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Definition - What does Information Processing mean?


Information processing refers to the manipulation of digitized information by computers and other digital
electronic equipment, known collectively as information technology (IT).

Information processing systems include business software, operating systems, computers, networks and
mainframes. Whenever data needs to be transferred or operated upon in some way, this is referred to as
information processing.

A computer information processor processes information to produce understandable results. The


processing may include the acquisition, recording, assembly, retrieval or dissemination of information. For
example, in printing a text file, an information processor works to translate and format the digital
information for printed form
Information processing is still in a growth phase; larger systems and more prolific ownership has created a
steady increase in the amount of information processed globally.

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generations of Computers can be generalized into mainly five generation :
1. First Generation Computers –1942 to 1954
2. Second Generation of Computers -1955 to 1964
3. Third Generation of Computers- 1965 to 1974
4. Fourth Generation Computers- 1975– till now
5. Fifth Generation of Computers – Still in Process

1. First Generation Computers (1942 to 1954) – Based on Vacuum Tubes

The first generation computers were used vaccum tubes as the main electronic part. For memory devices
punch card and paper tapes were used. Magnetic drums are also used for storage .At that time memory was
very expensive. Electronic time per calculation ranged from 0.1 milliseconds to1 milliseconds. They uses two
types of computer programming languages, machine language and assembly language. A list of popular first
generation computers ENIAC, UNIVAC,EDVAC, and EDSAC.

A) Computer Characteristics & Capabilities –

 Size – Relatively big size .Size was equivalent to a room.


 Speed – slow speed, hundred instructions per second.
 Cost – cost was very high.
 Language– Machine and Assembly Language.
 Reliability – high failure rate , Failure of circuits per second.
 Power– high power Consumption and it generated much heat.

2.Second Generation of Computers (1955 to 1964) – Based on Transistor

The invention of transistor lead to start the second generation of computers. Vaccum tubes are replaced
by transistors. For data storage magnetic tapes and magnetic tapes and magnetic disks were used. For
programming purpose besides machine and assembly languages, high level languages were also used like
FORTRAN, COBOL and BASIC etc.
A) Computer Characteristics & Capabilities –

 Size – Smaller than first generation Computers.


 Speed – Relatively fast as compared to first generation, thousand instructions per second.
 Cost – cost Slightly lower than first generation.
 Language – Assembly Language and High level languages like FORTRAN, COBOL,BASIC.
 Reliability – Failure of circuits per days.
 Power– Low power Consumption.

3. Third Generation of Computers (1965 to 1974) – Based on Integrated Circuit

In this generation of computers transistors are replaced by its integrated form, known
as integratedCircuits(IC). Mini computers were introduced in this generation. Multiprogramming facility was
developed.Size, cost, power requirement and heat generation decreased. High level languages were used in
this generation. Processing speed and storage capacity used of computer increased.

A) Computer Characteristics & Capabilities –

 Size – Smaller than Second generation Computers. Disk size mini computers.
 Speed – Relatively fast as compared to second generation, Million instructions per second (MIPS).
 Cost – cost lower than Second generation.
 Language– High level languages like PASCAL, COBOL,BASIC,C etc.
 Reliability – Failure of circuits in Weeks.
 Power– Low power Consumption.

4. Fourth Generation of Computers (1975– till now )- Based on VLSI Microprocessor

The fourth generation computers started with the invention of Microprocessor. Software is user friendly.
Storage capacity is high. Size, cost, power requirement, heat generation decreased compared to the
previous generation. Problem-oriented fourth generation language (4GL) is used to develop the program.
A) Computer Characteristics & Capabilities –

 Size – Typewritter size micro Computer.


 Speed – Relatively fast as compared to Third generation, Tens of Millions instructions per second.
 Cost – Cost lower than third generation.
 Language– High level languages like C++,KL1 , RPG, SQL.
 Reliability – Failure of circuits in months.
 Power– Low power Consumption.

5.Fifth Generation of Computers ( Still in Process)-Based on ULSI Microprocessor ,AI

In this generation of computer Artificial Intelligence (AI) concept is adopted. The computers have intelligence
quality, default assumptions, Decision making capability etc. through these concepts expert systems.
Knowledge based systems, Decision Support System are developed. Robots are the common example of this
type of system.
Generally this generation of system is expected to be intelligent as mankind. It may be hear, understand and
work as human being. Research and development are continued.
A) Computer Characteristics & Capabilities –

 Size –Credit card size micro computers.


 Speed – Billions instructions per second.
 Cost – Cost Slightly lower than first generation.
 Language– Artificial Intelligence (AI) Languages like LISP, PROLOG etc
 Reliability – Failure of circuits in year.
 Power– Low power Consumption.
 According to functionality,

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Type of computers are classified as application:

 Analog Computer
 An analog computer (spelt analogue in British English) is a form of computer that
uses continuous physical phenomena such as electrical, mechanical, or hydraulic quantities to model
the problem being solved.

 Digital Computer
 A computer that performs calculations and logical operations with quantities represented as digits,
usually in the binary number system

 Hybrid Computer (Analog + Digital)


 A combination of computers those are capable of inputting and outputting in both digital and analog
signals. A hybrid computer system setup offers a cost effective method of performing complex
simulations.

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Super Computer
The fastest and most powerful type of computer Supercomputers are very expensive and are employed for
specialized applications that require immense amounts of mathematical calculations. For example, weather
forecasting requires a supercomputer. Other uses of supercomputers include animated graphics, fluid
dynamic calculations, nuclear energy research, and petroleum exploration.
The chief difference between a supercomputer and a mainframe is that a supercomputer channels all its
power into executing a few programs as fast as possible, whereas a mainframe uses its power to execute
many programs concurrently.

Mainframe Computer
A very large and expensive computer capable of supporting hundreds, or even thousands, of users
simultaneously. In the hierarchy that starts with a simple microprocessor (in watches, for example) at the
bottom and moves to supercomputers at the top, mainframes are just below supercomputers. In some ways,
mainframes are more powerful than supercomputers because they support more simultaneous programs.
But supercomputers can execute a single program faster than a mainframe.
Mini Computer
A midsized computer. In size and power, minicomputers lie between workstations and mainframes. In the
past decade, the distinction between large minicomputers and small mainframes has blurred, however, as
has the distinction between small minicomputers and workstations. But in general, a minicomputer is a
multiprocessing system capable of supporting from 4 to about 200 users simultaneously.

Micro Computer or Personal Computer


• Desktop Computer: a personal or micro-mini computer sufficient to fit on a desk.
• Laptop Computer: a portable computer complete with an integrated screen and keyboard. It is generally
smaller in size than a desktop computer and larger than a notebook computer.
• Palmtop Computer/Digital Diary /Notebook /PDAs: a hand-sized computer. Palmtops have no keyboard but
the screen serves both as an input and output device.

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What does Input Device mean?


An input device is a hardware or peripheral device used to send data to a computer. An input device allows
users to communicate and feed instructions and data to computers for processing, display, storage and/or
transmission.
Examples of input devices include:

 Keyboards: Allow users to input alphanumeric data and commands


 Pointing devices and game controllers: Allow users to direct application software and interact with
graphical user interfaces
 Audio and video devices: Allow users to capture sound and images

Input also may come from other computers via input/output (I/O) devices, like network adapters and
Bluetooth devices.

Audio and Video Input Devices


Scientific and Industrial Input Devices

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MICR
IS Magnetic-Ink character Recognition Reader.IT IS USED TO READ TEXT PRINTED WITH MAGNETIZED INK. IT
IS USED BY BANK FOR CHECK PROCESSING. EACH CHECK CONTAINS MICR CHARACTERS AT LOWER-LEFT
EDGE. THESE CHARACTERS REPRESENT CHECK NUMBER , BANK NUMBER AND ACCOUNT NUMBER

2.OCR
OPTICAL MARK RECOGNITION. IT READS PRINTED CHARACTERS IN PARTICULAR FONT AND
CONVERT THEM INTO DIGITAL CODE. MOST OCR DEVICE USE A SMALL OPTICAL SCANNER TO READ
CHARACTER. OCR CHARACTER APPEAR ON UTILITY BILLS AND PRICE TAGS IN DEPARTMETNAL STORES

3.OMR

OPTICAL MARK RECOGNITION IT IS ALSO CALLED MARK SENSING DEVICE THESE DEVICE USE LIGHT
BEAM TO READ DATA. THE DATA IS CONVERTED INTO DIGITAL SIGNALS. THE SIGNALS ARE THEN SENT TO
THE COMPUTER FOR FURTHER PROCESSING
AN OMR DEVICE DETECTS MARKS SUCH AS CIRCLES AND RECTANGLE ON SPECIALLY PRINTED
FORMS. IT IS OFTEN USED IN MULTIPLE CHOICE TEST SAT AND GRE . THE STUDENTS ANSWER THE QUESTION
BY FILLING THE CIRCLES. THE OMR DEVICE READS THE ANSWER SHEET AND EVALUATES IT

b-
scanner
A scanner is a device that captures images from photographic prints, posters, magazine pages, and similar
sources for computer editing and display. Scanners come in hand-held, feed-in, and flatbed types and for
scanning black-and-white only, or color.
c-
Light pen
A light pen is a computer input device in the form of a light-sensitive wand used in conjunction with a
computer's cathode-ray tube (CRT) display.
It allows the user to point to displayed objects or draw on the screen in a similar way to a touchscreen but
with greater positional accuracy. A light pen can work with any CRT-based display, but its ability to be used
with LCDs was unclear (though Toshiba and Hitachi displayed a similar idea at the "Display 2006" show in
Japan[1]).

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RAM(Random Access Memory) is a part of computer’s Main Memory which is directly accessible by CPU.
RAM is used to Read and Write data into it which is accessed by CPU randomly. RAM is volatile in nature, it
means if the power goes off, the stored information is lost. RAM is used to store the data that is currently
processed by the CPU. Most of the programs and data that are modifiable are stored in RAM.
Integrated RAM chips are available in two form:
1. SRAM(Static RAM)
2. DRAM(Dynamic RAM)

SRAM
The SRAM memories consist of circuits capable of retaining the stored information as long as the power is
applied. That means this type of memory requires constant power. SRAM memories are used to build Cache
Memory.
DRAM
DRAM stores the binary information in the form of electric charges that applied to capacitors. The stored
information on the capacitors tend to lose over a period of time and thus the capacitors must be periodically
recharged to retain their usage. The main memory is generally made up of DRAM chips.
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ROM-
Read-only memory (ROM) is a type of storage medium that permanently stores data on personal computers
(PCs) and other electronic devices. It contains the programming needed to start a PC, which is essential for
boot-up; it performs major input/output tasks and holds programs or software instructions.
Because ROM is read-only, it cannot be changed; it is permanent and non-volatile, meaning it also holds its
memory even when power is removed. By contrast, random access memory (RAM) is volatile; it is lost when
power is removed.

 Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory (EPROM): This is programmed with the use of very high
voltages and exposure to approximately 20 minutes of intense ultraviolet (UV) light.
 Electrically-Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory (EEPROM): This is used in many older
computer BIOS chips, is non-volatile storage that can be erased and programmed several times and
allows only one location at a time to be written or erased. An updated version of EEPROM is flash
memory; this allows numerous memory locations to be altered simultaneously.
 Ultraviolet-Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory (UV-EPROM): This is read-only memory that
can be erased by the use of ultraviolet light and then reprogrammed.

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Roll of floppy disk and hard disk in computer

A floppy disk drive (FDD) is a small disk drive used in computers for data transfer, storage and backup of
small amounts of data, as well as installation of programs and driver updates. A floppy disk drive accesses
data recorded on small, removable diskettes known as floppy disks.

A hard disk drive (HDD), hard disk, hard drive, or fixeddisk, is an electro-mechanical data storage device that
uses magnetic storage to store and retrieve digital information using one or more rigid rapidly
rotating disks (platters) coated with magnetic material.

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The CD and DVD are the versions of an optical disk which mainly differ in size and manufacturing method.
Generally, a DVD can store more data than a CD, its one of the reason is that CD contain the polycarbonate
substrate on only a single side while in DVDs it present on both of the sides. We have already discussed the
construction and working principle of the optical disk in our previous article difference between Magnetic
Disk and Optical disk.
Difference Between CD and DVD

August 30, 2018 Leave a Comment

The CD and DVD are the versions of an optical disk which mainly differ in size and manufacturing method.
Generally, a DVD can store more data than a CD, its one of the reason is that CD contain the polycarbonate
substrate on only a single side while in DVDs it present on both of the sides. We have already discussed the
construction and working principle of the optical disk in our previous article difference between Magnetic
Disk and Optical disk.

The CD and DVD work on optical technology where the data retrieved by using light specifically lasers. A
laser beam is concentrated into the CD or DVD in order to read the content (data) stored in the disc in the
form of the bits and to write the conten
Comparison Chart
BASIS FOR COMPARISON CD DVD

Expands to Compact disk Digital Versatile Disk

Acquired size 700 MB 4.7 to 17 GB

Usage Less as compared to More

DVDs.

Metal layer (recording layer) position Top Middle of the disk.

on the disk

Layers of the pits Single Double (two-sided)

Spacing between the loops of the 1.6 micrometre 0.74 micrometre

spiral

Spacing between the pits 0.834 micrometre 0.4 micrometre

Error correction codes CIRC and EFMP RS-PC and EFMplus

Removal of the adhesive labels Result in damage of metal Can cause an imbalance

layer. in spin.