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SCHOOL MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Department of Design and Automation

NON DESTRUCTIVE TESTING (NDT)

Dr. S. RENOLD ELSEN

Thermography

• Infrared- below last visible color (red)


• Therm- Greek word for heat
• Graph- writing or representation for a specified process

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Ir

• Electromagnetic radiation and travels at the speed of light


• The wave length is 9000 to 11000 Armstrong
• It gives the temperature of the body

prIncIple Thermography

• Bodies emit IR radiation and it is dependent on


 absolute surface temperature.
 Surface emissivity

Mainly semiconductors are used to measure the IR energy

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applIcaTIon of Thermography

• Preventive maintenance
• Predictive maintenance
• Condition monitoring
• Forensic Investigation
• Quality Assurance

Infrared Thermography

It is the use of infrared imaging system to


detect, display and record thermal patterns and
temperature values across a given surface.

The infrared data obtained can be


observed in real time
captured and stored for post analysis

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Thermal ImagIng sysTems

• The invisible infra red energy signals are converted into


monochrome or multi-coloured images by the thermal
detectors/cameras.
• This emission represents the thermal patterns across the
surface of the object inspected.
• The temperature of the surface can also be recorded.
• No emission of thermal radiation.

Thermography TechnIques

• There are multiple techniques that can be used for nondestructive


testing using infrared thermography.
The two main techniques are
 passive and
 active thermography

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passIve Thermography

• The component is inspected during or directly after a


thermal cycle.
• The thermal cycle is the component’s normal operations.

Benefit
Components do not need to be taken out of use in order to be
inspected.

acTIve Thermography

• The component being inspected is heated and cooled in a controlled


environment.
• The component is continuously monitored while it is heated and
cooled.

Benefit
• The operator has control over the thermal cycle.
• The component can be consistently heated and cooled multiple times.
• The operator has control over the thermal variables.

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acTIve Thermography

• Can detect in-homogeneities close to the surface of


an object.
• It can be used as a complement to other non-
destructive testing methods like ultrasound that
have trouble detecting irregularities at very small
depths.

acTIve Thermography TesTIng

• Flash/Pulse thermography,
• Lock-in thermography, and
• Vibro thermography.

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lock-In Thermography
• The object is placed such that if is in full view of the energy
source (halogen light) and the infrared camera.
• The emitted energy of the source (i.e. halogen spotlight) is
varied periodically, for example in sinusoidal or rectangular
form.

lock-In Thermography
• The time (phase) lag and the amplitude of the response
signal for the same frequency is measured.
• Due to the changed reflection properties of defects/material
borders one can gain information about geometry and depth
of a defect.

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flash/pulse Thermography
• When using pulse stimulation the length of the impulse can
be varied according to material and depth of the defect to be
detected.
• Short impulses of some Milliseconds are usually generated
with a flash lamp.
• For detection of defects in concrete at depths of up to 10 cm,
the impulse duration may be up to 30 min.

• Ultrasound thermography (or vibro-thermography) is a powerful test


method

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vIbroThermography
Ultrasound Thermography (or Vibrothermography) uses the interaction
of mechanical and thermal waves to detect material defects.

prIncIple-vIbroThermography

• If a defect in a component absorbs the injected, high-energetic


ultrasound waves, it will locally heat up.

• The resulting temperature gradient on the specimen surface is


measured by an infrared camera, visualizing the dissipated energy.

To test Selective Indication Of Cracks, Disbonds, Or Delaminations.

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advanTage

• It is non-contact type
• It is Non-destructive type
• Requires no interruption of service
• Since no emission of radiation no harm to operator.

IndusTrIal applIcaTIon

Electrical Systems
Over load
Defective equipment's
Loose connections
Symptoms of Harmonics

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IndusTrIal applIcaTIon

Mechanical Systems
Friction
Mis-Alignments
Belt Alignments
Lubrication

IndusTrIal applIcaTIon

Mechanical Systems
Friction
Mis-Alignments
Belt Alignments
Lubrication

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IndusTrIal applIcaTIon

Industrial Systems
Energy Loss in structures
 Water leakages
Missing Refectories in Furnace, Kilns and pipe
lines.

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