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DC Machines 1

ME-2402
Electromechanical Systems
Chapter 7

DC Machines
Spring 2019
4th Semester BE Mechatronics
SZABIST, Karachi

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DC Machines

Course Support
humera.rafique@szabist.edu.pk
Office: FR-404
100 Campus

Official: ZABdesk

CH 7

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DC Motors and
Generators

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Contents
DC Motors
• Construction of Real DC Motors
• Equivalent Circuit
• Categories
– Separately excited DC Motors
– Shunt DC Motors
– PM DC Motors
– Series DC Motors
– Compound DC Motors

• Terminal Characteristics
• Efficiency

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Contents
DC Generators
• Separately excited generators
• Shunt DC Generator
• Series DC Generator
• Compound DC Generator

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DC Motors

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Introduction
DC Motors:
• Transform electrical energy into mechanical energy
• Most purchased machines (although current power systems are AC)
• Use to drive devices: hoists, fans, pumps, calendars, punch-presses, and cars, even in aircrafts.

Highly variable torque


speed characteristics

• Still used in many industrial applications, due


Fixed torque-speed to this reason (production ~ 1000s/year)
characteristics • Improved modern drivers make possible with
AC as well
Type of DC Motors:
• Torque speed characteristics must be adapted from type of load 1. Shunt motors
• Based on torque-speed characteristics, three type of basic motors: 2. Series motors
3. Compound Motors
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Introduction
DC Motors –Basic Construction:
Ref: DC motors - how is it made? How it works?

shaft

bearing

Power poles

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Introduction
DC Motors –Basic Construction:
Ref: DC motors - how is it made? How it works?
Stator magnet poles

Shaft
Commutator
Armature coils segments

Brush holder
Shaft and
bearing
Brush

Shaft Non-conducting
Wound rotor pole commutator ring

Rotor core Commutator


connections
Rotor poles Unwound rotor pole to armature
coils
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Equivalent Circuit

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Equivalent Circuit
DC Motors –Basic Equivalent Circuit:
• Thevenin’s equivalent of rotor structure (including rotor coil, interpoles etc.) : Ideal voltage source EA & RA

• Brush voltage drop: Vbrush

• Field coil: LF and RF

• Field current control external resistor: Radj

The equivalent circuit of a dc motor

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Equivalent Circuit
DC Motors Equivalent Circuit:
Simplified Circuit:

• Eliminating Vbrush

• Combining Radj

A simplified equivalent circuit eliminating the


brush voltage drop and combining Radj, with the
field resistance

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DC Motor Types

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Types of DC Motors
DC Motors General Characteristic Equations:

↷ ↷

• Relationship of EA to terminal
voltage, load and the field
circuitry defines the torque A given speed
speed characteristics of motors
• Thus, varies from type to type

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Separately Excited DC Motors
DC Motors:
Performance Evaluation:

100

100

• A positive speed regulation: ω ↓ if load ↑ and

• A negative speed regulation: ω ↑ if load ↑

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Types of DC Motors
DC Motors –The Big Picture:
DC Motors

• Armature
(rotor) is
Separately Excited Permanent Magnet
Self Excited electromagnet,
while Stator
(Field) Magnets
• Armature (rotor) and Stator
• Armature (rotor) and Stator (Field) is permanent
(Field) Magnets are
Magnets are electromagnets i.e., magnet
electromagnets i.e., wound
wound • Only armature
• Separate windings
• Separate windings windings
• Separate supplies
• Shared supply
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Types of DC Motors
DC Motors –The Big Picture:
DC Motors

Separately Permanent
Excited Self Excited Magnet

• Field and armature circuits in parallel (shunt) Shunt Excited

Series Excited • Field and armature circuits in series

• Both series and parallel circuits Compound

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Separately Excited DC
Motors

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Separately Excited DC Motors
Separately Excited DC Motors:
• Field windings on stator, armature windings on rotor core

• Separately excited with different supplies

• No electrical connection b/w field and armature circuits

VF VT

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Separately Excited DC Motors
Separately Excited DC Motors:

• Load ↝ IA ↝ EA ↝ only if remains unchaged.

EA
1
IA ↑ : EA and ↓ 1

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Separately Excited DC Motors
Separately Excited DC Motors:

↑ IA ↑ : EA and ↓

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Separately Excited
and
Shunt DC Motors

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Separately Excited & Shunt DC
Separately Excited DC Motors:
• Field circuit is supplied by a constant voltage source

Rotor circuit

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Separately Excited & Shunt DC
Shunt DC Motors:
• Field circuit gets power directly
across the armature terminals of the
motor

• For constant supply both motors are


identical

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Separately Excited
Terminal Characteristics of Separately Excited DC Motors:
• Plot of terminal quantities (Torque and Speed)

2∅ 2∅ 4

• Equation of straight line with a negative slope

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Separately Excited
Terminal Characteristics of Separately Excited DC Motors:

(a) Torque-speed characteristic of a shunt or separately excited dc motor with compensating windings to
eliminate armature reaction.

(b) Torque-speed characteristic of the motor with armature reaction present.

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Separately Excited
Terminal Characteristics of Separately Excited DC Motors:
Example 9-1:
A 50-hp, 250-V, 1200 rpm dc shunt
motor with compensating windings has an armature resistance
(including the brushes, compensating windings, and interpoles)
of 0.06 Ω. Its field circuit has a total resistance Radj + RF of 50 Ω,
which produces a no-load speed of 1200 r/min. There are 1200
turns per pole on the shunt field winding:

(a) Find the speed of this motor when its input current is 100 A
(b) Find the speed of this motor when its input current is 200 A
(c) Find the speed of this motor when its input current is 300 A
(d) Plot the torque-speed characteristic of this motor

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Separately Excited
Terminal Characteristics of Separately Excited DC Motors:

Example 9-1:

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Separately Excited
Speed Control of Shunt DC Motors:
1. Adjusting the field resistance RF (and thus the field flux)

2. Adjusting the terminal voltage applied to the armature

3. Inserting a resistor in series with the armature circuit (less common method)

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Separately Excited
Speed Control of Shunt DC Motors:
1. Increasing RF causes IF (= VT /RF ↑ ) to decrease
2. Decreasing IF decreases φ
3. Decreasing φ lowers EA (= Kφ ↓ω)
4. Decreasing EA increases IA(= VT -EA ↓)/RA
5. Increasing IA increases τind(= Kφ↓ IA ), with the change in IA dominant over the change in flux)
6. Increasing τind makes τind > τload , and the speed ω increases
7. Increasing speed to increases EA = Kφω ↑ again
8. Increasing EA decreases IA
9. Decreasing IA decreases τind until τind = τload at a higher speed ω

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Series DC Motor

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Series DC Motor
Series DC Motors:

• Induced Torque:
4
2 26

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Series DC Motor
Terminal Characteristics:

7 67 7
2 5
2 26

1 5
7 7
26 26

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Series DC Motor
Torque Speed Characteristics:
• Exponentially decaying terminal characteristic curve

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Series DC Motor
Example 9-5:
Figure shows a 250-V series dc motor
with compensating windings. and a total
series resistance RA + Rs of 0.08 ll. The
series field consists of 25 turns per pole.
with the magnetization curve shown in
Figure.

(a) Find the speed and induced torque of this motor for when its armature current is 50A
(b) Calculate and plot the torque-speed characteristic for this motor

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Series DC Motor
Example 9-5:

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Series DC Motor

• At torque, motor speed goes to infinity


• In real, torque never goes to zero, because of losses (Mech,
Stray, core etc.)
• At no load condition, motor can turn fast enough to damage
itself (Thus never completely unload a series DC motor,
neither connect to a belt like structure that can easily be
broken)

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PM DC Motor

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PMDC Motor
Permanent Magnet DC Motors:
• Motor with permanent magnetic poles
• No external field windings are needed (PM Poles)
• No field circuit copper losses
• Low hp motors (Fractional and sub-fractional)
• Small size
• Low and fixed flux (PM Poles & absence of field windings)
• Lower induced torque
• A high armature current can permanently demagnetize the poles
• Excessive heating during prolonged overloading can also demagnetize the poles
• Thus, a best material for poles of PM motors, should have as large a residual flux density Bres as
possible, and a large HC (coercive magnetic intensity)
• It is not possible to control the speed of PM DC motors with varying flux
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Compound
DC Motor

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Compound DC Motors
Compound DC Motors:

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Compound DC Motors
Compound DC Motors:

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Compound DC Motors
Compound DC Motors:

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DC Motor Starters

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Starters
Control & Protection of the Motor:

1. To protect the motor against damage due to short circuits in the equipment
2. To protect the motor against damage from long-term overloads
3. To protect the motor against damage from excessive starting currents
4. To provide a convenient manner in which to control the operating speed of the motor

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Starters
DC Motor Starters:

1 2 3

A shunt motor with a starting resistor in series with its armature. Contacts l, 2, and 3 short-circuit
portions of the starting resistor when they close.

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Starters
DC Motor Starters:

Manual starter

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DC Motor Efficiency

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Efficiency
DC Motor Losses:
1. Copper
2. Brush drop
3. Mechanical
4. Core
5. Stray

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Efficiency
DC Motor Losses:
Example 9-8:

A 50-hp. 250-V. 1200 rpm shunt dc motor has a rated armature current of 170 A and a rated field current of 5
A. When its rotor is blocked, an armature voltage of 10.2 V (exclusive of brushes) produces 170 A of current
flow, and a field voltage of 250 V produces a field current flow of 5 A. The brush voltage drop is assumed to be
2 V. At no load with the terminal voltage equal to 240 V, the armature current is equal to 13.2 A, the field
current is 4.8 A, and the motor's speed is 1150 rpm.

(a) How much power is output from this motor at rated conditions?
(b) What is the motor's efficiency?

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DC Generators

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DC Generators
DC Generators Types:
1. Separately excited generator: The field flux is derived from a separate power source
independent of the generator itself

2. Shunt generator: The field flux is derived by connecting the field circuit directly across the
terminals of the generator

3. Series generator: The field flux is produced by connecting the field circuit in series with the
armature of the generator

4. Cumulatively compounded generator: Both a shunt and a series fields are present, and their
effects are additive

5. Differentially compounded generator: Both a shunt and a series fields are present, but their
effects are subtractive

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DC Generators
DC Generators Equivalent Circuit (Simplified):

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Practice
Problems:
• 8-1, 8-3 & 4

• Example similar problems from exercise 9

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Reference
1. Text

2. Electrical Machines, Drives, and Power Systems, T. Wildi

3. South-tech

4. Made-in-china

5. http://gaullyblog.wordpress.com (dc motors)

6. http://electrical4u.com

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Practice
Reading:
• Read all topics from your lectures, slides and text book.
• Solve all marked problems from book’s exercises.
• Read and answer the Review questions.
• Read for knowledge and concepts.

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