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Title: Charles law

Aim: To determine the relationship between volume and temperature

Apparatus/Materials:
 Water bath  Refrigerator
 Beaker  Metre ruler
 Water  Thermometer
 Balloons  Glass lid
 String
Diagram:

FOR TEACHERS ONLY


SKILLS ASSESSED M/M ORR A/I P/D
MARK OBTAINED
YY MM DD

Principle/Theory:
Charles's law states that, The volume of a given mass of an ideal gas is directly
proportional to its temperature on the absolute temperature scale (in Kelvin) if pressure
and the amount of gas remain constant; that is, the volume of the gas increases or
decreases by the same factor as its temperature

Charles' Law is expressed as:


Vi/Ti = Vf/Tf
where
Vi = initial volume
Ti = initial absolute temperature
Vf = final volume
Tf = final absolute temperature

Procedure:

1. A balloon was blown up and the circumference was measured using a piece of
string .
2. the length of the string was measured using a metre ruler and the length was
recorded .
3. The balloon was placed in a beaker boiling water and the temperature was
recorded .
4. The beaker was covered a with a lid to avoid the loss of heat .
5. After 20 minutes the balloon was taken out of the beaker and the new
circumference was measured .
6. Another balloon was blown up and the circumference was measured using a
piece of string .
7. the length of the string was measured and recorded.
8. The balloon was placed in the freezer .
9. The balloon was taken out after 30- 60 minutes .
10. The circumference of the balloon was measured using a piece of string and the
circumference was recorded.
11. The results were tabulated .

FOR TEACHERS ONLY


SKILLS ASSESSED M/M ORR A/I P/D
MARK OBTAINED
YY MM DD

Observations/Results:

Balloons
B1 B2
Initial circumference 26 cm 24.5cm
Final circumference 29 cm 270k
Initial temperature 299k 23cm
Final temperature 359k 270k

TABLE SHOWING THE CIRCUMFERENCE OF A BALLOON AT


DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES

Discussion:
Charles's law states that, The volume of a given mass of an ideal gas is directly
proportional to its temperature on the absolute temperature scale (in Kelvin) if pressure
and the amount of gas remain constant; that is, the volume of the gas increases or
decreases by the same factor as its temperature
Charles’ Law is an experimental gas law that describes how gases tend to expand when
heated. If a quantity of gas is held at a constant pressure, there is a direct relationship
between its volume and the temperature, as measured in degrees Kelvin.
As the temperature increases, the molecules within any given gas begin to move around
more quickly. As the molecules move faster, they collide with each other and the walls of
their container more frequently and with more force. If the gas container is inflexible,
these more frequent and forceful collisions will result in increased pressure. However, if
the container is flexible, like a balloon, the pressure will remain the same, while allowing
the volume of the gas to increase.
The molecules that make up a gas are moving in straight lines until they encounter
another molecule, or a wall. When a molecule encounters a wall, it bounces off and
moves off in a different direction. When this happens, Newton's Third Law of motion
says that both the molecule and the wall will experience a force. In a flexible container
such as a balloon, molecules hitting the inside of the of the balloon are what keep the
balloon inflated. In a rigid, but adjustable container such as a sealed syringe, the
collisions of the moving gas molecules with the syringe walls provide the force that
resists efforts to move the syringe plunger.

Increasing the temperature of a volume of gas causes individual gas molecules to move
faster. As the molecules move faster, they encounter the walls of the container more often
and with more force. In an inflexible container, the more frequent and forceful collisions
result in higher pressure. However, if the container volume is adjustable, the volume will
increase, and the pressure will remain the same. Charles’ Law is the formal description of
this relationship, allowing change in volume to be calculated if the temperature change is
known.
FOR TEACHERS ONLY
SKILLS ASSESSED M/M ORR A/I P/D
MARK OBTAINED
YY MM DD

Conclusion:
It can be concluded that the circumference of the balloon increases by 3 cm when it was
placed in the beaker with boiling water . while the circumference of the balloon
decreased by 1.5 cm when it was placed in the refrigerator.

Limitations:

❋Sources of error
 The circumference of the balloon might not have been measured correctly .
 The balloon might have lost heat energy when it was taken out of the beaker with
boiling water.
❋Precaution
 It was ensured that the circumference of the balloon was measured as quickly as
possible to minimize heat lost .
 It was ensured that the temperature of the boiling water was uniform before the
temperature was taken.

Reflection:
Charles law is used in our daily lives in many ways such as : In a hot air balloon
the fuel used heats the air inside the balloon. Heating the air increases the speed of its gas
particles in air, so they move faster and spread out. This causes the gas inside the balloon
to take up more space. The speed of movement of the gas particles as well as their
dispersal causes the air inside the balloon to become less dense than the air surrounding
it. As a result, the balloon floats. In short, the hot air in the balloon rises because of its
decreased density.
A Pop-up turkey thermometers work by applying Charles’ Law. The thermometer is
placed in the turkey. As the temperature rises and the turkey cooks, the air in the
thermometer expands to pop the plunger. The thermometer is calibrated so that when the
correct internal temperature is reached, the thermometer cap pops off, providing a clear
indication that the turkey is done.

FOR TEACHERS ONLY


SKILLS ASSESSED M/M ORR A/I P/D
MARK OBTAINED