .'f ,s,lzare quadratic polynomials.... f ,,=g,,= h,, =01
lt
lo o ol
-0
$(r) must be a constant function.
0(r) = bG-x)
.. d(r)-d(4-r)
llm-=O
x--+2 sin(r Ans.
- 2)
37. S(5) = land /(1) =5
Now, g"(5) = - f"(g(x))=
,@(xt)|"
1f

= p,,(5)=_ f"(g(5)l =_ f"(r)


lf ,(s(5))13 Lf ,0)f
f '(x) = 3x2 +3, f'(l) = 6
f "(x) = 6x, f "(l) = g
A"(b]=-=---6 1
- 216 36
Ans.

Linked Comprehension Type

Paragraph for $uestion Nos. I to B


Given f(l) = l, f(2) = 20, f(-4) = -4
&d /(r+y)= f(x)+f(y)+axy(x+9+bxy+c(x+y)+4V x,ye R, where a,b,c
are constants.
Putr=y=0
Metho ds of D if f e r entiatio n 159

= /(0) = zf(O) + 4
= f(0) = -4
Now, putr = landjl = 0, we getc = 0
Putr=1andy=1,weget
f(2)=2f(7)+6+b+4
+ 20=W)+6+b+4
:+ L4=6+b ...(i)
:+ 6=8
Hence, b = 8and c = 0 +b* c = 8. Ans.
f(x + y1= f@) + f(y) +\xy(x + y) +&xy + 4
,(x\ +hl- f(A +ht+8xh+4
Now, tf '--, =rr^f\x
i-;o h
- h+o
rr^f(ht+Sxhtx
h
,.
llm'
=
f(ht +\xhk + hl +8xh- f{Ot
= f'Q)+3x2+&r=3x2+8x
h+o h
Integrating both sides w.r.t. r, we get
f(x) = xs + 4x2 +C
f(0)=-4=C=-4
Hence, f(x) = x3 + 4x2 - 4
f(x)=x3 +4e'
x3 +4x2 -4=x3 +4e' ,L
x2 - l= e' iOotted graph is ofy = 1 -
.xx
j Ott e, graph is ofy = 9
! - '*
Dividing by r, we get x - xcx
Hence, the above equation will have two solutions. Ans.
f(x) > **2 + (5m + l)x + 4mY x > O
(x + 4)(x + 1)(r - 7)2 m(x + 1)(r + 4) + (x'1) > m-nt'+ 1< r Vr >0

= m+l<O=m3-l
Hence, maximum value of nz = *1. Ans.

Paragraph for $fuestion Nos" 4 to 6


Area of MBC
L,=t ah =
We have.,2 12 9 Oh=24a11 =-=-.-
-2424
a 2RsinA
h-
2x6xsinA
h=2cosecA
So, l=f@)=2cosecff
160 GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

Clearly, least value of f(x) is 2. Ans.


We have, g(x) = /(sin-l x) = 2cosec (sin-l *) = ?,
lc

g'(i = -3
tc-
.(
g l-l=-
+\ -2.2s -25 Ans.
- "(5/ 16 8

\.2 cosec ,)) = .".-t


We have, h(x.) =.""-' [] 2 (cosec *) = ! - *
2

^ -\
f
"Zhrxt
-%lr"
1.,
l+sinr ,(r-,\ [r-,']/+sinr
Now, lim
\- h\x) cosx
= lim "'2)-2*'2
(n \
/n / r)-
Ii -'.1'o"
x-l I a+l I

\2) \2)

put, r = n,we get


|-
(eh
-7)2 (1 - cosh)
,. e2h -2eh +1-(1-cosh) h2 - - h2
!1rl
h-+O h.sinh
=1i^
h+0 Srn/r
-h
r-1= I Ans.
22
Paragraph for $fuestlon Nos. 7 to g
': f(x) = x2 + g'(O)x + g"(3)
Let g'(0)=aand,g"(3)=b
f(x)=x2 +qx+b
f (-Z) = 4 -2a+ b, f '(x) = Zx + a and. f "(x) =2
g(y) = f (-z1tz + yf "(y) + f'(y) - z
= (4 - 2a + b) y2 + 2y + 2y + (a - 2)
=(4-%t+b)y2 +4y+(a-2)
g'(y)=2(4-2n+b)y+4
and g"(Y)=2(4-2a+b)
g"(3)=b=2(4-%.+b)=b
4a-b=8 ...(i)
g'(0)=a=4=a
L6-b=8=b=8
f(x)=x2 +4x+8and g(9= 4y2 +4y+2
f(1)=1+4+8=13 Ans.
iff er entiatio n 161
Metho ds o f D

l*'+4x+8.
h(xl=1
r20
' ^
l+*'+4x+2, r<0
L.H.L. (atr = 0) = 2and R.H'L. (atx = 6; = 3 = f(0)
Ans.
= h(x)is discontinuous atr = 0.
'.' f@) = o2 +4er +8 = (cr * 2)2 + 4> 4

and g(P) = 4$2 +48+2=(2F+1)2 +1> 1


:+ f(cr)S(p) > a
But given f(ct) S(D < a
So, /(cr)s(F) = +
_1
a=-2andP=--1
Hence, number of non-positive ordered pairs = I Ans.

Paragraph for $|uestion Nos. 1O and 11


l- y'1*\e +t,y) = J- f '(*)tnf Q) \

t'k.gt fG)'
Putting r =0
f lt,) = f,,(!),rfrrt
f(Y) /(o)
f '(y) _, f.' /(0) = 2, f '(0) = el
f(y)rnfQ)
ln(ln/(y)) - Y+c 4c=0
f(y)=s"Y +f(x)=e"'
g(x) = ln(ln(r))
111
"E'(x) = Inr x = rlnr
-
t" 1 + Intr
g"lx)=- x , =- (rt*t"=
3-lnx)z Inr)2
o"ror=-I+l--2
b ."2 o o
e' e'
ln(ln/(r)) = g2t1{x)- 3g(f(r))) - 5

*=x2-Bx-5
x2-4*-5=0 =(x-5)(r+1)=0 = x=-L5. Ans.
162 GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

Paragraph for Question Nos. 12 to 14


'rt,xt
tim (f + f,,txv&l] lim fz(rr
= r+@
,--\g,(r) "'g(:))

= :X#**su*[p=n ...(i)

Now, Let li* /(*) = z[:)


*--g(r) [-/
,r* f '!*', L (From L'Hospital rule)
=
r+- g (.fI

From eqn. (i),


L+5L=12
L=2
Now, 1^f '(x)
x +* g,(x)
-,
.. e'-'f '(*\ t
lim" ''*'=21=1, lf ' '{x) + Lf '(x)l
\
eio
= ,_*ei*g,(x) -l*f l"ro=
'-'" ; :; /o lg' '(x) + )"g'(v)) -2
,. -' =2
Irm')"f '(x) + 'f "(x)
*-* Ans.
)"9'(x) + g"(x)

More Than One Correct Answers

1. Differential coefficient of /(r) w.r.t. sin -1 x=-2L


l*l
At x = 7/2it is -2
f '(0*) = -2;f '(O-) = 2
= /is not derivable atr = 0. Ans.
,, dy- 1 .d'y_d( 7 ldy 1
-' dx - a*tay'i*' - ;yld. / dy ) a. = - (dx / dy)B d2x
dy2
d2y / dv \3 dy
.r--a+l-1 !
dxz \dx ) -:'=0
Hence,
dx
I d'* * 1
_-01
becomes -*. (dx I dy)r dyz tdx / dyt\ @x / dy)
*d'*_r*id*l'=n
d.v' lav )

dzx ( dx \2
..f,-+l
= -l l =l
d.Y' I,dY
h=7
Methods of Differentiation 163

f '(x\ = r'- /t$


B. 'h-Oh + h) - /(x)

,l ?,tc + 2h\ "(


2* + 2 x 0))
,,'[
lrn
- h+o
2)-Il 2 )

h
,.- f(%)
=llITI-
+ f(2h) - fer) - f(0)
h-+0 2h

= hmfQh)
- f(0)
h+0 2h
f '(x) =f '(0) = -1(Given)
Now on integrating both sides, we get
f(x) = -x +C
+ f(x)=-x+l(As/(0)=1)
(A) f( lrl) = 1- lrl, which is continuous V r e ,R.
(B) f(x) = r- x
f -'(*) = l- x
= f(x) = f-'(*) will have infinite solutions.
(C) (/(0))2 +ffOD2 +ffQDz +...+(/(10))2
= 1+0+12 + 22 +32 +...+9?

=1*10x9x19=1+(15x19)
6
=1+285=286 Ans.
(D) tan-l(/(r)) = tan-1(1- r),which is derivable Y x e R. Ans.

4. We have,
[,'
* ,i,rla). x r* o
"'"[y' )' if e LL w
/(r) = |
10, if r =0
(A) As /(0) = 0, so f(r) is continuous at x = 0, if
lim 0 = lim r' .i.r[1 l=o , 0 Ans.
x->0'f(r) = x+0 \f " J

(B) f '(o) = lim /(ft) - f(o)


'h+Oh
sin( ! l-o-
h" ---
= 1i* \ft" J timh,
= h-o ,..ir[1) = o.
h,so h \h, )
Provided, a-l> 0=o > 1 Ans.
t / 1\ / -c ) o-t , 1 rv
(c)wehave f'txl=]x" cos[." J t,-r )+o'x" "srnl -t' L 4x+O
[0. x =0
Clearly, f '(x)iscontinuous atx = 0,ito > 1+c. Ans.
164 GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

(D) We have f "(0) = r^IJP;IJO


h's\ h
.cos{ 1 h' I [ -'']*o'ft''..ir[' )-o
= lim
[h' ) \h"n' ) \n' )
h+0
=0,provided,a> c+2 Ans.
o. Given, f :(0, -) --+ (--, -) be defined as /(r) = e' + lnx
f'(xt=e^ +r-t >0Vxe (0,-)
1
Also,

Also, lim f(r)= rcand lim f(x) = --


r --.6 .r-0-
=+ f(x) is a bijective mapping.
As f[)=e=g(e)=l
Also. €'le)' = L
f,1)
f '(x) = e* +!x
f'(7)=(e+l)
f"(*)=r'-j.+f"(7)=(e _1)
x"
1
So, g'(e) =
,-L
Also, g' '(e) = - f
"(l) (Ar, s"t*)= {gl'l
(f "(lD3 | (
f'( x))" )
-(e-1)=- 7-e
(e + 1)s (e + 1)3

Now, verify alternatives.


6. (A) Given fk) = xz + 10 sinr V x e R
Also, /(0) = 0 and f(r) is continuous on,B.

,111-/(r)
-+ -
=+ There exists some real number c such that f(c) = 1000.
(Using intermediate value theorem). Ans.
(B) Let f(il = lx2 + xl= lr(r + 1) |

_l +l), (--, - 1) u(0, -)


xG
-
l-r(r + 1), [-1, 0]
So, /(x) is non-derivable at two points uiz x = -1, 0.Ans.
(C) Ify = f(x)andr = g(y)rnhere g = I 1, then
165
Melhods of Diffe rentiation

d'y
d}x __ d*, 4l*o
_Z__---:)-:-
dy' ( dy\' dx
la* )
values such that
(D) As f(r) is continuous on (0, 5) and /(r) takes only irational
Ans'
16;=;so/(r) = nte'ft')"'"tb"onlvconstantfunction)'

-e
f@=l--:
! l + cos20
-=secO
,-\
1 . rl 1'l=12
',[4,
f '(01= sec0tan0
f
,l+\=
t4/ "tr
d(f(o)ll =[ -] ) _--2 Ans.
d(cos0)lu=^ \cos"0is=l

8. Partially differentiating w'r't' r taking y as a constant


f'(x + y) = f'(x) + e' (eY - l)
x=Of'Q)=/(0)+eY -t
f '(Y) = eY +t
Integrating both sides
f(y)=et +y+c
Putting J=0,0=1+0+c
c=-1
=
f(x)=e'+x-1-
Now, verifY the oPtions.
9. r(x) = I;ol, #) ==t,r,rfl.
J*2 = -! +c
xc

f(z) = -\*c = L+C =7


2 2

f(x) =x x
-l
166 GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

+-1 '-1-1
gr(.r) = fk)=!-'ix gz@)= f(fk)l= x . =
-1 1

{-} x-l 7-x'


x

1-rL--1)
(x )
g+(x) = gr(x) =+r Bs(r) = 8z(x) = = Bs(r) =r andsoon
*186(r)
x-1 1
Cfin-zlx) = g,rr_r,(x) = gs,(x) = x
;, 1].,
fr{g,r,-r,{*, =
*(, - :) = ; .'. option (A) is wrong.

*(6l,r,,(x)) =
fiul =, .'. option (B) is correct.

Applying L'Hospital,s rule


!s#
1+'2r +"'1 100ree + 1
,r*
r+1 = l+ 2+...+ 100 + 1 = s0b1 .'. option (C) is wrong.
1

! = g ro(x) = gy,r-tt(r) = - 1

l-x
gh,_,@)=#
9ft,_y(r)|,1 =4 .'.option (D) is also correct" Ans.
2

Match the Columns Type

1. (A) f@) =.or-'|,


. -Z:] = I2- ---'
\r+x2) I k
"i.,-t \t**r)
]

ftxl=I-2hn-'r,-1<x<1
2

So, f'(xlo1*=s= -2^=-2 Ans.


. l+x.
(B) g@) =
"os-1(2r2 -
1)

S'(x) =$<*)
,,!t-tu2 _7)2
So, g(0) = non-existent.
Ans.
Methods of Differentiation
16i

In +Ztar.-lx, -e(r(0
lz
(c) h(xt =.,"-'
[# J
=
; - "o,-, [ 1#l= lnt-l9 - 2tan-r x, r >0

As h'(O-) = 2and h'(O*) = -2


So, h'(O) = non-existent

(D) ktx) =tur, ' [3'


-']l = rru., ' ,, -l '* 1

[r-s*'j vB
lo

k,(x) =-j , So, fr'(o) = 3 Ans.


l+x2^
z ., '

2. 1l
f1(J) =--COS
-rl7- x"- I = I - 2tan-r x, x ), o
2 It**') z

..( k)l
t * -! + 2tan-7 x; -1 <x<l
fz@) =)c--+ srn^l-l={
2
2 \1+r' ) l- -! + n- 2tan-t x; x>l
t^ 2
fs(x) = 2tan-r x - lc +lxl = 2tan-t x-x+1, l<x<2
tanl > 1
-2
dffrk)) !+ x2 d(fr@))
(A)
dffz@)) ,I- 2 - d(f2\x)\
=1+sec2
- t
l+ x"
I
_:_ -7
d(frG)) 1+ xz
(B) I --1
d(fz@)) 1-
l+ xz
(c) f2@)-fr@)=xforxr>1
x2
lrf ,ul - f{x)) 4is = [x d.x =-+C
2

d,x) = x
ftrlrr,o, - f{x))
*,f,
AX '
f2(xt-flkndxtl
lx-tan I
tanl-

2
(D) lr6r*,,
dx
=
7+x2
-1
lr, f,,*,,1 = aI -l= -1
dx lr=",7 4 2

Slope of the normal = 2 ' Ans.


168 GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

lnteger Answer Type

r.^ t2f(x +l) -k


1. t-x+t +t)2 f(il = 1 rq'l
f(t)-ftx+t) \0/
2tf(x +l) *(x +l)2f'(t) -,
tim
t+x+t f 'O)
2(x +l) f(x +1) -(x +l)2 f'(x +l) = f'(x +t)
2(x + l). f(x +1) = [1 + (r + 1)2] f '(x + t)
f '(x +1) * 2(x +1)
f(x+L) 1+(r+1)2
Integrating, we get
In(/(r + 1)) = ln(1+ (r + 1)2) + lnc
Put x=-l
0=0+lnc+c=1
+ f(x +7) = 1+(r + L)2
So, f(x) = L+ x2
Hence,
,.
lim
ln(f(r)) ln2 ,. ln(l + x2)
"""*" - ^^^- - lim -lnz - 1 Ans.
.r-+1 x*L x-+t (r*1)
Aliter:
Note : For objective put Jc = *I,

lim
t'f (* + 1) -(r +D2 fO) *1
t+r+t f(t) - f(rc +l)
li* ,r^o)
= = 1
t+o f(s) - f(Q)

lim ' =1
t-o f(t) _ l
Hence, f?l-l'=t2=f(x)=7+x2 Ans.
o (a-l)x2 = x(2b+3)
The above equation is satisfied by three distinct values of r therefore it is an
identity.
2-?.a,=0 = a=\ and 2b+3=0 =+ b=a
2
Now, f(x) = 2x +t"
Let g(x) = px + q
g'(x) = p
=
169
Methods of Differentiation

/(S(r)) = 6x -7
= Z(Px+q)+1=6x-7
2Px +?q+l=6x -7
=
2p=6
=
= P =3and Q=-4
g'(20L2) =3 Ans'
3. The fact that the limit exists implies that
Iim(/(4r)+af$x)+bfz^d+cf(x)+d,f(0))=(l+a+b+c+d/(0)=0
r -r0
a+b+c*d=-l ...(i)
Apply L'Hospital rule once, then we have
'(3x) + 2bf '(Zx) + cf '(x)
,.
+ af$x) + bf(?-x) + cf (x) + df (0)
rr^4f '(4x) +Saf
- r+0
^f(4il
r-+0 x4 4x3
and for the followinglimit to exist, we also need
hm(4f '(4x) +\af '(k) +zbf '(2n) + cf '(x)) =(4+3a+2b+ c) f '(0) =0
r+O
3a+2b*c=-4 ...(ii)
Repeat this process twice and get another two equations as
9a+4b+c=-16 ...(iii) and 27a+8b*c=-64 ...(iv)
Now,(iv)-(iii)= tfu+ 4b+48=0 + 9a +2b+24 =0 ...(v)
(iii)-(iD = 6a+2b+L2=O = 6a+2b+12=0 ...(vi)
(v)-(vi) + 3a+L2=O = a=-4,b=6
From equation (ii), we get c = -4
and from equation (i), d = 1.
Hence, (25a + 50b + 100c + 500d
- 400 + 500 = 300
= -100 +300 Ans.
4. f@) =2tan-tr andg(r) = x +2-f(s@D =2tan-l(x + 2) solution of inequality
f2(s(x))-;fG@D+4>ois
f@GD< 1or/(g(r)) > 4 = tan-1(r +z)'2ortan-l(r
2
+2) > 2

= tan-l(r + zl .1 1,"- -*
[A.tur,-'t, * zi . 1l
2 2)
/t)
x+2< tr"[r.,l
or
1l - ,'l
- " . l-ro. ,"rl,
"""\z) -
)
1 1 t'an-
!.! = t'unr'
As
26 J3 = '.-r.l-z
Js
Hence,totalintegersintherange are {-9, 4,-7,4,-5,4,-3,-2} =sintegersAns'
170 GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)
5. y''' -2tottt +1=o
Y1/3 - r-" t .,[' Jl

= lnr, = Sln(r t"rF ll


a, IO
l1 - _ry? =gy2
y +x, _7 =(xz
,l

2,xy? +Q2 -l)2yg2 =:r8yy1


xlt+@2 *l)yz=9y (As y, is not equal to 0, because y is not constant)
Dividing by y. we get
*lL*(x2-1)iz =9 Ans.
yy
Alternatively: Given 2,x = (yv\ + y-ua) ...(i)
Differentiate both sides with respect to r, we get
/t
t;
l.y" _ rl
,=
[],:-,_*,;
,J,
1 * 2= t,

3y
]r,

+ un=(oi - J]'' (Squaring)


'
+ 36y2 = Gx2 - q y? {Using equation (i)}
::) 9y'={x2 -Dyl ...(ii)
Again differentiate both sides of above equation, we get
18yy, = (x2 _ l).2yfl2+zxy?
+ 9y = (*' - 7)y, * *y,, (As y is not constant so y, + 0)

=
^ (r2-1).jz*:.Jtx
l= Ans.
yv
g'(x)=f(x)=xe@)
g'(x) _ *x2
*
c@)
2

= ln(g(xl=L -C
4
= g(x) = 4n.u 2

x"
f(x)=xg(x)=laxe 2
I

f '(x) = neT On *') - sb)h(x)


h(x) = l+ x2
Methods of Differentiation t7L
Now, l+x2 =e*
Only one solution. Ans.
Aliter:f(x)=xg(x)
f '(x) = xg'(x) + g(r)
f'(x)=xf(x)+g(x)
g(x)h(x) = x2 g(x) + g(r)
+ h(x)=x2+l (g(r)*0) Ans.
- l- ef")
'1.-=X
7+ el\*)
:+ f'(il =,"f='l
(1+rl domain of f(x)is (-1, 1).

1-x L+x ,2-l


_1
f(xl = lnS +x = --1
1
g'(y) =
f '(x)
g'(h2) 11-3
= =
",r-1) -8 g

' ln) 3

g"(y) = _ f"(x)
(f'(x))3
I",,(l;l-l\
g"(ln2) =
\?/

/ r-rt\3.
I ttl 'I I

[' 1z ))
4x
(x2 - t)2
/
-4.1(zl
-r\ I

32
99.
16
(3:2)
-=-
(gl B2xB B
=_=_ 16
r-Rr3
t-l 2e
Is.]
3 r-3\ tt- e
G l.8r-G
25
Ans.
172 GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

9. We" have
;; - sin(lnx) * cos(Inr))
= *o (.o=tlnr) + sin(rnr)) + rcs [
lnfl+sllltrrl.(,/-r-L
\- ,
-
. )
d,x
= xlt = 5t + 15 (cos(lnr)
- sin(Inr))
(cos(lnx) - sin(lnx)) * ru *f")
= xJz + Jt = byt +bra [-tt"j'"''
(cos(lnr) - sin(In x)) - x5 (sin(1nr) + cos(lnr))
= x2yr+*y1 = 5xy1+ 5x5
= *' y, - xyt = S(xlt - 5Y) - Y
-*'Y, - 4xYt = StcYt - 26Y
+x2yz -9xyt + 26y = O = x2yz * aWt + by = g
q. = -9 ar;.db = 26.
Hence, @+b)=17 Ans'
10. f(r) = 1n(1 + *2) + tan-1 r
g(f(x)) =x
e'ff@))f '(x) = 1
1
=) g'( /(x)) =
f'@
_ f"(x)
= s"ff(x)) f '(x) = (f'(x))2
g' '(f(x)) _ f"(x)
(f'(x))3
/ ^\
frx) = tnl z+ = tn(1 + *')
|
+ tan-1x
\/
ln2+ ! = 1n(1 + *') + tan-1 x
4
x =l
t I n\\
%i ll = -f "(1)
c"l
Ir
h,l
))
(f (1))3

f '(x) _ 1 - b _?-tc+l
l+ xz 1+ x2 l+ x2
f '(1) =1
,2
17+x2)2-Q^x +L)Lx 2(7-x-x2)
f "(*) =
(l+ x")"
=+

(l+ x2)2
-1
f "(l) =
n
-1
I I ^\) ,
tr ll= 27=-4
e'"l lnl %n
))
27
8
frD
Metho d s o f D iff er entiation

I .e"l
rt r)ll Ans.
lzt tnl z+ | ll = +
I l. t ,lll
d'y
rt! bc"lrt\=-f"G) Ans.
Alternativ
"tv
= --dr'-.
(dv\3
Hence 'J' (f(r))3
l;. )
Ll. Given sin.r + sinY = 1
dv ...(i)
cos.r[ + --L = l)
COS 1,
"dx
again
dzv (dv\z sinY = g
-sinr + cosY -l + |
-dx" \ctx J
. ,.)
d2y (dv\' . /cosx\
or cosY---;'= sinx + sinr[ffJ = sinx + smvl- I

dx' \cosY /

d2y y + siny cor2 r


COS- ^'?- = sinr
dx' "os2
d'y sinr (1- sin2 y) + sinY(1 - sin2 r)

Using sinr + sinY-= 1


a7 ffi
doy -. sinr (1 - (1- sinr)2) + (1- sinr) (1 - sin2 r)
7.' ;;o
Llll|
-
(1* (1_ sinr)2) Jr - tr - sinx)2
sinr (2 sinr- sin2 r) + (1 * sinr) (1 - sin2 r)
=
(2sinr - sin2 x)J2sinx - sin'r
sin2 r Q- sinx)+ 1- sin2 r - sinr + sin3 r
Go.,f,'lz- sinr)3/2
d.2y
= sin2r-sinr+1-
-
a*z Ginx)3/2(2- "osr)3/'
-. d'zv
Iimx' ---; =
xo sin2 r - sinr + 1
r=o d.x" (sinr)3i2 (2- sinx)3/2
' 3
For non-zero existence of limit o = 9 tif ' , ,h"., limit will be
zero'
22
and L= 7:
2J2
g = 3- .28 =s12 + igl =18 Ans.
L2t \r)
12. We have g(r) = f i +-'l
I Ftrl]
On differentiating w.r.t. r, we get
774 GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

g'(x)=,,(h)"(*Fo4j{)
ri,=,,(hl"[g+")
As fl)=f'(t)
=+ g'(1) = 0 Ans.
13. f(*) + f(x + 2) + f(x+ 4) = 0 ...(i)
Replacingxbyx+2
fG + 2) + f(x + 4) + f(x +6) = 0 ...(ii)
(i) - (ii)
f(x)-/(r+6)=0
f(x)=f(x+6)YxeR
is periodic with period 6.
/(r)
Differntiating above equation
f'G)=f'(x+6)vrel?
f '(x) is also periodic with same period 6.
f(x) = f(x +6) - f(x +121 = f@ + 18) = ...
f(0) = fG) = f(12) = /(18) =...
and f '(x) = f'(x + 6) = f '(x + L2) = f ,(x +1g) = ...
f '(0) = f '(6) = f '(12) = f '(78) = ...
+t2) - f@)f@ - fG +6)f(Ls) + /2(18)
Now, 1i^f'(*
/-i \ =1i^f '(*) - zf(*)f (o) * ,'ro,
r+0 r+o a(1sn-l 1 tan-l(l-r))
,l - tan-1 (1- rt l
\4 -
)

= lim ff@) - f(0)2


r+0
x.tan-1[1-rt r])
\ r+r-"r l
= hm I /txr - /tor'12 2-x
,-o[ x 2-x
)
trrr-t[ a ]
\z-x)
= ff'(o))2 '2 = 32 Ans.
14. cos ' * = I- sin-l r,
2
sin(cos-l r) = cos(sin-1 r)
sin (cos-1 (sin(cos-1 r))) = cos(sin 1 (cos(sin -r x))) x
=
fk) = tanZ.x
Methods of Differentiation 775

d(tanZ-x)
-U Ans.
d(tanx)-2sec22tc,
sec, *
15. Equation oftangent at x = 2to y = /(r) is ! = x +3.
The point (2, f(2)) i.e.,(2, ft) must satisfy y = x +3.
k=5
- o(r\ /-
fQ)=5=]11F,*,=J31f_;
For finite value of above limit we must have lmq(S(r) - 4) = 0
.'. Limg(r) = 4 = g(2) {As g(r) is a continuous function}
x ->2

AIso 5-8(r)-4-u
x+2 X-2
+ l,:rrys',;r) = 5

g(2) = 5 (As g(r) is differentiable)


8(r) is differentiable function.
f '(2) = f '12" ) = 1* f(2+ hl - f(zl
h.0 h
g{2+h\-4 _s
=lim
h,o
h
h
,.
=[m- s(2+h)-4*5h
iao h2

= {:? {Applving L'Hospital's rule twice}


2
Given, slope of tangent to y = fG) at x = 2is 1.

f'(z)=t
g"9=t
2
. 6"(r.\
6 '-t - ,
f (2) + f '(.2) + g(2) + g'(2) + g' '(2)
=5+1+4+5+2=17 Ans.
t6. g3(r) -(r3 -r3 = 0
+ z)g2(x) +(2-x3 + 1)g(r)
(s(r) - t)2 (g(x) -r3) =o
=
So, invertible function is
8(x) = x3
8-r(x') = *us
g'(8).(g-1)'(8) = 16 Ans.
Indefinite
Integration
Exercise-1
Only One Correct Answer

1. f '(x).f '(x) - f@).f "(*1 = g


ur tf
'txt)z - f(x)f "bc) _ n
.- 2 =u
(f''k))'
al fl*tl_o
dxlf '{x) )
Integr:ating, [^\.:). =, ...(i)
f '(x)
put r -0, #="
+ c=!'hence ftx) -!2
2f'(xl
From (i), 2f(x) = f '(x)
'(xl o
f_=z
fG)
Again integrating, ln [/(r)] = 2x + lt
put r=0togetk=O
f(x) = eb Ans.
2. We have fk) = (r + 1)3
+-l)a
Now, J fola* = !(x + 1)3 4* =k *"
Indefinite Inte g r atio n 177

= g(x)=(x + 114
4
44 24
Hence, g(3)-gtrt=T-T=64-4=60 Ans'
o.
3. Integrat" J
ntu" sin 0 d0 by parts. One integral cancels'

+cosr+1)-(er +sinr+.n) dx=ln(e, +sinx+x)-x+C


4. I=;(e*
J e* +sinr+x
.'. f(x) = e' + sinr + r
and gk) = -x
Ans'
f(x) + S@) = e' + sinr
b. Let Jf -51:l 4!
^a
J:- d.* = f(,*), where f(r) and g(r) are polynomials;
lA*, - 2Bx +Cl2 g(x)
(Bz + AC + Axz + 2Bx + C is not a perfect square)
Differentiate w.r.t. r
axz+2bx+c -gk)f'(x)-f(x)g'(x) ...(i)
(Ax2 + 2Bx + c)2 g2tx)
Hence, g(r) = Axz + 2Bx +C
If Nrof RHS in equation (i), has to be a quadratic function then f(r) must be linear
function (think!)
i'e', f(x) = Px + q
p(Axz + 2Bx + C) - (px + Q('2Ax + 2'B) = qxz + 2bx +c
2
Comparing coefficient of r
AP -2AP = q
-Ao=a
+ p=+
Coeffrcient of r
2BP -(?-BP + 2Aq) = 26

= -Aq=b
-b
+ a- A
Constant term
PC-ZBq=s
Substituting the values of P and q
-aC* 2Bb ='
A A
2Bb-aC = Ac
=
178 GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

2Bb=Ac+aC
Hence, 2Bb=Ac+aC Ans.
6.

- lt ;-*adx=l
7. b+l . t Zt+l
:-- . t 2s-2+x-3
u(x"+4x+l't"'' -^d*=l-:*dx
1)'"" '(r*n* 1)"'"
,rlt*n*
x ( x
\ *') *2)
NowputL,
L*!+t=t2.
x"X
8. I =J {rirrtf OO, + r) .(sinr)dedr
= JKsin{f OOr) cosr + cos 100r . sinr)l(sinr)eec,r

= J sin(100r)Sosr . (sinr) dr
ee 100
dr +J cos (100 r) . (sinx)
III
100
sin(100r) (sinr)
- *: cos (100r ) (sin r) 100dr + cos( 100r) (sin r )
100
dr
100 100 JI J

sin(100r) (sinr)1oo
+C Ans.
1oo
qx
g. Putl = * * | d* ;put cosr -L*tan-
, coso+cos.r
l+tanzx
10. f(x2 +l) =(x2 +1)2 + 3x2 +2=(x2 +1)2 +3(x2 +1)- 1
Put x2 +L=t
f@ = tz +3t - 1 now integrate
f(x) = x2 +3x -l
11. Note that .""-t ..[ * r' = tan-1 r;
r. *--2\
.o.' l'- 2tan-lr forr
(r+x'j =
l >o

tan 1r
I = JlY ^ ((tan-1 x)2 +2tan-t flc,x
l+rz
Put tarfr x =t
= !e'{t2 +2t)d.t -- et .*
x (tan-l x)z
= ntan-r +C Ans.
1,
1-
t2.l x' dx;
(*'*l+Bltrrr-'lr*1)
\ ,2 / I x,/
In de f inite Int e g r atio n t79

| \ - x'l
[, '"']a,
dx
'[(,.:l'.'l*"'[,.])
x't
[\ )
2'r'(cosec2x
!3. In = lcot"x 4x1 = [cot" -l)dx
I,_u
n.-l

" =-:-n-l --ln.2


n.-7
I-+I-,--u (Put n - 2,3, 4, ...10)
n- L

I.+I^=-L1
2
I"+L=-u2
l,+1"=-- ,3
3

::: q

1ro+1, =- ,

Adding Io + I, + 2(12+ 1, +... +.Ir) + In + Iro

( uz u')
=-ltt+-+...+-l
2 el Ans.
\.
1
14. 'f'lx)= 1+cosx '
edx
Integrating, f(xl= I 9* -
2cos'
2

=11="., Ld* =!.z.tunL+c =.*nL+c


212222
/(0)=3=C=3;
f(x\ =tanr
t--' ----2,+ S, f (!)
-"\2) =+ Ans.

15.
, '2x +3
dx
)(*'*3ilk2+3r+2)+1
Put x2 +k =t
180 GRB Probtems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

(2x +3)dx = dt

I d' ,f d'==c-J
ltft+2l+l'r(t+l)2 ,+1
-c- x2 +3x +7
= a=I,b=3,c=1 = a+b+c=5 Ans.
16. 1= rI d* +7-x2oo7
rtx
xtxzoaT * tt
= J..;Ctrm;D
-1x2oo7

=J[] -,ffi, 1,.


,ln.r- 1l"*2007 - ln(1 + x2oo7 )
' Ir* l+xzool)=
2007

hl j----l+C
1t2007\

zooT lt+r2oo7 ]
p+q+r=6027 Ans.
Atternatively: 1=
hr6#tr-,, = Ii.'ffi
17. Let r = ln*( ,"?i:
+tanzl* - i1'1a*
' \1+tanx \ 4l)
2tun* (*-"1-rla,
=lrr( --- t-'
, tt+tanr+sec2 4) ')-""
= r["' Itanr - 1l]a,
1
- \ - 4l)
\t+tanx+ sec2l*
= J", [,",[ - - on)+ sec2 (. - o^))o-
/ _,
=e'tanl x--"1+c Ans.
\ 4)
18.
! fO a* = h(secr) + ln(sec 2t) + ln(sec 4r) + In(sin8r) +C

=ml .i"& 'l*c


\ cosr 2r 4.r cos cos ,/

=lnl
,( Ssinr'sin&r \
|

\ 8sinx.cosr cosZt cos4.r /

= rr, = u,ts.i,rr) = tns+ tn(sinr) +c


[8.iry",qq{)
= ln(sinr) +C Ans.

-
I nd e finite Int e gr atio n 181

-'(.f(x)-f '(x))
d.x =
t9 (1 + e-.' f(x))2 O*
1
Put -L
l+ e-'f(x)
-e-*f'k\+f(x\e'o* =dt
(1+ e-'f(x))2

I=t+C=- | Ans.
1+ e ' f(x)
-+C
20. Differentiate the given integral with respect to r
dzu d.u drt u dzu- du du , dw
dzu= u-ii.;;
"i., i- dx, ,t*' d** d*
d.w d,2u
dx dx2
-
dw=u
d.2u -

dx"^dx
, d.2u .
w = tlu-:d.x Ans.
dx"
dy _ -cosr(y+1)
21. We have,
dx (2 + sinr)
,I dv
vr r| -cosff
""""" dx
J v+1 = J 2+sin.r

frf, * 1) = -ln(2+ sinr) + Inc Ans.


/\
(v+1)=l. " I
\.2 + sinr /

As y(0) = 0 = 1=! = c=2


2
2
+ y+l
2+ sinr
_
- 2 -t=!-- t -1
/P \
lDTrl Ans.
So-
' vl-l
"\6/ 5 5
2+1
2
22. We have
7=
[{*r*-, **2m-r +**-r)(Z*7* +7x2* +14x*)u* dx

Nowput 2,tc7* +7x2* +74x* =t*


182 GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

L4m(v7*-t * *2m-r + x*-L)dx = mt*-t d.t

I = ! lt- -L (t. )u* dt


T4J
t''*' * C
= l4(m + t)
m+7

_(%c7' +7x2* +14)c'\i _n Ans.


14(*-D
-TU
23. We have
lfZy * 5)d.y =
[@x +B)dx
+ y2 + 5y= q{t +3x +C
"2
First of all, for circle we must have
ct=-2
= *'+y'-Br+Ey=C
AsP(1, lies on it, so 1+ 1-3+ 5 = C
1)
=C = 4
So, equation of circle isx2 +y2 -3x+5y-4=0,

whose radius = -E*?! * 4=


J' Ans.
!4 4 2
24. [$=Segl4r. - t| secr ' tanr ' secr ,..
" .,/2 cos2 r - 1 z- sec2 r
^l
Put 2- sec2 x - t2
rt =c -t =c -Jr- sec\
-lt-at
=g -Jtaar\ Ans.
f(x2 + 1) = (r 2 +t)2 +Bxz +l
Put x2 +L=t
f(t)=t2 +3(t -1)+1
f(t) =t2 +3t -2
[fr*ta*=$*+ ?-x+c Ans.
26. Put lnx = t

| -4:=
to*rll_ sin-,1'l'
2)n= 6
I Ans.
t'
Indefinite

27. sinl1x(sinr)ae = [sinr'cos50r(sinr)ae + cosr sin50r(sinr)ae]


d ((sirrr)to sin 5or)
dx
=
50
28. rt=7,12=4
I Pt*)'"h* d* = Q(x)'ea* + c
)
k=4
and P(x)et* = s4* 1g'(x) + 4Qk)l
p(x)' Q'tx)
^
Q(r) Q(r)
lirrP(')
,-,_e(r) =o+4=4
Alternative : As Q(r) wili be a polynomial of same deglee as that of P(r) and the
P+'
leading coefficient of QG)is equal to leading coefficient "f

]sffi=l*h=n
Required=7+'7+4+4=22 Ans.
29. We have f(x) = (r + l-)3
k +-1)a
*,
Now, ! tr*]6* = !{* + l)3 dx -
(r + 1)a
= g(xt=
4

Hence, s(3) - s(1) = t44-4 = un - 4 = 6o Ans.

30.
I#a*=S-!!*a*
,.1+r2o1o ,
=J;;r* d*-)t 1

x+*zonax

[ .4*11-1 ' = r 1+tr2010


ax
r 1+f,zo1o
"oo' ,, **1ffi );;xro, )dx

h(xt=14
Jx =lnx-C
h(1)=0 .'.c=0
hG) = lnx
h(e)=lr.e=l Ans.
184 GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)
i| -loglo /1oo-rr1
\ r 1l

I t"gro z I

31. A= 2\) =r(*'[#-r))


=A
A* x .1 100-r
100 -r A
. rloo_x)
1=llog"10.logrnl .

' -'\ x )
ta*

Jimtroo - x) -lnx) dx
=

= (x - 100) ln(100 - r) +(100 - x) - xlnx +x+C


I = (x - 100) 1n(100 - x) - xlnr +C Ans.

Linked Comprehension Type

Paragraph for Question Nos. I to B


+ rl*
llyLd,x
ux'-l =tnir'z+r
r-1 3tur-, lb !-1\*c
I I Js I Jd I -
Differentiating both sides, we get
f(x)_ _ x -\ (x -t)(Zx+1)-(r2 +x +t).1
,3-1. x2+x+l (x - L)2

I
2
' -1"
r*[4 * t;' Jg
\aE)
Al:-.-l:1=L a
4
-l x3 3 3+(4x2 +4x+L)
x2 -2-x-2 1
x"-l x2+x+l
f@)=(x2 -?-x-2)+(x- t)
_^.2
L -- o
- -_L -O

/(1) = -3 Ans.

r=l 1-6cosecx,.
d( srnr ) =J srnf d(sinr)
6+ /(sinx) 6+sin2r-sinr-B
r- 9
sln.n
=I d(sinr) (Put sinr = /)
sin2r*sinr+B
Irudefinite Integr ation 185

_6
I-
16
-l t ,lt=l t2 t3
=)tr_*s"'=J-18 dt
"'
ttz
t 1 D\ / 1 Q
=tnl1-'**l*K=hl
\ t l' )
r--' n -|l+K
\ Slnr(. sln' .r
\

(13\
g("r)=lnl t- -' 1--. ,-l
\ Srn"r Srn" "r .i
'l
srtr=
''\ +.
lnil- sinl -'"
sin'I )

Now, limg(f) = InS Ans.


t) t

,_ f 5+/(sinx)+f(cos *) d,*
'-J .;** + cosr
sinr
=J
5+ sin2 x - sinr -3+ cos2x - cosr -3,
slntr + cos.tr
= !-ax = -x *X
h(x) = -x (since h(1) = -1)
Hence, tan-r(hQD + tan-1(h(3))

= tan-1(-2)+ tan-1(-3) = :!n Ans.


4

Paragraph for $fuestion Nos. 4 and 5


- !l'
b@. b.tt
' =( a2 - * \b - 2t)2 + (r - 1)2 + 1
\ 2)
Now consid er E = (b - 2t)2 + (t - l)2 + I = 5t2 - 2t (2b + l) + b2 + 2

Now, f{!l=-= -D
b2-4b+g lb-2t2+5
"4a55
7
Hence, - 212 +7
g(6) = grcr. b. t)l.in = th
o

ll\v E=bz -4bt+5t2 *2t+2


Hence, f(r) = 0(o. b, /);-,. = -:-D-
4a

_ 4 7(5t2 -z:?*!:
4
=5t2 -z +2-4tz =t2 -2t +2=ft -1)2 +1
186 GRB Problerns in. Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

(i) I d*=tan-l(r-1)+c
J(r-1)2+1
(ii) 1[n'tr 2 - 4x +9)dx = ex (Lxz +Bx +C)+D
tr,J

Differentiating both sides w.r.t. r


!n' k2 - 4x +g) = e' (2Ax + B) +(Ax2 + Bx + C) e*
5

A=!.8=-6,c
55 =B

A+B+C = 1 -9+3=2 Ans.


55
Paragraph for Question Nos. 6 to 8
f(xy) = f(x) + f(y) + xy - x - y
Partially differentiating w.r.t. y (taking r as a constant)
f'(xy).*=f'(y)+r-1
Putting ! =l
f'(x)'x=f'(L)+x-l
f'k)'x=3+r
f'\il=!+t
x
Integrating both sides
f(x) = 3lnr +x +c
From the given functional rule
x=!=1,/(1)=1
f(x)=3Inr+r+c
x=lrc=0
fG) = Slnx +r
(i) f@)=0 =Slnr*r=0
+ Inx- " Ans.
o
Clearly, ro lies in the interval (0, 1).
(ii) lf'*',*= Jf3l'{it
) x
d*=|[3lnx
J\ x
+r']a,
x )
3(lr*)2 +x +c :/nx
=
(iii) [ef
k)d'x
= e' (ax3 + bxz + cx + A +x

= tn1t"'*'d, =e'(ax3 +bxz +cx +A+),


I nde finit e Inte gr atio n 187

= !x3e* d.x = ex bx2 - A (aJcs + cx + + X

Differentiating both sides, w.r.t r


)c\e' = e' (ax\ +bx2 + cx + d) + e' (Saxz + 2bx + c)
Comparing coefficients on both sides
a=1,3a+b=0 = b=-3
2b+c=0 + c=6
c*d=0 + d=-G
a+b+c*d=1-3+6-6=-2 Ans.

More Than One Correct Answers

r'
r. t'-=!l . dt =!r dt
rJ7*t *1- rJ G +U D), +$t 4)
= !'
2:tu"-' f +g / 2)l
2 Js l.lsrz ' )
1 -,/2+1\
,*tan't-m-l
1 -, (u2 +t\
=fttan-'[-*-]." An*
.
Alternatively: I=1.
" (r'-!*^
+'zx- + L) - rc- 2

_t
r xdx
J(*'*x+l)(x2-x+l)
L c@2 +r + 1) -(x2 -r + 1) dt
-l-
2'(*2+x+1)(r2-x+l)
1r dx 1r dx
2Jx2-x+l 2Jx2+x+l
=!r d* -!r o*
2J (* -(712D2 -ditzlz 2J (* +l/D)2 -t'El2tZ
1 1 -,(2.x+Lt
=:tan'l-.(21.-1\
= l-:tan'l:l \J3
(Js).ls
Ja l

1[ -, ( 2e -t\ - tan-' (u
=
G;ru"-' t
-*l -,
I t-
+t\1 .
i] "
Ans.

2. simplifying gives , = S ,tt-Bt:n2 :\ sec2 : ax


' (3 - tanz r) (1+ tanz r)
Put tanx = t
188 GRB Problems in. Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

t= S-L-}tt
'(3-t")(l+t')
-a,
t( 1 2 )
=J[;r'z-.--r'z)dt
o.
OI
r= & + .tr*) (1- ."rr) COST

Jst"r (1- stn-) ,6trur(1- strlr)


cos.r rl- -dt
-
Jl-
tl \2 // 1\- o
-l (2)-srnx I -/t I -t'
v\2/
1+ sinx + cosr ,
+.,1+K=! _or
1+ sin.r + cosr
J+K=x+C ...(i) +(C)
Again J-K=T (sin2r-"os2r)+sinr _dx
- cos.r -
1+ sinr + costr
_t (sinr - cosr) (sinr + cosx + 1)
_J r.*
1+ sinr + costr
J-K=-cosr-sinr+C ...(ii)
Hence, J=K-(sinr+cosr)+C (B)
Also (i) + (ii)
ZI =x -(cosr+sinr)+C
I =!i--sinr-cosrl+C
2
and (i) - (ii)
2K=x+(sinr+cosr)+C
K =!f*+
2
sinr + cosr) +C
From (i), J=x-K+C = (C) Ans.

Match the Columns Type

1. Given , [#d*
= and,t =
!-91- a*

, ,3* d*
J = r1e4' -e-' o* =Jrnn*
l+e4,
r+r=li#*
Put e'=t = e'dx=dt
I nd e finite Inte gration 189

r +r =r l1*", d.,=J= d, = !,*0,


l+ta ' t, * t
_!)' .,
,r, ?:

Put t- \=y
t
, =(,\ * \)a,
r" /
= a,

= trI
1 -r y 1 -rt2_ l
dy =:tan'-:=.-...:tan
-
y'*2 .,tD J, .1, "lit
J+r=1,ur,,["il)*c
.lz ...(i) = (P)
| "lzrr )
(-7+ eb )
llVv J _I = J
1e* dx = )l_t!!t at
l+ en' l+ta
1 1
-1+ -1+ (t\
= + tt'*7^
| --J!-dt = +l
t[r*r\'-,!' o, It+-=y1
a
\r)
t' [''t,J
J-I=*fty'-2
/v =-2J2 t:rnv-J?
y+Jz
. t+--"ti
I
1

J-I=--l:In
2"12
t*7*Jz
t

=
1 t2-Jit+t
2J2
-ln- t2 + nDt +7
1 , ,'u -^[2n* +l
-_..:
2J, eu +J1e'-t
...(ii) = (Q)

(i) - (ii) gives

zI = ):tan14-_
I eb -tFze'+1,
-Jz Jzu* 2{2 eL' +.,tEh; + 1

I = f:[ru.,-' 'u -\ I e% -,F2e' + 1


(R) Ans.
z.Jzl J2nr 2 e% + J?n* -F 1
==>
190 GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

Integer Answer Type

1. lr*rnt=x-7
dx
Integrating both sides
2
x2y = !t* -tla* =x2 -*ag
If x=lry=0
o=1-t*c
2

C =!2
qx2 l
x'\r"22
=
11 1 _1
"2x2ac2
= I _ 1 _r-1
dy
dx *' *3 *3
r-1 >u
t(
3
x e (-*,0) u(1 -)
2. wehave [ l--Tcoszx o*
' sin' x cost.lc
=
"ts:c=
dx-71-+ dx=Ir-Iz
stn' r " srn' r
Now, L = l['-+] "u",
xdx =le+a +71t1!-.osrdx
' \ sin'r./ sin'r ' sino r
(D (II)
(By Parts)
t?l* *,,
- sin'x
rr_ rr=
ffi*"
where C is a constant of integration.
Hence, g(x') = 1^n,
So, g'(x) = , arrd g"(x) = 2sec2 x tanx
"""2 / _\
' :) = +
s10) = l and g"[
\4)
/ n\
Hence, g'(0)+ g"l:
" \4)i= 1+4 = 5 Ans.
Indefinite Integration 191

" 1-7cos2r . * L-
Aliter: We have tl-;i+ dr = l 'f', dx -71--
rsec2
a*
" srn' x cos- "r " srn' -r " srn' x
7 = [tsinr)-7
It
(sec2 x)d.x -7f (cosecx)7 dx integrating by parts
III
tun* *71 cosx tanx dx
=(sinr)7 dx
J(sirrr)8 -7[J(sinr)7
* ll,
d* d* t""= *c
= 'u", = -rl, (sinx),
(sinx), , =(sinr),
Girr*),
Hence, g(r) = tanr
So, g'(x) = sec' ,
and g"(x) = 2sec2 x tanx
s10) = tund. s"(
" 1l = n \4)
Hence, g'(o)+ s"(Il 1+4 = 5 Ans.
\4) =
Alternatively: We have

I=*nd*=39L*c
sln' cos'x
.r sln' .r
...(i)

Differentiating both sides with respect to x, we get


l-7 cos2 x (sin7:r)g'(r) - sG)(.7 sin6 r cosr)
sin7 r cos2,
--= sinl4 x
,"c2 * -7 = g,(x) -7 g(x)cotx
=
which is possible when g(r) = tanr
So, g'(x) = sec? *
and g"(x) = 2sec2 x tanx
9'(0) = L
/ _\
and s"l:l=
" \4) +

Hence, g'(o)+c"[+.l =t+4=S Ans.


,4)

3. 1=

= Jtanar O* =*ln(sec8r) +C
192 GRB Problems in. Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

1--4
a. ftxt=l^ -'t^ r,"dx
3.
t.t ort *2 frjo*the Dr, it will come out as r
" 1
-
x+ _-3
ltdx
rt
-*-,\"'
J

[,' J

1 |
-oldx=2tdt 1\
Put'r-*' =t2-2lx+
\ x" I
Jc
l'(x) = -l \a, =!t +C = --L . +C,
'1" ^ll-*n
asf(0)=0=Cr=0
Now, l-=:a*
' rJr-r+ =1=sin-lr' nc,
2

but 8(0)=0=C, =6
s(x) = f.irr-'r'
"2
Hence, ,("1) =
ir=;
k=12 Ans.
-
AlternativelY : I = | ---:
-*4 -l -9*4
(1- --:- 4*
x* )-'
'
.l I * ?-xo ),
=J
[,r-rt,- 11- *1t'' )a*

This is of the form f(r) + xf '(x).


Flence, I=xf(il=__!_=+c
^ll_ *n
2.=
b. '.'I (.r-) 1
-)c
-) f'tx\= 1 ,rr0
Jx
= f(x)=zJi+c k=integrationconstant)
/(1) = 1

= c=-1
f(x) = 2"lx - l, r >0
and g'(sin2r-1) = xeR
"rr2*+PY
In definite Inte g r atio n 193

EJ'(-cos2 x) = cos2 x + p
=
g'@)=p-x,Yr€[-1,0]
*!
+ g(x)= nx-\+k (where&=integrationconstant)

g(-1) = 0
1 o=-p-f,-n

= u=},*o

e(x)= p*-{*!*p
22
h(x)=1 *2
I z.[i-t, r>o
1

lo.'1 i,* o, -1< r s 0


*

... Atr = 0, L.H.L. = R.H.L. = f(0).

= -r=i,*, = p=;
Hence, 2p = -3
.'.Absolute value of 2p is 3. Ans.
t1+r)-(1+r'z-)1
6. F(xt =; dx = ln(1 +x)+c
'(1+r)'(1 +x")"
tf'(99)-f(3)l=[1n25] =3 Ans.
7. -1<sin2r<0
[- sin2 r] = -1or 0

=+ su"-1 [- sin2 xl = nas sec-1(0) is not defrned.

J
r".-t [- sin2 x]d.x = rx + c
f(x) = rx
^/8\ 8 8
ll-l=Tc-=-
\ru/ Tx x
("f a)) _16
['l;].J - ,,
/ /8\\
= lfl _rrr | = 16
_=zo Ans.
I I nr))lr_, 8
194 GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

8. J, (y2ooe +tr803 +xa0t)(?-1608 +5rn, *11olrno, o*

I@'oot +r803 *rn") (%2oto + 5180a +l1xaoz)uao2 dx


put .h201,0
+ bx80a +lOxa02 =t;
4020(x2oos + x8o3 +ir aor)dx = dt
(v2oos + ir 803 + *aol) a" =
ffi;
1 , 1
( t$oz
1.,)
=4020J fs+izr1.1= I
40201 1 *rl
I

[402 )
/ +oe\
- 1 ltno'1 *4oztli#
4o,0l "1-o! l- noro
1

403
\+oz )
403
|
= 4030 (2o'o1o + 51 804 * ro*+ozlioi
+ a=403 Ans.
Letx=t2=d,x=Zd.t
r=21 Q2 - L)t d.t
t(t +t2 *lr[tft' *u
(t2 - t) dt
=21
,I-];),8

Put t+-1 = y2;


t
(r-
\ ,'!)* =2ydy
,=nldh= tan-tfi-."
= 4tan-7.1.t; *a *c
Indefinite Integration 195

8(r)
r;L* :i
= /r/x
\JX
e,1) = 12 Ans.
cot 2r cotSx
10. 1 = J 1" dx - Jltan 2x LanSx LanT x dx
cot5x
_=;_
Consider t, = lftan7x -tar.lx -tan2,x)dx ...(i)
e coL2,x cot3x
Again Ir = Jl-dx
cotSr
5x = 2s. +3x;
cot(A+B)=-cotA cotB -
1
cot 5r
cotB + cotA
cot5r =
cot2,tc colSx - L
-
"rt}* "rt}.
cotlx cotZx + cotSx cot3r + I = cot2x cot1x
- =J-al
/1
r cot 5x cotZx + cot5r colSx + 1

I, = tkot2x,+ cot3r + tanbx) dx


Now, I=Ir-Iz
I = Jtcot%,+ l{tan7r - tan 5r - tan2a) dx
cotSr + tan 5r) d.x -

= Jtcot?-x + Lan2-x) dx + !kot3x) d.x + 2lftanlx) ilx - l1anT x) dx


lntsin3x) ?
. = r!,cosec 4x)r* * + lrrt.*" 5xt +llntcosTx)

1 lntsin3x)
]7 InrcosTrr- c
2-"-'-"*--'---
= lr-r("o.". 4x cot 4x,* nlm,sec5x)+
3 5
1 1
= l,-,(turr2r, * Ir,,sin3x) * 2 ln,"*.s*l + ] ln(cos7xt + C
2357
Hence, o+h+c+d-- -1127
+-+ +-
2357
= t05l]9lt1r!9 _ 28e _ m
270 270 n
m+n= 499 Ans.
Definite
Integration
Exercise-1
Only One Correct Answer

1. I*" = J0
ln'' r cos.r .e'in* dx
- * r0Snl2 ,"in' 4*
T---:i--
= ffe"i,,,l.l, _ y,,r r,rn, dx + !i,, n"r", dx = !! ...(i)

Again ,r," = d.* - e",,' d*


[o'' +,*# !"/2

= -.re"o" l.o'' *
ff'' n,."" dx -lj"o'"", a- = -i ...(ii)

.
..
IN,l en.2
r-t =-=c Ans.
Vo,l 2n

y,t'z !n?t dt = 0 as the integrand is an ocld function.


2. J-3
t2 +l
Also l: = d' 1 tan-llijelgt
t0 t, + 2f cosu +
= sinq sina ln=--L
1 2sinrx
Thus the given equation reduces to
t' o
2sincr
-2=o

= --1/g"q
^r =*9 u
Ans.

3. We harr"
f, @x + q)(x2n*r + a,x + bn) clx = O
Definite Integration 797

Equating the odd component to be zero and integrating we get


2p *',olo *2b,q
tPvnl- =oY p, q
2r*3' 3
Hence, bn =0 and Qn= Ans.
2ru +3

,4. I(a\ =
fr15+ c2 sin2 x + Zx.i,rrla, (r; r sinr a* = n)
n3=
/(o) = *no' *2n
3az 2
I n' ,'f
- nl " 1:-la)n
lgo' 2)
-l
f .2 -
=
^ll l--
\ Jao
al) nTlnzn
J2 J6.]
|

:- = "-- = o' = n.[?3


llz
+ "=!"!5
/(o)is minimumw hen - Ans.
^lsa Jz v

Also
- r'11,E.
1(o) l.;n = 2n+ ,\i
J

5. We hur" ? = ff'
(Be3'+ 2eb -e')-(ek +eb -e' !! a*
e3* +e% -e' +l
= 1ln(e3' + nb - e' + l) - r]b"'
= (ln(8 + 4 - 2+ 1) - ln2) - (ln2 - 0)

= tr,1f - ln2 =
24 ln!
. 11

= n' ="'n t = 11 Ans.


4

6. Let I = Sr zot g,. x2oo .ll_ x)7 dx


UI
f1
| ,n,l- 7 [' (1- *)u.* ,r-l
I = 207 C,l't tt - rl' .)c-1
20tl
* 20110 - 'o'
l.-

1 r"." --l
IO
l
?
= 207C,.
' 201J0t (l_x)6.xzol dx
198 GRB Problents in Calcultts (Hints & Soltttions)
LB.P. again 6 more times
2O7a 7l
l:
' *'o? a*
201.202.203.204 205.206 .207 fi
(.207)t 7l 1
=_
7\2o})t ,0].202-207 208
(207)1 7t 1 1
=__._=
(207)t7! 208 208 h
k=208 Ans.
7. Putnx =t
a*=4!
It

, =+:!:*'" tlsintldt =lfroor"rlsinrlc/r ...(i)

, =
+l;0"^
(2008rr -t)lsintldt ...(ii)
(i) + (ii) u =?Y!:oo'n ;*inrldr = (2008)2.fi lsinrlar
-
I =(2008)2;
Hence, here = ZOOS Ans.
L = lim 5r(x7+x2 +r3
"f
8. + ...+xn)

ti.r1[a- +8 +72 +...*+."1


= n-*nln
(4)
lli.n=-l
n n n) \ n)

xr xl

=,li1*9,r.2+B+...+n)
= ntim{.tt(n+lt
,*nz -r Ans.
2

,l fte sinrI.
J,, 1**sl - Jro
1+*8 "* Jro 1; Jro
r -r19
[,r_L!r"{l r* .- lrc dx -- ls dx =t_t
lx-'l
I L -z .],0
't-
=-l[19
7
'-10-']
= 1[ro-, - tg-'] . 10-'
7
+JEsinr)lax
,
10. /= fi" ,"[ COStr
cos.r
cos.r )
= Jo
1*" l' z "orf\.* - I'lr,
g/ - .|l"
,o cosx dr
-
--;;6;-
= ff'' ln(2 ccrsr) o* - fo''
ln(cosr) dr
/' hr{.orr) d,
= .l;,, ln2d.x * f " k {.o. x) d.x -f
iT- Ans.
= -ln 2
3
t - /* \\
Alternatively :.I =fi" tn[t + Js tan[r -.
))0.
6 -=*"' ]lr,
=fi" r,[r *.n[1.1+J3tanx))
t
,rrIr
+ JE ta.,,i s - JE turr'l4,
= .l;,,
I t+J3tanr )
r"
= Jo r.,[---j-]a,
[rr Ja l,anx\+ )

2r =(!\.2tn2
\.9/
r I-3
=llnz Ans.

11. We have f(x) = sek + 9"' - y*


Now, f(0) = -1
'C[+B=1 ...(i)
=
f '(]rtZ) = 30
+ 8ct+2P-Y=30 ...(ii)
and fi"n iFtri +vx)dx = 24

f;n ,** + Be') d.x = 24

r zr ,ln4
= lg-+0"'I
\ z )s
=24

+ 15u+6B={$ .. .(iii)
.'.On solving (i), (ii), (iii), we get cr = 6,9 = -'7, y - 4'
Hence, (ct+B+y) =6 -7 +4=3 Ans.
200 GRB Probtems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

12. I = [^ 1r't*1. *t d* = sinx .hul17* - f- .o", .h(il dx--


d-@
-- rir J__

-
=0-cos0=-1 = (A) Ans.
Note that here cosr = f(x).

tB. timf f'(1*r)^dr)'^ = 11-f


tr*'it.'1tl'^
i-s\Jo / i:ol ).+ 1 lr.,]

= ri*[ 2i'*r -
r.+ol ),+1''1ui (1- form)
)

=e^"sl["",.'i''-'] =e
,,,%1 "^,|;1;' I

,_fzrzilLr_rl-J
= ,^-ol
r
= = =! Ans.
"2tn2-t "'"(1) e
14.
+*nd.* = !' n.*' d*
+
B Ii
B+[-xe''2ll-fi -n-"d*
11 2 1
= ln e-, dx E=je Ans.
15. JSr -6 - x, +Y, !
22 *
= Sx -6-x2 >o Ans.
16. 1= + orb,*Ib+s) dx
!'o{o"*u.'
f *b*,
-lac._+---l ol6rlb+611
I b+2 Bb+6 _ln

=dc*o'b
b+2 3(b+2)
Hence, 161 = --J-.[Bac + a3b] ...(i)
3@+D'
o'(o*3' l
\ o2)
n(b-D
If this is independent of b, then -{ = Z. Ans.
a'
Alternatively : If the integral is independent of 6, then 1,(b) = 0 lusing (i)l
Definite Intesration 20r
/
I'(b\= -o" , +Ol9,3 /b+2-2))
(b+2)t 1s I
a.z J.J

-ctc r-l a3( 2 ) |


=
$+2)z e lt|+zl, )
1 (2a3
-
-
dCl=-=AC
\ U3
(b+zi2[ 3
=..............................-._l
)
=
3

,=ff Ans.

17. Substituting lnr = /, we get

l'"'"lr+
1201() / *1 -t '
ldt=2009+l-' \ ,2tr10-ln 2010 -1
4u, (u =t -lnt)
J1 | rri -(lnf)) ) tL v

= 2009 - ln(2010 - In2010) Ans.

r.8. Given U, = !: x" .(2 - x)" d.x;


V, = !: x" .(L - x)'' d*
In [,I, put x = 2t + d.x = 2dt
u 2n 't" 2" (1't)" dt ...(i)
' = '!:'
Now, ,, = r[:'' x"(L- x)" dx (Using Queen) ...(ii)

From (i) and (ii)


(J'=22n'V' Ans.
19' since0 < sinr < land 1+r > lin(O' nl 2)
Hence, Is > Iz > It Ans.
+ A and E are correct = (D)
20. T- =
----r (n+i\n+2r) n(r* r)[r* 2')
-n \ n,/( n )
s = rim $ h*r)l,r.Z')
,-*7=t\ n/( n)
11 dx 1t 2dx
=l=l_-
Jo (1 + x)lL+ ?*tc) Jo (2+ Zx)(l+ ?'tc\
(2+Lr)-(1+Lr)
_ rtJo (2+?tc)(l+?rt) Ox

t '
-L'o\r*zt-2{l+x)l
=2[r(
'ir,l
)
202 GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)
. ,1

= z +ln(1
ol
+ 2r)l - ln{1+r) llo
alo

= ln3 - ln2 = lni2 Ans.


21. sinrux - sin(n - 2)x = 2cos(n- 1)r sinr
i"l,::=2\ *
I:- d* = [2cos(n - t\ dx * f
srn.r
a*
sln.f
sin 5x y'rz sinSx
[/2
Jo sin r
---'= Jo
d* ---* Jo sinr o*
f '' 2"os 4x d.x --'
= o * ro
l*"
ti'& d,
sinr
Jo2d.r=n
=f'' Ans.

,r.rlf,G)ld.x -lr f '(x) dxl; I

I: lf '@)P* >lf{z)1= 2 Ans.


IL

23. We have ) Qii =, dll * dZ2 * ...* Arn.


l=1
n

2o,, 211too + 2roo +...+ /r1oo)


Now, trm-^ = lim
n -- ,rlol n)@ n101
,
=2limlflfal'oo=rlo,
u-- n u_r\n
,r00 d,* =-101 Ans.
)
b
As ) (sin-1 r, + cos-1 yi) = 9n
i=l

= (sin-l r, + sin-l xz *... sin-1 r6) + (cos-1 y, * cos*1 !z +...cos-l y6) = 9zq
which is possible only when sin-l x, = l2 and "os-l y; = r,Y i = l, \ ...,6.
xi = 1andy, = -1,V i=L,2...,6
:.
ott

= D*, =6and) ti =-6


i-6 r ln(l * *')
No*, J(i 1 dx = o (Using property of defrnite integral)
qe, + e_, )
odd function
Ans.
Definite Integration 203

25. I=lJ0*,. I
I
x2cos(r)+e' +
Y
2
cos(; L +e
\'+ 1 dx
\
I
e'+l e )
f"o
J_,,
f( c) dx l; f( x))d:
d)c )
Jn
f(-.x) dx Il
L
, x
2
cos (.r) e^ + rl
-dx L 9r.-!.q_l1 e + -) lo*
fi [1 e
x
+ 1 e' + 1
1
I
"a cos( ,)+ k e' +,x.- cos ( x) et + r)
= l; [, et'+l
-) dx

t;
l
(r 2 cos (r r 1)( e'+1)
I
e' + 1 )o.
= JO[o (*2 cos(x) +Ddx
l"
lo *2 cosr dx + J0
= J0 (I) (II)
1,dx ...(A)
(r,B.P.)

= x2 sinr li - 2l' r sinx dx * ll dx


Jo 111 111r J0
(I.B.P.)

= (a2 sina + a) - 2l-x cosr1ff + J' cosr dx

= a2 sirta + a + 2acosG. - 2sina


Hence, I = 2acos(o) + a + (a2 - 2) sin(o)
Alternatively : Directly use King and add to reach the step-(A). Ans.

26. we have L = j11 + i2)u'


ii1\r}
tnZ= limlS m,r' +i2)- 4tnn
n+* n1I =L

;-:*n1inl,,l,.4il
tnL = 1i,, 1$ - Atnn
t l, n't)
2hn r*13 n I rn 4'l _ n,,,
lnz = rim $
lr-6 n 7t n7t n')
\
rnL = y^?!!-pn)
n+€ n
* !$ ,,[, - 4l - 4tnn
n7_,, \ ,')

lnL =f r + *')d.*= r In(1 + *\13 - Il


r.rf
fir.
So, ln,L = 2ln5_ 212_ tan-r 2) = Ztan-t 2- 4+ 2ln5 Ans.
GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

27. When x <2.f',)=fJ_r


.e-t)dt =lr, -'1)-
, 2) t

=(r*-t''l-r-2-tl
2,] \ 2)
[
^ +
-)c' +'/,x t)
22 -
q
lim f(r) = aI

When r > 2,

f(x) = ['rtz-t)dt.I; (t _ 2)dt

r, -'1)' *(t rr 9 -t2


=(,
\ 2)_, \z - - l" = + --- -'2.x + 2
), 22
..-9
Irm
.o+
/'(x) =
^-

Hence, f(2) = l? =Limf(o =z Ans.


28. As, f(D = 1+ ln(r *.[*'11l + 5x3 - 4x4
Clearly, trrt.f,' * f + x), bx3 are odd functions, so
r =frtr - 4xa)e-rn d. = rfi$- 4xn)"-,n d*

= 2l
ro
! (x .e-*o dx )
dx
, r1
= 2l+1 = r(!- o) ?
\e ) = Ans.
\e*',/o e

" "i
Letg(r)+C=l 1,*4 + 4x3 +3x2
^i'"*
' (4x" + Sxz + 2-x + l)t=d*
(s
l++l 4 B\
t (""2 ,3 *a)
l _ _,
= -t odJ
3+ ""*'.1
2 1\'
l4*"
\ r x' x")
Put (+*1*4*41
\ "r x' x")
=,

= -f+ *4*1)a*=a,
\x' x" x" )
Definite Integration 205

So, stxt
-
+C = -[]
t tt
dt =]t +C

x3
+C
ni' *3x2 *zt +7
rr (3ra + 4xs +Bx2)dx
Hence' = Ans.
lo **, n*qu *rs 19

Bo. r = lr- 49 e' dx - ll f u,e-* dx


III
= -f(x)e-'16 +
[i f 't*le-r d.x - !; f ',-\e-'dx
f r(x) "l

-f(xte-.1; = - | Hm
[x..-
"i'
nt
- 1t*t1
I
But x-+* lir, /(') = 1i*
/(r) . tr = (1)(o) = o
€x X x-:,* e*
Hence, I=f(0)=2 Ans.
31. Let Ap = (2t, tz )

srope of FAk =
#= *"[; * e-]
tanop =#=tan(20) (SaY)

= O=? =!!*;,eretang=1
Also.tAr = rftt' - 1)2 + (2t)2 = t2 +l =1+ tan2 $ = sec",lhn\
|
-- |

\+n 1

*-li 4
Ans"
a)n 7T

32. Let , = Io *lsin2nxld.x ...(i)

1= l. G- x)lsin2nxldx (tlsing King Property) ...(ii)

On adding (i) and (ii), we get


2I = ff nlsin2nxld,x
Now put Lnx = /, we get
2r = 12'" alsinrldr
Jo 2n'
206 GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutionsi)

2I = (UsingJack)
I: nlsintld.t
2I=2n
I=rc
Hence, Ans.
l'*t =
^
BB. Given, Jf'" f^'tt)(h =!G3i2 -8)
Differentiating both sides with respect to r, we get

l trftxttf'txt=S2
+ xf't*l=$
= f''(x) =\x-uz
2
Now, integrate both sides with respect to r, we get
f(x) = Ji +C
Given/(1)=0+C=-1.
Hence, f(x) = Ji -t
/(9) = 3-1= 2 Ans.
Let. I=f
---_--t:a*
'n 1+sin.r+J1+sin2r
King and add
., r-
nr tn *' 12 + 2J1 + sin2 x) dx
' n(l + /1+ sin2x)2 - sin2r
So, | x'tt*',,tnair'rt
t. - tx
u
:dx
" 2i+Jt+sin2r)
=11*
9J n "2fly=n a
Ans.

35. I=f'Jtlz tanTx


_x+1
O* ...(i)
xz
Put x-- 1
t
tan -,1
I=1" tdt ...(ii)
Juz7z _711
Now, (i) + (ii) gives
Definite Integration 207

dx
2I=!Y
't"(*-tl'nl6)'
\ z) \2)
r=t(l\tar-lf*='ll'
4\J3i \ Je ))r,
-t-(t- o) = li = A Ans.
zJs \B t 6Jg
=
1

fr O' + n" )l::"*, dt ro)


36. Z=lim tt
r+0 [o]
1

= lim(e" 1a21i-'o"
r+0
-hm . e'
__.+x'-7
r+0O-Josr).r2
=e '2
(2\
z ri- | 9' ,-1+r I

, ,o[ ,2 )
=e =e
o
Ans.
n
In rln \U
37. LetP= timlfI[r.1]
,.-[^_i\ r ) I
)

rnp = ri*
n+*rlLtn
1i rrr[r\ * I)r)
[' , urft * ])a, = Joi'
= Jo (., ln(r + 1) - x lnx )dx
\ ri
lnP= JO-
[]x.lnrx+1rdr fi JO
, lnxdx
Put (r+1)= I

l' tII .lntI dt


= JI - Jll' tI lnt dt
II
[r r'lnr dx
- JO I II
--iBlF - -;5: -l3-P -
- "4)l- etn2- 1) -l\o- j4)
/ .)t ( 1\
= I h4 I

\:-
(, 3\ 1 1 1 1
=lI--l*-=-+-=- 4 4 2
\ 4) 4
So, f=e 112 Ans.
dx
38. Rationalising the integral f, --- -:-, We get
1+r3 +Jl+rG

J], '**';fF
o^-3
zx
o. = JI t,L*E*!:,+0.
q^.3
_2_
J_r,--
1_
= Ilo* -1 Ans.

Odd even
208 GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

Aliter: r=l:, ...(i)


1+r3 + Jt..!
dx
1=Il, (UsingKing) ...(ii)
1-rB + Jll_.'
adding (i) and (ii)

,=1, 2(1-fi+r6) dx
tr*Jr*u )2 -xG
;1
| ---- :: ztr*Jt*rut
= t-'\2*zJt+xGl
-
dx

So, 2I=!:rd.x=2=I=7 Ans.

39. Given, , = !::r((r + n)3 + cos2 (x +3n))d.x

Put, x+fi=t - dx =dt,so


, = Jf'7rur
-n/2
+ cos2 t\dt =
f_7,
J-t tg
odd function
* f.:, cos2
\----w-
t d,t
even function

- ,fr' cos2 t dt = r(;)=;


T
,n I
I ar, f^" coszt dt = ! f'' (1 + cos za at = !(t
i
sin2r)'-i n I

I i0 2ro 2\ 2 )ro 4l
L l
Hence, 1ol=19*1=s Ans.
ft1t2
l' t.i.rt.^' + rt)dt
.frxl = JOI
tt
(IBP)

f(x) =ar cos(x * nrllt * 1rrof].o.{, + ,tt)dt


lo
/ 1ro",
=l;'--' -) n2
-ol- + sintx + ntl-l
-ro
^12
llx)=-cosx-lsln.r
1l n-
r.
74
r+
11 24
"Jn'+4
Ans.
2
\i Ir 7r 1l

dx
4r. I=f^
Jo ...(i)
2+ sin2r
Using King, we get
Definite Integration 249

dx
I=th
Jo ...(ii)
2 - sin2-x
(i) + (ii)
= 2I=l?( !,,.),-
Jo \4-sin'2x,
dx-
1=8[t/2
Jo 4-sinz?-r
(Using Queen twice)

Put =t
?-x
-dt
dx=-
2

r=9r dt .
ZJo 4-sir,zt
Using Queen, we get
o!. dt
I =8f'' , -rufo'
Jo 4-sinzt 8 - Zsin' t
-*.
--19 dt - dt
= 16J;"- 16J;"
8 - (1- cos2t) 7 + 2cos2t

Hence, h=tG Ans.


-1 :1

42. I =lu'," - 1)Jln(1 + k - l)x)dx +


l' e*- dx
Put l+(e -l)x =t
t-7_ at n !f, n" a* = ff f{oa* slfld.t,where / is the inverse g
li 'Mt +
l)o
of

I=ex1-1x0=e Ans.
ln(1 + tana 'tanr) dr
43. Iim Jo
s+0 o3

Nr : I =Jo frrff + tama. Lanx) dx

King and add


% =ln(l+tanz O![ a* = oln(1 +tan2 a)

l=9m(t+Lar,za)
2
o
lrr(1+ tan2 o)
2 1
lim Ans.
Hence,
a-0 a
3
t
x- <x"'- <rV xe(0,
, n/,
1)

1 11
1+t l+x=/2 1+x2
270 GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

(1n(1+ x))10 < < (tan-1 r)16


= !: *^rr
1ogo2a7 a! Ans.
=
sin(t 2tdt = 1;- lo1'
;:A' '""'= ,Io,1a Jol] "
-"'
4d. lim f(r) tim =1
-o 31 2 ' 3

So, o =1" Ans.


r)

and use by parts. Ans.


uu.
ff'' (cos10 r ' sin(1k + x)) d.x expand
/ -\
cosrr.' irrelo.al
[.4/
1 .^ Tt
47. f(Y) = :! rI .r€-
iz4
- (n n\
sln.r. rtr€l-,-l
\4 2)
, = ff' cosxd.x n (' rin*d. =
i-[r- #) = * Ans.

+6tanx + 11 rx
4g. I- JrtG
f/:3tan2x
1+ tan2 x
I = f/j fa ti n2 * +6 sinr costr + llcosz x) d.x ...(i)

Applyrng King Property


, = f;(3cos2 r + 6 costr sinr + l1sin2 x) dx ...(ii)

(i) + (ii)

,,= (;t14+ 12sinr cosr)dr = rnl; -;)-i.(--?"):;,


2r =t4(tl-sl:1-1)
\6i \2 2r
7r ^ 7n+9 d:-
no
JO

, _7r+9
6
k=7,)"=9
=) (/a+)J=16 Ans.
49. f'k)+f'Q-r)=0
f(x) - f(2- x) = )'
Putr=1,weget7"=0.
it e I nt e g r at rt 271,
D e lin i,o

f(x) = l'Q* x)
Because f is quadratic function therefore f(r) is symmetrical about line r = 1.
=
f'G) = 4
y=fG)=Q*r)2+4
rij dx l-t rx-1-13
J,,*-rPn+=L-La,^' z ),
=l1turr-'1-tan'ol
28 =1 Ans.
-(
e-' sinx ,!x = -n^ Isinx + cosxll
Fh
50. b) = f"
1(a.')a2

= l1n-'1.inb + cosb) - e-"(sino + coso)l


2
liml(re, b) = 0
b>-

'--0,
(2
(sino + coso) = 0
= 2
tana' = *1
= 3n
Hence, ,=
n=un
+ 7, =1
4
Ans.

51. /(0) = -1
(i)
P+q=-l ...

f '(ln2) = 2pe2tn2 +2etn2 +

=8P+2q+r=37 ...(ii)

f'n tltrl -rxtd,x =f'o tp"* +qe'l dx


4

,(11 * o,' l'" 15^39


11)1p +3o=: ...lIII)
=l
l'-i,zJ"-,ln 2' 2

From Eq. (i) and (iii),


p=5,e=-6alsor=3
P+Q+r=2 Ans.
52. Rs, fis - (cosr) /i1
]
""", cosr (sec2 r + cotr'cosec r) |

f(x) =t.o.', "or2,


coseczr
I o
I
o cos2r-sectr-cot2x
212 GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

sectr cosr secz x + cot2 x.cosec r


cos2 r cosec2r
"oa2,
0 0 -(cotz * x) - secx
"or2
f(x) =-(cot2 r "o"2r + secr) (cosec r - cos3 r)
= - cos.,r sec' , (cotz x + secr)
"o.2,
= -(cos5 r + sin2 *) = f_(cos5 r + sin2 r)c/r

=0 - 2!0" sin2 r ax = -+
loL
sin2 r dx = -n Ans.
o.l.
I ltsinxt
54.
^
I=["Jrl2 e^tan-ltsinx inl2 ,tan
--dx+f J0
ntan-l{sinx) +ntan-itcosrr *rtan-lrcosrt
"tan-l{sinx)
I=Ir+Iz
Using King and add
= --lrrd 1., = !I
L'4'4
I=r Ans.
55. Consider (Vn+t -Vn) - (V, -V,-) = 0 -dx
:+ 2Vn =Vnn, +Vn-,
+ V1,V2,Vy, ... are in A.P.
sin2^?sc
Now, v., =!;v, = t'2
' ' J0 o* = J0f'' +cos2x dx = n
2' sin2x
d=
. "-;=;
Sroo = * z+ 3 +... + lool
itt
_ (5050)n _(k)n
22
- k=5050 Ans.
86. S = 4l
-
LJo
f'' e"o"4* l'l* '
dx+' Jnls
"-"o*n-
a*f
*-
)'
.

Put 4x =t
+ s = 4[l Ytz ncost dt +!f e"o"l d/l
L+lo 4Jrt2. -]

=+ t = ,fi'' e'o"t clt = ,fr'' e"int cJt (using King property)

Also, zff'' ut . rfr'' ecostdt . zft' ,'dt


= n<S<2(e"t2-!) Ans.
Definite Integration 273

sr. Given, !"_)]' f{ilo, =rn


firrad* + !"n" f(x)d.x = 19
tff tutax + li fk)dx = re
li rtrt ctx = te -7 x2= 1e - t4 = 5 Ans.

sin'l r dx
58.
ff'' (cos4 r +3cos2 x + 1)tan'(."", + cosx)

Put secr + cosx = /


(st'c.r tan.r - sinr) dx = dt
- sin? .r
sinr -"'^';,- d.t = dt
cos- .r
sin'l rdr = cos2 x dt
dt
-r- Jz
l-
1"or2 r + sec2 r + 3) tan-l /
f
= J'
dt :out tan-l f = z
(t' + 1) tan-r ,'^
t = lnzlit^l-r, = ln|- ln(tan-1 2) Ans.

59.
,. nri'"
riilr =
fix^ax 0+1 Ans.
n'* -n" a+1
-lro l' xt\ax
r=7

60. 1r
ln(l+r) a*=lr!(*_*' *r'_ t*...\o*
Jo r Jor[ 2 3 4 )

r'
2*t-
l' Ir -L
= ,ol' *...*'la,
3 4 )

( *',*3 *u, ^^l'=r-1*1-1*...


+---1...o1
=lr- ' "" 22'Zz
t 22'82 +2 )o 42
1 *a* 1-*...-l- z(!*1* 1=
-...-l
=lr*
[^' z, B2 t2
"' ) -\Zz
42 62

_n' _2 )_ n' =n' =Jn'


62261236
lz=36 Ans.
61. art,t =r[o,,--Y;)
274 GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

&n+l=3an-hn-,
az =3
a3=7
a+ =15
:

an =2n -l
100 100

fn=l o" = l<2" - l) = (2+ 22 +...+ 2100) - 100


n=7

= 2(2roo - 1) - 1oo = 2ro1 - lo2 Ans.


ln
l>
.'jfs;'ll$a-l
_.
62. hm-
1 \ r=1
"')l!,"')\?=,"n )

n+* fL
, . ,2
lni\
Iir
lL s
I

\,=1I? )

.[f,*'a*
111
.fi *n a* t*+"s-36-3
!' *'d* Ans.
1r, 1 60 5
66
e' (Using Leibnitz's rule)
f(x) = (?-x, - r)
^1
tt_t:_ -1) -2 Ans.
So,
'lz) J;
64.
85. \=f et{'-t)d,t
(
t (x -t) = -.ttz {)= u.'
-l(t- il' --T)=
-'*t = -[.'-z] 4-l'- z)
x \2

*' (. *\' ,2 t2t-x)2


/r=1,
"n-\'-') dt=eif
e- i dt;
2t _tc = y
,. -
dt
dy
---:-
= 9

2
r n-i
-n'2/4 J,, ou

*2 12 ,2
Ir=ea ll , odt=ea JO
.Iz

I.'-L=ea'2 Ans.
+
I2

1 = JOl' In(1 + tanatanx)dx ...(i)


Definite Integration 275

r = lo tt"tt + tanatan(a - x))) dx (Apply King Property)

I (tano(tano - tanr) ) 'ld, a ')ar


= J, rn[r + ,, ,r1 r + tanz
= Jo ...(ii)
1+ tann tanr / [1+tanotanx)
2I = JOl' ln(sec2 a)d.x = o'lnsecz o
f = ah(seca)
d ,rIr.".o) ln(seco) * oIt"to']r.ro
da'- ------
-- = \ seca i
= atarta + lnseco Ans.
67.

(['"'. ,')) , ^ "l/n


68. P = Iim = rmIn ['-'4i1
n)@ n a--\.='r \ n- l)

lnp =
lT;[ *['.7)= f mtr +x.)d'x
= r.tn(1+r'tll-t]
_ ru -1 ",
1+f,"
Bxz x x d.x = tn2- s[ a,
{"/
Ans.
J0 --l-
=t..2-Bt' d.x =ln2-s+3[
,0 -] a*
1+x, 1+r'^
69. ForO < r <,
,
= *r*"L
o
x'
2--
e-'<e'' <e 2

t2 *2
e-r cos2*ar-" cor2*<e 2 "os2xa"-T
,2 ,2
Hence, !: ,-' cos2x d.x . | ,-" cos2, O- . fi e- 2' cos} x d.x '!t,- ' dr Ans.
70. t = !f, <f r*l . *2 - * (f(x))2) d.x

1=
I; - xGxf(x) +(f(x))z)dx
*')
-f ,lt"r -, ;r@+t --ldx
,
r= 4)
216 GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

, = fi - *(rot -Z)')o-,which is maximum whenf(x) = L


[+
i.e., I=tJ04{:d*=1- Ans.
16

71. L= lim 1
$ [rtl' *krlr.
1
t)l
''*n?=r\\nl "))
2
= ,, +ln2(1+ r)) o* =l+ zrr2 ?
fi
(* u
,r ,
U
- n,')
l)
In '

Ans.

I. s,o dt - %c .f t - gut dt + [. tz - sut dt)


^ l( fr - fx .tr . \
f(xt = "
;l-'
Differentiate both sides with respect to r, we get
. f 'k) = *.ff e(t)dt - l, t s(t)dt ...(i)
Again differentiate both sides with respect to r, we get
f "@) = stDat f; ...(ii)
f"{11=2
Also, f"'(x)=gG)
= f"'(l)=g(1)=5 Ans.
Here,f '(x) = sin2r +1

3n
4
g:f I
Definite Integration 217

so, *'fqrl=
"\4) -l,,("\ . =
t
2
'lq)
\2/

74.
[:, f@) d.x* Jo nrt d. * !: f -'(*) o* = fo f@) dx
(xa sxz
=l-+-+4:xl
)'
14 )o
13 ' 23
=-+-+4--
42 4
Ans.

75. ,f(t) l''tun-rltl*tt'' -*,0,


= rzt ...(i)
1+r | I

Applying King property

fo = fr' rr, 'l##;lr, ...(ii)

(i) + (ii)
-r2 *
Zf(t) l' I.d* = I.(i2
, = J2r2 z
-2t)
fftt = ! (t -u2 -l
fG) l*- = -I Ans.

76. I=;-r-s-inrr,
JU xo
x--+BtI= J- ?ffeat
+4sin3t
1= J0
1'-3/-Ssint O,
gtr
/ = 1 r'- ".i"1 dt + !gJ0
i- sin-3 r
,,
BJO f3 t3
t =!t *!t
39
2- 4A
-l39=
-
::t I =?A
3

=: a+b=S Ans.
-ll4
??. I:(7 - x7 i a* -fi,, - xa t1t7 dx
y = f(x) = 1l_ x7 )t/a
:+ y4 =(l-x,7)
278 GRB Probtems in. Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

= x=(l_yn)rj,
Hence functions are inverse of each other.
r = fi fota* - fi s{ttay /r,l d. - l: xf '(x)d.x
= Jo

Hence, t = l)tfol + xf '(x))d,x = xf(l)l|= /(1) = 0 Ans.

Given F(y) = fft>a, with f(2) = 2


li
nina f(t)dt
I
F(y) = [,'' fAla,
F'(y) = f(x1t)x
F'( "y)
=) = 71x1,)
x
f(2)=2 = F'Q) = !
v
F(y) = 4log y
r'1\
Hence, f'l1l= - losx
\x)
:+ l* ftildt = 4lnx
J7'
Ans.

Aliter : Given f-t ftn dt is independent of r.


Hence, its derivative w.r.t. r is zero.
Yf(xY)-f(x)=O
f@v) = [9)
v
Put x!=2
y=?
x
Hence, fk)=! xc

Ji trclt dt = Ii!d, = 4r.,* Ans.

79. L,J0 tt
= l* ntr' o,

t(x _t) = _tt2 _,,r = _[(, _;)' _+1=*_(,_;)'


,, [, *12 *2 \2t_xt2
1,=lon+-l'-zl dt=e+[*e- + dt
Definite Integration 279

2t-x=y
,, dy
At=-
2
- lI 2

ox"la I
_l
4 dy
ql
2l
t-
2
xl x

\="ifr;- dt 2
=e a .Iz

r''
'J -ea Ans.
I2

80. l,et ,, = !,so du = 4 a*.


**'
so I: rya* =1,"r?l+)o*=fr,#0,
Therefore. f
^ ""' "^"- -t Jl
fk) o*= ['7 /(1] d'*+["- ftu\ ou=3+3=6 Ans.
x Jt JJc
x u

rr. j;-' r.tn[(r - k)G+t- x)1dx


(2h + L)
- [u*' l.r(, - h) (k + | - x\ dx
2rh
=q*filn/(1- t)d.t = -ek+Lt

Limit = ien+t)h2
l,*#
n(n+l)(2n+1 -1 Ans.
^4
on I

82. I= f . (1+ cos.r + cos2r +...+ cos(2013r))


t-

(1 + sinr + sin 2r + ... + sin(2013x)) dx


Using King and add
f" 2(1+ cosr + cos2r +...+ cos(2013r))dr
2I = J_r

I = Jrl" f (cosx + cos2r+...+ cos(201&t-))dr


ld,x + J-a

= 21" ldx + 2 [^ (cosr + cosZx, + ... + cos(2013x)) dx = 2r


JO JO

I = 2n Ans.
220 GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

83. cot' l(
1 -r + *21 = tur-'
l-x+x'
-L "
-1 x -k - 1).- = tur-'r -tan-l(r
=tan'1*rar-1;z -1)
rrx
Also. I tun - 1)r* = -.|. tan-l x dx
Therefore, f cot r(1-x + xztdx = f rturr-'tr - tan r(x - l)tdx
r1
= 2Jo tan-'x d'r

f' .nt'l(1-r *x'2)dx


lo-
Hence, --- --- = 2 Ans.
!'tun-' * d*

84. rln drrdr +J' (1-r)s(r) dt = x4 + *2


Differentiate w.r.t. r
x g(x) + d,t + (l - x) g(x) = 4x3 + 2x
lo s{t)
Again differentiate w.r.t. r
g'@)+g(x)=t?^xz +2
Now, fi t#.,o a* =foJ\
= tan-1 ,ll"4= I Ans.

85. Let A(<r, 0), B(8, 0) and (0, b) centrotd = [A=, :-l
L3 3.1
=) a+p= b

= -a=b
Now, f@) = x2 'bx + b
Since, y = f(x) has distinct roots.

be (-*,0) u(4, -)
=
Now, r= lot tr2 -bx +b)d.x =72-l2b
But value of b cannot lie in [0, 4].
So, value of l cannot lie in 124,721. Ans'
Definite Integration 221

Linked Comprehension Type

Paragraph for Question Nos. I to 3


f(x) = .f(Ddt
". !]o
!_J
"'
A sav

f(x) = Ae' ...(i)


f(t) = Aet
where, A = I; et ' ft)dt
A = j; et .Ae'dt;
A = e!' dt
"''
AllJo't ,"'
^'ar\-rl=o
f r
Now, ) )

= A=oas !'"''dt+t
Hence, 0=/(1) = 0
f(x) = Ans.
Again B(r) = e' et S@ ctt + x
fi
g(r)=Be'+x ...(ii )

g(t) = Bet +t
=
where B = j; ets(t)d't;

B = e, (Be, + t) d.t;
fi
, = rl; e2'dt + fi e' .t at
But
fi ,'' at ='rr"'- 1) and
!' rc' dt =1
B-,rn'-
B= 1) + 1
2
28=B(e2-l)+2
38=Bez+2
,'
B-
3-e2
.'.From (ii)
(2 \..
g(x)= |\3- e"_ )le^ +x;
9(0) = Ans.
it-e
222 GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

3L 6 .. g(0) - n'
s(2t =
B-ez
=3- e2'
+2
g(2) -2-.'-
3-e2 6 =!3 Ans.

Paragraph for $uestion Nos. 4 to 6


Sum of all four roots = 6
Sum of two roots = 0
=+ Sum of other two roots = 6
The factors corresponding to their roots are ofthe type
xz -ox +p and *2 _ 6* + q,
i.e., x2 + p and,x2 -6x + q
Thuswe have4xa.-24x3 +31x2 +6r - 8= 4(x2 + p)(x2 -6x +q)
Equating like powers of r, we get
g1={(p+q) - p+q=37
4

6=a?6p) = p=-1
a=8
Equation f (x) = 0 can be written as
/ -r\
lx'-'l(r'-6r+8)=o
\ 4)
r.=X-1
2
x=24
So, o=-1,8=1,^{=2,8=4
2" 2'
Hence, ap+a+6y+y6=2+2+16+16=36 Ans.
6"
.,u.lt,d -7*1 -q
r 4

i[{rl,t*
Jl*-y,l = J\x-2) ifL-al
l(r-4) "',1*= r\x-21 a,
Letr-2=t,weget
+24t2 -32t +\6
Jl9-?t at - Jgt4 -8t3 o,
ta ta
8
llr-
= r[ +24 -32 *19)a,
t t2 rr t4)
=r-8lnlrl -2!**-19."
t t' 3f"
16 16
=r-Slnl*-21-f+*
' x -2 w "- 3tr 2)3"*C Ans.
-2)2 -
Definite Integralion 223

,6+1 - 1xv*r +Wlxl+ !a* (Putting tr, p, y and


r: x2+4glrl+1
6)

_ ,.r "'5 - 5x3 + lrlj_la" ('.' ,5 - 51


3
are odd functions)
J-] x2 + 2lxl+ 1
rl lxl+ I ^pl dx
=l,-t rr-clr=21 J.r lxl+
I lrl* 1,, 1t

Jo !
= 2l: = 2tnl(1+x)lf = 2ln2 Ans.
1+x
Paragraph for Question Nos. 7 to9
(e**' - e' ) In2(1 + i)
We have f(x) =],]i;"1; 2t3 +3
dt

(e' - l)lnz (l + t)
n' o,
l" (2tr +3)
/(r) = lim 4
ct

(e" - L) ln2 (L + o)
= lim e'
u+0 (2c^3 + 3) 4cr3

(e" - 1) ln2(1+ ct) ! e'


Ans.
= e" llm
cr-+o 6x o2 4(2u3 +3) L2
ln2 2
Clearlv. ftln2) =u"'" = Ans.
L2126=7
We have dt = 3x * Jo .o.' t g\t ) dt
l. s,, I

Now, on differentiating both the sides with respect to x, we get


8(r)=3-coszxg(x)
sr(x) =1+cos"r
-a:-
Clearly, 9. 3
--<B
2 1+ cos'x

Hence, 1e' ,l
range of g(r) = [:, Ans.
I

rrl2 - n/2 3
Letl=Jo Ek)dx = )u
1+cos\dtr
ft2 Bsec2 x d.* = Jo
= Jo f,, q!gg? dx
sec2r+1 Lanzx+2
Put tanx = t
224 GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

= sec2, dx = dt

so, I = l:
to :!
ti *2- +[tu'-'l-
=
,,t \""" ,li)n
I

^\ 3ln 3n
An*
l:rl;-o )=
=
#,
Paragraph for Question Nos. 10 to 12
We have g(x1 = f + lo Str)a, ...(i)
Now, on differentiating both the sides of equation (i) with respect to r, we get
8'(r) = g1'; "'(ii)
But 8(r) = 0 (Not possible as g(0) = 1)
so, lgg
J g(r)
6* = Jltdx

= ln(g(r))=x+A
A=0 (Asg(Q)=1;
Hence, gk) = e'
Hence, g(1n1"0) + g'(1n10) + g"(1n10) = 10 + 10 + 10 = 30 Ans.
We have g(r) + g(Zx) +...*
e'
=e* +ek +e3'...&=
1- e*
Ifr<0thene'' <1
,/ s \ , -x-r-.
l"Jl: ,oil)dx = t-:-'-
c'rrr.l = r"[r .:. :,) 4,".
Asg(-x) = g(r)givese' = e'
=u eb =1
.'. r=0
Hence, number of solution of given equation is one. Ans.
Paragraph for Question Nos. 13 to 15
Let degree of P(x) = n.
= Degree of P'(r) = n - I
So,L.H.S. has a degree,
) _, = Z
and R.H.S. has a degree 2,1
Let P})=axz +bx+c
Now, ax2 +bx+c-l2ax+b)=*2 +2a+1
+ ct=1;b=4andc=5
Definite Integration 225

Hence, P(x)=x2 +4x+5


T1
I Ilgl'1""''sini4r-4t), x *|
Given, F(r)=l\ 10 /
1_
|
lu2 x=l
I eh--9k+40,
As limF(r) = eL (l* form),
r -+1
t (x2+4x.!-1.'}
L=lim--
- i-
where " ;Ti sin(3sin(4r - 4)) [ 10 )
| (x+$(r-l) 6 1
= Ilfll--
i'iitz(x -t) 10 = --120= -20
Hence, continuity at x=1
limp(r) = F(1)
= r ->1
1 1.
So, nid = okz-sh*ao
Hence, h2 -gh+ 4o = 2o
h2 -gk+ 2o = o
;:1 .. y'r, $ Ans.
1 d* = f'
i' p(r)*-'
Jo Jo -L-4*
(, * Z)2 +l
= tan-l(r + 2)116

-' I
= tan-1 s - tan-l 2 = tan-L =
i "n
Now, use tan-l 1+ tan-l 2+ tan-l i '- rg to got other options' Ans.

Graph of P(r) = *2 + 4x + 5 - (r + 2)' +L


Now, verify alternatives. Ans.
226 GBB Proble ms in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

Paragraph for gfuestion Nos. t6 to 18


i-q
|
l:fi-
; ' --(r(o
1.,
fk)=]jcosrr , 0<r<1
tfi
l,)
I -
IT
, 1<r<€

' -? crts iI\


Y:-.- "

f
-o o-l
As, range of ftx\ = ; , :"
ILr'fl |
"o
there is only one integer in the range of fk\, i.e.,0.
Clearly, f(r) is continuous V I e ,8.
Alstr, f '$-) = f '(O*) = 0and f '(t- l = f 'fi+) =O
= ftx) is differentiable V x e R
Note that f(x)is non-monotonic on -8.
Also,
f?,^' f,*,a* =Ei
:,dx(4n2,[3 ]
= t Ans.
-2 cos rct
As, lr(r) = f(x) = 2
1t

re[0, 1l

,i; i=
o and Hr) = h 1tx)

h'tot= I L r Ans.
-] , t-n"in *r I
h'i\) fln- 2 2
'21 -=1 ),-, n

Given, Iim.,- -"-'-"'* - 2x'i I I


I = s_,u \0/
[^trat
Definite Integration 227
/\
Ll
r''sinx gri.,,I tin*l
= ri*l I= =g
r*ol i r-0\ x )
(.s )

Given, g(r) = 7 +'2-xln25* 5r-1 - 62-:

=7 +4xtnS-I1- 4
55*
EJ
g'(x) =0 + 4ln5 - itttS + 25' 5-''lnl
5

=Fj126-5"+ 125'5-'l
5
.'.For maximum or minirnum of g(r), we must have g'(r) =0
(5' -25) (5' + 5) = 0
\--__\_J

(AIwaYs
positive)

5'=25 = x=2
Also, g"(x = 2) <0
g(r) is maximum atx = 2 = cr (Given)
=
So,
,}t*.i)'= if'o\2
11*1.]'
n
3)
- ,-r2
it!) =r+-b+[91
6 (6l
?r,\6)
= 1 =.!=6
r- I 1

66
Paragraph for (fuestion Nos. 19 and 2O
f(-x)=f(x)VxeR
and f(2'x\=fQ+r)VreR
Graph of the function '/'is symmetric about the y-axis and r = 2line.
GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solution,s)

Clearly, f(x) is periodic with period 4.


Number of points of discontinuity of f(r) is [0, 100] is 50.
1100 A
J, fk)dx = 25); fktdx
= 25(L_ 4) = _75 Ans.
Paragraph for Question Nos. 2L and,22
Let degree of f(x)be n.
,3 =n
Hence, n=I
/(r) must be linear.
Let f(x) = ?ac +b
= fffkD=ZtZx+b)+b=4x+3b
f(f{f(x))) +(1 - P) f(x) =3 v r e E
2Qx +3b) + 6 + (l- p)Qx + b) = 3
{lD-2P)x+(8b-bP)=3
lO-2P=Q
=) p=S,8b-bp=g
+ h=l
fhc) = ?*r +l
n
*(flfkt)t
dx
= f '(f(xl) f '(u\

lty,1t*r,rl*=n
chc,
= I Ans.

f(x)=urc+4
fff(x)) = &(ax + 4) + 4 = o2* + 4a + 4
f"{fff(ilD = a(azx + 4a + 4) + 4
=o3*+4a2+4a+4
Now, aix+4a2 +4a+4+(1- p\(ax+4) =3V xeR
a3 +(1 - p)a=O

= a2=p_ l (a*0)
4a2 +4a+4+4(t-p)=3
A=- -1
4

f(x)=!*++=Y
4
+ }=n-r
Definite Integration 229

x =16_ 4y = f-t(y)
=
f, tro - 4x)d.x = 16 x zfi ax =n Ans.

Paragraph for $uestion Nos. 29 and 24


Letdegree off(x)ben.
Degree of f(f(xD = r 2 and degree (f(x))z = 2n
of
n2 =2n
=
n,=2
Hence, flr) is a quadratic polynomial.
f(x) = x2 + ax +b
Now, fff@)) = f2(x) - 4 v x e .R (Given)
f(x)ff@)+a)+b=-4V x
a(x2+ax+b)+b+4=0Vr
a=0 and b= -4
' f(x)=x2 -4
ln (*' - q2
J0- - 4)d(x2)
x2 =t
ln ttt -
J03 4\2 - 4')dt =l-9
1,, fkt
d.x
Jz lrr,16-L2)
Also, l= t-,[z
lim
t - J2
r= rim
2t'f(tz) rim'==-zJ,
=2J2 t4z
t-,12y115-141 4-s+
12 =8 Ans.

Aliter: Given /= t-{2


lim
!!,' ;{ln-'.to.
sin(r - rE)
Using Leibnitz rule
lim f(t)z '2t 1
-I = iffz -
ln(5 - ta ) cos1 - J2)
Iim
2t'f G2) ...(i)
I = r-r.r?
1ni5 - 1a;
Now as t - JZ;Denominator -+0 and Numerator -+ ft2)
For limit to exist
f(2) = 0
230 GRB Proble ms in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

Also, f(f@)) = fz(il - 4Y x


Put x =2
f(O\ = - 4.
Also degree of f(x) is 2.
Let f(x) = *2 + ax + b(monic polynomial)
Using = -4 and f(2) =0 we get
^0) f(e)=*2-4

Put x2 =t
,u - +t2 - +)at =ff
f
t'' f(x)
J2 dx
Also, l= lim ln(s-rz)
+n'2
t t --.1,
/= rim ztJL'!=2.^f2rimtn -! =-2,[i
t+J2ln(\-t4 ) ta2l,-fa
12 =8 Ans.
Paragraph for (fuestlon Nos. 26 to 27
(2.4)
[!* *s. -2< x <o
8(r)=1'o**
o<x<2
l2
f(x) = frWO -tldt, -2< x < 2
(-2,0)

-2<x<0
O<x<2

ltrf,'+6ldt' -2<x<O
rtx1=
rtt, 0<x32
lit', ,, +61
ll. 'u +tldt.
_ll*'*ilr+s.
4
lo
-z<x<o
I e'
a<x<2
l;.3r+5'
2?,1
4vltllis !9vg,v!:o,,,.
1'tO*)=/'(0-)=3 Ans.
For 0<r<2,5<f(x)slD
31
t(x) -
,4 -
= r=1
gl_ r31)
l= I
''\ 4)
./31\ 1 2
-[+i
t'l--I=-.--=-
l''ttt s
ftx't=?-x2 +5
t)

= -*.*3r+5=2x:'+5
4

= * =0,! Ans.
3

Paragraph for $fuestion Nos. 28 to 3O


Clearly. g(x).. kzf&fi)
Let f(xl be periodic'w'ith period = 7
Given g(r) has period = -!. 'f
hr
Accordin:..: to given condition B(r) = krf(lz-tx)
(i) itx) = r,
lrir(,+ 2{.r}
2r

Since g(:r) = h.rfrhrx)


Now, h? -4h+ki -6&2 +13=o
= (4-2)z +(k2-3)2 =0
* kr= 2 and kz=3.
g(r) = SfQnd - *ruP tl+ 2l?.xl2l

Now, Bfo",t*t' 0 + 2l2.xl2 ) d.x


.'tr2
=BxloooJo
"e*t2
0+2lkl))dx
(l
= 3 x looo
fi'' u'*'' + 2 t2d2) d:r

= Booo JOlt'' ,rn" + r '8r ' on" d* t

frr, f''r:

= 3000(x .
,,2
1uz = 3000 I e= 1500,' Ans.
"+x2
(ii) f'l =sgn(cot-t rl + si#
) = I + sipt'
t2-7t+10<o
232 GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)
(t-2)(t-0<0
te(2,5)
;.kr=3and&r=4
9(r) = 4f(3rc) = 4(1+ sinr)
1100r
Now,
Jo 4(1+ sinr) = 400 n Ans.
(iii) f{x) =2+sgn(r)(l-sgn2(s)) = 2V x e R
h.(x) = x2 - 4x +9
It'(x)=?*Y-4
= h'(k)=?'fu-4=O
. kt=Z
l{2)=4-8+9=5=kz
g(x)=\f(Lr)=L0
Now,
f5 roar = roo Ans.
Paragraph for Sluestion Nos. 31 and 32

= sinr$-lg1t_lE:gtt
+ .
f,'-rsin(n 7) x sin( nr )

= sinr i cot(zr) - cot(n + 1)r


n=l
sin(nr)
sinr (cot* - cot(z + l)*) -
sin(n + 1)r
*,''('].
gn(x) = fi(x). fziu,). fsk).-.. f,(r) =,sm(z + l)r
sin(zr) of n is evenl
l! sinr *
I, = ro =iO
ln of n is even_l
sin(? + 2) x
In+, = ro
S" o*
sinr
t r _= ln sin(z + 2)r _ sinzr ,
ln+2 - ln l^
rv sln.f
-d'x
= 2[l cos(' + L) x d'x = o
-.
In*2 = Io
Ir=n and /o=0
=+ Io = Iz - f+ -.."=0
and It = I* - 15 =...= n
Definite Integration 233
100

I 1, = (1, + I, + .I, +... + f16s)


k=l

= (12 + fa +...+lroo) + (! + I,\ + ...+ fee) = 50n Ans.

linl[* 9dt Hmg ,,


sin2tto)r d, rq)
*'+oJo r/n(l)gq(t)= r+0a J0 sin(9f)sin/ \0/
= Ii*
fti" 10' = 1oo Ans.
r--r0 sin9r sinr
Paragraph for $uestion Nos. 33 and 34
("' stadi = s(fu)) -r
=t g(f(x)). f '(x\ = g'(.f(x))' f 'k)
€:(f(.D'I:k) f,k\
= c(f@))
=

= lng(/(r)) = f(x)+c
g(x) = e'
llf f&) = 0.+g(0) = 1 .'. c = 0l
(i) r-!i"
[-.,o]*
=!i""t *.oh)*
=[ -"
+r)z
.l' *--"
4
*, Ans.
[tt ]o
1
I ['* ,
(ii) ,ujle-'J;l; g(t\ dt = x_)@
lim ru'
e,
:"'dt
x+11 l
*
- r+1i^€ -eu* = 5* e'(e' - 1)
n* l--{ = 1 Ans.
=
e' r-).' e* J-+6 1

Paragraph for Question Nos. 35 to 37


I, = [rn'' fr,"p*f d.x = k.ln(sinr))[/' - [;'' in(sinr)dr
I.B.P.

/s =o -(-:rnzl=
\.2 )zlmz
Now, I, = !n"'', r,2 .(cosec2r) d,x = (x2 .(- cotxn(' * !0"'' 2x . cotx d.x
(I) (II)
I.B.P.
,'t ,
GRB Proble nrs in Clalculus (Hints & Solutions\

/,,=0+Zl!mZi=ntn2
" t2 )
, gt/2x3 'cosr d.t 7 t tol,'
Also, 'lt, =-J,, 1"irrl,.I- _- 4jo1. ,' l'\ sin'r /la,
I

T
II
I.B.P.
f. .l

= llf,, .r- -1
4i\ \ z"ir,',
l)"" *Z!,:'' *2co"ec2" d- I

i Ju
I

i,I I -, )
I

1li
l:
8
t^
= i* 9tnl.'2r
-o l2
4il
ii
-, i

li i

_;, I
I3
64
r.hz
8
Now, verify alternati ves. Ans.

More Than One Correct Answers

1. We have ftx6,1 = x2 + axz + bxs


where .fft)dt
" = J-', t ancl b = Il, futO,
Now o=
I'rtt(a +l)tz + bt'|)dt
o = 2bl'otn o, =+ ...(i)

Again, b=
[:, fo dt = J', {{o + t)t2 + btt) dt = 2fi" + t)tz d,t
.
b=-___
2@+l\
.,.(ii)
3
From (i) and (ii)
tu 2h +l)
2 3
r5
i -- 2\lo.
o
\2 sl o
11 2
--6 ct =
o
o--- 4 and lr= 19
11 11
rl
Hence, .f(Ddt = -t ..,d _10
) tt !', ftna, 11
fkt = (o+1rr2+bxs
Definite Integration 235

';::,;:,::T:,] = r(1)+r(-t) = 2(o +1) = *11


arrd f$ - fel) = 2b =20 Ans.
11

z. (Al In + I,*, =
ftn rrn' x sec2 x dx
rl |
=Jo'ndi= n+l ...(i)

+ (A) is correct
(B) J,, -Jn-t =G1)"12, -(-\)"-1 .12,,-2

= (-1)' lIn,, + Ir,,-rl


' = (-l)" ^--+ -
2n-2+l
lPutting n -+ 2n - 2in (i)l
(-1)"
- (B) is correct
2n -l =
(C) Ifu = tanr
r d.u = sec2 x dx
du,
=, d*=
l+uz
I, [:
= Jo '" , du (C) is also correct
l+uz =
(D) ,111J, = ,lim
(-1)"/r, =
JTI(-t)"ff'n
(tanx)2" dx

a
= lim ( -1)" J0["t (tarr2t)" d,x = O
n+E

Because0 < tan2r < 1


For o.*.!,
So lim(tan2 x)" -+0 Ans.

B. wehave s, =1i t-.rl=1$ 'r*r


;Ala*')=;?-,t'- )

- s,'- = llrtt] )*f(? ]*.*/ttlll)


nl \n \.n )
'.n
We have fk) = x2 + \ which is increasing in [0, 1l
Clear:ly, r fi {x2 t-l)dx
",
!oo GRB proAle ms in Calculus (Hints & Solutionsi

f(x): *:1

r* ...(i)
"r
Similarly, r, = llnL1o). ffl).
\n)
..rf4)l
\ z ))
r" .l:@2 +r)dx

,r at ...(ii)

Clearly from graph, we conclude that

Y: x'+ 1

L 2\ n-ll
nnn

t-
4 . i.S, Ans.

f Isin-,e' + "o"-l n' )( e* )


4. wehavel= J--
+t)'
[ tan-l eo +tan-r
". )l"b
=rf - 1 ( =u' )0,
2 J-* (tan-l e' + tan-r=e* )ll"% + l) )*
Put tar,-l et = t
Definite Integration

e'
6ly = 6l[
e^ +1
^...___
, fiptan-lco dt n
' =
,lu u *ft;- = :)ttn<t + tan-l
""
)1ff" '

= I [k (2 tur, -1 eo ) - ln(tan ,..1 eo \l !h2


2 = a
2
5. (A)Consi.der I=f *d*- ; putr2 =t;2xdx dt
o L+xa =

----: ,=;f
dt 1, _, l-I
7+t' = -tan-'/
n

)o -4
2 =
(B) Let ,=fr' xdx
il("*, + -"rr)
("
,=fr' \4 -*\)
_----1
r1t,l(cosr+sinr)l dx
, ,_ur*,[ ,
.r
(Use King) ...
|\Jr),"t,-_
- jr"or* )
Adding (i) and (ii), we get
2I=If,n dx
4to cosr (cos.r +
sinr)
SeCZ r tCr n
-= f/4 1t/4
TE
-: ln(l+
iJn a;;ffi= tanx)-Jn

Hence, I = Ilnz
8
_1
I+
(c) I=[,, .1+v5
-_ -!+t
q

r,[r*
\
*-!la*
x,-1+ r/
x2
r+!'s 1 + I
-Jr.;
-f x! m[rn*_7\a,
v
r-lf
lx- I +1- x)
\ r,/
Put r-!-=t
lc

=+ (r*
\ l)ttx = at
x')
If x = lrt= o;r = $1, I = 1(verify)
2
238 GRB Proble ms in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

,_ ln(l +t)dt
'-loi4 1.r .
'
Put / = tanO
I = fo' h(1+ tano)do = Iln2
(D) Let /= Jo[1
sin-lr"
)c

Putsin-l r=/ + r = sinf =+ dx = cost dt


, = fo''
!r;n!!d, = 0.ln(sin/ D',J' -f"k t.iradt
(I.B.P.)

=0 lim f ln(sint) - [- If"r]


- ,-o'
. \2 )

Io".|]" h(sinr)dr =-1lrzl


,l
\ 4/

.. ln(sinf)[-\ r.
r.u' 1 \-J 2
t
cotf ,r -
=-ltm-+-lnZ
i+0" -1 2
t';
f-l- *r ln) r2 ,,,z= 2r1z
= lim
r"o'\tanf
Ans.

6. Obviously f(x) is not differentiable atx =l


Now eQ)=l-tf(x)dx
As t ell,2l,x € [0, 2]
Splitting the integral of /(r) ahout r = 1
We have,

s(r)=Jt1 fk)d.x"[i fov* =1,]_,,, +t)clx*!'tz*z -6x+G)dx


g'1tl'
=
2 1,,n4i--s,,
, +orl
l,

=(r-t l.|, ?t!


[ 2.] l. 3 -s,2 -2*s-ol
+Gt
3 )

eft) =2tJ -7" *6t -,


"323
= g'(t) = 2t2 -7t +6 = (2t - 3)(, - 2) = o
Defi-ntte Integratio-n
239
t-3/2ort=2
Now, "24
e(1r = ;l/2 = 9-6 '

r3i
rri --- r -
41
nt,2 ) 24'
540
RIZ)=-'=--
324
* g{t) is maximum att = 3 / 2 and minimum at t = 1. Ans.
7. We have f(r) = f e'-i't d, = et'tdt,so
l;
{E "' o, if re[0. 1)
' f(x) = if x e Ll,2\
lli,'o,+f,"',dt
o, -'dt if x e lZ3)
ll'rr'
+
l,'
n' +
f " '-2d,t

I n'-, ir re[0, 1)
:+ f(x\ = Iru-U+(e'r-1) if ,cel\2)
lzte-il+re'2-1) if x €[2,3)
clearly flr) is continuous v r > 0 but not differentiable v r e N = (B)
Also, f(2) = 2(e - l) = O = 2G - 1) =+ (D) Ans.
For J1 : UsingL'Hospital rule and Leibnitz's rule, we get

Given limit = 11-f


jlrLDEltzr, )
x''oI Br 2 (*3 + B)(1 - cos Ji) ,/

b\ *r*
= llm --.
[";-'l*"; ^2*
-'n (1
' r-. (r ir + 3) - 19sii r
t .ri r':
(vr )-
(1)( 1)( 2) 4
I
rs,,[ I
3
tr,
So, t'3=! Ans.
240 GRB proalems in, Calculus (Htids & Solutions)

9.
(*",0) (0'O

Graph of (.) = -th)


Now, verify alternatives.

l')'* .1"r,r(sinz r)dt 161


-*--'';;o r \0/
Apply L'Hospital's rule antl L,eibnitz's rule,,we Set
=
1*roe,,
,*, (.; + *)= r = t, Ans.

Now verify alternatives.


i.
10. I = J:-r Gtnt\, dt

=s t=e-'--lmt=u
=+ dt = -e'-u du
, = --fl un e-
u
clu;

I = {* u" r'-" 4u
JO

Hence, 1,, =
I; 1" f, du =(-u"e- ")t +
f n'u'-re-"d.u
iilPl
I, = 0 + nI,,_1
In = n,(n-1)Ir-z
1,, = n(n- L)(n. * D...2" L' I o
=+ Iu =(.n)lIo = n! Ans.
As, Iu = JJ e-"d.w = -(e-")t = -(0 * 1) = 1 Ans.

11. r+r=f'(1*{]=l!}@.t,
ro x Jt-
= l' -3:a*
'o J1-r
Putr = sin2 0
Definite Integration 241.

n".ir,0d0=
ir/z 2'2sin0cos0
I+J = J0 d.0= 4fJ0 4
cos 0
r-r=l4-La,
ro J1- r
Put r=sin2O
2sino 2sinocoso
I - J = Jo
[nrz
cos 0 "
= 4!{''"in' odo = n Ans.

,r. f, tf(x -t)d.t = e% -1


Using King Property
I t, - t)f(t)dt =rb -L
JO

* li fo>at - fo rf<aot = eb -1
Differentiate both sides
xf(x) +
li foat - xf(x) = zck
:+ f(x) = 4ek
=+ /(0)=4 Ans.
f3. (A) I = [" (cos2r .cos22x.cos23r
J-n
.cos24 x .cos25 x)d,x
f{/")

I f@)d.x
= 2l: [/(r)is e,enl
I = 2.2f,'' f{ila* (Using Queen)

, = n!;'' fG)dx = 4r,


Now, ,, = ff'' f(x) d.x

Using King
It ='It
1r =o
+ I =O Ans.
14. Given f'(*) = lo r.f'fla,
Differentiating, 3f2(*)f '(x) = *f2(*)
f(x) * o

f'k)=!;
qlq GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

*,
f(il
,6 = *C but /(0) =0

+
"=0,x
= I(xl=V
Note that fi + d. =l' 1,,',b = 1r,
f(6) = 6 Ans.

rb.Letr=1.'[i -.')^ o*=[10'[i -.)')^


t;
o. (usingKingproperty)

t = [:' @ - x2)a a* = ff' *n(r- x)a dx ...(i)


+ J=K,SoJ-K=O
Put x =l- y
AIso, , = _ll, 0_ ga yad.y
=+ , = lr,r*n(L- x)a dx ...(ii)
(i) + (ii)
+ %r =
I: *a(L- x)a dx

+ J = 1|.: xn6-- x)a dx (Using Queen property)


2to
Put
'=P'uee'"oseode
(8x6x 4x2)(8xGx4x2) (8x6x4x2)
(18x 16 x 14 x 12x 10 x8x6 x4x2) (18x 16 x14x]-2xl0)

t260
16. /t0l = llsine - 3cos0 + 2cos0l + cos0l

= llsin0-cos0l+cos0l
= lsin0 - cos0 + cos0l = lsin0l = sin0
[,^ sin0d0 = -(cos 0)Irz = -(-1- 0) =
tAl Jxl 2
1

(B) /(0) = sin0


f '(0) = cos0
/F r ,6
//lonl_-vo
' Io J- z
Definite Integration 243

(c) , = t,rsin2 0d0 ...(i)

Applying King
, = ff,rcos2 odo ...(ii)
Adding (i) and (ii), we get
2I=fJnt2l.d.o=I2
+ I=;
(D) /'(o) = coso
,,( 2n\
- -t Ans.
'lT)-,
lz. we have, J' f@at * * f<tlat - f; t. f@at = (-1+ e-")
f,
Differentiate both sides with respect to r, we get
f(x)+ff folar=-e-' ...(i)
Put r = 0, we get flO) = -1.
Again, differentiate both sides of equation (i) with respect to x, we get
e* (f '(x) + flr)) = 1
.'. On integrating both sides with respect to r, we get
e' 'f(x) = xc +c
As, /(0) = -1
= -1 =0+c
= c=-l
f(x) = (x -l)s-'
Now verify alternatives. Ans.
lnr
18. flx) = _
{"r
244 GRB Problems in Calculus (Hittts & Solutions)

.li .l - hr. -1:


f'(x)= x x 2J; -2-l!!
2*312
For r e e\, f '(tc) > O =
(0, /(r) is J
For xe(e2,*1,f'(x)<0 = /(r)isT
Now, n = ttfi' \! o* .tn2 -t;Z
J* e

Hence a. z(, -!)e) = (A)


\
Now A = [:' Wr- o*=
f# a* +
!"' ff a.
A<(e-1)+ +@, _ n)?
^l
e e

A.(u-D(2*+l=tn)
( Je,/
Again l:' Yo*
A = J1 lput ]nr - t =x = et ,d* = et dtl
Jx
A = I' t,[J at (c)
=
and A=1"'\ta*
J1 Jx
Put x =t2
A=[:4rntdt=4 - (D) Ans.
19. S(p) =t-2pcosx+p2
c(-P)=l+2pcosx+p2
h(x) = s@). sed = (t+ p2)2 - 4p2 cos2 x
= 1+ 2p2 + p4 - 4p2 cosz x
I- 2p2(2cos2 r * 1) + pa
=
h(x) = l- 2P' cosZx + pa ...(i)
Also s@2) = \- 2p, cosx + p4 ...(ii)
From (i), ,Al=t-2prcos.r + pa = g{pz)
\2/
Again K\p\ = f mf f - 2p cosx + p2\ dx .. . (iii)
= f m{r + 2p cosx + p2) d.*
Definite Integration 245

%(p) f h@2 + L)2 - 4p2 cos2 x) dx


=

or 2K(p) =f h(p4 + 2p2 +t- 4p2 cos2 x) dx

= f tn{l -2p2 cos2x + pa)dx put 2t =t


K( p)
' = ]2r0[" f,,r - Zp2 cost + pa ) dt
= if
4Jo
r_- 2pz cosr + pa tdt

Keot 1l? h(L-


- = 4Jo 2p2 cosr + p4)dt
K(p) = K(-d
= Kis even
K{p) + K(-p) = h(1 - 2p2 cost + p4 ) dt
;lf
J" m{r -2p2 + p4)dt
?.K(p) = cost

= ll ,"r<o')d.x = K(p2)

K(p) =,!x(o,l
2

KG) = !K,*'', Ans.


2
Exercise-4
Match the Columns Type

1. (A) Apply L'Hosiptal's rule twice or use expansion of e'"o"' .

(B) r = uG = dx =6u5du
7=St 6u5d'u
6Jo +1-1,-.
- JouB+uz-.lLus du=5-Gln2
E
,*1
= a+b= 5-6=-1 = (p)
(C) ," I" o tano) do = \
"-'(r"c2 -
Put -0 =t;dO = -dt
-n" E" et(sec2t +tatt)dt = 1 [Use le'ff(il + f ,(x))d.x = e* f(x)l
-e" fet tant)on = |
-eol-e-'tann] = |
tann = +1 =r (S)
246 GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

[li tan-r(nx)d'x
(D) Iim iil (Prt nx =t);
"'* fi sin'r(nx\dx
".1
If
nJ!n+l ",,n-rl)dt q
lim [Use L'Hospital's rule]
1 f ,ir,-'(t)dr \o
nJ\n.+l
rl/\ n I
tan 'l I
7t

,.
Ilm
\n + 1/ =1 +
=4n2 (R) Ans.
n+ -_=--rl*l n \
srn I

\z+U 2

(A)0,+Oo=I
2
- $z d0 P2 tanOdO (UsingKing)
^ Je,. (n ^\ Jor 1+tan0
1+ tan[, - u,

u=lfd,o=oz-01 =Tffi
-=,
= , =
##=(R)
(B) I=Jols"k,T*T)**
- ,1[ ,,-, lfk).g'@)+ f '(il'g(r)] - swla*

r[{* r.,, g,x,l.{*t#)l] ,,

=
[r,,,'s(r)
+
#],
=lnr g(1)+ffi]
[r,0,
r,0,.#]
=[ry.ry]-r(o)-(o)t =2ooe + (s)
(C) Consider y = f(x) = 1l- x"*r)u" where n = 2OO7

x = f-r(y) = g(y) (say)


Definite Integration 247

(note that f(1) = 0 and /(0) = l and fis monotonic decreasing)


!' l- x"*L;
=
x'*7 = l- y";
1

r =(1* y'\n+1'
I

f -'(y) = (l- ytl)n+t'


1

g(y) =(l- y'')"+t'


11
gtx) = (7 - x" rn-I =,t -rzooz,ioon
Hence, the two functions appearing as integrand are inverse of each other.
r = fi rota* - li s{ilay
But J=fG)
+ dy = f '(x)dx
And * = g(y)
r=ftfatd.-lixf'(x)dx
= Jo f /frl + xf '(x)) dx = xf(D)L

=fe)-o=o=(P) Ans.
u, *yn
f,(x\+ f,tyl =+x,,yn ...(i)

Putr = ! = lineq. (i)


= f,(l) = |
Put Y = 1in eq. (i)
+ f,Al=!
f ,p{cosec e) = = (sin o)2e
--!
(
-
cosec 0)'"

(A)
i
h-t
/ru("o.". e)* i
h=l
frp(seco)

= (sin2 0+ sina 0+...-) +(cos2 0+ cosa 0+...-)


sin2o cos2e tan-e^
___ q^
0+cot- 0 > z
^_*_-__:_
1- sin' 0 l- - cos' 0
=

= Possible values are 2,3,4. + (Q), (R), (S)


h(tr) = lgna
xn
248 GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

For D(r) to be even ld,x) = ld,-x).


(B) ft(-r) = h(x)

= zisodd

Now /2(r) = I urd /g(r) = l.

1
--; 1=r=r
f' 2
1
(c) g(x) = l<xS^,12
x'o
1
, Ji<x<2

y=llx3
y:l/x2
llxz

v=l/2

-^D -t

ff,s@)d.x = L,*a* +
!i2 \a. * I:,;o.
=! -.12 $.5 - t.74r= z)

-:,
-2so
(D) s(r)is not differentiable atx = L, Jr, * J2. + (R) Ans.
4. (A) t fw -ildt =!tun-'(*')
[o
Put 2-x -t = !

= dt=-dy
Hence, {: @ - y) f u) d.y = %f fe) d.y - !? yf@ ay

u[* fliat - li ftttdy =;tan-t(x2)


Differentiating both sides
zlx {zf{ut - f@)) * !* flt) at] - % ' f(%) - xf(x)t =
2(l+ x4)
',
Definite Integration 219

axf Qi - ?-xf@). rl: fQ)d.v - xf(?*r) + xf(x) =


ij
zf fliat = xf(x) - ij
Putr=1, zl-'f\lay=/(1)+1=9,
-J1 ''t'*t t'''
2 2'

f ruto* =1
+f, foa* =B = (s)
(B) Let
r2009
1= ((x - 1)(r - 2)...)(x - 1004)...(r - 2007)(x - 2008)(r - 2009))dx
J,
2s6e*.il
Using King
, = J:oo' (2009 - r) (2008 - x)(2007 - r) ... (1004 - r)(1008 - r) ... (1 - x) d.x

= (-l)'oo'foon f(r)d* = -l
2I =O
.I=0 = (P)
(c) ['"0 e''le' -I
1= Jo O*
e'+8
'
Let e' -L-t2
:+ e"dx =2tdt
r=2!:x=r[f *-'l:;k)
= zls-gt,,,-,1'l
3 slol= 6 - 6fr) \4)= o -
t
L 2

t a=6andb=3
2
+ alb= 4 = (T)
(D) G'(x) = -gP
E"@)
...(i)

G',(Z)=-89=-9',(2) ...(ii)
g2{2) 16
Now (fog)(x) = x
f 'G@)). 9'(x) = 7
= f '@(2)). g'(2) = 7
250 GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints &,solutions)

f '(4)' g'(2) = 1
g'(2) = 16
From (ii), G'Q)=-E=-t
16
(G'(2))2 = t Ans.
Alternatively: f(4) = 2
g(2) = 4;
'
g'tY)= 1 p'(2)= t
f1*)t f,(4)
Now G1il=- I g'k);
g'(xl
G'(2)= .1 1 --1rL6-=-t
g2\2t" f'tLt 16 1

(G'(2))2=7 t
= Arr".
5. (A) 3l; sin(2r+ 3nr)dr = SJo sin3nr dr

= tlcossrurJlo = -lt,-r, -(1)l = ? +


- ,Jftfift (s)

(B) 1=
[ [x)e-'d.x

= []wl"-'a* +
f [*]r-'a* * fiae-* d.x +...
=o+ rf e-' d.x + z[] e-' dx +3!a e-' dx +...
= (e-r - e-2) + 2(e-2 - ,-3) + B(e-l - r-4 ) +... -
= e-l + e-2 + e-3 + e-4 +...*
e-t L

l-e-t e-l
(c) 1$ r"(2)
n|t \n)
d
ilnz+ln(il
7=, n
= Jo tt.,z +tnx)dx

=[xln2+x lnr - n]f = (h2 - 1) - 0 (As limx lnr = 0)


r+0
=rn?
ee = n=?+(e)
ap) r = ,*lim 1$u_t r.i,[
rLn
t)^
\", )
=[*sin(ru')d*=1
J0fi =(R) Ans.
Definite Integration 2,51

6. (A) r=frfodr*t" fodt-frralar=f" ^lt-"intat


Put t = x* y, we get

r = fi .!t - sn<r,+ *at= fi i1+ ri", ay = frl-"i. ,i"f,lao

Put !=0
2
dy =2d0
= ml2
= 2);- (cosO + sinO)dO = 4 =+ (Q)
(B) Let I = J4-x
l' *nxt4-x\ 6* ...(i)

AIso,
. 1.. (4 - x) e'(a-") d,x
t = J4_r (Using King property) ...(ii)
Adding (i) and (ii), we get
[* 4nxt4-x\4*
2I = J4-x

= 2I=4xZ
So 1=4 = (Q)
(C) Differentiate given relation w.r.t. 'r'to get f '(x) = 2tc + xf(x)
- f '(x) = (2+ f(x)) x
Let t=f@)then!=2rc+xy
dx
dv
or " =xdx
2+y
o

= ln(v+2\=*
'2 +C

Putr=1=y=1
1
C = ln3-:
= 2
-lnl(v+2\
" *2
l=--- 1
= \3)2 2
x" -7

- !=k z -2
*2 -l
So, !'(x) =\xe 2

Hence, f'{7)=3+(S) Ans.


7. (A) .r1 =
!: k - 1)3 + (4 - r)3 + x) cosxx d.x ...(it
Applyrng King property, we get
252 GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

,, = !:((4-r)3 +(r -1)3 +S-x)cos(d5 -x))d.x


I, = -!: (G - x)3 +(tr - 1)3 + 5 _r) cosrx dx ...(ii)
Now, (i) + (ii) gives
u, = l: en * B) cosrx dx
u, = I:2,x cosrx d- - I: bcosrw d,x
u, = z[]r cgs* d* { -p,o
(II)
I.B.P

lr2)f
iO. cosnx dx = 0, because fla + b - 1s1 = -[(xl
lx sinnr r sinrr
It =r--l_dxl \3
\ 7r " fi 12

/
-lT.__l
)3+l/ cosnr
sin nr
_l )3
\ n )z I n2 )2
1.)
=0+*(-1-1)=+
11 fi
5or2I, = -100
Hence lson2lil= 1oo = (e)
(B) , = fio sgn(sinrr)dr
= uf t*t"inru)dx
{As sgn (sin
rr) is periodic with fundamental period 2.}
= s!' td*+ sJ'r-rl dx = E- 5=o + (p)
(c) u = !:o'[cot-l r] a* = Ii"' rdx +
[)]lro a* = cotl < 1
So, [Ifl=0 = (P)

lout l, * 2sld.x
(D) L-
lout ,, + 251d.x
Definite Integration
253
so, N, = .|;u'[x +2sio* =
IJ' Jx]+2b)o* = !i, @ _lx] +28)d,x

=
q;!r - u'.l;' {x} d'x +(25x 51)

- 51x51
: 5t
"^
22 - +(25x 51)
= (25x 51) + (25 x 51) = 50 x 51
Also, o,=li {x+2stdx
= Jou' t ) drc = ill: kl d.x = nfi x .ax
/ ^'l
= stl.-/l =
51
\2)o 2
50j51
.L = = too
51
,
Hence,:=ry=50=+(R)
22 Ans.
8. (A) f(x -B) = f(x +3) V r e rB

x--sx+3
f(x) = f(x +6)
/(r) is periodic with period 6.
64 .A
Jo fk) dx = 9 Jo frxt dx

=9x9=92
k=2*(R\

{ ffr,,, d.=;x6xs=e}
(B) Applying L'Hospital's Rule
' rl
,.-
l*
Il Jo '"' odo
"'o r* + sln "' x Jn cos- 0 r1e
"i.,' "'1 ]cos2
*-\ 2
1

.fr'' 1l
=o+ 1
"or'
od.o =
i
),=4 =+ (S)
(c)
.J0
^Gt9
L = 1""'' sin(r - sinr) dr
+ cosr) (1

x, + cosx =t
(1- sinr) dx = dt
L- = J;" - sin/ dl
r9r/2
= t- cosl)fl/2 = -(0 - cosl) = cosl
254 GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

lll=[cos1]=0 = (P)
(D) I = | sin-l(t-x)d.x*f -2)d.x
"o.-'{,
x-2=t
dx=dt
= | sin-l (t - x) d.x + fi cos-l r dt

= jj sin-l (1 - (1 - x)) d.x + | .or-' r dr

= f sin-l x d.x +fi .o.-t x d.x = |.t, o" = ,


(e) Ans.
[;]=, =
Gi fi xf "'(?.tc)d.x = n?|,)r-f,[], f "r*,o*
"e\ _lttutl'
nloJl=, = ,r,
f
2 |
(B) /(r) simplifies to x2 + x + I
1=
[' tr' + x +r)dx =*.;* t =
* =
(R)

(c) , = ff l@' - n21- sinz x1d*


7=f sin2 x-(x2 -n2)d**f" {*'-n2)-sin2xd.x

=f sin2 xd.x+1",.-$],.t+ *,)". -!'n *in,*d*


=[^'-*).[+ -'z"') i+ n')= z"' =+ (P) ^A'ns'

lnteger Answcr Type

,. ff'' (sinr + a cosx)s d.x - \fr'' r cosr dx = 2

Let ,, = fo'' (sinr + a cosx)3 dx


= f" tri.r' *+oB cos3r+3osin2.rcos.r+3o2 sinr cos2 x)d.x

= J"/2 sins x d,x +o'f " x dx + ,o


fo'' sin2 r cosx dx
"o"'
+ 3r2fl2sin x cosz x d.x
Definite Integration 255

=2 *o,(?)*t ['tr.d.t +Bo, ij'at


3 \3/ Jo

(,i,, =t = cosxdx = a,; !it' at)


,^
=1(1+aJl+a+o2
o
t)

2.2&3 z
=-+-+a+a'
33
l,.2o.3r2
=-+d'+d+-
'33
I,'ro to - Joln'2 ,ir* d,*
= l-n'' .r .cosr d.x = x"i.r, in"
frIif
rnl2
1z=rsinr+cosrl
lo

f -'' r
*_oa
"
lo
'22
-- -

-2a3r2
t=-+a-+a+- 4a n-2
3 3 n-2 2
%13 ,) 2
+a'-a+-=2
3
2n3 +fu2 -fu+2=6
+ 2a3 +fu2 -Ja-4=0
3
0r * Qo * a" = - *
'2
_3
LAtAn = --
2

Lalz=? *9 =
'42
4
4
1000Io12 = 1000 *4 = 250 x 2t = S2S0 Ans.
4
(sin3 - coss 0 - cos2 0) (sin0 + cos0 +
2. I=f''
h/4
e
"os2
e)200,
de
sin2 o cos2 . e (sin e;2ooz 1.or g;2007
nl3
= ttanesec0 - cotOcosec e -cosec20) (sec0 + cosec 0 + cote)2007 de
[)"
Put sec0+ cosec0 tcot0 =/;
(sec0cot0 - cot0cosec 0 - cosecle) d0 = d.t
f'' t2oo7 dt = -1
I = h/4 sroo,
2009
t/3
1 (sec0+cosece+cot0)2008,
= -L r!l
256 GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

r [r- 2 ]\2008
='o*-Ll'. -di +"8+t)2008 1
e.uE,,} -,

= ,,, + {5)2008 - (t + Js)2oo8l


fr
Hence, a=2,b=3,c= 8andd= 2008.
+ Sum = 2021 (current answer is2024) Ans.

f i [r. A')
nA, " iir\n)
Bn.

{[,. ])[,.;) [r. :)l'


ri.r, f i [, * t) ----- [' t+ x\dx =?
"*n?=r\ n) ro 2

Consider, rim rnllr * 1l [r * ?)...1, * l.l1"


n+ [\ zi\ n) \ n))

= riml
n+*fL2_1i"[r*
\
4]
n) - | r'o + ild.x
= f f.r, dx =lxlnx - xll = r"t

So, ri,"l[r.1)[r*
,*[\ n)\ n) \
?) (r*tll"
ru)) =4 e

(3
.
An n-+€
limA-
"
=: _3e
,r--- 2
llm- =_
n-* Bn limB, 4 8
n+
e

a=3 and 6=8,


Hence, a+b=17 Ans.
Definite Integration 257

4. Un ={r(1-r)}"
d'U n
xlx (L x)Y-r $ - ?.,c)
dx = ___ -
.
*lf_
t% = xlx(t- df-L(-2) +(1 -zx)zn(n- 1)tr(1 - x)ln-z
dx2
= nIx(L - d)"-1G2) - l)Ix(l - x)1"-2
+ n(n
+ (4x2 - 4x)n(n- 1)tr(l - x)1"-2

= n(n-L)u^-z + 4(x2 - Ax)n(n- 1)(r - *21n-2 -2n(x - *21n-1


- n(n - t)(I o_z - 4n(n- 1)(r - xz)"-L - 2nlx - *21n-r
= n\n - l)U o_z - 2nlx - *2)"-LI2n - 2 + \
= nln-l)(Io-z -2n\2n- 1)(r - *21n-L
v, = fr e''Uod'x = fln'
".llo frW {d*
-
I

"n(t- ?ac)lx(r - r)l'-llf t#.e* d,x

- r)u o-2 - 2n(2n - L)u n-ld'x

v, - !)vn-L- zi,(.zn*-!ii,':
= n(n
i.e., Vn+M2n-L)Vo-r-n(n-1)V,-, =g Ans.

...(i)

Using King

I=l'.("ot-'+l ("or-'$]a, ..(ii)


'' I Jr-"'J [. ,h-t*'Yr 1

On adding

2I = ['-cot-lII"ot-' ----!-+ n-cot-l -:lo.


J-r Jr-r2[ Jr-(r,)i,t Jr-tr,yt't1
2r=!:,ncot-l
l#)r.
= f, ntan-r Jtj a*

= ,lit n-'Jr- *' d* ...(iii)


(As tan-l Jf - r' l" even function)
258 GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

I = ul' 1 tan-r <Jt-7la* ...(iv)


.'0
ii-D---T-
Integrating by parts
fl x (-r)
I = ,rt .,-' (Jt - r') .*lL - ro
t-:d-
TErO
(1+ l- xz) Jt- *,

-rl-rl *2
- dx
'o (2- *\Jt- r'
Let r = sin0
+ dx = cosOdO
sin2
ro (2 - sinz9o) ,,
I = nft'
2- sinz g' - 2
= -nf''
Jo 2-sinzo O'
d0
I = 2nYtz
Jo - -n2
2-sinzg 2
^ at2 "ec2 edo
-r+l-"J0
n2
2+ 2tan2 0 _ tan2 O z
^ at2 se"2 0d0 n2
1')*)
ro 2+1.annz g 2
Put tan0 = f
I = 2nY dt .
Jo -tr2
2+tz
2

Jz "lz )o-42
=znl*rr-'al-
n2 trz nz(Ji -t) n2do - J6>
=---=-=-
Jr2 2 J;
=+ a=Zb = landc = 4
:+ a+b+c=2+l+4=7 Ans.
6. Given J0 sin (x -t)di = *z
f 12 King .

=) ff t* -tl' sirrt dt = x2

:+ x2
ff - ?eJi r "irrt * ff ,'sin/ = .r 2
sint dt
+ *2 (l-cosr)- 2x(.-xcos, +sinr)+(-r2 cosr + 2r sinx+ cosr -l)= x2
+ €osr=l
So, x=Zntc,nel
Hence, numberofvalues ofO, Ztc 4\..., 3Onequals 16. Ans.
Definite Integration 2-og

7. I =Ji/' {"o.r)'ott ("in2012, + i d.x

, (cosr)2011(sin2012r cosr + cos2ol?-x sinx)d'x


= fr'
I = fo' (sin(2012r) lcosr) 2012 + (cos 2012r) sinr (cosr) zot\ dx

I' = -l f'' lkorzo12r'(cosr)'o'2)d*


20l2ro dx'
I = -1 11.os 2012r)(co, *)2012) W2
2012
-1 (-1) = | =o
= 2072' 20L2 b
a ='lrb = 2Ol2
(tut +b) = 2Ol4 Ans.

8. f(r) -Jr-t',6
f '(x)
f(x)f,(x)=Ef\")
tt I9I\Ldx
f't*l
= rltdx
"h-
+ -Jt4'@ = x *c
^r1\ J5
As, tla)= z
-1^=^+C
1
22 =C=-l
So, -$-ru =x-1

'frft)
\4/
=t-e16=716
,(1)= h -:Ja
'lt) 4 4
m=7 Ans.
Let.I1 = J*" {.o.r)fr*r d* ...(i)

and I, = fo'' kosx){2'Ldx ...(ii)


GRB prodtems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

Now, I, = .v
f'' (cosr)fi.(co sx)d.x
__ii_
r
I.B.P.

((cosr)f .sinr)[/z *
= fr'' Jr.(cosr)f-l .sin2 x dx

= J, fr'' (cosr) fi-r .(t - cos2 x) d.x

\=J-2Iz-J-a,
(Ji+1)1, I
3 ----J =
"1212

)rr3-u
', =(wz + 1)Gl2
12
I
-L)
=Q- J2) = h- Jn)
:+ n=2 Ans.
ff'' lu"or,)Jz,tdx _fri't in*)&*rd*
Note:+JT. --n [UsingKingproperty]
fi'' {cosx)a-ld* f,'' {rin*)fr-'d*
ro. J = f, ,r-160)100rroodr
( _^ \1 ,
_^ .r-ror ^-ro1
= I (f - 150)100 |
_-- _ it f OOtt _ rso)ee GSO xas\x*' dx
l. 101/0 Jo ' 101 ---
ur'=o-o
=o * [] (t
' - ruo)'e
(t - (t - x*o))xrwdx
101 J0

= (1-rs.)eer too
dx -[,r-rso;roorroo4r)
H(fi
-
al +
5000 - _l
_.J =
5000 _

101 101
5101 r_5000,
101"- 101'
:+ j=Yo*=:
m-_7-n _ 5101.-L-5000 _
20 5 20
Ans.
Definite Integration 26r
q
11. Puta = J,
x
Weget I=-I = I=0 Ans.
12. Here, the area of big triangle is I and there are 2 of them.
2
v

(0,0) (2,0) (3, 0) (4,0) (5,0) (6,0)

Also, the area of small triangle is and there ane(z - 1) of them.


]
so .|;.' f(r)dx =f,<z> +l{n-r)
-nln+3
=lJ---=-
44 4
Now,
![*' f{ia, =z
n+8_o
4 -'
=) z+3=8
Hence, * n=5 Ans.
f(rl =, cos.r. , . l.t- ,ol
,\-,_-vve*,*_LZ,_,")
,(x)
f =(-r sinr + cosr) > o,r e *]
[?,
a f(x)is increasing function ir, [9{, znl
L2',l
Also, ,(+)=o;r(2n) = %t

So,
Iil 2
r<"1a. +
ff" sk)a* = anz ...(i)

Now, [# r.(cosr)dr = 1+
Jt^I
!I
II 2
" I.B.P.

= [f, aoa* =(nn' T ,)


262 GRB proaA ms in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

14. Since 8(r) is a constant function equal to 4.


Hence g(x) = 4

= *'(f'(t)-21+x2f"(t)+ AxffQ)+6)+4 = 4y x
='(f'(t)-2)+x21"{t)+4r(/(0)+6)=gy,
Hence (f '(t) - 2) = 0, f "(t) = 0 and (f(0) + 6) = 6.
f(tl = 2t -G
| -x2+&x, o<x<4
h(x)=)*'-8x+32. 4<x<6
|.,, - 6)?+20, 6<x<t2
Range of h(x)is [0,56], i.e., N= 57.

rE. wehavel, = ,fi "[, .+.+.+. .*)o" (f, ,,uurr, = o;

^f *, *4 *6
-zl_+_+_+...+_l
*2n+2 It
lr-2 2.4 4.6 2n(2n + 2).lo

=2[-L*1*1*...*
LL.2 2.4 4.6 ' I
2n(2n+2))
')l
.*(!_
2Lt,- z) ' \z s.i ' \g t)'"'' \" '
= r*1[l,1_1) *(!_1).11_1)*
"+t))
Hence, m[r.i(r-,_r--r-)]=;
p=3;q=2
=) pq(p3 + q21 = @)(2)t27 + 4l = 186 Ans.

*2 -l<r.1ho"r=o
1 1<xs2 )
16. /(5)
(x-B)2 2<x<4ho..=g
=
7 4sx<5)
(x-6\2 5<x<7ho"r=e
I 7<rs8J
From the graph of fk),it is clear thatf(r) is periodic with period 3.

Now, ffu t<*la* =


tuf f@)dx
= $!1f@)d.x = rs[I. xzdx +
li , o.f
='u(;*r)=,u Ans.

17. Putr = sin2/


+ dx = Zcos2t
Z(Zcoszt -L)dt
Now, I=fo'
cosf + sinl + cos, - sinf + 2

fta
= Jo
Zcosz -l d.t = fta L- 2(1- cosz t) a,
t
cos, + 1 ro (1 + cost)
= Zff'n ("ort -r\dt * fi'n ^ at
-4.
= 2rsinr -ttfn .f,.2.*4]:'
=zlL-rl*t
LJz 4) 'r 8

=,{2-i*Jz-t
= 2J2 -rr-,
+ a,=S=g=)
+ a+b+e=6 Ans"

r-etI=Yln$+?)o*
Jo !+ xz
Put r = tanO
+ dx = secz 0d.0 ; whenr = \ 0 =tan-1(2)
264 GRB .aoalems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

, = .|X" 'k (1* 2tano)do ...(i)


Applying King
/= fi*' h(l*2tan(tan-1 z- o))do

=lX"-"r,(r.r(ffi)r,
, = ff"t" lnldg-f"-" lrr(1* 2tano)do
I
2I = tan-r 2.In5
^r = 1t..r-l 2. ln b = tan -t z.tnJE
2
Hence, a=2andb=5.
a2 +b2 = 29 Ans.
ln (l +
Note that , Y Yt) dx = tan-t a .ln L+a21
Jo l+ xz
19. g(r) = Sand s1lat =Z
f,
Zf (x) =
[, t., - ?.xt + tz) g(t) d.t
= *' fo s@d.t - 2n
f E(t)dt * ff ,rs@at
Differentiating
2f '(x) = ,zstr) +
ff se)d.t .u - zlx'zs(") *(r ,s@dr)f+ x2g(x)

zf '(x) = % s(t) dt
f, - rlo,ual ot

f "(x) = xs(x) + [i s{t)at - ya@) =


lo Ar>a,
Hence f ''(t) = [o' sG) at = z
Also f"'(x)=g(x)
+ f"'(1)=g(1)=5
:.f "'(1) - f "(l) = 5-2=3 Ans.
20. We have I, * Io+2 =
i fta tan" x d.x + fta tan"+2 x dx

= fln .unnn x(l+ ta,.2 x)d.x

= ftu tar" x sec2 x dx


=l u"du=*where u=tanx
So,.f, + In+z =fr *fricf, implies that /n*1 + I,.a =
*,
Hence, | {I nI o*, + I oI o*, + I n+rl n+z + I o*21 n*s)
n=0

) o, + In*2)(1,*1
z=0
*I oas)

sr 1 \r 1 \
\ t_il_I =}(* #)
,'*\n+7)\n+2)
-1
I-
2
11
2- 5
11
5- 4

ii
n+l n+2
sn" =1--L
n+2
+ um[r- 1 )=r
n__+_\ n + 2)

=+ 1oolim[r- 1 ]=1oo
,r+@\ n+ 2) Ans.

2,-. Consider l-"C,


(}n)l nr'nl
=nl(2n)l. (2n)!
^c,
- 1) ...(2n + 1) (2n) ll nl
[32(32
(?dlQdQn- 1)...(z + 1)n !
_ (?n + 1)(2n + 2)(?m + 3) ...(?m + n)
(n + l)(n + 2)(n+ 3)...(z + z)

Taking log
, = ]s[('. #X, .
#) ('. *))'"
rnp =
]**[*(,. #) r,,(r .
#)* r,(r.
+ . +
#)]
266 GRB proalems in Calculus (Hints & Solu.tions)

r, =:1,,(r*
<n.
#)=*"(r.ffi;
,

lg;I,"[r. *;^)
| \
s =

[t m[r*
= Jo
r
f' ur('*2]a,
)a, = ro
\ 1+r/ \r+1/
=f mt, +2)d.x-fir"t, +l)d.x
=(x + 2)ln(r +2) -(x + z) l1o - (.r + 1)ln(r + D -(r +D lt6

= [31n3-3] -[21n2 -21-I(€ln2- 2) -(0 - D]


=Iln27 -31-[n4 - 2] -[ha - I
=lln27-il-[21n4-il
=1n27 - ln16
lr.P =hT16
+ P=T
16
a=27;b=LG
= a+b = 43 Ans.
22. Differentiate w.r.t. r
f(x) - f "'(3) = r3 + f '(l)xz + f "(2)x
or fk)=x3+f'(l)x2+f"(2)x+f"'(3) .'.(i)
f '(x) =3x2 + 2f '(1) + f "(2) ...(ii) t
f "(x) = 6x + 2f '(l) ...(iii)
f "'(x) =6
=+ f"'(3)=6
Putr = landr = 2in(ii)and(iii)respectively
f'(l)+f"(2)=-3
and 2f '(t) + f "(2) = -L2
Solving f '(l) = -5 and f "(2) = 2
f '(x) =&x2 -tox +2
+ f'(4)=48-40+2=10 Ans.

zB., = !::l* -o -d'*(;)r,


Put (x-a-n)=t
r = Err .i"$ .*)o,= f trt"o" (T)"
Definite Integration 267

= ar - sin(l) d,
"o,Z[:^rrr*.(l) "r"ilXt,l
zem being odd

I= 2cos9l^"r","iorLo,
2Jo 2

Put l=r,weget
2 "'
t = a"orZf, y:Zot = scosltl sinvl6 -
[ sinv dvl
+
-lit-zero

t = _t6cosZ
+ -16cos9 = -16
2
ct,
cos- = 1
2

= 1=2nn+a=4ru\neI
2
Sum=r[4+8+L2+...+96]
= rl\x lool = nl24x5ol
L2 .l

= k=12O0 Ane.
24. Consider In = fo'' #0,
sin2 (ro]g- !in2(st e
/ro - /s - ,*rz r,
1/z
sin(19)e*
= ro ...(i)
sinO
But *# = cos(-180) + cos(-160) +"'+ cos(-20)

+ 1 + cos20 + cos40 +... + cos(18) 0


= 1 + 2(cos20 + cos40 +... + cos(18)0)
ffi
.'. Using above relation in (i), we get

Iro-In= 1*" ti"ll?oae


'v srnu
=!*ff'' firt)ae
Zeto
fr
Hence, Ifi - Is =
2
268 GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

lllZy Is-18 =!

r r -fr
,z-,1 - 2

Adding, we get Irc = I1+\ :+ In = 5n= &n (Given)

Hence,&=5. Ans.
25. We have2f, f@at + xk = xf(x) ...(i)

Differentiate both sides of equation (i) with respect to x, we get


2f(il + kxh-r - xf' (x) + f(x)
= xf'(x) - f(x) = kxh-r

= f'(d-'f(*r=kxk-z (+-!y=P.*o-'\
x\drx)
L
Integrating factor = I.F.=
x
So, ry= nlxk-zax

f(x)
=) x =k'*o-'*C
k-2
Put r = 1in (i), we get f(l) =L
k
Now, C =L-h-2
= c=2-k
2

= fk\ = kxk-r * %
h-2 2-k
Since coefficients of f(x)are integer.,' .o =L -16 -?- are integers.
k-2 2-k
+ 2-k=t1r!2+k=0, 1,3,4
But & * 0 as & > 0 and atk =1,,g,4, integer hence possible values of &
fi*also
are 1,3,4.
Hence, sumofpossiblevalues of k=\+3+ 4 = 8. Ans.

zB. = x 1 l.;n**?.nherex.[1.u1]
--'4x2_2.tc+9 =1
4*+9_2-10 t - x -Lb'-lJ
x
Definite Integration 269

Ilu:{c; . rl* . Il,*l ;;* . r}*


,,=ffio.-
,=
"

Puttingr=1 + 6*=-)a,
l'll
r,=-!?,1;, l*o,
I p-i*n)"
=f,u !{-
, [ 4t2=, lo,
_zt *g]*"
Now'' = f,,*ffc**j.{-;*al*
=, = frul* f.'{r} + {-r} = 1*5"nx e\
/ = (lnr)?ys = 21nb = plnq+Btan-l r
- p=Zq=!andr=$.
:. p+Q*r=7 Ans.
Ma" = [i' tl'ff*
27. Let, = foo **.
-r100\

f
=Ilo o*.li:"1; )*
pot,100=, + -12oa*=at dx
xxolcxt = -tL=dt + --dt
,=fo f(La*.t#or=rto Ma*=2x5=10 Ans.
2g. I, = Jl/z f (sinr + cosr)"-l SI" ljo"r)a*
III
f.,, = r(sinr + cosr)o-l (sinr - cosr)Ifl2

-Ji" tt.irr, + cosr)'-1 +(z - 1)r(sinr + cosr) o-2(cosx- sinr)](sin x - cosx)dx

I, =;-fl2.(sin* + cosr)*l(sinr - cosr)dr


?*ra
+ (n -D Ji/z r
(sin x + e,osx)n-2(cosr - sinx)z d,x
270 GRB Problems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

,,, = +(n - tl f;iz *(sinr + cosx)"-2(2-(sinr + cosr)2)dr (Note this step)


X,+0

I n = !2+ 2(n - l)I n-2 - @ - L)I o

oI, = 2(n - l) I n-z


X,+

Put n = 101 101/ror = !-r+ 2x 100.Iee


=
101/101 -:
= 2OO Ans.
Isg

ft2 r(cosr +rsinr)" dr


Aliter zIo = ...(i)
Kirg

I, = fo'' (; -r),""., + sir.x)o d.x ...(ii)

(i) + (ii)

o^ -;fo'' (cosr + sinx)" d'x

Now use by parts Ans.


29. fl1) = ! xe'' d.r = -e-'x. - e-' = -e-* (x + 7)

F(2) = = -e-'(x2 +?-x +2)


[e-'xzdx
F'(1) (r+l)
F(2)=(r + 1)2 + 1
l!$a*=l k+!) o*
= rF(2) r (x+L)z +L
(r + 1)2 +l=t
= (x +7)d.x
'2 =!d,

Hence,
Definite Integration 277

go. r =l' =**b+6)2


=d.*=L(Given)
to (*'+^x 30
Now, for some value of ,t
ax+b d( e \
(x2 + 5x +6)2
=-l-l
dr\xz + 5x +6)
ax +b -Q.x + 5)k
=
G'+tu+af <r\s**af
Hence, a--?.k;b=-1k
t2
Now, 1= ----!-l
(x" +5x +6)lo
+ .(t 1)
kl_-_l=_ 7
\zo 6) 30

4 -t4k _ 7
120 -go
:+ k=-2
Hence, a=4;b=t0
a2 +b2 = 16 + 100 = 116 Ans.
31. f(x) +3g(r) = x2 + x +6 ...(i)
2f(x)+4g(x)=?*x2 +4 ...(ii)
Now,
2f(x) +6g(x) = 2x2 +?.x +12
,:"r:4g(x) = ?-x2 .:

Zg(x) = ?-x +8
Hence, g(x)=x+4
f(x) = *2 -?-x -6
Now g(tan2 x) = 4 + tan2 x
and f(tanx) = tan2 x - 2tanx -G
(g(tanz x)- f(tanx)-8) =(4+tan2r)-(tan2 x-2tanx -6)-8 =2tanx +2
J = fo' h(g(tan2 x) - f(tanx) -8) d.x =
f'n tn{ztunx + 2) d.x
= 1,.}fo'n d* +
f;/' h(1+ Lanx)d.x
J = !lnz+!l1,z= &kr2
488
3nln2 g
-"---- Ans.
J =
272 GRB proaZems in Calculus (Hints & Solutions)

32. Let F(x) = * * f(ildi - plfrt (-1, 1)


ff
NowF(0) = -p,
F(1-) = 2- p = 2- p + 5=7 - p
+
f, fAla,
F(-1*)=-2-p*['fo)dt
- -2- p+5=3- p Graph of F(x)
,F'(-1).F'(0)<0 and f(0),F(1)<0
i.".,(3- p) (-p) < 0 and (-d fi - p) < 0
p(p -B) < 0 and p(p -7) <O
=pe(0,3) and pe(O,7)
+ p e (0,3)
.'.Number of integral values of pis2. Ans.
33' 1=rt4
Jo dr
((.ir,r)roffi;;rrl,'(sin2r)2008
-in(cotr)
fft4 ln(cotr) 22008(sinr)2008(cos.r)2008,
J0 (1 + (cs1r;zoos;z (sinr)200e(sinr)200e
22008 d4 ln(cotr)200e 2009(cotr)2008
J0 (1+(cotr)200e)2 (-sin2r)
=-...'..'..,....................,......'.'_i
(2009)2

(cotr)200e = ,r, -2009lcotr)2m8 d.x = d.u


sinz r
22oo&1l