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Fine modulus of fine aggregate= 2-3.5,C.A=5.5-8

Unstratified rock- marble-chemically-calcareous rock

fine sand= 2.2-2.6, medium sand=2.6-2.9, coarse sand=2.9-3.2

lime mortar made by= hydraulic lime(fat lime)

granite-plutonic rock

the quick lime as it comes from kiln lump lime

construction of the structure under water the type of the lime- hydraulic lime

more ability to resist fire-compact sandstone

plasticity to the mould in the brick- alumina

soaking the brick in the water before its use- for preventing adsorption of the moisture from mortar by bricks

no of the brick in 5m³-2500

t(cm) of the one and half brick wall made up of the standared modular brick-30cm,if two modullar brick is used-40

t of the brick in the inch- 9

,tensile strength of mild steel= 420N/mm²

Seasoning= remove sap from timber

plywood specify in- thickness and made by common timber.

Max wastage in timber=radial sawing

bitumen used in measure to - absolute viscosity

punched card key hole in timber=96

Oleic acid is used in - hydrophobic cement

capillary pores in hydrated cement paste are not interconnected but contais gel water.

For check length no of brick=20

calcining=lime stone convert into quick lime

clay and silt content in brick=50%

lime made by- caco3.

Generally wooden mould are made by- shisham wood(hardest wood)

base for timber painting= white lead

most durable varnish= oil varnish.

Fck for o.p.c for 3day=150kg/cm²

initial setting time responsible=C3A

Pigments is used for - colour

the tandency of a stone is to split along-cleavage

half brick from b and d=queen closer

Lime capable of slacking and cantains cao=quick lime

in residential /commercial building D.P.C is provided at=plinth level.

Plate form at the end of a series of step=landing

slope of rain water =-

for efficient utilisation of space l=1.2,b=1.5times

Crushing of good stone=1000kg/cm²

good quality cement contains - high C3S

bulking is more in - fine sand.

cement bag water=14kg

in white washing - fat lime used.

Pozzolana are rich in - silica

harness of rock measured by=Schmidt hammer test,

Acid test and smith test- durability,

unit weight of brick=19-20KN/m³. Wmild.Steel=7850kg


Water absorption of good brick is - 15% of its dry weight

dry rot-lack of ventilation

rapid hardening cement contains high C3S.

Putty made of - white chalk and linsed oil

doglegged stair-half turn stair

most suitable stone for building piers-granite,

polishing of mosaic floor used - muriatic acid

base material for distember - chalk

for quick setting of cement add - aluminium sulphate.

Under water construction - fat lime is used

The lime which has the property of the setting in the water- hydraulic lime

least bearing capacity-loose gravel

IS90μ sieve where at least 90% should pass.

Important constituents of cement- C3A,andC2S

Least carbon- wrought iron

Fineness - rate of hydration,zno2- white colour.

Bulking of sand is cosider in - weight batching of mix,

Solvents- paints,methylated spirit,naptha, turpentine

Under high P and heat granite→ gneiss,density of cement-1440

C2S- less resistance of sulphate attack

abrasion reasistance - aggregate to wear resistanc

,very comfortable stair- dog legged

Snowcern colour cement

dressing- provide smooth and regular face to stone,the nautral bedding plane of stone and direction of P=normal

White cement contain least- iron oxide

Material to penetration- hardness

turpentine oil is used as - thinner

fineness modulusaverage size of particle

Quantity min. For Rn concrete exposed to sea- 350kg

sedimentary rock- deposited layer of sand and silt subjected to P

pegmatite - intrusive igneous rock

terracotta- ornamental work

paints for most resistant to fire-asbestos paints

sedimentary rock- mechanical,chemical,organic

soundeness test- determine presence of free lime

soiling-a layer of dry bricks put below foundation concrete in case of soft soil

quarrying is not used in- marble powder

hollow brick is used - in providing insulation against heat

bullet proof glass made of - high strength plastic

chuffs-shape of brick deformed due to rain water falling on hot brick

dressing- operation of removal of impurities of clay adhering to iron ore

specific surface for Portland cement -2250

quartzite - siliceous rock

excess alumina in brick warp and crack on drying brick

rapid hardening cement- larger proportion of lime grouned finer than normal cement

% of normal consistency= 20-30%

For 50kg cement bag water require-18.5liters

For plastic,veeners,placed to grain of adjacent venners - 90

Triangular corner eqval to half L and D- king closer

without triangular and brick cut into two halves longitudinally- queen closer

Residue on IS sieve no-9 more than-10%

Solidification of moilten magma at earth surface then =basalt and traps

Argillaceous rock=clay and alumina

Salt solution of salts from soil absorbed by tree becomes a viscous solution by CO2= SAP

Shingle=disintegrated laterite

Brick wall measured in Sq. If thickness of wall=10m

Mixture of cement ingredients is burnt- 1400c

Rotary kiln temp=1400-1500c

Crushing is depand on workability

Kneading- mix of clay,water,other ingradient to make brick

In stone masonary stone are placed the direction of P to bedding


High % of cao in=fat lime

Cement does not allow transmission of sound is soundness of cement.

L of vicat plunger= 40-50mm

Air permeability test of cement is find for = fineness

A bull nose brick is not used for- arch

Quick setting cement- aluminium sulphate in very fine powdered form

Most valuable timber is to be obtained=teak

The timber have max resistance from white ants=shisham

Dry rot= timber get into powder

Min ingredients in cement= Mgo

O.p.c residual <10% when sieved through sieve no-9

Aggregate is cyclopean size=75mm

Bulk density does not depand on size and shape of container

Aggregate containing moisture in pores and surface dry= saturated suface dry aggregate

Temp. For maturity by plowman is= -11.7c

Cement mortar is used in water logged area- cement mortar

For M-25 grade concrete split tensile strength in %Fck= 7-11%

O.p.c for complete chemical reaction water require- 20-25%

Reson of behind the low expension and shirinkage of plywood is- plies are placed at 90with each other

% of the pozzolana material containing clay 80% used for the manufacturing of the pozzalana cement-30%

In plastering the 1 st coat is called and thickness-10-15 under coat

Plastering is also called-pargeting

Ware house pack of the cement- pressure compaction of the bag of the lower layer

Not a property of the ferro cement-strength per unit mass is low

Alternate to the cement to concrete-asphalt

A slump valve for the beams-50-100mm

To construt very thin hard and strong surface-ferro cement

To obtain a very thin strength concrete use very fine grained- grainite

Retarders are used for the-grouting deep oil wells

Plasticizer=hydroxylated carboxylic acid

Method type batching=2

Concrete is geneally placed to a=form work

IS-1661=Cement plaster

Rind gall=ariase in timber duo to swelling caused by growth of layer of sap wood

Cleavability= measure to ease with the wood may split

Maximum voids=rounded aggregate

Detachment of paints film from surface = flaking

Homogenous solution of resins in alcohol= varnish

Most useless aggregate does not exceed= glassy

Modular brick= sitable for high glass brick masonary

For soaking Brick in water before its use= for preventing adsorption of moisture from mortar by brick.

Ultimate tensile strength caused by - C2S

Refractory brick is used to resist high temp.

High alumina cement= most suitable marine work

Moisture acehive in air drying of timber=15%

For Fck ratio=1:3

Slacking= lime →hydrated lime

Quick lime=calcinations of pure lime

Volcanic source= light weight aggregate

Center of attachment of vicat punger projects the circular cutting edge = .5mm

Blast furnace slag cement is used for- rapair of roads/pavements

Quality of timber is improve by Abeles’s process= fire resistance

Slump valve for mass concrete = 20-50

Smallest size of fine aggregate=.06

Charring=timber is burnt at depth above - 15mm

Internal friction b/w concrete decresed by more water and C.A

In slump test each layer of concrete is compacted= 25times

Max. H of concrete placing=150cm

For t<20cm road surface plain concrete compacted=screed vibrator

For concrete dam max size of agg.=40mm

Workability is require min. Water for least surface area for cement and agg.

No shirinkage occurs if concrete is placed at humidity=1

w/c ratio for complete reaction in hydration of cement=.35-.45

blast furnace slag= 45%cao and 35%silica

to make timber good sport industry =mulberry

types of chemical admixture= 4

d of moist sand in cylinder is 15cm,bulking of sand=.25

boucherie process-treatment of green timber

shakes=longitudinal separation of woods b/w annular ring

most mtd used for larger scale of desired moisture content

cement become is useless if moisture contains >.05

for concreting surface of runway roads and pavement impact


soundness test = to determine of change of volume of cement after setting

mtd used for timber make to fire resistance=soaking in Also4

pug mill= preparation of clay

for construction of the thin rcc structure the type of the cement to be provided - rapid hardening cement

hardening of the cement occurs at-rapid rate the during the first few days and afterwards it continuses to increases at a decreses rate

varnish=vehicle in the enamel paints

use prepare of the high alumina cement=bauxite,lime stone.

Before plastering the surface has to be=rough

Mtd for coats of plastering=none

Mtd of ferro cementing are there =4

Fck for thermcol=11.7-14.4

Quarrying-production of nautral stone

Water absorption for burnt clay brick >15

Fckof 7day/Fck 28day=.65

Max. Size of agg. For 1m³ work test<20mm

Contruction joints=two placements of concrete meets

A horizontal line= gap grading representing

IS sieve no-9 residue<.05%

White cement unsuitable for - ordinary work

Quartz and mica are only minerial

Compacted sandstone= posseses more ability to resist fire

Max strength of timber in direction= 0to grains

Avg. Life high durable timber >10year

Normal consistency of o.p.c=.3

Bonding admixture=nautral,synthetic,organic rubber,

P.p.c contains- less heat of hydration

Lime in cement is used-to make plaster non shrinkable

Main advantage of plywood is high tensile strength in all direaction

Stone in rubble masonary=hard

Hydraulicity of hydraulic lime is due to=clay

Retarder is used grouting deep oil wells

Agg. Is not desirable=angular agg.

Ware house pack= pressure compaction of bag on lower layers

Batching=accurate measurement of concrete ingredients

35 litre V of agg. So=L=27cm,B=27cm,H=48cm

Not a property of ferro cement=strength/mass is low

Carrier in paints=linseed oil

Metakaolim=add to make white cement

Process after batching→mixing

Bull mark=t of plastering is uniform

Calcareous material in cement= marine shills

Bethel process= treatment of timber

Bitumen in refined asphalt= 52%

Rise of jack=1/8-1/12 of span

Saw dust can be rendered chemically inert by boiling it in water= ferrous sulphate

Portland pozzolana cement= construction under sea waters

Strength of concrete of angular and rounded agg at same



For given degree of hydration effect of increase in w/c ratio in crese in permeability

Time for vee bee test for low workability= 10-20sec

Common admixture-calicum chloride

Workability is influence by - w/c ratio

Constant w/c ratio decrese in agg. = Cement ratio causes

increase in workability


Compaction help in = increse in density

Concrete is attains its major parts of its strength=1week

Concrete having slump valve 6.5cm= plastic

Concrete obtained difficulty in obtaining smooth surface duo to= hardness

Compacting of concrete by mechanical vibrator slump valve=


Concrete unsuitable for for compaction by vibrator slump


Reverberation=an acoustical defect

Slump valve for concrete in wall and column=50-100mm

Screeching= opertion of removing hump and hollow from a uniform concrete surface

For getting a more workable concrete increase in cement containt

Presence of oils in water for concreting- reduces strength

For R.C.C max. Size of coarse agg= 20mm

IS-383 coarsest sand falls under garding zone=1

Slump valve for low workability of concrete= 75-100mm

muduLus of ruture give- tensile strength of concrete

grading of agg. - in a concrete mix is necessary to achieve adequate workability

purpose of concrete compaction to - increase density

addition of cacl2- reduction in curing period

object of curing-reduce the shrinkage of cement concrete

air entrainment in concrete - increases workability

very high strength concrete it is necessary to use very fine grained= granite

increase in strength of concrete with time curve will be=non linear

concrete grain strength due to - hydration of the cement

Workabilitywater cement ratio,grading of agg.

Accelerators=which causes early setting and hardening of concrete

To prevent sulphate attack Ph of concrete should be =6-9

Increase in w/c ratio - increase in shrinkage

Water cement ratio measured by - weight by weight

Retarder = calicium lignosulphate(plasticizer-ies master)

Strength of concrte is very low- in fatigue

In hand mixing excess in cement should be -10%

Strength mainly depand on - fineness of cement

μcement concrete=.15

in lime concrete lime is used as - coarse agg.

Shrinkage in concrete increase in - bond strength

Leaching action in concrete is example= decomposition

In lime concrete lime is used as=binding agg.

Under which condition highest water cement ratio used =heavy sections such as piers foundation etc protected against rain and frost

Green concrete may be made by adding-iron oxide

Mix design for fly ash and cement concrete recommend w/c to reduce by 3-5%

Workability can be - improve by more cement

Strength of concrete can be increase by - decrese w/c ratio

Desity of concrete increase with increse in the size of agg.

Compaction factor=.95, then concrete is high

Max. Shrinkage takes place in concrete after drying=28day

E s of concrete can be improved by age

Min no. of test specimen= 3

Curing period is min for- rapid hardening cement

If desired slump is not obtained so difference can be adjusted by w/c=.5%

γ steel =1.15,γ concrete =1.5

bcz control on quality of concrete is not as good as that as steel

shrinkage strain=.0003

range of the slump of the concrete used as mass concrete-


durability can be affected by = both cider and vinegar

concrete mix-60mm then its workability=medium

strength of concrete increase with - age of loading

slump test is measure by- consistency

shrinkagecement contents

a concrete in which coarse agg. First to pack to have least voids=pre packet concrete

steam curing is not used with =high alumina cement

steam curing is used in-precast structure

floats are used for spreads and press mortar

in a small works concrete can be transported by-pans

fine aggregate completely retained on the- .15mm of the sieve

bulk density of the aggregate is generally expressed -kg/litre

average life of the high durable timber-> 10year

resins are used in- varnish

standard weight MS plates in mm-5.87t

explosive required for the blasting in the-kilograms

Fck of the termocol range- 11.7-14.4N/mm²

Addition of sugar in concrete- increase in setting time of by about 4 hr.

Strength of concrete

Flash set of ordinary Portland cement paste- is premature hardening

Fck 0f 100mm cube>fck of 150mm cube

Durability of concrete∝ .

Low temp. During concrete laying - decrease strength

Entrained air in concrete - increase wokablity

Construction of thin R.C.C structure the type of cement to be avoided is=o.p.c

% of pozzolana clay contain=80% then made pozzolana


Hardening of cement=rapid rate during first few day and after it continuses to increase at decrease rate

Ensuring quality of concrete use- graded agg.

Shrinks=after casting an ordinary cement concrete drying

Γ of agg. Is not- depand on size and shape of container

To hydrated 500kg cement fully water needed=120kg

Impurity of mixing water which affects the setting time and strength of concrete=Na2co3,NaHco3

Condition not applicable to water cement ratio law= concrte test at any temp.

Concrete is unsuitable for compaction by vibration-plastic

Inert material of cement concrete=agg.

I.S-456=Detail of water to be used for concrete

Properties of concrte can be divided into =2

Transport of concrete by pumps is done by distance=400mm

High temp. - Decrese strength of concrete

Screeding=operation of removeing humps and hollow of uniform concrete

No of grade of concrete mix as per i.s-456=7

Best mtd for curing of concerte surface- stagnating water

Compaction factor for heavily reinforced section with vibration -.85-.92

A concrete using an air entrained cement is more plastic and workable

Final operation of finishing floors is known as -troweling

At expension joints length of concrete structure <45m

Construction of cement concrete floor max agg. Size=10mm

Sand require high w/c ratio= zone-4

w/c in hand mixing= .5-.6

ready mix plant and central plant differ in water addition

compaction of concrete remove - air voids

for o.p.c quantity of water - is 5% by weight of agg+30% of weight of cement


The finished concrte is mesure in-

For tunnel linings transportation of concrete by - pumps

Ferro cement- is used for very hard strong surface

Concrte keep temp. - 37+-2c

Rounded agg-Provide high strength to concrete

Dynamic mudulas of elasticity of sample of cocrete is compared with- ultrasonic pulse velocity test

Фб-εcuve for concrete is parabolic upto.002% ε then straight

Bleeding is good if concrete is - plastic

Float is used for press mortar and spread it

P.s.c=pre strained concrete

High workability is require for- thick and heavy Rn section

Thickness of concrete floor of ware house


The total effective stress at depth of 5m below the top level of water in a pond=.5kg/cm²

In triaxial compression test on a soil specimen the intermediate principal stress=minor principal stress

The static cone penetration test and s.p.T test performed N=20, valve of s.c.p.t test=8Mpa,so depth will be=medium dense sand

A well constructed in ground without passing any impervious stratum=shallow well(d<b)

In triaxial test the intermediate principal stressi =confining pressure

An overall valve of k of a deposit for a large area determine by pumping cut test

Vseepage >Vdischarge

Plasticity chart draw b/w P.I and liquid limit

-ive of group index is =0

Shrinkage limit=soil volume is become constant

For cohesive soil increase in compactive effort O.M.C remains constant

Routine consolidation test thickness of specimen=20mm

A footing is resting on a saturated clayey strata for check stability shear parameter are used to form=unconsolidated undrained test

Physical proparty influence k are=both viscosity and unit weight

Rate of consolidation is indepantant of temp.

Cohesionless soil=sand

If plastic limit>liquid limit then P.I=0

Unconfined compressive strength test-undrained test

A temporay structure constructed to prevent the water entering an area =coffer dam

D of capillary tube doubled then capillary rise will be halfed

Uniformity coefficient of soil=1,>1

Standared penetration resistance in very stiff clays lies b/w 15 and 30

Undisturbed sample is obtained from thin walled sample


Paticle size<.2mm,then -sand

Hydrometer-specific gravity of liquids

Relative density of compacted dense sand=.95

P intensity at any point in a liquids=wh


Sand particle are made of quartz

Lime stabilization is very effective in plastic clayey soil

Depth of foundation can be measure by rankine formula

Optimum moisture content measured by standred proctor test

Density index of soil-relaive compactness

Bearing capacity of foundation determine by shear failure and settlement

Vane shear test for=clayey soil

Coefficient of compressibility of soil is the ratio of strain/stress

Area of soil=sand<silt<clay<colloids


Colluvial soil=transported by gravitational force

A raft footing area exceeds plan area of building=50%

Particle size range determine by Cu

Clayey or sandy soil=smooth wheel roller

Cc=1-3 for well graded sand

drum roller- is used for compact of coarse grained soil

roller is most suitable for proof rolling subgrade and for finishing operation of the fills with clayey or sandy-pneumatic rubber tired roller

The angle of repose of soil is the max. Anglewhich is outer face of the soil mass- makes with the horizontal

P.I,max for =clay

U in soil sample of consolidometer test is max at the center

For compacted sand n=30-40%,

P.I for silt=10-15%

Medium grain sand size=2-.425mm


Unit hydrograph=eff. Rainfall and direct rainoff

In case of water table the peizometer surface=coinside with water level in the well

For reservoir full condition the Up face of earth dam is equipotential line

Weight of silt carried by river per unit V is=silt charge

Lining of cannel =decrese the water logging area

Best alignment for canal is when it is a aligned along ridge line

Width of bunching apron1.5D

For lining canal freeboard is measured at f.S.L to the top of lining


Most desirable alignment of an irrigation canal is along the- ridge line

A canal is design to irrigate throughtout the year-parennial canal

On rolling land mtd of applying water is border flooding

Canal normally used for diversion of flood water inundation canal

Field irrigation requirement =N.I.R+field application losses

Rainfall hyetograph shows the varation of rainfall intensity with time

State of soil when plants fail to extract sufficient water=P.W.P

A sprinkler irrigation-the land gradient is steep and soil is easily erodible

Surcharge storage in a dam Vw stored b/w- normal and max. Reservoir level

Aerial characteristic of a rain strom are represented by- DAD curve

Intensity of irrigation=% of C.C.A

Head work main canal branch canal distributary minor

Mtd directally apply to the root zone depth=drip method

Duty increase with humidity and head

Spreading of an external material on the soil tao increase infiltration and reduce evaporation=Mulching

Kenneday’s theory is silt is in suspension duo to eddy formed from bottom of channel

Storage outlet discharge

Not cause water logging excess tapping of the ground water

Sprinkler irrigation is best for- very light soil

Best mtd for reclamation of alkaline soil addition of -gypsum and leaching

Increase in supply with yields of crops at certain limit and then decresed

Reclamation of acidic soil=use lime stone

Watering done prior to sawing of crops=paleo irrigation


Not causeof water logging=excess taping of ground water

Rainfall intensity acc.B.TH.U If T concentration=540sec=40



Longitudnal Rn need not be contact with lateral ties

Anarch subjected to pure compression duo to U.D.L-parabolic arch

For slab spanning in two direction for calculation S/d ratio =shorter span should be considered

L unsupported<60

In ssb beam with UDL deflection of the s/d ratio-<19

Span of the bridge increase with impact factor- decresed

For S.S.D Beam S/D ratio=2

In Rn concrete immersed in sea addition thickness=40mm

Diagonal tension Rn is provided in bent up bar

Max spacing of main bar<3d

Shrinkage in concrete causes tension crack


In 2 way slab depth of slab is based on- short span

The critical sec. For 2way shear in an isolated spread is at distance d/2 from column face

For providing Indian W.C,the Rcc slabs in toilets portion should be sunk by -50cm

Min cover in the slab<20mm

D of a column stirrups of a flat slab-half the width of the panel

L of the straight portion of a bar beyond the end of the


Min. Spacing b/w horizontal parallel Rn of diff. Size should<1d of thicker bar

Enlarged head of asupporting column of a flat slab is technically known-capital

Max dia of a bar in the ribbed slab-22mm

A circular slab subjected to external loading deflects- paraboloid

T of the slab and beams -.01m

The amount of Rn for mains bars in a slab is based upon- maximum bending moment

If the L of an intermediate span of a continuous slab is 5m the length of the end span is kept-4.5m

Column may be made of plain concrete if their L unsupported does no t L.L.D<4times


Eff. Of simply supported slab is distance b/w center of bearing

For continuous floor slab Lintermediate<.9

B eff.of column strip of a flat slab=half the width of panel

T of Rn concrete footing on piles at edge <15cm

Expension joint provide is L of convrete structure<45m

Lap length compression<24ф

Ordinary concrete is not used for M-400

Tmin. Of load bearing Rcc wall<10cm

Min. Cover of a slab should neiter be less than the d of


Cantilever retaining wall safe H=6m

Tmin. Of cover at the end of Rn bar does not <2d to min. Bar should be<15mm

The amount of Rn for main bars in a slab is based on max.B.M

Spacing of stirrup in S.S.B rectangular beam carry U.D.L=increase the mid span

Spacing of the stirrups in the rectangular beams-incresed at the centre of the beam

type of bridge foundation for heavy anf isolated footing of piers sub soil is poor=caisson foundation

in cantilever beam Rn provide at above the neutral axis

min. Grade of concrete in sea=M-30

a pre cast pile=square with corner chamfered

a surface structure-small thickness

in mtd of the magnitude of the live load what is the time


the valve of coefficient of creep decrese with- age of loading

Rn shear provide in any foam

Min. Head room over stair<205cm

L eff.<3L.L.D then sec. Is rectangular and circular

Eular formula is valid for only long column

Bond strength increase with grade of concrete

For mild and moderate exposure if 20mm down agg. Min. Cement content in m³<300kg

Min. Cover in a slab and d<13mm

Flat slab is supported on column monolithically built with slab

Ʈav=1.5Ʈav for rectangular beam

Standared hook is equivalent to the anchorage valve <16ф

Max slendar ratio for axially loaded member tension<400

Shear stress in beam at max. On neutral surface

Min. Grade for moderate environment exposure


D horizontal b/w parallel main Rn in RC slab <3 times eff. d of slab

Critical sec. For calculating B.M for spread concrete footing of eff. d is given at=column face

Ast min for Fe-500=.17

B.M and S.F coefficients for continuous beam differ from long span by 15%

Organic content of water for making concrete<200mg/L

W./c ratio for mild environment exposure<0.55


diagonal tension in Rn concrete beam increase below neutrl axis and decrese above netral axis

in limit state of collapse of direct compression,max. Axial


M-15 used concrete in the-foundations

for continuous slab 3*3.5 m size min. D of slab of vertical


t f of the flange of t-beam of ribbed slab is assumed as depth of rib

coefficient of wind resistance of circular surface=1/2

determine the allowable stress in axial comp. I.S adopt rankine formula

S/d ratio for Rn concrete beam in order to ensure that the =deflection of the beam is below a limiting valve

Base width of retaining wall of height<.8h

When Rcc footing is not to be extend in the plot of the neighbouring house the type of footing preferred=strap footing

Min quality of cement content needed in 1m³ of Rn concrete which is exposed to sea whether condition=250kg

Size of panel in a flat slab is 6*6m then as per I.S code the width strip and middle atrip=3m and 3m

In counterfort retaining wall the vertical slab continuous= heel slab design

Deep beam are design for -B.M

Loss of prestress due to shrinkage of concrete i the product pf Esof steel and shrinkage of concrete

The reduction coefficient of Rn column with L of 4.8m and size


From deflection point of view use high strength steel in RC beam results in increase in the depth

Limit state of serviceability of prestress concrete sec. Should satisfy by deflection and cracking

A cantilever beamof span 4m and 150*500mm=fail in deflection and laterlal stability

Unit weight of Rcc=2500kg/m³

Μ increase of concrete with rich mix

In the convectional prestressing, the diagonal tension in aconcrete=decrese

Allowable tensile stress in h.Y.S.D,used Rn of cement


Preliminary test is repeated if diff. b/w fck of 3


For M-150,1:2:4 moment of resistance factor=8.5

Tosion resisting capacity of agiven Rn sec.=increase in stirrups and long. Steel

The bond strength b/w steel and concrete due to both adhesion and friction

L.s.m spacing of main Rn control primally cracking

Limiting deflection is the function of -short span

Diagonal tension in beam increase below neutral axis and increase above

The min head room over a stair-200cm

The brick chimney is stable if the resultant thurst lies within the middle-third

L of bridge increase impact factor -decrese

A beam curved is design for-BM,SF,torsion

bM can be increased in the O.R section-25%


Drop panel=thickened part of -flat slab support column

For 2 way slab no provision of edge condition then use- rankine grashoff foremula

Enlarged head of a supporting column of a flat slab known as =capital

D of column head support flat slab=.25times span L

Increase in cohesiveness of concrete makes it less liable to segregation

For initimate estimate for beam design the width is assumed- 1/20 th of the span

b/d in the beam-.5

the t of the flange of a t-beam of a ribbed slab is assumed is- thickness of the concrete topping

The width of rib of T-beam =1/3-2/3 0f rib depth

Eff. b of column strip of flat slab=half the width of column

Max. - →+radial moment ratio=2

Breadth ribbed slab containing 2 bar must b/w=8-10cm

A foundation rests on both sub grade and soil

W of foundation is assumed 10% of wall weight

Max t of the concrete floors of a ware house-25cm

Dimension of abeam need be changed if the shear stress


Diagonal tension in the beam-is max at the neutral axis

A beam curved is design for B.M,S.F,torsion

By over Rn m.o.R is increase 25%

Bar bend hook<2d

for M15mix concrete according to is specification local bond



the anchorage valve of a hook is assumed 16 times of a bar if the angle of the bend-45

Spacing in rect. Beam increase at the center of the beam

In S.S.B bar curtalled<1/7of span

Max bar in ribbed sec.=22mm

T of Rn conrete footing on piles at its edge<30cm

T of slab and beam<.005m

Dimension not change if shear stress >20kg/cm²

Max. Ratio for S/D for cantilever slab=7

Pre cast pile use as square with corner chamfered

Live load time period=50years

R.c.c was 1 st made by- francois coignet

T-beam behave as rectangle for remain withn flange



d/tw<85 for for vertical stiffner

max. Spacing of tacking rivets=1000mm

economic spacing of a roof truss depands upon the=cost of

purlins and cost of roof covering ties load are carrying member of a frame which are subjected

to-axial tension loads

in fillet weld the weakest section throat of fillet

for fields rivets the max. Permissible stresses in riverts and bolts as given in code are reduced by =10%

if H.Y.S.D bar is used in place of mild steel then bond strength increase

strength of field rivets as compared to shop rivets is =90%

type of welding is used to connected two plates at a lap joint is called=fillet weld

max. c-c distance b/w rivets in tension members of thickness 10mm is =160mm

when the L of a tension member is too long-a bar is used

net section area of a tension member is eqval to its gross section area=minus the area of rivets holes

for calculation area of cover plates of a built up beam , an allowable for rivets holes to be add=13%

the permissible bending stress in steel slab


the permissible bending stress in steel is =1900kg/cm²

econominal spacing of trusses variaes=L/4-L/5

normally the angle of roof truss with asbestos sheet should not be less than<30

shape factor is depand upon=both on the yield stress and ultimate stress of the material

heaviset I-section for same depth=ISHB

The fore acting on the web splice of a plate girder are=axial force

Bolts are suitable for carry =axial tension

The vertical wall of the intz tank is design for hoop tension

Wrongly written assumption taken in analysis of riveted joints= uniform stress distribution in plates is not considered

Es of steel >Econcrete so steel will be more elastic

The max. permissible stress in shear for power driven shop rivet is=100N/mm²

The outstand of web stiffners in term of the thickness of flat t should be =12t

Bearing stiffner in plate girder are provided at- support

Eff. slender ratio laced column to max. slender ratio shall be


The simplest geometrical form of truss=triangle

A slender section buckle locally before reaching yield moment

The member of roof truss which supports the purlin is- principal rafter

Min. Edge and end distance from center of any hole to nearst flame cut edge shall be <1.7 times hole dia

Max. size of fillet weld for a plate of square=1.5mm more than the thickness of the plate

Which factor does not affect lateral buckling strength of a steel sec. Undergoing bending about its major axis

Max. permissible stress for the hand driven rivets in axial


The load factor applied to wind and seismic load in the design

of the steel structure

The size fillet weld is indicated by side of the triangle of the fillet

Spacing of stirrups in rectangular beam is incresed at the center of the beam

The purpose of stiffeners in plate girder=prevent buckling of web plate

Cable and wire are used as- tension member

Bearing stiffeners is design as- column

The throat in a fillet weld as =perpendicular d from the root of the hypontense

Permissible stress=ultimate stress

The max. permissible stress for power driven field rivet in bearing on rivet is-270N/mm²

The sag tie in a truss is mainly used to reduce-weight of the truss

T of the butt weld when compared with the t of the plate =less

Tacking rivets in comp. Plates exposed th wheather have a pich <200mm=32 times the t of outside plate

The fillet weld whose axis is parallel to the direction of the athe applied load is known=side fillet weld

Depth of sec. Of an upper column is much<thanlower column=filler and bearing plates are provided waith column splice

Web crippling in beam generally occurs at the points where - concentrated load act

Min. T of the plates used in the pressed steel tanks is =3mm

The steel beam of light sec. Placed in plain cement ceoncerte are called=filler joints

Splice covers and its connection in a tension member should be design= to develope netr tensile strength of main member

Apert form gravity loads which if the following loads are considered in the design of gentry girder located within an industrial building=longitudinal and lateral load

Assumption that all rivet share equally a non eccentric load is valid at aload=eqval to the failure load

I a rolled steel flat designated 55ISF12 mm is used as lacing then min. Radius of gyration=3.46mm

Buckling load in steel column is= related to length

End angle section can be used as purlin when slope of the roof


For unstiffened flange of abeam inflexural compression the max. allowable outstand =16t

The peoblum of the lateral buckling can araise only in those steel beams which have=M.O.I about the bending the bending axis < then the other

For a standared 45fillet, ratio of the size of the fillet to throat

thickness is =√2: 1

Design of a riveted joint assumes that= the rivets hole is to be filled by the rivet

Rolled steel T section are used= with flat strip to connect plates in steel rectangular tanks


Rivets which are heated and then driven in the field are known=power driven field rivets

The gross dia. Of a rivet is the dia of rivet hole

Working shear struss on the gross area of a rivet as recommended by Indian standared=1025kg/cm²

Strength of fillet welds is=than that of the main member

Oitched roof industrial steel building primarily resists lateral loads parallel to the ridge=purlins

Cold driven rivets range from=12-22mm d of rivet

D measured along one rivetr line from the center of rivet to the center of adjoining rivet on an adjacent parallel rivet line is called=staggered

As per ISI rolled steel beam section are classified=5 series

The channel get twisted symmetrically with regard to its axis=parallel to web

In W.S.M for structural mild steel in tension is order of


In statically inderminate structure the formation of 1 plastic hinge will be reduced the no. of redundancy=1

Increase in the pitch of the roof affect the amount of the load that can be placed on it=it decresed

What will be rain load if d is 2inches Dh-1inch=15.6

Truss cannot transfer the load invertical direction but beam can

Net sec. Area of atension member to its C.S.A-Minus the area of the rivets holes

When tension member consists of 2 channel sec. The allowance for the rivets hole is made for 2 holes=each web or one hole from each flange which is less

When a tension member is made of 4 angle with a plate as web , the allowance for the holes is made as=1 hole for each angle and 2 for the web

The beam outside a wall up of floor level above it is known as=spandrel beam

The flange splice in plate girder is subjected to=axial force only

In factory building the horizontal beams spanning b/w the wall column supporting a wall covering are called=Girts

λ=0 for column then-is supported on the all sides throughtout its L

outstanding L of a compression member consist of of a channel is measured =nominal width of the section

Agross of web=dtw

The connection of one beam to another beam of an angle at the bottom and an angle at the top is knowen as seated connection

In case s.s.b i-sec. Beam span L and w- load, the length of elasto-plastic zone of the plastic hinge L/3

The space b/w adjacent bent in a roof truss is called-bay

The most economical section for column is tubular section

Continuous fillers are supported by- main steel beam

If w is u.d.l on circular slab of radius R fixed at its ends the max. + radial moment at its center=3WR²/16

In built up section carrying tensile force the flange of 2 channel are turned outwared=to have greater lateral rigidity

To calculated area of cover plates of a boult up beam an allowance for rivet holes to be added=.13

When plates are exposed to weather ,tacking rivets are provided at pitch in line not <16t

If a truss has 2 more members surpassing each other then it is= complex

The net area of round bars to resist the tension is the area of the cross section=root of the thread

In grillage footing max. SF at occur=center of base plate

When a large valve of radius of gyration is not required=channel flange are kept inward

Dead load are comprise are- permanent attached loads

For determination of allowable stress in axial compressiom Indian standared institution adopted-secant formula

Perforated cover plates are particularly suitable for built up sections consisting of -4 angle box section