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TITLE: Ligand exchange

AIM: To observe Ligand exchange reactions

EQUIPMENT:

 Plastic pipette
 Test tubes
 Test tube holders

MATERIALS:

FOR TEACHERS ONLY


SKILLS ASSESSED M/M ORR A/I P/D
MARK OBTAINED
 Concentrated hydrochloric acid
 Hexaaquacobalt(II)
 Hexaaquacopper
 Hexaaquairon (III)
 Thiocyanate
 Chromium (III) sulphate
 Hexaaquachromium (III)
 Distilled water

DIAGRAM:

PROCEDURE:

Replacing the water in the Hexaaquacobalt (II) ion

 Concentrated hydrochloric acid was added to a solution containing Hexaaquacobalt (II)


ions.

Replacing the water in the hexaaquacopper (II) ion

 Concentrated hydrochloric acid was added to a solution of hexaaquacopper (II) ion.


 Water was added to the solution.

Replacing water molecules by ammonia

1. Ammonia was added to Hexaaquacopper (II)ion


2. Ammonia was added to excess to hexaaquacopper (II) ion
3. Ammonia was added to Hexaaquacobalt (II)ion
4. Ammonia was added to excess to Hexaaquacobalt (II) ion
5. Ammonia was added to hexaaquachromium (III)ion
6. Ammonia was added to excess to Hexaaquachromium (III) ion

Replacement of water by Sulphate ions

 A solution of chromium (III) sulphate solution was heated.

A Ligand exchange reaction in test for iron (III) ions

 Thiocyanate ions were added to hexaaquairon (III) ion

OBSERVATIONS/RESULTS:

When concentrated hydrochloric acid was added to Hexaaquacobalt (II) ions, the solution turned
from pink to dark rich blue. Concentrated hydrochloric acid was used as the source of chloride
ions because it provided a very high concentrated compared to a solution of sodium chloride.
Concentrated hydrochloric acid has a chloride ion concentrated of approximately 10 mol dm-3.
The reaction between concentrated hydrochloric acid and Hexaaquacobalt (II) ion was reversed
when water as added to the solution.

When concentrated hydrochloric acid was added to the hexaaquacopper (II) ion the solution
turned from blue to olive –green. When water was added to the solution , the water molecules
replaces the chloride ions as Ligands and the solution turned blue .

When ammonia was added to a solution of hexaaquacopper a precipitate of copper (II)


hydroxide was formed .When an excess amount of ammonia was added to hexaaquacopper ion
solution it turned from light blue to dark blue .

When ammonia was added to a solution of hexaaquachromium (III) ion a precipitate of


chromium (III) hydroxide was formed .When an excess amount of ammonia was added to
hexaaquachromium (III) ion solution it turned from blue to violet- blue .
When a chromium (III) solution was heated , the solution turned from blue to green .When
Thiocynate was added to an aquaahexairon(III) solution , the solution turned from yellow to an
intense red solution .

DISCUSSION:

A ligand is an ion or molecule that binds to a central metal atom to form a complex
(alternatively known as a coordination entity).Ligands are usually thought of as electron donors
attracted to the metal at the center of the complex. Metals are electron acceptors. Ligands may be
neutral or negatively charged species with electron pairs available.

The term ligand come from the latin word ligare, which meaning to bind) was first used by
Alfred Stock in 1916 in relation to silicon chemistry. Ligands can be anions, cations, or neutral
molecules. Ligands can be further characterized as monodentate, bidentate, tridentate etc. where
the concept of teeth (dent) is introduced, hence the idea of bite angle etc. A monodentate ligand
has only one donor atom used to bond to the central metal atom or ion.

Monodentate Ligands have only one atom capable of binding to a central metal atom or ion.
Water and ammonia are examples of neutral monodentate Ligands. when water is a ligand,
oxygen is the donor atom binding to the metal. When ammonia is a ligand, nitrogen is the donor
atom binding to the metal.Examples of electrically charged monodentate ligands are halide ions,
such as: F-, Cl-, Br-, I-, and cyano, CN-.

A ligand molecule with more than one donor atom is a called a polydentate ligand. These are
given specific names, depending on how many donor atoms they contain.Bidentate ligands have
two atoms capable of binding to a central metal atom or ion. Ethane-1,2-diamine is an example
of a bidentate ligand.

Tridentate ligands have three atoms capable of binding to a central metal atom or ion.Molecules
with four donor atoms are called tetradentate ligands; five donor atoms, pentadentate; and six
donor atoms hexadentate.A complex that contains a polydentate ligand is called a chelate.
Ambidentate ligands are monodentate ligands that have can bind in two possible places. For
example, the nitrate ion NO2- can bind to the central metal atom/ion at either the nitrogen atom
or one of the oxygen atoms. The thiocyanate ion, SCN- can bind to the central metal at either the
sulfur or the nitrogen.

Ammonia solution can react with hexaaqua metal ions in two quite distinct ways , because it
can act as a base as well as a ligand . If a small amount of ammonia is added a precipitate of
the metal hydroxide will be formed – the ammonia is acting as a base . In some cases , theses
precipitates redissolve when more ammonia is added to giva solutions in which ligand exchange
reaction has occurred .

Reaction between Hexaaquacobalt (II) ion

[Co(H2O)6]2+ + 4Cl- ⇌

CONCLUSION:

REFLECTION:

Ligand s are found in the human blood . Haemoglobin is the iron –containing protein found in
red blood that transports oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body .

Haemoglobin is an assembly of four globular protein units. At the centre of each proteib unit is
an iron(II) complex known as heme . A heme group consists of an Fe 2+ ion held in a
heterocyclic ring known as porphyrin . The central FeII ion has a coordinate number of 6 .
within this six-coordination sphere, iron is bound to :

 Four nitrogen atoms of the porphyrin – these lie in one plane ;


 A nitrogen from a surrounding globular protein via the ring of a histidine residue – this
bond occurs below the plan e of the porphyrin ring ;
 Either molecular oxygen or water.

Hemoglobin also carries carbon dioxide, but the carbon dioxide bonds to the protein chains of
the structure.
In the lungs, oxygen binds to the FeII ion, forming oxyhaemoglobin. In other parts of the body,
the bound oxygen is replaced by an aqua ligand forming deoxyhaemoglobin. This provides the
means by which haemoglobin is able to transport oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body;
haemoglobin is capable of transporting four molecule of oxygen at a time owing to the four
globular protein assembly.

Unfavourable ligand exchange reactions can occur with haemoglobin inside the body .
Stronger Ligands such as carbon monoxide and cyanide can compete with and replace the
oxygen at the oxygen –bounding site . This bounding reaction is irreversible , thereby
preventing haemoglobin from transporting oxygen . For instance . haemoglobin is 200 times
more likely to bond with carbon monoxide forming a very bright red form of haemoglobin
called carboxyhaemoglobin and this accounts for the poisonous nature of these substances.